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E.P. (Edgar Preston) and Constance Richardson papers, 1814-1996, bulk 1921-1996

Creator:
Richardson, Edgar Preston, 1902-1985  Search this
Richardson, Constance Coleman, 1905-2002  Search this
Subject:
Rutledge, Anna Wells  Search this
Simper, Fred  Search this
McDermott, John Francis  Search this
Speck, Walter  Search this
Stevens, William B.  Search this
Fredericks, Marshall M.  Search this
Castano, Giovanni  Search this
Soria, Regina  Search this
Lynes, Russell  Search this
Frankenstein, Alfred V. (Alfred Victor)  Search this
Hardy, Jeremiah Pearson  Search this
Pleasants, J. Hall (Jacob Hall)  Search this
Garrison, Eve Josephson  Search this
Bishop, Isabel  Search this
Allston, Washington  Search this
Woolfenden, William E. (William Edward)  Search this
Ripley, S. Dillon (Sidney Dillon)  Search this
Morse, John D.  Search this
Watkins, Franklin Chenault  Search this
Lewis, W. S. (Wilmarth Sheldon)  Search this
Marsh, Reginald  Search this
Sheeler, Charles  Search this
Kuniyoshi, Yasuo  Search this
Bostick, William A.  Search this
Jungwirth, Irene G. (Irene Gayas)  Search this
Oliver, Andrew  Search this
Simpson, Corelli C. W.  Search this
Andrews, Wayne  Search this
Valentiner, Wilhelm Reinhold  Search this
Middeldorf, Ulrich Alexander  Search this
Spark, Victor D. (Victor David)  Search this
Fleischman, Lawrence A. (Lawrence Arthur)  Search this
Sellers, Charles Coleman  Search this
Heil, Walter  Search this
Lee-Smith, Hughie  Search this
Bouché, Louis  Search this
Moser, Liselotte  Search this
Flexner, James Thomas  Search this
Vose, Robert C. (Robert Churchill)  Search this
Cohn, Harold  Search this
Aram, Siegfried F.  Search this
Mast, Gerald  Search this
Krentzin, Earl  Search this
Groce, George C.  Search this
Peale, Charles Willson  Search this
Culver, Charles B. (Charles Beach)  Search this
Wedda, John  Search this
Boyd, Julian P. (Julian Parks)  Search this
O'Keeffe, Georgia  Search this
Wyeth, Andrew  Search this
Hopper, Edward  Search this
Rockefeller, Nelson A. (Nelson Aldrich)  Search this
Rockefeller, John D.  Search this
Copeland, Lammot du Pont  Search this
Freeman, Michael W.  Search this
Allen, Joseph  Search this
Peale family  Search this
Castano Galleries (Boston, Mass.)  Search this
Historical Society of Pennsylvania  Search this
Macbeth Gallery  Search this
Archives of American Art  Search this
Philadelphia Museum of Art  Search this
National Collection of Fine Arts (U.S.)  Search this
National Portrait Gallery (Smithsonian Institution)  Search this
Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts  Search this
White House (Washington, D.C.)  Search this
Detroit Institute of Arts  Search this
Henry Francis du Pont Winterthur Museum  Search this
Type:
Photographs
Manuscripts
Interviews
Diaries
Transcripts
Sketches
Lectures
Place:
Detroit (Mich.)
Citation:
E.P. (Edgar Preston) and Constance Richardson papers, 1814-1996, bulk 1921-1996. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Topic:
Art -- Collectors and collecting  Search this
Painting, American  Search this
Art, American  Search this
Romanticism  Search this
Art -- History -- Study and teaching  Search this
Theme:
Diaries  Search this
Research and writing about art  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)10104
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)212990
AAA_collcode_richedga
Theme:
Diaries
Research and writing about art
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_212990
Online Media:

Philadelphia, PA

Artist:
Louis Faurer, born Philadelphia, PA 1916-died New York City 2001  Search this
Medium:
gelatin silver print
Dimensions:
sheet: 14 x 10 15/16 in. (35.5 x 27.7 cm) image: 9 1/8 x 6 1/2 in. (23.1 x 16.6 cm)
Type:
Photography-Photoprint
Date:
1949, printed 1980-1981
Topic:
Figure male\knee length  Search this
Cityscape\Pennsylvania\Philadelphia  Search this
State of being\disabled\paralyzed  Search this
Object\other\sign  Search this
Architecture Exterior\commercial\bank  Search this
Architecture Exterior\commercial\Broad Street Trust Company  Search this
Credit Line:
Smithsonian American Art Museum, Gift of David L. Davies and John D. Weeden and museum purchase
Copyright:
© Estate of Louis Faurer
Object number:
2002.47.10
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
See more items in:
Smithsonian American Art Museum Collection
Department:
Graphic Arts
Data Source:
Smithsonian American Art Museum
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/vk7d93c55db-2867-4f92-a005-21d28f0efca1
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:saam_2002.47.10

Catherine Viviano Gallery records

Creator:
Catherine Viviano Gallery  Search this
Names:
American Academy of Arts and Letters  Search this
American Federation of Arts  Search this
Art Club of Chicago  Search this
Art Institute of Chicago  Search this
Barnes Foundation  Search this
Brooklyn Museum  Search this
Carnegie Institute  Search this
City Art Museum of St. Louis  Search this
Colorado Springs Fine Arts Center  Search this
Dallas Museum of Fine Arts  Search this
Des Moines Art Center  Search this
Detroit Institute of Arts  Search this
Fogg Art Museum  Search this
Harvard University  Search this
Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden  Search this
Los Angeles County Museum  Search this
Mary Washington College  Search this
Massachusetts Institute of Technology  Search this
Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Museum of Fine Arts, Boston  Search this
Museum of Fine Arts, Houston  Search this
Museum of Modern Art (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts  Search this
Philadelphia Art Alliance  Search this
Santa Barbara Museum of Art  Search this
University of Virginia  Search this
Wadsworth Atheneum  Search this
Walker Art Center  Search this
William Rockhill Nelson Gallery of Art and Mary Atkins Museum of Fine Arts  Search this
World House Galleries  Search this
Yale University. Art & Architecture Library  Search this
Afro, 1912-1976  Search this
Ashton, Dore  Search this
Baker, Richard Brown  Search this
Bareiss, Walter  Search this
Barker, Walter  Search this
Birolli, Renato, 1905?-1959  Search this
Bishop, Elizabeth, 1911-1979  Search this
Broderson, Robert M, 1920-  Search this
Callery, Mary, 1903-1977  Search this
Chaet, Bernard  Search this
Cox, Jan, 1919-1980  Search this
Dorazio, Piero, 1927-  Search this
Dorazio, Virginia Dortch  Search this
Dubuffet, Jean, 1901-  Search this
Dudensing, F. Valentine, 1892-1967  Search this
Eisendrath, William N., 1903-  Search this
Ernst, Dallas  Search this
Faison, S. Lane (Samson Lane), 1907-2006  Search this
Fleischman, Barbara  Search this
Fleischman, Lawrence A. (Lawrence Arthur), 1925-1997  Search this
Genauer, Emily, 1910-2002  Search this
Giacometti, Alberto, 1901-1966  Search this
Glasco, Joseph, 1925-1996  Search this
Goodhue, Bertram Grosvenor, 1869-1924  Search this
Graves, Morris, 1910-  Search this
Guerrero, José, 1914-  Search this
Göpel, Barbara  Search this
Göpel, Erhard  Search this
Hirschhorn, Joseph  Search this
Lerner, Abe, 1908-  Search this
Ludgin, Earle, 1898-1981  Search this
Mabe, Manabu  Search this
Manrique, César, 1920-  Search this
McCray, Porter A., 1908-2000  Search this
Meltzer, Doris, 1908-1977  Search this
Menil, Dominique de  Search this
Miller, Stephen Robeson  Search this
Minguzzi, Luciano, 1911-  Search this
Miró, Joan, 1893-  Search this
Morlotti, Ennio, 1910-1992  Search this
Moyens, H. Marc  Search this
Myers, John Bernard  Search this
Ossorio, Alfonso, 1916-1990  Search this
Perlin, Bernard, 1918-  Search this
Price, Vincent, 1911-1993  Search this
Pulitzer, Joseph, 1913-1993  Search this
Rathbone, Perry Townsend, 1911-2000  Search this
Ribicoff, Belle Krasne, 1924-  Search this
Rockefeller, Nelson A. (Nelson Aldrich), 1908-1979  Search this
Rosenthal, Bernard M.  Search this
Sage, Kay  Search this
Seeger, Stanley J.  Search this
Shapiro, Meyer  Search this
Stout, George L. (George Leslie)  Search this
Tanning, Dorothea, 1910-2012  Search this
Valentin, Curt, 1902-1954  Search this
Van Veen, Stuyvesant  Search this
Viviano, Catherine, 1899-1992  Search this
Wakabayashi, Kazuo  Search this
Yunkers, Adja, 1900-1983  Search this
Extent:
11.6 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Notes
Date:
1930-1990
bulk 1949-1978
Summary:
The records of the Catherine Viviano Gallery measure 11.6 linear feet and date from 1930-1990, with the bulk of the materials dating from 1949-1978. Established in New York City in 1949, the gallery specialized in contemporary painting and sculpture primarily by American and European artists. The collection consists of artists' files; correspondence with artists, collectors, dealers, museum directors, curators, and publishers; business records; printed material; and photographs of artwork and artists. Also included are records relating to Catherine Viviano's activities as a private dealer and consultant after she closed the gallery in 1970.
Scope and Contents note:
The records of the Catherine Viviano Gallery measure 11.6 linear feet and date from 1930-1990, with the bulk of the materials dating from 1949-1978. Established in New York City in 1949, the gallery specialized in contemporary painting and sculpture primarily by American and European artists. The collection consists of artists' files; correspondence with artists, collectors, dealers, museum directors, curators, and publishers; business records; printed material; and photographs of artwork and artists. Also included are records relating to Catherine Viviano's activities as a private dealer and consultant after she closed the gallery in 1970.

