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Tiffany's Transatlantic Cable Souvenir

Maker:
Glass, Elliot, & Co.  Search this
Tiffany & Co.  Search this
Physical Description:
steel (sheathing material)
brass (ferrules material)
copper (conductor material)
gutta percha (insulator material)
Measurements:
overall: 4 in x 1/2 in; 10.16 cm x 1.27 cm
Object Name:
submarine cable
cable sample
Place made:
United States: New York
United Kingdom: England, London, Greenwich
Date made:
1858
Credit Line:
from Silver Creations, Ltd. and Lanello Reserves Inc.
ID Number:
EM.334736.01
Accession number:
312154
Catalog number:
334736
See more items in:
Work and Industry: Electricity
Communications
American Stories exhibit
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746ab-6956-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_1255864
Online Media:

Specimen of Atlantic telegraph cable, single conductor

Maker:
Western Union Corporation  Search this
Measurements:
overall: 2 1/8 in x 3/4 in; 5.3975 cm x 1.905 cm
Object Name:
Cable
cable sample
Date made:
1884
Credit Line:
from Western Union Corporation
ID Number:
EM.332898
Accession number:
294351
294351
Catalog number:
332898
See more items in:
Work and Industry: Electricity
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746a7-24b5-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_891789

North Atlantic telegraph cable chart

Object Name:
Telegraph Cable Shart
telegraph cable chart
cable chart
chart
Credit Line:
from Western Union International
ID Number:
EM.329949
Accession number:
283729
Catalog number:
329949
See more items in:
Work and Industry: Electricity
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746aa-50a0-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_1193969

Sample of Atlantic telegraph cable

Associated person:
Field, Cyrus W.  Search this
Maker:
Glass, Elliot, & Co.  Search this
Measurements:
overall: 5 1/2 in x 5/8 in; x 13.97 cm x 1.5875 cm
Object Name:
Cable
cable sample
Date made:
1858
ID Number:
EM.320040
Catalog number:
320040
Accession number:
243906
See more items in:
Work and Industry: Electricity
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746a5-2aeb-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_705615

Specimen of Atlantic telegraph cable

Measurements:
overall: 4 in x 1/2 in; 10.16 cm x 1.27 cm
Object Name:
cable sample
Date made:
1865
Credit Line:
from J. C. Vail
ID Number:
EM.279259
Catalog number:
279259
Accession number:
55814
See more items in:
Work and Industry: Electricity
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746ab-5b3a-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_1253449

Specimens of Atlantic Telegraph Cable

Associated user:
unknown  Search this
Maker:
Glass, Elliot, & Co.  Search this
Physical Description:
fabric (case material)
wood (case material)
Measurements:
overall: 11 1/2 in x 14 in; x 29.21 cm x 35.56 cm
Object Name:
Cable Sample
Date made:
1858
Credit Line:
from Lt. Cmdr. N. Payne
ID Number:
EM.234248
Catalog number:
234248
Accession number:
10558
See more items in:
Work and Industry: Electricity
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746ab-5a6e-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_702029

Arrival of..."Niagara" at New York after laying Atlantic Telegraph Cable

Measurements:
overall w/o frame: 14 1/2 in x 20 in; 36.83 cm x 50.8 cm
overall w/frame: 20 1/4 in x 25 in; 51.435 cm x 63.5 cm
Object Name:
newspaper print
Date made:
1858
Credit Line:
Gift of CIGNA Museum and Art Collection
ID Number:
2005.0279.111
Accession number:
2005.0279
See more items in:
Work and Industry: Maritime
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746ad-27ef-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_1381119

Schedler 6-Inch Terrestrial Globe

Maker:
Schedler, Joseph  Search this
Weissenborn, Edward  Search this
Physical Description:
iron (overall material)
paper (overall material)
brass (overall material)
Measurements:
average spatial: 6 in; 15.24 cm
overall: 13 1/4 in x 8 1/4 in; 33.655 cm x 20.955 cm
Object Name:
globe
Place made:
United States: New York, New York City
Associated place:
United States: New York, Hastings-on-Hudson
Date made:
1872
Subject:
Geography  Search this
ID Number:
1987.0287.01
Catalog number:
1987.0287.01
Accession number:
1987.0287
See more items in:
Medicine and Science: Physical Sciences
Measuring & Mapping
Globes
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746b3-113f-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_1064718

