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Casearia laetioides (A. Rich.) Warb.

Biogeographical Region:
81 - Caribbean  Search this
Collector:
Donovan S. Correll  Search this
H. B. Correll  Search this
R. P. Sauleda  Search this
Place:
Bahamas Islands. South Andros: in coppice on south side of Congo Town Airport., South Andros, Bahamas, West Indies - Neotropics
Collection Date:
1 May 1979
Taxonomy:
Plantae Dicotyledonae Malpighiales Salicaceae Samydoideae
Published Name:
Casearia laetioides (A. Rich.) Warb.
Zuelania guidonia (Sw.) Britton & Millsp.
Barcode:
03025035
USNM Number:
2984786
See more items in:
Botany
Flowering plants and ferns
Data Source:
NMNH - Botany Dept.
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/3e87f30ab-692c-4183-81cb-ea8aaf8d5dc3
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhbotany_14378774

Psilotum nudum (L.) P. Beauv.

Biogeographical Region:
81 - Caribbean  Search this
Collector:
Donovan S. Correll  Search this
R. Sauleda  Search this
Dennis Stevenson  Search this
Thomas Miller  Search this
G. Fehling  Search this
Place:
Bahama Islands. On trees in swampy area about small lake, about 2 miles northwest of Love Hill, North Andros, Bahamas, West Indies - Neotropics
Collection Date:
8 Jan 1978
Taxonomy:
Plantae Pteridophyte Psilotales Psilotaceae
Published Name:
Psilotum nudum (L.) P. Beauv.
Barcode:
01399958
USNM Number:
3012264
See more items in:
Botany
Flowering plants and ferns
Data Source:
NMNH - Botany Dept.
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/38e89c6c4-672d-4fc3-a860-322d80bcad1f
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhbotany_12288067

Oscillatoria submembranacea Ardiss. & Strafforello ex Gomont

Biogeographical Region:
Tropical West Atlantic  Search this
Collector:
Marshall A. Howe  Search this
Place:
Smiths point, Grand Bahama Island, Bahamas, West Indies - Neotropics
Collection Date:
10 Feb 1905
Taxonomy:
Eubacteria Cyanobacteria Oscillatoriales Oscillatoriaceae
Published Name:
Oscillatoria submembranacea Ardiss. & Strafforello ex Gomont
Barcode:
02638483
USNM Number:
124477
See more items in:
Botany
Algae
Collection of Francis Drouet
Data Source:
NMNH - Botany Dept.
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/37d524ae0-eccd-4a9b-83b2-ce404f033432
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhbotany_2246600

Jacques Seligmann & Co. records, 1904-1978, bulk 1913-1974

Creator:
Jacques Seligmann & Co  Search this
Subject:
Hauke, Cesar M. de (Cesar Mange)  Search this
Glaenzer, Eugene  Search this
Haardt, Georges  Search this
Seligman, Germain  Search this
Seligmann, Arnold  Search this
Parker, Theresa D.  Search this
Waegen, Rolf Hans  Search this
Trevor, Clyfford  Search this
Seligmann, René  Search this
Seligmann, Jacques  Search this
De Hauke & Co., Inc.  Search this
Jacques Seligmann & Co  Search this
Eugene Glaenzer & Co.  Search this
Germain Seligmann & Co.  Search this
Gersel  Search this
Type:
Gallery records
Citation:
Jacques Seligmann & Co. records, 1904-1978, bulk 1913-1974. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Topic:
Mackay, Clarence Hungerford, 1874-1938 -- Art collections  Search this
Schiff, Mortimer L. -- Art collections  Search this
Arenberg, duc d' -- Art collections  Search this
Liechtenstein, House of -- Art collections  Search this
Art -- Collectors and collecting -- France -- Paris  Search this
Art -- Collectors and collecting  Search this
World War, 1939-1945 -- Art and the war  Search this
La Fresnaye, Roger de, 1885-1925  Search this
Art, Renaissance  Search this
Decorative arts  Search this
Art treasures in war  Search this
Art, European  Search this
Theme:
Art Gallery Records  Search this
Art Market  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)9936
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)212486
AAA_collcode_jacqself
Theme:
Art Gallery Records
Art Market
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_212486
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Online Media:

Two Bahamian Boys in Street Outside Wood Frame Houses of Town; Household Goods, Barrels, and Dog Nearby

Attributed name:
Amlico (publishing company)  Search this
Collection Creator:
Smithsonian Institution. United States National Museum. Department of Anthropology. Division of Ethnology  Search this
Extent:
1 Photographic print (013 in x 009 in mounted on 014 in x 009 in)
Type:
Archival materials
Photographic prints
Photographs
Place:
Bahamas
Date:
undated
Local Numbers:
NAA INV.04199900
Local Note:
Black and white photoprint on cardboard mount
Place:
British Commonwealth -- Bahama Islands -- Grantstown
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Citation:
Photo Lot 97 DOE So Amer: Bahamas: NM Unlisted 04199900, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Division of Ethnology photograph collection 1
Division of Ethnology photograph collection 1 / South America / Bahamas / Unspecified
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw304e5c834-adca-41c8-be0b-f9203e188424
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-photolot-97-ref2386

View of Stone Wall, Wooden Gate, Stucco Houses with Thatch Roofs , Palm Trees, and Coastline in Distance

Creator:
Fassett, Henry Clifford  Search this
Collection Creator:
Smithsonian Institution. United States National Museum. Department of Anthropology. Division of Ethnology  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (cyanotype print, 010 in x 008 in)
Culture:
British ?  Search this
Britain ?  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Place:
Bahamas
Date:
1886
Local Numbers:
NAA INV.04211700
Local Note:
Cyanotype cyanotype print
Place:
British Commonwealth -- Bahama Islands -- San Salvador/Watling Island
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Citation:
Photo Lot 97 DOE So Amer: Bahamas: NM Unlisted 04211700, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Division of Ethnology photograph collection 1
Division of Ethnology photograph collection 1 / South America / Bahamas / Unspecified
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw335b381bf-808b-481d-9e03-0c13175c61e3
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-photolot-97-ref2508
Online Media:

Three Non-Native Women and Man on Veranda and Native Boy in Doorway Outside Stucco House with Tile and Thatch Roof

Creator:
Fassett, Henry Clifford  Search this
Collection Creator:
Smithsonian Institution. United States National Museum. Department of Anthropology. Division of Ethnology  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (cyanotype print, 010 in x 008 in)
Culture:
British ?  Search this
Britain ?  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Place:
Bahamas
Date:
1886
Local Numbers:
NAA INV.04211800
Local Note:
Cyanotype cyanotype print
Place:
British Commonwealth -- Bahama Islands -- San Salvador/Watling Island
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Citation:
Photo Lot 97 DOE So Amer: Bahamas: NM Unlisted 04211800, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Division of Ethnology photograph collection 1
Division of Ethnology photograph collection 1 / South America / Bahamas / Unspecified
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw38d80ff28-a664-4246-a163-7377246dc59b
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-photolot-97-ref2509
Online Media:

Stucco House with Thatched Roof, Government Building, Used As Temporary Laboratory by "Albatross"

Creator:
Fassett, Henry Clifford  Search this
Collection Creator:
Smithsonian Institution. United States National Museum. Department of Anthropology. Division of Ethnology  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (cyanotype print, 010 in x 008 in)
Culture:
British ?  Search this
Britain ?  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Place:
Bahamas
Date:
1886
Local Numbers:
NAA INV.04211900
Local Note:
Cyanotype cyanotype print
Place:
British Commonwealth -- Bahama Islands -- San Salvador/Watling Island
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Citation:
Photo Lot 97 DOE So Amer: Bahamas: NM Unlisted 04211900, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Division of Ethnology photograph collection 1
Division of Ethnology photograph collection 1 / South America / Bahamas / Unspecified
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw3fbb6a010-de2a-404f-a25e-108b87a5e9fb
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-photolot-97-ref2510
Online Media:

View of Stucco Houses with Thatched Roof, Lumber, Palm Tree, And Stone Wall

Creator:
Fassett, Henry Clifford  Search this
Collection Creator:
Smithsonian Institution. United States National Museum. Department of Anthropology. Division of Ethnology  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (cyanotype print, 010 in x 008 in)
Culture:
British ?  Search this
Britain ?  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Place:
Bahamas
Date:
1886
Local Numbers:
NAA INV.04212000
Local Note:
Cyanotype cyanotype print
Place:
British Commonwealth -- Bahama Islands -- Rum Cay
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Citation:
Photo Lot 97 DOE So Amer: Bahamas: NM Unlisted 04212000, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Division of Ethnology photograph collection 1
Division of Ethnology photograph collection 1 / South America / Bahamas / Unspecified
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw30d21c159-e88a-4a77-8140-51e4a2e7e740
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-photolot-97-ref2511
Online Media:

View of Wood Frame House and Trees

Creator:
Fassett, Henry Clifford  Search this
Collection Creator:
Smithsonian Institution. United States National Museum. Department of Anthropology. Division of Ethnology  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (cyanotype print, 010 in x 008 in)
Culture:
British ?  Search this
Britain ?  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Place:
Bahamas
Date:
1886
Local Numbers:
NAA INV.04212100
Local Note:
Cyanotype cyanotype print
Place:
British Commonwealth -- Bahama Islands -- Rum Cay
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Citation:
Photo Lot 97 DOE So Amer: Bahamas: NM Unlisted 04212100, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Division of Ethnology photograph collection 1
Division of Ethnology photograph collection 1 / South America / Bahamas / Unspecified
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw3669d65f8-fcbe-4425-b206-f3fafc4518f7
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-photolot-97-ref2512
Online Media:

View of Wood Frame House with Thatched Roof and Palm Trees

Creator:
Fassett, Henry Clifford  Search this
Collection Creator:
Smithsonian Institution. United States National Museum. Department of Anthropology. Division of Ethnology  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (cyanotype print, 010 in x 008 in)
Culture:
British ?  Search this
Britain ?  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Place:
Bahamas
Date:
1886
Local Numbers:
NAA INV.04212200
Local Note:
Cyanotype cyanotype print
Place:
British Commonwealth -- Bahama Islands -- Rum Cay
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Citation:
Photo Lot 97 DOE So Amer: Bahamas: NM Unlisted 04212200, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Division of Ethnology photograph collection 1
Division of Ethnology photograph collection 1 / South America / Bahamas / Unspecified
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw3022cbe36-80f9-47d4-87eb-0c19ed5e6ada
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-photolot-97-ref2513
Online Media:

View of Wood Frame House and Trees

Creator:
Fassett, Henry Clifford  Search this
Collection Creator:
Smithsonian Institution. United States National Museum. Department of Anthropology. Division of Ethnology  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (cyanotype print, 010 in x 008 in)
Culture:
British ?  Search this
Britain ?  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Place:
Bahamas
Date:
1886
Local Numbers:
NAA INV.04212300
Local Note:
Cyanotype cyanotype print
Place:
British Commonwealth -- Bahama Islands -- Rum Cay
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Citation:
Photo Lot 97 DOE So Amer: Bahamas: NM Unlisted 04212300, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Division of Ethnology photograph collection 1
Division of Ethnology photograph collection 1 / South America / Bahamas / Unspecified
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw304af1df2-7a77-474b-b6e9-4f5328af79cf
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-photolot-97-ref2514
Online Media:

View of Church, Stone Wall, Palm Trees and Non-Native? Woman

Creator:
Fassett, Henry Clifford  Search this
Collection Creator:
Smithsonian Institution. United States National Museum. Department of Anthropology. Division of Ethnology  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (cyanotype print, 010 in x 008 in)
Culture:
British ?  Search this
Britain ?  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Place:
Bahamas
Date:
1886
Local Numbers:
NAA INV.04212400
Local Note:
Cyanotype cyanotype print
Place:
British Commonwealth -- Bahama Islands -- Rum Cay
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Citation:
Photo Lot 97 DOE So Amer: Bahamas: NM Unlisted 04212400, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Division of Ethnology photograph collection 1
Division of Ethnology photograph collection 1 / South America / Bahamas / Unspecified
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw30a8daeb6-7554-4051-a41e-83b1b9329c3b
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-photolot-97-ref2515
Online Media:

Two Men on Horseback? on Mountain Road with Palm Trees and Dense Vegetation; Mountains and Water in Distance

Creator:
Fassett, Henry Clifford  Search this
Collection Creator:
Smithsonian Institution. United States National Museum. Department of Anthropology. Division of Ethnology  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (cyanotype print, 010 in x 008 in)
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Place:
Bahamas
Date:
1887
Local Numbers:
NAA INV.04212500
Local Note:
Cyanotype cyanotype print
Place:
British Commonwealth -- Bahama Islands -- Port Castries (Near)/Saint Lucia
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Citation:
Photo Lot 97 DOE So Amer: Bahamas: NM Unlisted 04212500, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Division of Ethnology photograph collection 1
Division of Ethnology photograph collection 1 / South America / Bahamas / Unspecified
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw3f187e03b-2cd6-45d4-96cd-6861f77be5e8
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-photolot-97-ref2516
Online Media:

Market Place

Creator:
Fassett, Henry Clifford  Search this
Collection Creator:
Smithsonian Institution. United States National Museum. Department of Anthropology. Division of Ethnology  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (cyanotype print, 010 in x 008 in)
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Place:
Bahamas
Date:
1887
Scope and Contents:
Men and Women in Costume, One with Umbrella, And Baskets, Barrels, and Food
Local Numbers:
NAA INV.04212600
Local Note:
Cyanotype cyanotype print
Place:
British Commonwealth -- Bahama Islands -- Port Castries/Saint Lucia
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Citation:
Photo Lot 97 DOE So Amer: Bahamas: NM Unlisted 04212600, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Division of Ethnology photograph collection 1
Division of Ethnology photograph collection 1 / South America / Bahamas / Unspecified
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw3c1b597cd-47dd-4634-9058-6140f04edbfc
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-photolot-97-ref2517
Online Media:

Wood Frame and Stucco Government Buildings and Grounds

Creator:
Fassett, Henry Clifford  Search this
Collection Creator:
Smithsonian Institution. United States National Museum. Department of Anthropology. Division of Ethnology  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (cyanotype print, 010 in x 008 in)
Culture:
British ?  Search this
Britain ?  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Place:
Bahamas
Date:
1887
Local Numbers:
NAA INV.04212700
Local Note:
Cyanotype cyanotype print
Place:
British Commonwealth -- Bahama Islands -- Saint Lucia (Near)
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Citation:
Photo Lot 97 DOE So Amer: Bahamas: NM Unlisted 04212700, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Division of Ethnology photograph collection 1
Division of Ethnology photograph collection 1 / South America / Bahamas / Unspecified
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw3c0d40356-701f-45e0-9db3-e5365fd213ba
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-photolot-97-ref2518
Online Media:

Drawing from Copper Engraving by Theodore de Bry, 1590, Of Christopher Columbus and Men Landing on Isle of Guanahani; Native Men in Costume with Gifts; Ships in Background

Collection Creator:
Smithsonian Institution. United States National Museum. Department of Anthropology. Division of Ethnology  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (cyanotype print, 010 in x 008 in)
Culture:
Arawak  Search this
Italy  Search this
Spaniards  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Date:
undated
Local Numbers:
NAA INV.04212800

OPPS NEG.41777C
Local Note:
Cyanotype cyanotype print
Place:
British Commonwealth -- Bahama Islands -- Cat Island
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Citation:
Photo Lot 97 DOE So Amer: Bahamas: NM Unlisted 04212800, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Division of Ethnology photograph collection 1
Division of Ethnology photograph collection 1 / South America / Bahamas / Unspecified
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw3cf028e6b-c9eb-4a25-86cb-f80a71d56e22
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-photolot-97-ref2519
Online Media:

Ethel Cutler Freeman papers

Creator:
Freeman, Ethel Cutler, 1886-1972  Search this
Names:
American Museum of Natural History  Search this
United States. Bureau of Indian Affairs  Search this
Extent:
61.03 Linear feet (114 boxes)
Culture:
Seminole  Search this
Navajo Indians  Search this
Maasai (African people)  Search this
Culture  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Place:
Florida
Date:
1934-1972
Summary:
Ethel Cutler Freeman was an amateur Seminole specialist and research associate with the American Museum of Natural History. Her papers also reflect field work among the Arapaho, Shoshoni, Navaho, Pueblo, Hopi, Kickapoo, and people of the Virgin Islands, the Bahama Islands, and Haiti, and the music and chants of Africa, including those of the Maasai, Zulu, and Pygmies. A small amount of material relates to the Hoover Commission on Indian Affairs, of which Freeman was a member. Correspondents include several Seminole Indians and government officials, personal acquaintances, organizations, and associates of the American Museum of Natural History.
Scope and Contents:
These papers reflect the anthropological interests of Ethel Cutler Freeman. The papers in this collection include her notes and diaries, published articles, unfinished manuscripts, and source materials. The bulk of the collection is material relating to the Seminole Indians of Florida.

Mrs. Freeman also made several trips to the Southwest and Mexico to study such tribes as the Arapaho, Shoshone, Navajo, Pueblo, and Hopi. There is substantial information from these studies included in this collection. She also made less extensive studies of various other cultures in the Virgin Islands, the Bahamas, and Haiti. In 1950, she studied tribal music and chants of several African tribes and the material from these studies forms the major portion of Series 7.

The collection also contains several sound recordings made by Freeman and numerous photographs, negatives, and slides. During rehousing, additional materials including index cards and notebooks from field trips were located and incorporated into the collection. A small amount of material relates to the Hoover Commission on Indian Affairs, of which Freeman was a member.

Correspondents include several Seminole Indians and government officials, personal acquaintances, organizations, and associates of the American Museum of Natural History as well as Dean Amadon, Richard Archbold, Conrad M. Arensberg, Dana W. Atchley, Jacques Barzun, Ruth Benedict, Leonard J. Brass, Louis Capron, Frances Densmore, Margery S. Douglas, John W. Griffin, A.J. Hanna, Ronald F. Lee, Margaret Mead, Robert Cushman Murphy, Kenneth W. Porter, Harry L. Shapiro, Howard Sharp, Frank Speck, Charlton W. Tebean, and Clark Wissler.

Although the majority of the collection spans the years 1934 to 1972, there are some items with dates that fall outside of this range. Some published materials are dated as early as 1822 and one note is dated 1975 and was added to the collection after Freeman's death in 1972. The folders containing these items have been dated accordingly, but these outlier dates have not affected the dates of the sub-series or series.

Please note that the contents of the collection and the language and terminology used reflect the context and culture of the time of its creation. As an historical document, its contents may be at odds with contemporary views and terminology and considered offensive today. The information within this collection does not reflect the views of the Smithsonian Institution or National Anthropological Archives, but is available in its original form to facilitate research.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into 15 series: (1) Biographical information and miscellaneous personal papers, 1939-1971; (2) Correspondence, 1936-1972; (3) Manuscripts, 1936-1971; (4) Source Material, 1934-1970; (5) Seminole Indians, 1934-1972; (6) North American Indians, 1936-1971; (7) Cultures other than North American Indian, 1943-1970; (8) Meetings, 1956-1968; (9) Printed materials, 1936-1972; (10) Pamphlets, 1935-1970; (11) Population and Material Culture, 1939, 1951-1963; (12) Sound recordings, 1940-1958, 1969-1970; (13) Lists of Photographs, 1939-1970; (14) Photographs, 1936-1971; (15) Index Cards, undated
Biographical Note:
Ethel Cutler Freeman was born in 1886 in Morristown, New Jersey. Freeman was the daughter of a prosperous family, which gave her the opportunity to study abroad in England at Mademoiselle Marie Souvestre's Academy for girls. After studying in England, Freeman returned to the United States and was married to Leon S. Freeman, a New York broker, in 1909.