Artists' files include biographical material; artists' statements; correspondence; sales and expense reports; lists and notes; guest lists; writings by others; receipts, invoices, and statements; printed material, including press releases, exhibition announcements, brochures, catalogues, clippings; and photographs of artwork and artists. Included are extensive files on Afro Basaldella, Renato Birolli, Robert Broderson, Anselmo Franesconi, Joseph Glasco, Manabu Mabe, César Manrique, Luciano Minguzzi, Ennio Morlotti, Bernard Perlin, Daniel Rice, and Bernard Rosenthal. There are also files on Jan Cox, Kay Sage, and Kazuo Wakabayashi.

Correspondence comprises the largest series in the collection and consists of general correspondence; correspondence with museums, galleries, and art-related institutions in the United States; and correspondence with museums, galleries, and art-related institutions abroad. Letters focus on routine business matters, e.g., appraisals and sales, acquisitions, and organizing exhibitions at the Catherine Viviano Gallery and other venues.

General correspondence includes letters between Catherine Viviano and artists and their family members. Among the correspondents are: Mary Callery, Bernard Chaet, Piero and Virginia Dorazio, Jean Dubuffet, Dallas Ernst, Karl Fortress, Alberto Giacometti, Henry Sage Goodwin, Morris Graves, José Guerrero, Earle Ludgin, Joan Miro, Alfonso Ossorio, Dorothea Tanning, Stuyvesant Van Veen, Adja Yunkers and his wife, Dore Ashton, among others. Also found is Viviano's correspondence with clients, many of whom were prominent collectors, e.g., Richard Brown Baker, Carl and Joan Fisher, Lawrence and Barbara Fleischman, Joseph Hirschhorn, Marc Moyens, Vincent Price, Joseph Pulitzer, Jr., Nelson Rockefeller, Stanley Seeger, and Frederick and Dorothy Zimmerman. Of interest, are letters from Elizabeth Bishop inquiring about the purchase of a work of art from the gallery. Included are letters from art historians, museum directors, curators, representatives at other art-related institutions, and publishers including Walter Bareiss, Walter Barker, Dominque De Menil, Valentine Dudensing, William Eisendrath, S. Lane Faison, Emily Genauer, Bertram Goodhue, Erhard and Barbara Göpel, James Laughlin, Porter McCray, Abram Lerner, Doris Meltzer, Stephen Robson Miller, John Bernard Myers, Perry Rathbone, Belle Krasne Ribicoff, Meyer Shapiro, George Stout, and Curt Valentin.

Correspondence with museums, galleries, and art-related institutions in the United States contains letters between Viviano and museum directors, curators, dealers, artists, and collectors pertaining to loans, shipping and delivery of artwork, appraisals and sales, and acquisitions. Files include substantive correspondence with the American Academy of Arts and Letters, American Federation of the Arts, Art Institute of Chicago, Arts Club of Chicago, the Barnes Foundation, Bristol Art Museum, Brooklyn Museum, Bundy Art Gallery, Carnegie Institute, City Art Museum of St. Louis, Cleveland Museum of Art, Colorado Springs Fine Arts Center, Dallas Museum of Fine Arts, Denver Art Museum, Des Moines Art Center, Detroit Institute of Arts, Fogg Art Museum, Harvard University, Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden, Institute of Contemporary Art, Los Angeles County Art Museum, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Metropolitan Museum of Art, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, Museum of Fine Arts of Houston, Museum of Modern Art, Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, Philadelphia Art Alliance, Santa Barbara Museum of Art, University of Nebraska Art Galleries, University of Virginia, Mary Washington College, Wadsworth Atheneum, Walker Art Center, William Rockhill Nelson Gallery of Art, Atkins Museum of the Fine Arts, World House Gallery, and Yale University Art Library.

Correspondence with museums, galleries, and art-related institutions abroad primarily concerns the lending of artwork for exhibitions, acquisition and sales; also included are letters requesting biographical information on artists. Letters between Catherine Viviano and representatives of Max Beckmann Gesellschaft Archiv and Galerie Gunther Franke contain provenance-related information on Beckmann's work.

Business records document the routine business operations of the gallery. Printed material includes an incomplete run of Catherine Viviano Gallery exhibition catalogues; invitations and announcements from other galleries and institutions; and miscellaneous printed material.

Photographs include three images of miscellaneous artwork used for art reference.
Arrangement note:
Records are generally arranged by material type and in chronological order thereafter. Artists' files and correspondence files are arranged in alphabetical order and materials within the folders are arranged chronologically

The collection is arranged as 5 series:

Missing Title

Series 1: Artists' Files, 1945-1986 (Boxes 1-3; 3.5 linear feet)

Series 2: Correspondence, 1939-1985 (Boxes 3-6; 5.5 linear feet)

Series 3: Business Records, 1949-1972 (Boxes 10-11; 1.0 linear feet)

Series 4: Printed Material, 1930-1990 (Boxes 11-13; 1.6 linear feet)

Series 5: Photographs (1948-1954), undated (Box 14; 1 folder)
Biographical/Historical note:
Catherine Viviano (1889-1992) opened her gallery in 1949 on 42 East 57th Street in New York City. Specializing in contemporary American paintings and sculpture, the gallery featured younger American and European artists, e.g., Robert Broderson, Carlyle Brown, Jan Cox, Joseph Glasco, Peter Lanyon, Manabu Mabe, César Manrique, Bernard Perlin, Joseph Rollo, Bernard Rosenthal, and Kay Sage, among others. The gallery was also notable for introducing the work of Italian artists, who had been cut off from the American art scene during World War II, including Afro Basaldella and his brother Mirko Basaldella, Renato Birolli, Leonardo Cremonini, and Luciano Minguzzi.

Born in Italy in 1899 and raised in Chicago, Catherine Viviano came to New York in the early 1930's to work at the Pierre Matisse Gallery, where she remained for sixteen years before founding the Catherine Viviano Gallery.

