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Ralph Aspaas collection

Creator:
Aspaas, Hans  Search this
Aspaas, Ralph  Search this
Names:
Aspaas, Allie Ward  Search this
Aspaas, Carl Henry  Search this
Aspaas, Ellanette  Search this
Aspaas, Max Herndon  Search this
Aspaas, Ralph  Search this
Aspaas, Ralph Ward  Search this
Wirt, Emmet  Search this
Wirt, Emmet  Search this
Extent:
26 Photographic prints
181 Negatives (photographic)
Culture:
Jicarilla Apache  Search this
Tohono O'odham (Papago)  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographic prints
Negatives (photographic)
Correspondence
Marriage certificates
Place:
Tohono O'odham Reservation (Ariz.)
Jicarilla Indian Reservation (N.M.)
Arizona
Dulce (N.M.)
New Mexico
Date:
1900-1915
Scope and Contents:
This collection contains 207 photographs documenting U.S. Allotting Agent Ralph Aspaas (1876-1939), his work, his family, and his travels around the United States southwest circa 1900-1915. The bulk of the materials in this collection depict scenes from the Jicarilla Apache Reservation in New Mexico and the Tohono O'odham (Papago) in Arizona. The photographs may have been shot by Aspaas or his brother Hans Aspaas (1873-1968).
Arrangement:
This collection is organized into three series: Jicarilla Apache Reservation, Tohono O'odham (Papago) Reservation, and Colorado, Utah, and unidentified locations.
Biographical / Historical:
Ralph Aspaas served as an Allotting Agent for the United States Indian Service (now the Bureau of Indian Affairs). He was first assigned to the Jicarilla Apache reservation from circa 1900 to 1910 and then to the Tohono O'odham reservation from circa 1912 to 1915. As an Agent, he allotted land within these reservations to individual tribal members and for tribal community use. Born in 1876, Aspaas married schoolteacher Allie Maud Ward (1881-1959) on July 15, 1905. Together they had six children- Ralph Ward Aspaas (1906-1972), Carl Henry Aspaas (1908-1975), Max Herndon Aspaas (1911-1971), Ellanette Aspaas (b. 1913), Helen Marie Aspaas (1920-2012), and Ruth Louise Aspaas (1922- 1966). By 1920 Ralph was working as a farmer and rancher in Breen, La Plata County, Colorado. He died on September 30, 1939 in Colorado.
Separated Materials:
The nitrate negatives are stored at the National Anthropological Archives.
Provenance:
Gift of Helen R. Aspaas, 2006.
Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Thursday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Rights:
Single photocopies may be made for research purposes. Permission to publish or broadcast materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiarchives@si.edu.
Topic:
Indians of North America -- Southwest -- Photographs  Search this
Indians of North America -- Arizona -- Photographs  Search this
Indians of North America -- New Mexico -- Photographs  Search this
Indians of North America -- Social life and customs  Search this
Indian land transfers -- New Mexico  Search this
Indian land transfers -- Arizona  Search this
Genre/Form:
Correspondence -- 1910-1920
Marriage certificates
Photographic prints
Negatives (photographic)
Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Ralph Aspaas collection, Box and Folder Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.086
See more items in:
Ralph Aspaas collection
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmai-ac-086
Online Media:

Sash/Belt

Culture/People:
Jicarilla Apache  Search this
Collector:
Ralph Aspaas, Non-Indian, 1877-1939  Search this
Allie Ward Aspaas (Alice Ward/Mrs. Ralph Aspaas), Non-Indian, 1881-1959  Search this
Previous owner:
Ralph Aspaas, Non-Indian, 1877-1939  Search this
Allie Ward Aspaas (Alice Ward/Mrs. Ralph Aspaas), Non-Indian, 1881-1959  Search this
Carl Henry Aspaas, Non-Indian, 1908-1975  Search this
Dr. Helen Ruth Aspaas, Non-Indian  Search this
Carla Marie Aspaas Foland, Non-Indian  Search this
Donor:
Dr. Helen Ruth Aspaas, Non-Indian  Search this
Carla Marie Aspaas Foland, Non-Indian  Search this
Object Name:
Sash/Belt
Media/Materials:
Hide, glass bead/beads, metal buckle, thread
Techniques:
Lazy/lane stitch beadwork, stitched
Dimensions:
101.5 x 4 x 0.5 cm
Object Type:
Clothing/Garments: Accessories
Place:
Dulce, Jicarilla Apache Reservation; Rio Arriba County; New Mexico; USA
Date created:
1900-1910
Catalog Number:
26/2740
Barcode:
262740.000
See related items:
Jicarilla Apache
Clothing/Garments: Accessories
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ws6df4c72fb-93ec-40c6-83c8-a9c2b6a73cd4
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_278860
Online Media:

Gauntlet/Cuff

Culture/People:
Jicarilla Apache  Search this
Collector:
Ralph Aspaas, Non-Indian, 1877-1939  Search this
Allie Ward Aspaas (Alice Ward/Mrs. Ralph Aspaas), Non-Indian, 1881-1959  Search this
Previous owner:
Ralph Aspaas, Non-Indian, 1877-1939  Search this
Allie Ward Aspaas (Alice Ward/Mrs. Ralph Aspaas), Non-Indian, 1881-1959  Search this
Carl Henry Aspaas, Non-Indian, 1908-1975  Search this
Dr. Helen Ruth Aspaas, Non-Indian  Search this
Carla Marie Aspaas Foland, Non-Indian  Search this
Donor:
Dr. Helen Ruth Aspaas, Non-Indian  Search this
Carla Marie Aspaas Foland, Non-Indian  Search this
Object Name:
Gauntlet/Cuff
Media/Materials:
Commercially tanned leather, glass bead/beads, sinew, clothing snaps
Techniques:
Sewn, lazy/lane stitch beadwork, stitched
Dimensions:
15 x 12.5 x 1.5 cm
Object Type:
Clothing/Garments: Accessories
Place:
Dulce, Jicarilla Apache Reservation; Rio Arriba County; New Mexico; USA
Date created:
1900-1910
Catalog Number:
26/2735
Barcode:
262735.000
See related items:
Jicarilla Apache
Clothing/Garments: Accessories
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ws6cb2e1ea0-0342-40ed-8c6b-2993a6547f3e
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_278855
Online Media:

Woman's belt

Culture/People:
Jicarilla Apache  Search this
Previous owner:
Ralph Aspaas, Non-Indian, 1877-1939  Search this
Allie Ward Aspaas (Alice Ward/Mrs. Ralph Aspaas), Non-Indian, 1881-1959  Search this
Carl Henry Aspaas, Non-Indian, 1908-1975  Search this
Dr. Helen Ruth Aspaas, Non-Indian  Search this
Carla Marie Aspaas Foland, Non-Indian  Search this
Donor:
Dr. Helen Ruth Aspaas, Non-Indian  Search this
Carla Marie Aspaas Foland, Non-Indian  Search this
Object Name:
Woman's belt
Media/Materials:
Hide, glass bead/beads, brass tacks/bosses, metal buckle, hide thong/babiche
Techniques:
Lazy/lane stitch beadwork , studded, perforated
Dimensions:
93 x 16 cm
Object Type:
Clothing/Garments: Accessories
Place:
Dulce, Jicarilla Apache Reservation; Rio Arriba County; New Mexico; USA
Date created:
1900-1911
Catalog Number:
26/2730
Barcode:
262730.000
See related items:
Jicarilla Apache
Clothing/Garments: Accessories
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ws6a0186cef-bb88-4726-be00-e4ce55d7e48b
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_278850
Online Media:

Basket

Culture/People:
Tohono O'odham (Papago)  Search this
Previous owner:
Ralph Aspaas, Non-Indian, 1877-1939  Search this
Allie Ward Aspaas (Alice Ward/Mrs. Ralph Aspaas), Non-Indian, 1881-1959  Search this
Carl Henry Aspaas, Non-Indian, 1908-1975  Search this
Dr. Helen Ruth Aspaas, Non-Indian  Search this
Carla Marie Aspaas Foland, Non-Indian  Search this
Donor:
Dr. Helen Ruth Aspaas, Non-Indian  Search this
Carla Marie Aspaas Foland, Non-Indian  Search this
Object Name:
Basket
Media/Materials:
Vegetal Fiber, willow, devil's claw/martynia
Techniques:
Coiled, dyed
Dimensions:
57 x 58 x 59 cm
Object Type:
Made-for-Sale items and Souvenirs
Place:
Arizona; USA
Date created:
1910-1915
Catalog Number:
26/2739
Barcode:
262739.000
See related items:
Tohono O'odham (Papago)
Made-for-Sale items and Souvenirs
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ws6d4f2b5ed-1b6b-4de9-bf7e-5dbcc6653437
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_278859
Online Media:

Awl and case

Culture/People:
Jicarilla Apache  Search this
Collector:
Ralph Aspaas, Non-Indian, 1877-1939  Search this
Allie Ward Aspaas (Alice Ward/Mrs. Ralph Aspaas), Non-Indian, 1881-1959  Search this
Previous owner:
Ralph Aspaas, Non-Indian, 1877-1939  Search this
Allie Ward Aspaas (Alice Ward/Mrs. Ralph Aspaas), Non-Indian, 1881-1959  Search this
Carl Henry Aspaas, Non-Indian, 1908-1975  Search this
Dr. Helen Ruth Aspaas, Non-Indian  Search this
Carla Marie Aspaas Foland, Non-Indian  Search this
Donor:
Dr. Helen Ruth Aspaas, Non-Indian  Search this
Carla Marie Aspaas Foland, Non-Indian  Search this
Object Name:
Awl and case
Media/Materials:
Wood, deerhide/deerskin, glass bead/beads, pigment/pigments, commercially tanned leather, hide thong/babiche, thread
Techniques:
Carved, sewn, bead-wrapped, edge beaded, stitched, colored
Dimensions:
31 x 4.5 x 3 cm
Object Type:
Sewing Tools and Equipment
Place:
Dulce, Jicarilla Apache Reservation; Rio Arriba County; New Mexico; USA
Date created:
1900-1910
Catalog Number:
26/2733
Barcode:
262733.000
See related items:
Jicarilla Apache
Sewing Tools and Equipment
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ws6a0e10b14-250c-4d68-845a-dea34535bc55
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_278853
Online Media:

Basket creel

Culture/People:
Jicarilla Apache  Search this
Collector:
Ralph Aspaas, Non-Indian, 1877-1939  Search this
Allie Ward Aspaas (Alice Ward/Mrs. Ralph Aspaas), Non-Indian, 1881-1959  Search this
Previous owner:
Ralph Aspaas, Non-Indian, 1877-1939  Search this
Allie Ward Aspaas (Alice Ward/Mrs. Ralph Aspaas), Non-Indian, 1881-1959  Search this
Carl Henry Aspaas, Non-Indian, 1908-1975  Search this
Dr. Helen Ruth Aspaas, Non-Indian  Search this
Carla Marie Aspaas Foland, Non-Indian  Search this
Donor:
Dr. Helen Ruth Aspaas, Non-Indian  Search this
Carla Marie Aspaas Foland, Non-Indian  Search this
Object Name:
Basket creel
Media/Materials:
Willow, sumac, yucca fiber, commercial leather thong, dye/dyes
Techniques:
Dyed, coiled, stitched, tied
Dimensions:
42 x 19 x 30 cm
Object Type:
Hunting/Fishing/Warfare
Place:
Dulce, Jicarilla Apache Reservation; Rio Arriba County; New Mexico; USA
Date created:
1900-1910
Catalog Number:
26/2741
Barcode:
262741.000
See related items:
Jicarilla Apache
Hunting/Fishing/Warfare
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ws6ac4cd556-f787-4207-aa3c-398b302eba32
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_278861
Online Media:

Basket

Culture/People:
Tohono O'odham (Papago)  Search this
Previous owner:
Ralph Aspaas, Non-Indian, 1877-1939  Search this
Allie Ward Aspaas (Alice Ward/Mrs. Ralph Aspaas), Non-Indian, 1881-1959  Search this
Carl Henry Aspaas, Non-Indian, 1908-1975  Search this
Dr. Helen Ruth Aspaas, Non-Indian  Search this
Carla Marie Aspaas Foland, Non-Indian  Search this
Donor:
Dr. Helen Ruth Aspaas, Non-Indian  Search this
Carla Marie Aspaas Foland, Non-Indian  Search this
Object Name:
Basket
Media/Materials:
Vegetal Fiber, willow, devil's claw/martynia
Techniques:
Coiled, dyed
Dimensions:
33 x 30 x 24.5 cm
Object Type:
Made-for-Sale items and Souvenirs
Place:
Arizona; USA
Date created:
1910-1915
Catalog Number:
26/2736
Barcode:
262736.000
See related items:
Tohono O'odham (Papago)
Made-for-Sale items and Souvenirs
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ws6d9051496-9523-489a-848d-2ee4cd250206
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_278856
Online Media:

Sash/Belt

Culture/People:
Jicarilla Apache  Search this
Collector:
Ralph Aspaas, Non-Indian, 1877-1939  Search this
Allie Ward Aspaas (Alice Ward/Mrs. Ralph Aspaas), Non-Indian, 1881-1959  Search this
Previous owner:
Ralph Aspaas, Non-Indian, 1877-1939  Search this
Allie Ward Aspaas (Alice Ward/Mrs. Ralph Aspaas), Non-Indian, 1881-1959  Search this
Carl Henry Aspaas, Non-Indian, 1908-1975  Search this
Dr. Helen Ruth Aspaas, Non-Indian  Search this
Carla Marie Aspaas Foland, Non-Indian  Search this
Donor:
Dr. Helen Ruth Aspaas, Non-Indian  Search this
Carla Marie Aspaas Foland, Non-Indian  Search this
Object Name:
Sash/Belt
Media/Materials:
Commercially tanned leather, glass bead/beads, wool cloth, metal buckle, thread
Techniques:
Sewn, overlay beadwork, perforated, stitched
Dimensions:
98 x 3.5 cm
Object Type:
Clothing/Garments: Accessories
Place:
Dulce, Jicarilla Apache Reservation; Rio Arriba County; New Mexico; USA
Date created:
1900-1910
Catalog Number:
26/2731
Barcode:
262731.000
See related items:
Jicarilla Apache
Clothing/Garments: Accessories
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ws6095386d3-36dd-4eab-9c5c-bf02e09c955c
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_278851
Online Media:

Club

Culture/People:
Jicarilla Apache  Search this
Collector:
Ralph Aspaas, Non-Indian, 1877-1939  Search this
Allie Ward Aspaas (Alice Ward/Mrs. Ralph Aspaas), Non-Indian, 1881-1959  Search this
Previous owner:
Ralph Aspaas, Non-Indian, 1877-1939  Search this
Allie Ward Aspaas (Alice Ward/Mrs. Ralph Aspaas), Non-Indian, 1881-1959  Search this
Carl Henry Aspaas, Non-Indian, 1908-1975  Search this
Dr. Helen Ruth Aspaas, Non-Indian  Search this
Carla Marie Aspaas Foland, Non-Indian  Search this
Donor:
Dr. Helen Ruth Aspaas, Non-Indian  Search this
Carla Marie Aspaas Foland, Non-Indian  Search this
Object Name:
Club
Media/Materials:
Wood, hide, glass bead/beads, horsehair, dye/dyes
Techniques:
Carved, bead-wrapped, lazy/lane stitch beadwork, dyed, stitched
Dimensions:
83 x 8 cm
Object Type:
Made-for-Sale items and Souvenirs
Place:
Dulce, Jicarilla Apache Reservation; Rio Arriba County; New Mexico; USA
Date created:
1900-1910
Catalog Number:
26/2742
Barcode:
262742.000
See related items:
Jicarilla Apache
Made-for-Sale items and Souvenirs
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ws616ed86d9-13a2-4732-b500-ec3a77a6ca9b
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_278862
Online Media:

Bow

Culture/People:
Jicarilla Apache  Search this
Collector:
Ralph Aspaas, Non-Indian, 1877-1939  Search this
Allie Ward Aspaas (Alice Ward/Mrs. Ralph Aspaas), Non-Indian, 1881-1959  Search this
Previous owner:
Ralph Aspaas, Non-Indian, 1877-1939  Search this
Allie Ward Aspaas (Alice Ward/Mrs. Ralph Aspaas), Non-Indian, 1881-1959  Search this
Carl Henry Aspaas, Non-Indian, 1908-1975  Search this
Dr. Helen Ruth Aspaas, Non-Indian  Search this
Carla Marie Aspaas Foland, Non-Indian  Search this
Donor:
Dr. Helen Ruth Aspaas, Non-Indian  Search this
Carla Marie Aspaas Foland, Non-Indian  Search this
Object Name:
Bow
Media/Materials:
Wood, sinew
Techniques:
Carved, wrapped, twisted
Dimensions:
11.5 x 7 cm
Object Type:
Hunting/Fishing/Warfare
Place:
Dulce, Jicarilla Apache Reservation; Rio Arriba County; New Mexico; USA
Date created:
1905-1910
Catalog Number:
26/2732
Barcode:
262732.000
See related items:
Jicarilla Apache
Hunting/Fishing/Warfare
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ws6e9f35638-a6fb-4b29-9c2a-6d57b5d8aad0
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_278852
Online Media:

Hairbrush

Culture/People:
probably Tohono O'odham (Papago) (attributed)  Search this
Collector:
Ralph Aspaas, Non-Indian, 1877-1939  Search this
Allie Ward Aspaas (Alice Ward/Mrs. Ralph Aspaas), Non-Indian, 1881-1959  Search this
Previous owner:
Ralph Aspaas, Non-Indian, 1877-1939  Search this
Allie Ward Aspaas (Alice Ward/Mrs. Ralph Aspaas), Non-Indian, 1881-1959  Search this
Carl Henry Aspaas, Non-Indian, 1908-1975  Search this
Dr. Helen Ruth Aspaas, Non-Indian  Search this
Carla Marie Aspaas Foland, Non-Indian  Search this
Donor:
Dr. Helen Ruth Aspaas, Non-Indian  Search this
Carla Marie Aspaas Foland, Non-Indian  Search this
Object Name:
Hairbrush
Media/Materials:
Agave/Maguey fiber, horsehair
Techniques:
Folded, wrapped, plaited
Dimensions:
18 x 7 x 4 cm
Object Type:
Personal items
Place:
Sells (Indian Oasis), Tohono O'odham Reservation; Pima County; Arizona; USA (inferred)
Date created:
1910-1920
Catalog Number:
26/2743
Barcode:
262743.000
See related items:
Tohono O'odham (Papago)
Personal items
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ws66a83d030-2059-4042-9146-0002706a42aa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_278863
Online Media:

Man's moccasins

Culture/People:
Jicarilla Apache  Search this
Collector:
Ralph Aspaas, Non-Indian, 1877-1939  Search this
Allie Ward Aspaas (Alice Ward/Mrs. Ralph Aspaas), Non-Indian, 1881-1959  Search this
Previous owner:
Ralph Aspaas, Non-Indian, 1877-1939  Search this
Allie Ward Aspaas (Alice Ward/Mrs. Ralph Aspaas), Non-Indian, 1881-1959  Search this
Carl Henry Aspaas, Non-Indian, 1908-1975  Search this
Dr. Helen Ruth Aspaas, Non-Indian  Search this
Carla Marie Aspaas Foland, Non-Indian  Search this
Donor:
Dr. Helen Ruth Aspaas, Non-Indian  Search this
Carla Marie Aspaas Foland, Non-Indian  Search this
Object Name:
Man's moccasins
Media/Materials:
Cow rawhide, deerhide/deerskin, glass bead/beads, ochre
Techniques:
Sewn, lazy/lane stitch beadwork, colored, fringed
Dimensions:
33 x 13 x 12 cm
Object Type:
Clothing/Garments: Footwear
Place:
Dulce, Jicarilla Apache Reservation; Rio Arriba County; New Mexico; USA
Date created:
1900-1910
Catalog Number:
26/2738
Barcode:
262738.000
See related items:
Jicarilla Apache
Clothing/Garments: Footwear
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ws61cad2416-f0ec-4449-8b2c-97f21e8ca9dd
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_278858
Online Media:

Basket

Culture/People:
Tohono O'odham (Papago)  Search this
Previous owner:
Ralph Aspaas, Non-Indian, 1877-1939  Search this
Allie Ward Aspaas (Alice Ward/Mrs. Ralph Aspaas), Non-Indian, 1881-1959  Search this
Carl Henry Aspaas, Non-Indian, 1908-1975  Search this
Dr. Helen Ruth Aspaas, Non-Indian  Search this
Carla Marie Aspaas Foland, Non-Indian  Search this
Donor:
Dr. Helen Ruth Aspaas, Non-Indian  Search this
Carla Marie Aspaas Foland, Non-Indian  Search this
Object Name:
Basket
Media/Materials:
Vegetal Fiber, yucca fiber, devil's claw/martynia
Techniques:
Coiled, dyed
Dimensions:
33 x 39.5 x 18.5 cm
Object Type:
Made-for-Sale items and Souvenirs
Place:
Arizona; USA
Date created:
1910-1915
Catalog Number:
26/2734
Barcode:
262734.000
See related items:
Tohono O'odham (Papago)
Made-for-Sale items and Souvenirs
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ws6100aaddf-30a6-48a1-b463-69fc6c509a4b
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_278854
Online Media:

Woman's moccasins

Culture/People:
Jicarilla Apache  Search this
Collector:
Ralph Aspaas, Non-Indian, 1877-1939  Search this
Allie Ward Aspaas (Alice Ward/Mrs. Ralph Aspaas), Non-Indian, 1881-1959  Search this
Previous owner:
Ralph Aspaas, Non-Indian, 1877-1939  Search this
Allie Ward Aspaas (Alice Ward/Mrs. Ralph Aspaas), Non-Indian, 1881-1959  Search this
Carl Henry Aspaas, Non-Indian, 1908-1975  Search this
Dr. Helen Ruth Aspaas, Non-Indian  Search this
Carla Marie Aspaas Foland, Non-Indian  Search this
Donor:
Dr. Helen Ruth Aspaas, Non-Indian  Search this
Carla Marie Aspaas Foland, Non-Indian  Search this
Object Name:
Woman's moccasins
Media/Materials:
Deerhide/deerskin, rawhide, glass bead/beads, thread
Techniques:
Sewn, lazy/lane stitch beadwork, stitched
Dimensions:
25 x 13.5 x 8.5 cm
Object Type:
Clothing/Garments: Footwear
Place:
Dulce, Jicarilla Apache Reservation; Rio Arriba County; New Mexico; USA
Date created:
1900-1910
Catalog Number:
26/2737
Barcode:
262737.000
See related items:
Jicarilla Apache
Clothing/Garments: Footwear
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ws65f3a5f78-5208-43f4-9ae3-46008069b5c9
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_278857
Online Media:

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