By 1934, Freeman had become bored with the typical social activities available to her; while discussing the matter with a friend, Marcellus Hartley Dodge, she described herself as having a "brain full of cobwebs." Dodge, a former trustee at Columbia University, suggested that Freeman enroll in some courses at Columbia. Acting on Dodge's advice, Freeman started taking graduate courses in psychology and sociology at Columbia University, but soon became fascinated with anthropology. During her studies at Columbia, Freeman spent time in the western United States studying the Arapaho and Shoshone while her husband recuperated from a horse riding accident; it was at this point that she developed a taste for field work and an interest in Native American cultures. After completing her studies, Freeman decided that she wanted to study the Seminole people of Florida, near whom she and her family owned a winter home in Naples.

Back on the East Coast, Freeman met Dr. Clark Wissler, then Curator of the Indian Division of the American Museum of Natural History. Wissler was supportive of Freeman's aspirations to continue her anthropological studies, but balked at her expressed interest in the Seminole, whom at that time had a reputation for not being open to contact with outsiders. Undaunted, Freeman contacted W. Stanley Hansen, the man in charge of Seminole settlement; after repeated correspondence with Hansen convinced him she was no mere hobbyist, he agreed to help her make connections within the Seminole community.

Freeman made two visits to the Big Cypress Reservation for the American Museum of Natural History with a government representative before taking her 14-year-old daughter, Condict, and 12-year-old son, Leon Jr., for an extended stay with a group of Seminoles at the heart of the Everglades in February of 1940. After that first winter stay with the Seminoles, Freeman spent virtually every winter living within their remote communities and studying their culture. Over time, Dr. Wissler became impressed by Freeman's thorough and insightful reports and analysis of her findings among the Seminoles and got the American Museum of Natural History to back her winter field studies. Eventually Freeman's work gained her a reputation for being an expert on Seminole culture, which often placed her in the role of consultant to government agencies on issues dealing with Seminole and broader Native American concerns.

As a result of her long acquaintance with the Seminoles, Freeman also became interested in how different groups of Native Americans and other cultures adapted to changes brought about by contact with modern society. Freeman made several trips to the Southwestern United States and Mexico to study such tribes as the Arapaho, Shoshone, Navajo, Pueblo, Choctaw, and Hopi; she also made less extensive studies of various other cultures in the Virgin Islands, the Bahamas, and Haiti. In 1950, Freeman went to Africa to study tribal music and chants of several tribes. Much later, in 1968, the American Museum of Natural History sent Freeman to Portugal to study local costumes.

In the 1940s, Freeman took part in publishing studies for the Department of Agriculture about the Seminoles and worked as an advocate for the Navajo, who at that time were in tense relations with the United States government over their living conditions. From 1947 to 1957, Freeman worked as a representative for the American Civil Liberties Union on the National Coordinating Committee for Indian Affairs; she also was a member of the Indian Rights Committee for the American Civil Liberties Union from 1946 to 1966. From 1948 to 1950, Freeman served as a member of the Hoover Commission for Reorganization of Government within the Bureau of Indian Affairs.

Throughout her studies in the field and her activities as an advocate for Native American rights, Freeman published her work frequently and gave many talks at a variety of conferences and special events. In 1964, Freeman traveled to Moscow to deliver her paper, "The Correlation between Directed Culture Change and Self Determination," at the 7th International Congress of Anthropological and Ethnological Sciences; she attended the same conference series the following year in Japan to deliver another paper, entitled "Lawlessness in an Indian Tribe as a Microcosm of a World Trend." Freeman continued visiting and studying the Seminoles in Florida late into her career, making her last visit the year before her death.

Ethel Cutler Freeman died on July 14th, 1972.

Sources Consulted

Letter to Mrs. Margaret Blaker, Archivist at the Smithsonian Institution's Anthropological Archives; Washington, D.C. from Ethel Cutler Freeman. Dated April 24, 1972. Located in vertical files, folders on Ethel Cutler Freeman, in the reading room of the National Anthropological Archives.

"Morristown Anthropologist; Mrs. Leon Freeman Likes Seminole Indians." Newark Sunday News, February 16, 1947.