In 1970, Catherine Viviano closed the gallery, though she continued to work from her home as an art dealer and consultant. She died of a stroke at the age of ninety-two in 1992.
Related Archival Materials note:
Among the other resources relating to Catherine Viviano Gallery in the Archives of American Art are the Kay Sage papers, 1925-circa 1985, bulk 1950-1965.
Provenance:
The Catherine Viviano Gallery records were donated in 2003 on behalf of Margaret Viviano, Catherine Viviano's sister, by her grandnephew, Peter C. Salerno, who had Power of Attorney for Margaret Viviano.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment.
Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Occupation:
Art dealers -- New York (State)  Search this
Topic:
Women art dealers  Search this
Art -- Collectors and collecting  Search this
Sculpture  Search this
Painting  Search this
Function:
Art galleries, Commercial -- New York (State)
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Notes
Citation:
Catherine Viviano Gallery records, 1930-1990, bulk 1949-1978. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.cathvivi
See more items in:
Catherine Viviano Gallery records
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/mw9c8eeb213-b1d5-43e4-8478-bc79ba634773
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-cathvivi
Online Media:

Livingston L. Biddle, Jr. papers

Creator:
Biddle, Livingston, 1918-2002  Search this
Names:
Bryn Mawr College  Search this
Fordham University  Search this
National Endowment for the Arts  Search this
Alexander, Jane  Search this
Asawa, Ruth  Search this
Biddle, Catharina Baart, 1912-2005  Search this
Carter, Jimmy, 1924-  Search this
Davis, R. A.  Search this
Drexel, Katharine Mary, Saint, 1858-1955  Search this
Edwards, Bob, 1947-  Search this
Glenn, John, 1905-  Search this
Hammer, Armand, 1898-1990  Search this
Hanks, Nancy  Search this
Jessup, Peter, 1958-  Search this
Johnson, Lady Bird, 1912-2007  Search this
Kennedy, Edward M. (Edward Moore), 1932-2009  Search this
King, Susan  Search this
Lawrence, Jacob, 1917-2000  Search this
Maxwell, Barb  Search this
Mondale, Walter F., 1928-  Search this
O'Connor, Sandra Day, 1930-  Search this
Oliphant, Pat, 1935-  Search this
Pell, Claiborne, 1918-2009  Search this
Rauschenberg, Robert, 1925-2008  Search this
Rosenquist, James, 1933-  Search this
Rostropovich, Mstislav, 1927-2007  Search this
Schieffer, Bob  Search this
Scholder, Fritz, 1937-2005  Search this
Temple, Louann  Search this
Watson, Howard N.  Search this
Extent:
40.2 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Video recordings
Scrapbooks
Sketches
Diaries
Interviews
Manuscripts
Photographs
Sound recordings
Transcripts
Date:
circa 1940-2002
Summary:
The papers of government arts administrator and novelist Livingston L. Biddle, Jr. (1918-2002) measure 40.2 linear feet and date from circa 1940 to 2002. The papers are comprised of biographical materials, correspondence, interviews, writings, numerous files reflecting his work to establish the National Endowment for the Arts (NEA), political committee files, personal legal records, printed materials, scrapbooks, and photographs. Throughout the collection are video and sound recordings.
Scope and Contents:
The papers of government arts administrator and novelist Livingston L. Biddle, Jr. (1918-2002) measure 40.2 linear feet and date from circa 1940 to 2002. The papers are comprised of biographical materials, correspondence, interviews, writings, numerous files reflecting his work to establish the National Endowment for the Arts (NEA), political committee files, personal legal records, printed materials, scrapbooks, and photographs. Throughout the collection are video and sound recordings.

Biographical materials consist of awards; diplomas; genealogy records; resumes; and files for Biddle's work at Fordham, his nomination for the National Medal of Arts award, and about his second wife Catharina Baart. Correspondence is with family, friends, and professional and political contacts such as Jane Alexander, President Jimmy Carter, Armand Hammer, Nancy Hanks, Edward Kennedy, Lady Bird Johnson, Sandra Day O'Connor, Claiborne Pell, Robert Rauschenberg, Slava Rostropovich, and others.

Interviews with Biddle include transcripts, four sound recordings, and two video recordings of Biddle with R.A. Davis, Bob Edwards, Peter Jessup, Susan King, Bob Schieffer, and Louann Temple.

Among the writings are journals, articles, poetry, speech notes, manuscript drafts of Our Government and the Arts: A Perspective from the Inside and Sam Bentley's Island, one video recording of "Art/Work/USA" by Barbara Rose, and one sound recording of a film introduction entitled "The Eagle".

Files concerning the establishment and early years of the National Endowment of the Arts consist of correspondence; congressional briefing books, committee files, and reports; financial material; drafts of the National Foundation on the Arts and Humanities Act of 1965; one sound reel titled "Swearing-In of L.L. Biddle, Jr.," and three video recordings. Additional files concerning Biddle's work for congressional committees and political campaigns include correspondence, meeting agendas and notes, and printed material concerning multiple arts organizations and the political campaigns for Jimmy Carter, Walter Mondale, and Claiborne Pell. Family and real estate records, a partnership agreement, and will are in personal legal records.

Printed materials include booklets, clippings, event invitations and programs, flyers, magazines and journals, and posters autographed by Jacob Lawrence, Fritz Scholder, and John Glenn. Additionally, one commercial sound cassette recordings of National Public Radio's program Performance Today is also found. Two mixed-media scrapbooks contain memorabilia from Biddle's professional life and international travel.

Photographs are of family, travel, and friends and colleagues at various events. Six video recordings are home movies of Bryn Mawr and documentaries about St. Katherine Drexel. Artwork in the form of pencil and watercolor sketches is by Ruth Asawa Lanier, Barb Maxwell, Pat Oliphant, James Rosenquist, and Howard N. Watson.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged as 11 series.

Missing Title

Series 1: Biographical Material, circa 1950-2002 (2.5 linear; Box 1-3, 41, OV 43)

Series 2: Correspondence, 1956-2001 (2 linear feet; Boxes 3-5)

Series 3: Interviews, 1978-2002 (0.5 linear feet; Boxes 5-6)

Series 4: Writings, 1940-2002 (12 linear feet; Boxes 6-18)

Series 5: National Endowment for the Arts, 1964-2000 (10 linear feet; Boxes 18-27, 42)

Series 6: Committees and Political Campaigns, 1944-2001 (3.5 linear feet; Boxes 27-30)

Series 7: Personal Legal Records, 1952-1986 (1 linear foot; Boxes 30-31)

Series 8: Printed Materials, circa 1950-2000 (3.5 linear feet; Boxes 31-34, 41, OV 44)

Series 9: Scrapbooks, 1970-1998 (0.3 linear feet; Boxes 34, 42)

Series 10: Photographs and Video Recordings, circa 1950-2002 (4.6 linear feet: Boxes 34-40, OV 44)

Series 11: Artwork, 1976-1989 (0.3 linear feet; Box 40, OV 44)
Biographical / Historical:
Livingston L. Biddle, Jr. (1918-2002) was a federal government arts administrator and novelist active in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania and Washington, D.C.

Livingston L. Biddle was born in Bryn Mawr, Pennsylvania in 1918 to a distinguished and wealthy family. He graduated from Princeton University in 1940. During World War II, Biddle volunteered as an ambulance driver in Africa for the American Field Services.

While working as a special assistant to Rhode Island Democratic Senator Claiborne Pell in the 1960s, Biddle drafted the legislation for the National Foundation on the Arts and Humanities Act of 1965, which led to the creation of the National Endowment of the Arts (NEA) one year later. Biddle served as deputy chairman of the NEA from 1966 to 1967, as congressional liaison director in 1975, and as chairman from 1977 to 1981. In 1976, he served as director of the Congressional Subcommittee on Education, Arts, and Humanities.

Also a writer, Biddle wrote four novels, all set in Philadelphia, including Sam Bentley's Island published in 1961. From 1968 to 1970, he was a professor and chairman of Fordham University's arts division. Biddle also published a non-fiction book about his experiences establishing and working for the National Endowment for the Arts (NEA) titled Our Government and the Arts: A Perspective from the Inside in 1988.