Anglo-American Telegraph Company Records

Creator:
Anglo-American Telegraph Company, Ltd.  Search this
Names:
Western Union Telegraph Company  Search this
Extent:
14 Cubic feet (51 volumes in 44 boxes)
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Journals
Minute books
Cashbooks
Ledgers
Date:
1862-1947
Summary:
Records relating to the organization of the company, corporate and financial records. Corporate records include two volumes of the company's acts, charters, contracts and agreements, 1862-1883; minutes of board meetings relating to varied subjects, such as agreements between the company and other telegraph companies such as Western Union Telegraph concerning sales of property, details of trnsactions or purchases undertaken by the company. Financial records consist of nine volumes of "journals" showing monthly records of receipts, 1866-1912; nineteen volumes of ledgers reveal a detailed financial status of the company, 1866-1912; and nine volumes of cash books consist of the financial transactions of the company, 1904-early 1941. See also 1 folder of the Anglo-American Telegraph Company telegrams in the Warshaw Collection under the heading "Telegraphs".
Scope and Contents:
These records consist of material relating to the organization of the company, corporate and financial records. Corporate records include two (2) volumes of the company's acts, charters, contracts and agreements from 1862 to 1883; minutes of board meetings relating to varied subjects, such as agreements between the company and other telegraph companies such as Western Union Telegraph concerning sales of property, details of transactions or purchases undertaken by the company.

Financial records consist of nine (9) volumes of "journals" showing monthly records of receipts for 1866 to 1912; nineteen (19) volumes of ledgers reveal a detailed financial status of the company for the years 1866 1912; and nine (9) volumes of cash books consist of the financial transactions of the company between 1904 and early 1941.

Miscellaneous Records in series 5 include the Log Book of the Heart's Content Station from 1866-1867; printed correspondence from William Orton, president of Western Union, to the company; the company's general orders, 1880; and the Engineer's Final Report, 1880.

References

K.R. Haigh. Cableships and Submarine Cables. London: Adlard Coles Ltd., 1968, esp. Chapter 39.

Vary T. Coales and Bernard Finn. A Retrospective Technology Assessment: Submarine Telegraph; Transatlantic Cable of 1866. San Francisco Press Inc., 1979.

Charles Bright. Submarine Telegraphs: Their History, Construction, and Working. London: Crosby Lockwood and Son, 1898.

Susan Schlee. The Edge of Unfamiliar World: A History of Oceanography. New York: Putnam, 1968.

Samuel Carter. Cyrus Field: A Man of Two Worlds. New York: Putnam, 1968.

Henry M. Field. The Story of the Atlantic Telegraphy. New York: Scribner, 1892.
Arrangement:
The collection is aranged into five series and within each series arranged chronologically.

Series 1: Corporate Records, 1862-1947

Series 2: Journals, 1866-1912

Series 3: Ledgers, 1866-1912

Series 4: Cash Books, 1904-1941

Series 5: Miscellaneous Records, 1866-1880
Biographical / Historical:
Anglo American Telegraph Company history begins in 1852 when the government of Newfoundland granted an English engineer, F.N. Crisborne, the exclusive right to land cables in Newfoundland for thirty years. This exclusive right was predicated on the condition that a land line be constructed across the country from St. Johns to Cape Ray. Work on the system started in 1852 with the laying of a cable across the Northumberland Strait and the commencement of the construction of the land line across Newfoundland.

The life of the cable was less than a year old and only forty miles of land line were completed before the company went bankrupt. On his visit to New York to raise more money for his company, Crisborne was introduced to Cyrus West Field (1819 1892), a retired American merchant. Field recognized the importance of Crisborne's concession in Newfoundland in connection with a proposed Atlantic cable, found a syndicate among his friends, and arranged for the extension of Crisborne's concession to fifty years from 1856. He then formed a new company called New York, Newfoundland and London Electric Telegraph Company.

On his visit to England at the end of 1854 to order a cable to span the Gulf of St. Lawrence between Cape Ray and Cape North, Field met John Watkins Brett, who, with his brother had been responsible for the first channel cable. Field also met Charles T. Bright of the Magnetic Company. Both Brett and Bright were convinced of the feasibility of an Atlantic cable. The formation of the Atlantic Telegraph Company on October 20, 1856, was a result of a meeting of Field, Brett and Bright. The new company attempted but failed in 1857 to successfully launch the first Atlantic cable due to financial difficulties, but plans were made immediately for a second attempt in 1858. In late 1858, the cable failed after passing 723 messages.