"New Vernon Woman, Indian Authority." The Morris Observer, October 13, 1955.

"She's 'Hooked' On Seminole Indians: Leading Authority On That World." Daily Record, March 6, 1970.

"The Sentinel Visits--Indian Authority Mrs. Leon Freeman: Who Is Now Working To Rescue A Nation." Sunday Sentinel, February 2, 1947.

Chronology

1886 -- Born in Morristown, New Jersey.

1909 -- Married Leon S. Freeman.

1934 -- Began taking graduate courses at Columbia University in philosophy before changing to anthropology.

1936 -- Field work with the Arapaho and Shoshone.

1938 -- Joined American Anthropological Association. First became associated with American Museum of Natural History.

1939-1943 -- Winter field work with Florida Seminoles.

1940-1948 -- Special Field Assistant, American Museum of Natural History.

1943 -- Joined American Ethnological Society.

1944 -- Field work in Mexico searching for a lost tribe of Seminoles; studied the Mascogas, Papagos, and Kickapoo.

1945 -- Field work in New Mexico, studying the Pueblo and Navajo.

1946 -- Joined the Society of Women Geographers. Field work with the Navajo, Papago, and Hopi.

1946-1948 -- Winter field work with Florida Seminoles.

1947 -- Field work with the Navajo, Papago, and Pueblo.

1947-1957 -- Represented the American Civil Liberties Union on the National Coordinating Committee for Indian Affairs.

1947-1966 -- Member Indian Rights Committee, American Civil Liberties Union.

1948 -- Appointed first female trustee of the American Institute of Anthropology. Became Field Associate, American Museum of Natural History.

1948-1950 -- Member Hoover Commission for Reorganization of Government – Bureau of Indian Affairs.

1949 -- Field work in the Bahamas, studying native culture.

1950 -- Field work in Africa, studying the Zulu, Masai, and pygmy peoples.

1951 -- Winter field work with Florida Seminoles.

1952 -- Field work studying native cultures of the Virgin Islands and Haiti.

1953-1955 -- Winter field work with Florida Seminoles.

1955-1957 -- Acting Chairman, American Civil Liberties Union.

1957 -- Field work studying Mexican Seminoles.

1957-1958 -- Winter field work with Florida Seminoles.

1959 -- Attended annual meeting of American Anthropological Association in Mexico City.

1960-1965 -- Winter field work with Florida Seminoles.

1963 -- Field work in Oklahoma, studying Seminoles.

1964 -- Presented paper, "The Correlation between Directed Culture Change and Self Determination" VII International Congress of Anthropological and Ethnological Sciences, Moscow.

1968 -- Studied costumes of Portugal for American Museum of Natural History.

1965 -- Presented paper, "Lawlessness in an Indian Tribe as a Microcosm of a World Trend" VIII International Congress of Anthropological and Ethnological Sciences, Tokyo and Kyoto, Japan.

1970-1971 -- Winter field work with Florida Seminoles.

1972 -- Field work in Portugal and the Azores. Died, July 14.

Selected Bibliography

1942 -- Freeman, Ethel Cutler. "We Live with the Seminoles," Natural History 49, no. 4 (April 1942): 226-236.

1944 -- Freeman, Ethel Cutler. "The Seminole Woman of the Big Cypress and Her Influence in Modern Life," América Indígena 4, no. 2 (April 1944), 123-128.

1960 -- Freeman, Ethel Cutler. "Culture Stability and Change among the Seminoles of Florida." In Men and Cultures: Selected Papers of the Fifth International Congress of Anthropological and Ethnological Sciences, Philadelphia, September 1-9, 1956, edited by Anthony F.C. Wallace, 249-254. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1960. Freeman, Ethel Cutler. "Directed Culture-Change and Selfdetermination in Superordinate and Subordinate Societies," Proceedings of the 7th International Congress of Anthropological and Ethnological Sciences 4, Moscow (August 1964), 85-90.

1961 -- Freeman, Ethel Cutler. "The Happy Life in the City of Ghosts: An Analysis of a Mikasuki Myth," The Florida Anthropologist 14, nos. 1-2 (March-June 1961), 23-36.