Biddle married artist Catharina Baart in 1973 after his first wife, Cordelia Frances Fenton, died in 1972. Biddle died in Washington, D.C. in 2002.
Provenance:
The Livingston L. Biddle, Jr. papers were donated in 2013 by Thomas O'Callaghan, a close friend of Biddle's who inherited the papers.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Washington, D.C. Research Center. Use of archival audiovisual recordings with no duplicate access copy requires advance notice.
Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Occupation:
Authors -- Washington (D.C.)  Search this
Arts administrators -- Washington (D.C.)  Search this
Topic:
Art -- Political aspects  Search this
Genre/Form:
Video recordings
Scrapbooks
Sketches
Diaries
Interviews
Manuscripts
Photographs
Sound recordings
Transcripts
Citation:
Livingston L. Biddle, Jr. papers, circa 1940-2002. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.biddlivi
See more items in:
Livingston L. Biddle, Jr. papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/mw9c9fc730c-7ddc-4243-90c5-d3592e62ea09
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-biddlivi

Jane Piper papers

Creator:
Piper, Jane, 1916-1991  Search this
Extent:
0.2 Linear feet ((on partial microfilm reel))
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Date:
1943-1988
Scope and Contents:
Biographical information; class notes from a 2-dimensional painting class at the Philadelphia College of Art; a typescript from a lecture given by Piper; printed matter documenting her career; and photographs of her studio and of Piper with a painting.
Biographical / Historical:
Painter; Philadelphia, Pa. Died 1991.
Provenance:
Microfilmed in 1989 as part of AAA's Philadelphia Arts Documentation Project. Lent by Jane Piper.
Restrictions:
The Archives of American art does not own the original papers. Use is limited to the microfilm copy.
Occupation:
Painters -- Pennsylvania -- Philadelphia  Search this
Topic:
Painting, Modern -- 20th century -- History -- Pennsylvania -- Philadelphia  Search this
Women artists  Search this
Women painters  Search this
Identifier:
AAA.pipejane
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/mw92328df60-678c-43a6-b80b-51c2425131d9
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-pipejane

Diana Davies photographs

Photographer:
Davies, Diana, 1938-  Search this
Gahr, David  Search this
Performer:
Bread and Puppet Theater  Search this
Everly Brothers  Search this
New Lost City Ramblers  Search this
Pentangle (Musical group)  Search this
The Pennywhistlers (Musical group)  Search this
The Young Tradition (Musical group)  Search this
Andersen, Eric  Search this
Bikel, Theodore  Search this
Brand, Oscar  Search this
Cameron, John A.  Search this
Chandler, Len  Search this
Collier, Jimmy  Search this
Collins, Judy, 1939-  Search this
Fuller, Jesse  Search this
Gerrard, Alice, 1934-  Search this
Guthrie, Arlo  Search this
Hartford, John  Search this
Hjorth, Ole  Search this
Joplin, Janis  Search this
Kennedy, Norman, 1934-  Search this
Kershaw, Doug  Search this
Killen, Louis  Search this
Kirkpatrick, Frederick Douglass  Search this
Koerner, John  Search this
McGhee, Brownie, 1915-1996  Search this
Mitchell, Joni  Search this
Monroe, Bill, 1911-1996  Search this
Muddy Waters, 1915-1983  Search this
Ochs, Phil  Search this
Perkins, Carl  Search this
Proffitt, Frank, Jr., 1946-2005  Search this
Rachell, Yank  Search this
Raim, Ethel  Search this
Ramsey, Frederic, 1915-1995  Search this
Reagon, Bernice Johnson, 1942-  Search this
Rinzler, Ralph  Search this
Sainte-Marie, Buffy  Search this
Seeger, Mike, 1933-2009  Search this
Stabi, Björn  Search this
Sykes, Roosevelt, 1906-1983  Search this
Taylor, James  Search this
Traum, Artie  Search this
Traum, Happy  Search this
Watson, Doc  Search this
Watson, Merle  Search this
White, Elaine (Vocalist)  Search this
Wiseman, Mac  Search this
Names:
Newport Folk Festival  Search this
Philadelphia Folk Festival  Search this
Asch, Moses  Search this
Chandler, Nancy  Search this
Dunson, Josh, 1941-  Search this
King, Coretta Scott, 1927-2006  Search this
Silber, Irwin, 1925-2010  Search this
Young, Izzy, 1928-2019  Search this
Musician:
Bosco, John  Search this
Extent:
3.83 Cubic feet (8 binders containing contact sheets, slides, and prints; 7 boxes (8.5"x10.75"x2.5") of 35 mm negatives; 2 binders of 35 mm and 120 format negatives; and 1 box of 11 oversize prints.)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Contact sheets
Slides (photographs)
Black-and-white negatives
Photographic prints
Place:
New York (N.Y.)
Saint Simons Island (Ga. : Island)
Date:
1963-2009
Summary:
The Diana Davies photographs consist of images taken by Diana Davies at various stages of her career. Locations include the Festival of American Folklife, the Newport Folk Festival, the Philadelphia Folk Festival, the Poor People's Campaign, various peace and protest marches and outdoor performances, New York City, and the Georgia Sea Islands. The collection includes contact sheets, negatives, photographic prints, and slides. Original photographs, negatives, and color slides taken by Diana Davies. Materials date from 1963-2009. Bulk dates: Newport Folk Festival, 1963-1969, 1987, 1992; Philadelphia Folk Festival, 1967-1968, 1987.
Scope and Contents:
The Diana Davies photographs, 1963-2009, consist of black and white negatives, contact sheets and prints, as well as color slides and negatives. The bulk of materials depict major festivals and protest movements (including the Poor People's March of 1968) documented by Diana Davies (located in Series 1: Newport Folk Festival, Series 2: Philadelphia Folk Festival, Series 6: Festival of American Folklife, and Series 11: Social Justice). Also well-represented are non-festival performances (in locations such as clubs, concert halls, and homes), recording sessions, and other music-related images, mainly of notable figures in the American folk music revival (located in Series 3: Broadside Magazine, Series 4: Sing Out! Magazine Concerts, Series 5: Miscellaneous Concerts and People, Series 7: Recording Sessions, Series 8: Instruction Book Shots, and Series 9: Jazz, Blues, and Salsa Musicians). Series 10: Georgia Sea Islands consists of photographs depicting the culture, environment, and daily life of these coastal islands in 1966. Series 12: New York City Scenes contains photographs taken on the street depicting everyday life in NYC in the 1960s and 1970s. The collection also contains related papers in Series 13: Miscellaneous Papers and Correspondence.
Arrangement note:
Each item in the Diana Davies Photographs has been assigned an accession number, and like materials have been put together such as the Newport Folk Festival photographs, in a chronological sequence as much as possible. Materials in the three more recent donation batches (1998, 2004, and 2006) were numbered and integrated into the collection. In some series, the accession numbers are in numerical order, and in others, the numbers are random because like items with different number sequences were pulled together in a series for subject coherence. The best way to find occurrences of a particular subject is to use the ctrl+F function. Please consult the archivists if you have any questions about the collection contents.

Contact sheets, slides, and prints arranged in 8 binders; negatives and oversize prints are stored separately.

Arranged in 14 series:

Series 1: Newport Folk Festival

Series 2: Philadelphia Folk Festival

Series 3: Broadside Magazine

Series 4: -- Sing Out! -- Magazine Concerts

Series 5: Miscellaneous Concerts and People

Series 6: Festival of American Folklife

Series 7: Recording Sessions

Series 8: Instruction Book Shots

Series 9: Jazz, Blues, and Salsa Musicians

Series 10: Georgia Sea Islands

Series 11: Social Justice

Series 12: New York City Scenes

Series 13: Miscellaneous Papers and Correspondence

Series 14: Oversize Materials
Biographical/Historical note:
Diana Davies is a well-known photographer of folk performers and festivals. Davies photographed the Smithsonian Folklife Festival in its earlier years. Born in 1938, Davies grew up in Maine, the Catskills, New York City, and Boston. Her grandparents were local union organizers and Debs socialists; one grandfather was a gandy dancer with the railroad, and her grandmother was a textile worker in Massachusetts, New York, and Pennsylvania. Davies finds that her family background was later expressed in her own activist efforts.

Davies left high school at 16, and worked sweeping out coffeehouses, which gave her the opportunity to listen to music while she worked. She became interested in theater and music. In Greenwich Village, she began doing some sound technician work, and then got interested in photography. She taught herself how to develop and print photographs in a darkroom, and began photographing in theaters, shooting from behind the scenes. Her theater photos are at Smith College in Northampton, where she presently lives. In the early 1960s, she began working with the editors of Broadside Magazine, Sis Cunningham and Gordon Friesen. She developed an interest in human rights work, which grew from her contact with Sis and Gordon, and also her own family background. She also worked as a photographer in a wide range of settings, including night clubs, weddings, and doing portrait photography. This led her to work for major national and international media including the New York Times, covering such events as the war in Biafra, and traveling to Mexico, Cuba, and Portugal on assignment.