The Atlantic Telegraph Company did not go into liquidation for Field and Bright were still convinced that a working cable could be achieved. In the United States, Field aroused the interest of the board of the Telegraph Construction and Maintenance Company who agreed to take a considerable amount of their payment for the manufacture and laying of a cable in shares of the Atlantic Telegraph Company. The promoters, and, principally, the board of the Telegraph Construction and Maintenance Company, were not daunted by efforts to raise money for yet another attempt in spite of failures. A new company, the Anglo American Telegraph Company, was formed with the capital Atlantic Telegraph Company raised. This new company took over the New York, Newfoundland and London Telegraph Company until 1873 when the two companies amalgamated under the name Anglo American Telegraph Company, Ltd. Anglo American Telegraph Company operated in part as an agent of the Telegraph Construction and Maintenance Company. But the joint efforts of the two companies effected the completion of the cable in 1866 between London and New York.

During the pioneering years of cable construction, the British cable industry designed, manufactured and laid all major submarine cables. Britain possessed the technology, the necessary capital and the extensive overseas interests fundamental to an ambitious effort in cable expansion. Besides, Britain depended on the cooperation of the European states for external telegraphic communications. The British themselves were, however, familiar and experienced in dealing with large engineering projects, such as railways and other similar ventures. An added advantage for the British was an excess of investment capital in the United Kingdom.

In the United States, similar factors either were absent or did not work to Cyrus Field's advantage. Field was unable to secure the support of prominent American businessmen. Samuel Morse (1791 1872), best remembered for his work on the telegraph and as one of the first Americans to make telegraph commercially viable, was the only prominent scientist who supported the project in the United States. Unlike Britain where it was easier to obtain government support through informal tactics, in the United States, Field had to submit a bill in the Congress. Obtaining support from Congress for the project was a difficult task, especially since the cable joined the two British territories. In addition, there was little precedent for United States government support for large engineering projects, particularly the ones that had an international dimension.

The United States government support for the cable project came largely from Field's unabating conviction that the cable should be an international project and from the expectation of the British government that the United States would provide a guarantee similar to the one Britain had granted: to link North America and Britain by cable. Through the help of William H. Seward (1801 1872) who served as Secretary of State (1860 1869) and favored American expansionism, Cyrus Field's idea of constructing American cable in the Atlantic Ocean to Britain received government support. In fact, Seward favored plans for the United States to also construct cables in the Pacific or Caribbean regions.

Following passage of the bill in Congress, the directors and officers of Atlantic Telegraph Company met to settle the question of how to proceed. As a result of proper planning and hard work, successful functioning of the cable came in 1866, after three failed attempts to launch a cable: 1856 1857, 1858 and 1864 1865. The 1866 success came as a result of the Atlantic Telegraph Company board listening to the views of engineers and electricians who expressed optimism. The board shared the confidence of their technicians. Consequently the board made the decision to raise money to build a new cable, as well as use the material from the previous cable project of 1865.

The Anglo American, as an agent of Atlantic Telegraph Company lay and operated cables. In return, it received 125,000 English pounds annually from Atlantic Telegraph revenues and another 25,000 English pounds annually from revenues of New York, Newfoundland, and London Company a twenty five percent return. The cable laying work began at Valentia Bay on July 13, 1866. By September 8, 1866, Atlantic cable was operating.

The major part of the 1866 cable was renewed by the telegraph Construction and Maintenance Company. The Construction and Maintenance Company and the Western Union Company reached an agreement in 1911 whereby from 1912, the latter company would lease all the Anglo American cable for ninety nine years. Since 1912, all new cables laid in conjunction with the joint system were the property of the Western Union Telegraph Company.

Western Union Telegraph Company terminated the lease prematurely in 1963. The Anglo American Telegraph Company received a substantial payment as compensation. The ownership and operation of the company was solved by forming a new company, Transatlantic Cables Limited, with their offices in Bermuda.
Related Materials:
Materials in the Archives Center

AC0205, Western Union Telegraph Company Records
Provenance:
The initial collection was donated by the TransAtlantic Cable Limited, Bermuda in 1970.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Communications  Search this
Atlantic telegraph cable  Search this
Telegraph, Wireless  Search this
Submarine telegraphy  Search this
Genre/Form:
Journals -- 1860-1920
Minute books
Cashbooks -- 1900-1950
Ledgers -- 1860-1920
Citation:
Anglo-American Telegraph Company Records, 1862-1947, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Washington, DC.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0073
See more items in:
Anglo-American Telegraph Company Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0073
Online Media:

Atlantic telegraph celebration. : Order of exercises at the Crystal Palace, on the occasion of the celebration of the successful laying of the Atlantic telegraph cable. September 1, 1858. Ceremonies will commence at half past four o'clock.

Container:
Box 4, Folder 2
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1858-09-01 - 1858-09-01
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
See more items in:
Cyrus W. Field Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-1386-ref48

Atlantic telegraph cable : address of Professor William Thomson...