1964 -- Freeman, Ethel Cutler. "Directed Culture-Change and Selfdetermination in Superordinate and Subordinate Societies," Proceedings of the 7th International Congress of Anthropological and Ethnological Sciences 4, Moscow (August 1964), 85-90.

1965 -- Freeman, Ethel Cutler. "Two Types of Cultural Response to External Pressures Among the Florida Seminoles," Anthropological Quarterly 38, no. 2 (April 1965), 55-61.

1968 -- Freeman, Ethel Cutler. "Lawlessness in an Indian Tribe as a Microcosm of a World Trend," Proceedings of the VIIIth International Congress of Anthropological and Ethnological Sciences, 1968, Tokyo and Kyoto (Tokyo: Science Council of Japan, 1968) 191-193.
Related Materials:
Photo lot 62, W. Stanley Hanson photographs of Seminole Indians in Florida, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution.

Objects donated by Ethel Cutler Freeman held in Department of Anthropology collections in accession 319549.

The Ah-Tah-Thi-Ki Museum on the Big Cypress Seminole Indian Reservation also holds an Ethel Cutler Freeman collection.
Separated Materials:
Film materials were transfered to the Human Studies Film Archive under the accession numbers HSFA 1986.11.8 (African footage) and HSFA 1986.11.9 (Seminole footage).
Provenance:
The papers of Ethel Cutler Freeman were left to the National Anthropological Archives by the terms of her will. Her son, Leon Freeman, Jr., donated the collection to NAA in August 1972.
Restrictions:
By Ethel Freeman's instructions, the collection was restricted for ten years dating from the receipt and signing of the release forms on October 12, 1972. Literary property rights to the unpublished materials in the collection were donated to the National Anthropological Archives.

Access to the Ethel Cutler Freeman papers requires an appointment.
Seminole recordings cannot be accessed without the permission of the Seminole Tribe.
Rights:
Contact repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Language and languages  Search this
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Anthropology  Search this
Music  Search this
Citation:
Ethel Cutler Freeman papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NAA.XXXX.0166
See more items in:
Ethel Cutler Freeman papers
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw3a548e5a0-c124-413d-ade0-345b46f30a72
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-xxxx-0166

Calothrix crustacea Thur. ex Bornet & Flahault

Biogeographical Region:
Tropical West Atlantic  Search this
Collector:
Marshall A. Howe  Search this
Place:
Grand Bahama Island, Bahamas, West Indies - Neotropics
Collection Date:
10 Feb 1905
Taxonomy:
Eubacteria Cyanobacteria Nostocales Rivulariaceae
Published Name:
Calothrix crustacea Thur. ex Bornet & Flahault
Barcode:
02614750
USNM Number:
110506
See more items in:
Botany
Algae
Collection of Francis Drouet
Data Source:
NMNH - Botany Dept.
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/39c431ada-c293-4ecf-a543-5837afa5c67c
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhbotany_2366973

Delegate

Published by:
MelPat Associates, American, 1965 - 1986  Search this
Created by:
C. Melvin Patrick, American, died 1985  Search this
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Paul Robeson, American, 1898 - 1976  Search this
Ezzard Mack Charles, American, 1921 - 1975  Search this
Medium:
ink on paper
Dimensions:
H x W x D: 10 13/16 × 8 7/16 × 3/8 in. (27.5 × 21.4 × 1 cm)
Type:
magazines (periodicals)
Place made:
Harlem, New York City, New York, United States, North and Central America
Date:
1976
Topic:
African American  Search this
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U.S. History, Colonial period, 1600-1775  Search this
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Urban life  Search this
Women  Search this
Women's organizations  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture, Gift of Anne B. Patrick and the family of Hilda E. Stokely
Object number:
2012.167.10
Restrictions & Rights:
Public domain
Proper usage is the responsibility of the user.
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Classification:
Documents and Published Materials-Published Works
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/fd5e57ffdd9-2ab1-46da-b6e7-10757007351f
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2012.167.10
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