Davies' folk photographs represent about one-quarter of her body of work; her other major photographic work includes the Civil Rights Movement, the Peace Movement, and theater. Davies began photographing at the Newport Folk Festival in 1964, which she covered for a number of years. She knew Ralph Rinzler, and found him a vibrant, alive person excited by all aspects of culture. He introduced her to Bessie Jones from the Georgia Sea Islands, and in 1966 she made a photographic journey to the islands. Her work from this trip is included in the collection. Davies has also been a musician. She became involved with the punk rock movement of the 1970s, and felt that there was a connection between the hard-hitting songs from the punk world and the songs being published in Broadside Magazine. In 1975, she became part of a folk/punk women's band in Boston, and later moved to Western Massachusetts. In addition to being a photographer and musician, Davies is also a writer. She wrote a play entitled "The Witch Papers" in 1980, which was produced in Boston and other locations. The play was a vehicle for her human rights activism, comparing the technology of inquisition with labor sweatshops. In 1998, her play "The War Machine" was produced in Amherst, Mass. She lives in Northampton, and enjoys and participates in street performance, which she describes as the "most essentially communicative stuff you can come up with."
General note:
All contact sheets from the collection are digitized and accessible through this finding aid. Series-level slideshows accessible through this finding aid represent a small sampling from the collection.
Shared Stewardship of Collections:
The Center for Folklife and Cultural Heritage acknowledges and respects the right of artists, performers, Folklife Festival participants, community-based scholars, and knowledge-keepers to collaboratively steward representations of themselves and their intangible cultural heritage in media produced, curated, and distributed by the Center. Making this collection accessible to the public is an ongoing process grounded in the Center's commitment to connecting living people and cultures to the materials this collection represents. To view the Center's full shared stewardship policy, which defines our protocols for addressing collections-related inquiries and concerns, please visit https://doi.org/10.25573/data.21771155.
Provenance:
The Smithsonian Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections acquired portions of the Diana Davies Photograph Collection in the late 1960s and early 1970s, when Ms. Davies photographed for the Festival of American Folklife. More materials came to the Archives circa 1989 or 1990. Archivist Stephanie Smith visited her in 1998 and 2004, and brought back additional materials which Ms. Davies wanted to donate to the Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections. These two more recent donations of additional photographs (contact sheets, prints, and slides) consisted of documentation of the Newport Folk Festival, the Philadelphia Folk Festival, the Poor People's March on Washington, the Civil Rights Movement, the Georgia Sea Islands, and miscellaneous personalities of the American folk revival. In a letter dated 12 March 2002, Ms. Davies gave full discretion to the Center for Folklife and Cultural Heritage to grant permission for both internal and external use of her photographs, with the provison that her work be credited in any use.
Restrictions:
Access to the Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections is by appointment only. Visit our website for more information on scheduling a visit or making a digitization request. Researchers interested in accessing born-digital records or audiovisual recordings in this collection must use access copies.
Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from the Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections. Please visit our website to learn more about submitting a request. The Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections make no guarantees concerning copyright or other intellectual property restrictions. Other usage conditions may apply; please see the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for more information.
Topic:
Peace movements  Search this
March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom, Washington, D.C., 1963  Search this
Civil rights -- United States  Search this
Genre/Form:
Contact sheets
Slides (photographs)
Black-and-white negatives
Photographic prints
Citation:
Diana J. Davies photographs, Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections, Smithsonian Institution.

or

Photo by Diana J. Davies. Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and COllections, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
CFCH.DAVIE
See more items in:
Diana Davies photographs
Archival Repository:
Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/bk59fa9fef6-8287-4b3c-8f47-119c519dd318
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-cfch-davie
Online Media:

Gross McCleaf Gallery selected artists' files

Creator:
Gross McCleaf Gallery  Search this
Names:
Broderson, Morris, 1928-2011  Search this
Carles, Arthur B., 1882-1952  Search this
Day, Larry, 1921-  Search this
Emerson, Edith, 1888-1981  Search this
Gross, Estelle Shane, 1929-1992  Search this
Howard, Humbert, 1905-1990  Search this
Lueders, Jimmy C., 1927-1994  Search this
McCleaf, Marlin  Search this
Oakley, Violet, 1874-1961  Search this
Piper, Jane, 1916-1991  Search this
Pittman, Hobson Lafayette, 1899 or 1900-1972  Search this
Porter, Fairfield  Search this
Tyson, Carroll Sargent, 1878-1956  Search this
Weidner, Roswell, 1911-1999  Search this
Welliver, Neil  Search this
Extent:
0.8 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Date:
1947-1986
Summary:
The Gross McCleaf Gallery selected artists' files measure 0.8 linear feet and date from 1947 to 1986. The files consist of price lists, printed material, correspondence, exhibition catalogs and announcements, biographical summaries, newspaper clippings, and some photographs. Artists include Neil Welliver, Hobson Pittman, Edith Emerson, Humbert Howard, Jane Piper, and Fairfield Porter among others.
Scope and Contents:
The Gross McCleaf Gallery selected artists' files measure 0.8 linear feet and date from 1947 to 1986. The files consist of price lists, printed material, correspondence, exhibition catalogs and announcements, biographical summaries, and clippings. Some of the files include photos of the artist, works of art, and exhibition installations. Artists represented in the collection are Arthur B. Carles, Larry Day, Edith Emerson, Humbert Howard, Jimmy Lueders, Violet Oakley, Jane Piper, Hobson Pittman, Fairfield Porter, Carroll S. Tyson, Roswell Weidner, Neil Welliver, and Harold Weston.
Arrangement:
Due to the small size of this collection the papers are arranged as one series.
Biographical / Historical:
The Gross McCleaf Gallery was founded in 1969 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania by Marlin McCleaf and Estelle Shane Gross. The gallery was originally named the Marlin McCleaf Gallery. After McCleaf's departure from the gallery in the early 1970s, Gross became the sole owner and changed the gallery's name to Gross McCleaf Gallery. Early artists exhibited at the gallery include Fairfield Porter, Neil Welliver, Rackstraw Downes, Red Grooms and his wife Mimi Gross, Jane Piper, and Larry Day. After Estelle Gross' death in 1992, Sharon Ewing became the gallery owner and director. Ewing retired in 2020 and Rebecca Segall took over as the gallery's owner and director.
Provenance:
The collection was donated by Estelle and Jay Gross in 1988.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C., Research Center. Microfilmed materials must be consulted on microfilm. Contact Reference Services for more information.
Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Topic:
Women art dealers  Search this
Function:
Art galleries, Commercial -- Pennsylvania
Citation:
Gross McCleaf Gallery selected artists' files, 1947-1986. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.grosmccl
See more items in:
Gross McCleaf Gallery selected artists' files
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/mw9052b0be7-bd8e-4cc3-9fca-5f366e523a11
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-grosmccl
Online Media:

Paul Vanderbilt papers

Creator:
Vanderbilt, Paul  Search this
Names:
Graphic History Society of America  Search this
Library of Congress. Prints and Photographs Division  Search this
Philadelphia Museum of Art  Search this
State Historical Society of Wisconsin. Division of Archives and Manuscripts  Search this
Union Library Catalogue of the Philadelphia Metropolitan Area  Search this
United States. Farm Security Administration. Historical Section  Search this
Allen, Mary North  Search this
Blake, William  Search this
Conniff, Gregory, 1944-  Search this
Crane, Barbara, 1928-  Search this
Guthrie, Woody, 1912-1967  Search this
Haywood, Carl  Search this
Holzhueter, Jack  Search this
Lange, Dorothea  Search this
Lesy, Michael, 1945-  Search this
Newhall, Beaumont, 1908-1993  Search this
Pilling, Arnold R.  Search this
Plunkett, Jane  Search this
Shera, Jesse Hauk, 1903-1982  Search this
Stryker, Roy Emerson, 1893-1975  Search this
Talbot, George  Search this
Vanderbilt, Julia  Search this
Extent:
25.2 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Diaries
Interviews
Photographs
Sound recordings
Date:
1854-1992
bulk 1945-1992
Summary:
The papers of librarian, curator, and photographer Paul Vanderbilt (1905-1992) measure 25.2 linear feet and date from 1854 to 1992 with the bulk of the material dating from 1945 to 1992. The papers are comprised of biographical materials, personal and business correspondence, interviews, writings and notes, fourteen diaries and two diary fragments, reference and project files, photographic materials, sound recordings, and professional files.
Scope and Contents:
The papers of librarian, curator, and photographer Paul Vanderbilt (1905-1992) measure 25.2 linear feet and date from 1854 to 1992 with the bulk of the material dating from 1945 to 1992. The papers are comprised of biographical materials, personal and business correspondence, interviews, writings and notes, fourteen diaries and two diary fragments, reference and project files, photographic materials, sound recordings, and professional files.