Container:
Box 4, Folder 8
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1865-12-18 - 1865-12-18
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
See more items in:
Cyrus W. Field Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-1386-ref54

A sermon, preached on board the Great Eastern, in her passage from Newfoundland to England, after laying the Atlantic telegraph cable of 1866, and recovering and completing that of 1865

Container:
Box 6, Folder 9
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1866 - 1866
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
See more items in:
Cyrus W. Field Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-1386-ref84

[Ordnance pamphlets]

Title:
Miscellaneous pamphlets
Subject:
United States Navy  Search this
Physical description:
1 v. (various pagings) : ill. ; 23 cm
Type:
Books
Date:
1849
1871
1849-1871]
Topic:
Ordnance  Search this
Call number:
VF353 .O65 1849
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_551195

Detailed report of the proceedings had in commemoration of the successful laying of the Atlantic telegraph cable / by order of the Common Council of the City of New York ; by C.T. McClenachan ; New York, 1859

Author:
New York (N.Y.) Common Council  Search this
McClenachan, Charles T (Charles Thompson)  Search this
Former owner:
Stevens Institute of Technology Library DSI  Search this
Donor:
Burndy Library DSI  Search this
Physical description:
[2], ii, 282, [2] p. ; 22 cm
Type:
Books
Date:
1863
Topic:
Transatlantic cables  Search this
Call number:
TK5611 .N535 1863
TK5611.N535 1863
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_344572

Atlantic telegraph cable : address of Professor William Thomson ... / delivered before the Royal Society of Edinburgh, December 18th, 1865 ; with other documents

Author:
Kelvin, William Thomson Baron 1824-1907  Search this
Donor:
Burndy Library DSI  Search this
Physical description:
31, [1] p., [1] folded leaf of plates : ill. ; 21 cm
Type:
Books
Date:
1866
Topic:
Transatlantic cables  Search this
Call number:
TK5611 .K44a 1866
TK5611.K44a 1866
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_378239

Before we went wireless : David Edward Hughes, FRS : his life, inventions, and discoveries (1829-1900) / Ivor Hughes & David Ellis Evans

Author:
Hughes, Ivor 1940-  Search this
Evans, David Ellis 1943-  Search this
Subject:
Hughes, David Edward 1829-1900  Search this
Physical description:
xiii, 386 p. : ill. ; 26 cm
Type:
Biography
Place:
United States
Great Britain
Date:
2011
Topic:
Inventors  Search this
Telegraph--History  Search this
Telephone systems--History  Search this
Metal detectors--History  Search this
Electromagnets--History  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_978509

Atlantic Telegraph Cable Expedition (7), (painting)

Painter:
Dudley, Robert Charles 1826-1900  Search this
Medium:
Oil on canvas
Type:
Paintings
Owner/Location:
Metropolitan Museum of Art 5th Avenue at 82nd Street New York New York 10028
Date:
Ca. 1866
Topic:
History  Search this
Waterscape  Search this
Occupation--Industry  Search this
Control number:
IAP 08630512
Data Source:
Art Inventories Catalog, Smithsonian American Art Museums
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_ari_252575

Atlantic Telegraph Cable Expedition (44), (painting)

Painter:
Dudley, Robert Charles 1826-1900  Search this
Medium:
Watercolor
Type:
Paintings
Owner/Location:
Metropolitan Museum of Art 5th Avenue at 82nd Street New York New York 10028
Date:
Ca. 1865-1866
Topic:
History  Search this
Waterscape  Search this
Occupation--Industry  Search this
Control number:
IAP 08630513
Data Source:
Art Inventories Catalog, Smithsonian American Art Museums
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_ari_252576

Laying of the Atlantic Telegraph Cable, Trinity (Bay, Newfoundland), (painting)

Painter:
Flagg, George Whiting 1816-1897 (attributed to)  Search this
Medium:
Oil
Type:
Paintings
Owner/Location:
Connecticut Historical Society 1 Elizabeth St Hartford Connecticut 06105
Topic:
History--United States  Search this
Control number:
IAP 06840103
Data Source:
Art Inventories Catalog, Smithsonian American Art Museums
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_ari_35021

Thoughts provoked by the 150th anniversary of the Trans-Atlantic Telegraph Cable

Creator:
National Museum of American History  Search this
Type:
Blog posts
Smithsonian staff publications
Blog posts
Published Date:
Fri, 14 Oct 2016 17:35:37 +0000
Topic:
American History  Search this
See more posts:
Blog Feed
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:posts_e22a9a23a39b34dfffb0ae22821702f7

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