Biographical materials include seven appointment books, family letters and documents, and an honorary degree from the University of Wisconsin.

Vanderbilt's correspondence is with colleagues, and organizations including Dorothea Lange, Beaumont Newhall, Roy Stryker, and Julia Vanderbilt.

Sound recordings of interviews of Vanderbilt conducted by Mary North Allen, Barbara Crane, Carl Haywood, Jack Holzhueter, and Jane Plunkett. Other recordings are of Vanderbilt discussing his personal and professional life.

Writings by Paul Vanderbilt include drafts of Between the Landscape and its Other, poems, lectures, student papers, and notes on a variety of subjects. Writings by others are found for William Blake, Gregory Conniff, Woody Guthrie, Michael Lesy, Arnold R. Pilling, Jesse H. Shera, and Roy Stryker.

Fourteen of Vanderbilt's personal diaries and two diary fragments date from 1926 to 1990.

Reference files consist of printed materials on art, art historians, book reviews, library and information studies, photography and microphotography techniques, and other themes of interest to Vanderbilt. Project files include material from Vanderbilt's various projects, including a guide to the iconography of Iran, the reclassification of FSA photographs, and the Union Library Catalog of Philadelphia.

Included in professional files are administrative records, correspondence, exhibition files, project files, printed material, and research files created during Vanderbilt's career at the Library of Congress, Graphic History Society, State Historical Society of Wisconsin, Philadelphia Museum of Art, and the Farm Security Administration. Also found are materials for Vanderbilt's work as a consultant for several organizations, lecture documents, and art-related workshops.

Photographs are by and of Paul Vanderbilt, the staff of the Library of Congress, and George Talbot. Negatives include images for the Farm Security Administration. Bibliography cards and photographs of artwork from the Library of Congress can be found on microfilm reels within the collection.

Also found are fourteen unidentified sound recordings.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged as 10 series.

Missing Title

Series 1: Biographical Materials, 1894-1992 (0.5 linear feet; Box 1)

Series 2: Correspondence, 1933-1992 (1.5 linear feet; Box 1-2)

Series 3: Interviews, 1967-1992 (1.5 linear feet; Box 2-4)

Series 4: Writings and Notes, 1887-1992 (4.0 linear feet; Box 4-8)

Series 5: Diaries, 1926-1990 (0.5 linear feet; Box 8)

Series 6: Reference Files, 1877-1992 (2.5 linear feet; Box 8-10, 26)

Series 7: Project Files, 1935-1990 (3.0 linear feet; Box 10-13)

Series 8: Professional Files, 1854-1991 (11.7 linear feet; Box 13-24)

Series 9: Photographic Materials, 1912-1980s (0.5 linear feet; Box 24)

Series 10: Sound Recordings, circa 1980s (0.5 linear feet; Box 24-25)
Biographical / Historical:
Paul Vanderbilt (1905-1992) was a librarian, curator, and photographer active in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, Washington, D.C. and Madison, Wisconsin.

Paul Vanderbilt was born in Cambridge, Massachusetts and educated in Germany, Switzerland, and Massachusetts. He attended Amherst College from 1923 to 1925 before transferring to Harvard where he graduated with a BA in art history in 1927. After graduation, Vanderbilt traveled to Europe where he studied at the American School of Librarianship in Paris and the Institut de Psychologie Bibliogique in Lausanne. In 1929, he returned to the United States and became a librarian at the Philadelphia Museum of Art and director of the Union Library Catalog project for the Philadelphia area.

In 1941 Vanderbilt began working under Roy Stryker cataloging the extensive photographic survey collection of the Farm Security Administration and U.S. Office of War Information. The collection is a rich resource of images of American life between 1935 and 1944. In 1943, the FSA photograph collection was transferred to the Library of Congress and Vanderbilt went with it as the curator of the newly formed Prints and Photographs Division, eventually becoming the Division chief of fine arts.

During the early 1950s, Vanderbilt also served as the director of the Graphic History Society of America. There he published a quarterly bulletin Eye to Eye and developed a guide to iconography in Iran. In 1954, he became the Curator of Iconographic Collections at the State Historical Society of Wisconsin and worked there until he retired in 1972.

Vanderbilt remained active after retirement. He became an artist-in-residence at the Apeiron Workshops, worked as a photographer for the Seagram courthouse project and the George Eastman House, and was a presenter at multiple conferences. Vanderbilt devoted much of his later life to working on his book titled Between the Landscape and its Other which was published posthumously after Vanderbilt's death in 1992.
Related Materials:
Also found at the Archives of American Art is an oral history interview with Paul Vanderbilt conducted by Richard Doud on November 10, 1964.
Provenance:
The collection was donated in 1981 by Paul Vanderbilt and in 1993 by his estate through John W. Winn, executor.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Washington, D.C. Research Center. Use of archival audiovisual recordings with no duplicate access copy requires advance notice.
Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Occupation:
Art historians -- United States  Search this
Topic:
Curators -- United States  Search this
Documentary photography -- United States  Search this
Photography  Search this
Photomicrography  Search this
Graphic arts -- Historiography  Search this
Graphic arts -- Iran  Search this
Librarians  Search this
Photographers  Search this
Genre/Form:
Diaries
Interviews
Photographs
Sound recordings
Citation:
Paul Vanderbilt papers, 1854-1992, bulk 1945-1992. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.vandpaul
See more items in:
Paul Vanderbilt papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/mw9f5292a20-c4ee-4b9e-95fe-8eb16871962c
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-vandpaul
Online Media:

Janet Kardon papers

Creator:
Kardon, Janet  Search this
Names:
Philadelphia College of Art  Search this
University of Pennsylvania. Institute of Contemporary Art  Search this
Grooms, Red  Search this
Mapplethorpe, Robert  Search this
Extent:
6.7 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Sound recordings
Video recordings
Date:
1905
circa 1950-1995
Summary:
The Janet Kardon papers measures 6.7 linear feet and date from 1905, and circa 1950-1995, with the bulk of the records dating from 1975-1991. Papers include exhibition files, professional records, legal records, photographs, printed material, and some audiovisual material. The collection primarily documents Kardon's work on various exhibitions during her time at the Philadelphia College of Art (PCA) and the Institute of Contemporary Art (ICA), University of Pennsylvania.
Scope and Contents:
The Janet Kardon papers measures 6.7 linear feet and date from 1905, and circa 1950-1995, with the bulk of the records dating from 1975-1991. Papers include exhibition files, professional records, legal records, photographs, printed material, and some audiovisual material.

The collection primarily documents Kardon's work on various exhibitions during her time at the Philadelphia College of Art (PCA) and the Institute of Contemporary Art (ICA), University of Pennsylvania. The files include photographs of artwork, correspondence, audiovisual material, some insurance information, photographs of exhibitions, printed material, and ephemera. Notable people represented include David Salle, Robert Mapplethorpe, Alice Aycock, and Red Grooms.

Professional records consist of papers related to Kardon's administrative duties while at ICA, PCA, and the American Craft Museum, as well as a few panels and review boards that Kardon served on. The records consist of correspondence, printed material, a resume, audiovisual material, and some artist files.

Printed Material consists of clippings and periodicals, artist books, exhibition catalogs and announcements, and event pamphlets.
Arrangement:
This collection is arranged as 3 series.

Series 1: Exhibition Files, circa 1950-circa 1995

Series 2: Professional Files, 1970-1993

Series 3: Printed Material, 1905, 1967-1991
Biographical / Historical:
Art museum director and curator Janet Kardon, curated multiple exhibitions at the Philadelphia College of Art and then served as director of the Institute of Contemporary Art at the University of Pennsylvania, before her appointment as director of the American Craft Museum in New York City.

Kardon received her B.S. in education from Temple University in 1955, and her M.A. in Art History from the University of Pennsylvania in 1966. In 1984 she received an honorary Doctor of Humanities from Moore College of Art.

Kardon was a lecturer at Gwynedd Mercy College (1967) and the Philadelphia College of Art (PCA), from 1968 to 1975, and was hired by the PCA in 1975 as director of exhibitions. While at PCA, Kardon curated fifteen exhibitions including Labryinth (1975) Time (1977), Projects for PCA (1976-1978), and Artists' Sets and Costumes (1977). In 1979 Kardon accepted a position at the Institute of Contemporary Art, University of Pennsylvania (ICA).

During her decade-long career at ICA, Kardon curated twenty-three exhibitions including Urban Encounters: Art Architecture Audience (1980), Machineworks: Vito Acconci, Alice Aycock, Dennis Oppenheim (1981), Red Grooms' Philadelphia Cornucopia and Other Sculptopictoramas (1982), Siah Armajani (1985), David Salle (1986), and Robert Mapplethorpe: The Perfect Moment (1988). Kardon's traveling Mapplethorpe exhibition made national headlines in 1990 when Ohio prosecutors charged ICA Director Dennis Barre with obscenity due to the graphic nature of Mapplethorpe's photographs. Kardon was brought into court as an expert on the topic of photographic art and curation. The charges were ultimately dropped.

In 1989 Kardon became the director of the American Craft Museum.
Provenance:
The collection was donated by Janet Kardon in 2005.
Restrictions:
This collection is open for research. Access to original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C. Research Center.

Researchers interested in accessing audiovisual recordings in this collection must use access copies. Contact References Services for more information.
Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Occupation:
Art museum curators -- Pennsylvania -- Philadelphia  Search this
Art museum directors -- Pennsylvania -- Philadelphia  Search this
Topic:
Women museum curators  Search this
Genre/Form:
Sound recordings
Video recordings
Citation:
Janet Kardon papers, 1905, circa 1950-1995. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.kardjane
See more items in:
Janet Kardon papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/mw9bfbd3c18-a052-4186-b9ed-86b5c6d33c97
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-kardjane
Online Media:

Art, Fashion, Performance: Seeing through Creative Collaboration

Creator:
Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum  Search this
Type:
Conversations and talks
YouTube Videos
Uploaded:
2021-03-12T08:35:20.000Z
YouTube Category:
Entertainment  Search this
Topic:
Design  Search this
See more by:
cooperhewitt
Data Source:
Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum
YouTube Channel:
cooperhewitt
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt_svo8UO422oc

Giovanni Martino and Martino family papers, 1913-2022

Creator:
Martino, Giovanni, 1908-1998  Search this
Subject:
Martino, Ernest  Search this
Martino, Eva Marinelli  Search this
Martino, Frank  Search this
Martino, Nina F.  Search this
Martino, William  Search this
Martino, Edmond  Search this
Martino, Babette  Search this
Martino, Antonio  Search this
Martino, Albert  Search this
Type:
Scrapbooks
Photographs
Citation:
Giovanni Martino and Martino family papers, 1913-2022. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Theme:
Women  Search this
Lives of artists  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)11169
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)255123
AAA_collcode_martgiov
Theme:
Women
Lives of artists
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_255123
Online Media:

Giovanni Martino and Martino family papers

Creator:
Martino, Giovanni, 1908-1998  Search this
Names:
Martino, Albert  Search this
Martino, Antonio  Search this
Martino, Babette  Search this
Martino, Edmond  Search this
Martino, Ernest  Search this
Martino, Eva Marinelli  Search this
Martino, Frank  Search this
Martino, Nina F.  Search this
Martino, William  Search this
Extent:
2.8 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Scrapbooks
Photographs
Date:
1913-2022
Summary:
The papers of Giovanni Martino and Martino family measure 2.8 linear feet and date from 1913 to 2022. Giovanni Martino's career as a painter, and to a lesser extent, his work with his brothers at Martino Studios, is documented though biographical material, correspondence, printed material, photographs, artwork, and one scrapbook. Also found are papers documenting the painting careers of his wife, Eva, and daughters, Nina and Babette.

There is a 0.3 linear foot unprocessed addition to this collection donated in 2022 that includes printed material, drawings, poetry and personal correspondence regarding Nina Martino. Materials date from circa 1963-2022.
Scope and Contents:
The papers of Giovanni Martino and Martino family measure 2.8 linear feet and date from 1913 to 2022. Giovanni Martino's career as a painter, and to a lesser extent, his work with his brothers at Martino Studios, is documented though biographical material, correspondence, printed material, photographs, artwork, and one scrapbook. Also found are papers documenting the painting careers of his wife, Eva, and daughters, Nina and Babette.

There is a 0.3 linear foot unprocessed addition to this collection donated in 2022 that includes printed material, drawings, poetry and personal correspondence regarding Nina Martino. Materials date from circa 1963-2022.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged as 5 series.

Missing Title

Series 1: Giovanni Martino Papers, 1913-2010 (Boxes 1-2, 4; 1.4 linear feet)

Series 2: Eva Martino Papers, circa 1930s-2013 (Box 2; 0.2 linear feet)

Series 3: Nina Martino Papers, 1942-2013 (Box 2; 0.5 linear feet)

Series 4: Babette Martino Papers, 1945-2013 (Boxes 2-3; 0.4 linear feet)

Series 5: Unprocessed Addition, 1963-2022 (Box 5, OV 6; 0.3 linear feet)
Biographical / Historical:
Giovanni Martino (1908-1998) was a painter in Blue Bell, Pennsylvania. Martino and his six brothers formed Martino Studios in Philadelphia, where Giovanni worked as a graphic artist. Martino's wife, Eva (1916-2012), and daughters Babette (1945-2011) and Nina F. (1942- ) are also artists. Martino studied at the Philadelphia Graphic Sketch Club, Le France Art Institute, Spring Garden Institute, and Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts. He specialized in urban landscape painting and regularly exhibited his work in solo and group exhibitions. In the 1960s, the family moved from Philadelphia to a house in Blue Bell, where each member could have their own painting studio.
Provenance:
The collection was donated in 2005 by Eva, Nina and Babette Martino, Giovanni Martino's wife and daughters and in 2014 and 2022 by Nina F. Martino.
Restrictions:
This collection is open for research. Access to original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C. Research Center.
Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Occupation:
Painters -- Pennsylvania  Search this
Genre/Form:
Scrapbooks
Photographs
Citation:
Giovanni Martino and Martino family papers, 1913-2022. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.martgiov
See more items in:
Giovanni Martino and Martino family papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/mw9b8120270-123e-48dc-bf35-d672f66e9a62
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-martgiov

Henry Ossawa Tanner papers, 1860s-1978, bulk 1890-1937

Creator:
Tanner, Henry Ossawa, 1859-1937  Search this
Subject:
Carpenter, J.S.  Search this
Taverty, J.J.  Search this
Curtis, Atherton  Search this
Tanner, Jessie O.  Search this
Tanner, Jesse O.  Search this
Académie Julian  Search this
Art Institute of Chicago  Search this
Grand Central Art Galleries  Search this
Old American Art Club (Paris, France)  Search this
Type:
Sketches
Photographs
Citation:
Henry Ossawa Tanner papers, 1860s-1978, bulk 1890-1937. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Topic:
Expatriate painters -- France -- Paris  Search this
Art -- Economic aspects  Search this
African American artists  Search this
Theme:
African American  Search this
Lives of artists  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)9229
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)211424
AAA_collcode_tannhenr
Theme:
African American
Lives of artists
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_211424
Online Media:

Henry Ossawa Tanner papers

Creator:
Tanner, Henry Ossawa, 1859-1937  Search this
Names:
Académie Julian  Search this
Art Institute of Chicago  Search this
Grand Central Art Galleries  Search this
Old American Art Club (Paris, France)  Search this
Carpenter, J.S.  Search this
Curtis, Atherton  Search this
Tanner, Jesse O., 1903-  Search this
Tanner, Jessie O., 1873-1925  Search this
Taverty, J.J.  Search this
Extent:
2.3 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Sketches
Photographs
Date:
1860s-1978
bulk 1890-1937
Summary:
The papers of the expatriate African American painter Henry Ossawa Tanner measure 2.3 linear feet and date from the 1860s to 1978, with the bulk of the material dating from 1890 to 1937. Found in the papers are scattered biographical, family, and legal materials; twenty-seven folders of correspondence with family, friends, patrons, and galleries; writings and notes by Tanner and others; a small amount of printed material; numerous photographs of Tanner, his studio in Paris and home in Trepied, Normandy, his family, friends, fellow artists, and his artwork. Additional photographs include a circa 1890 shot of Tanner with fellow students at the Académie Julian and another depicting Tanner with members of the American Art Club in Paris, circa 1900. Also found are a few sketches and drawings.
Scope and Content Note:
The papers of the expatriate African American painter Henry Ossawa Tanner measure 2.3 linear feet and date from the 1860s to 1978, with the bulk of the material dating from 1890 to 1937. Found in the papers are scattered biographical, family, and legal materials; twenty-seven folders of correspondence with family, friends, patrons, and galleries; writings and notes by Tanner and others; a small amount of printed material; numerous photographs of Tanner, his family, friends, his artwork, and the galleries at the Chicago Art Institute; and a few sketches and drawings.

Biographical material contains identification documents, awards, family and personal bibles, scattered records of his membership in the Societe Artistique de Picardie and the American Expeditionary Forces, address books, family history, a file concerning a lawsuit against the Bethel A.M.E. Church, and a few records documenting the sale of his artwork. Tanner's personal and professional correspondence is with his wife Jessie, his family, friends, patrons, art galleries, and others. Letters are from various family members, his closest friend Atherton Curtis and his wife Ingeborg, friend J.S. Carpenter who was president of the Des Moines Association of Fine Arts and arranged for sales of Tanner's work in the mid-west, Grand Central Art Galleries in New York, and J.J. Taverty who purchased Tanner's work for the High Museum in Atlanta. Topics of note covered in the correspondence include the sale and exhibition of his artwork and his work for the Red Cross.

Writings and Notes by Tanner include two small notebooks, one of which he kept during his travels in Europe and Palestine in 1897. Also found are his scattered loose writings, jottings, and other notes on various subjects, including autobiographical notes. Writings by others include notes and an essay by his wife Jessie, and a manuscript, "The Life and Works of Henry O. Tanner," by his son Jesse. Printed Materials document Tanner's career and other interests through exhibition announcements, news clippings, printed reproductions of artwork, a published autobiographical essay, and other miscellaneous items. The collection includes numerous photographs of Tanner, family and friends, his studio in Paris, his home in Trepied and in Spain, travels, and artwork. Additional photographs include a circa 1890 shot of Tanner with students at the Académie Julian and another depicting Tanner with members of the American Art Club in Paris, circa 1900. Artwork consists of an ink drawing of a Paris studio and pencil sketches by Tanner.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into 6 series:

Missing Title

Series 1: Biographical Material, circa 1890-1937 (Box 1, 4, OV 5; 0.8 linear feet)

Series 2: Correspondence, circa 1890-1978 (Box 1, OV 5; 0.6 linear feet)

Series 3: Writings and Notes, 1897-circa 1950s (Box 1-2, OV 5; 9 folders)

Series 4: Printed Material, 1897-1975 (Box 2, OV 5; 9 folders)

Series 5: Photographs, 1860s-1943 (Box 3, OV 5; 0.4 linear feet)

Series 6: Artwork, 1891-1893 (Box 3; 2 folders)
Biographical Note:
African American painter Henry Ossawa Tanner (1859-1937) was born in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania to Benjamin Tucker Tanner, a college-educated teacher and minister, and Sarah Miller Tanner, who was formerly enslaved. Benjamin Tanner was very active in the African Methodist Episcopal (A. M. E.) Church, eventually becoming a bishop, and the family often moved while Henry was a small child. They settled in Philadelphia, and as a teenager, Tanner spent his free time painting, drawing, and visiting art galleries. In 1880 he enrolled in the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, where he studied under several master art instructors, including Thomas Eakins who greatly influenced his early work.

Tanner moved to Atlanta, Georgia in 1888 and opened a photography gallery which was not very successful. After teaching briefly at Clark College, a sponsorship from his patrons Bishop and Mrs. Joseph Crane Hartzell allowed him to travel to Europe in 1891 and study at the Académie Julian in Paris. There he was taught by Jean Joseph Benjamin-Constant and Jean-Paul Laurens. After returning to Philadelphia in late 1892, he painted many works depicting African American subjects, including The Banjo Lesson (1893). He returned to Paris in 1894. There, his work began to receive favorable reviews, particularly at the Paris Solon for his biblical scenes. Tanner began to specialize in painting bible imagery and scenes, and traveled to Palestine in 1897 and 1898 and later to Morocco to study costumes, customs, and cityscapes.

In 1899 Tanner married Jessie Macauley Olssen, a young woman from San Francisco living in Paris. Also around this time reproductions of his artwork were published in a few popular American magazines, and Tanner began to receive praise for his artwork in the United States. Tanner, however, objected to being labeled as "Negro artist". Despite their misgivings, the couple moved back to the United States for a short time. Their son, Jesee Ossawa Tanner was born in 1903. One year later Tanner and his wife returned to Paris and made it their lifelong permanent home, only occasionally visiting the United States for exhibitions of his work. They also maintained a leisure farm in Trepied, Normandy.

Tanner continued to exhibit his work in Paris, develop his painting technique and imagery, and travel, becoming friends with many artists throughout Europe. In 1913 he became president of the Societe Artistique de Picardie and during World War I he worked for the American Red Cross in France. In 1923 he was made a chevalier of the Legion of Honor in France for his work as an artist. Tanner became affiliated with Grand Central Art Galleries and other dealers in the United States and had great success there during the 1920s. When Jessie Tanner died in 1925 Henry was grief stricken and remained in poor health for the remainder of his life. He continued to paint occasionally until his death in 1937.
Related Material:
Also found at the Archives of American Art are the Marcia M. Mathews papers relating to Henry Ossawa Tanner, 1937-1969, available on microfilm reels 64 and 3268. Archives of American Art microfilm reel 4399 contains the Alexander family papers relating to Henry Ossawa Tanner, 1912-1985, the originals of which are housed in the University of Pennsylvania Archives. Microfilm reel 4397 is a copy of the the Henry O. Tanner letters to the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, 1885-1909, loaned for microfilming by the Academy.
Provenance:
The Henry Ossawa Tanner papers were donated in several increments by his son, Jesse O. Tanner, between 1967 to 1978. Additional papers were donated by Jesse O. Tanner through Marcia M. Mathews, who was in possession of Tanner's papers to write Tanner's biography. Four medals were transferred to the Archives from the National Museum of African Art.
Restrictions:
The collection has been digitized and is available online via AAA's website.
Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Occupation:
Painters -- France -- Paris  Search this
Painters -- United States  Search this
Topic:
Expatriate painters -- France -- Paris  Search this
Art -- Economic aspects  Search this
African American artists  Search this
Genre/Form:
Sketches
Photographs
Citation:
Henry Ossawa Tanner papers, 1860s-1978 (bulk 1890-1937). Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.tannhenr
See more items in:
Henry Ossawa Tanner papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/mw90487df28-3e30-42e5-8090-c3ac629c1b36
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-tannhenr
Online Media:

Arthur B. Carles papers

Creator:
Carles, Arthur B., 1882-1952  Search this
Names:
Baker, Sarah, 1899-  Search this
Carles, Caroline Robinson  Search this
Ingersoll, R. Sturgis (Robert Sturgis), b. 1891  Search this
Marin, John, 1870-1953  Search this
McCarter, Henry, 1866-1942  Search this
Ottenberg, Perry, 1924-  Search this
Seyffert, Leopold  Search this
Speiser, Maurice J. (Maurice Joseph), 1880-  Search this
Tyson, Carol  Search this
Tyson, Henry  Search this
Watkins, Franklin Chenault, 1894-1972  Search this
Extent:
0.92 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Diaries
Photographs
Date:
1912-1983
Summary:
The papers of Philadelphia painter Arthur B. Carles measure 0.92 linear feet and date from 1912 to 1983. Found are biographical materials, correspondence, writings and notes, personal business records, printed materials, and photographs.
Scope and Contents:
The papers of Philadelphia painter Arthur B. Carles measure 0.92 linear feet and date from 1912 to 1983. Found are biographical materials, correspondence, writings and notes, personal business records, printed materials, and photographs.

Correspondence is found for Carles and his wife Caroline Robinson Carles and includes letters from Sarah Baker, R. Sturgis Ingersoll, Henry McCarter, John Marin, Leopold Seyffert, Maurice Speiser, Carroll and Henry Tyson, and Franklin Watkins, among others. One diary contains brief entries. Additional writings are by Carles and Perry Ottenberg. Photographs are of Carles, his studio, family and friends, exhibitions, and works of art.
Arrangement:
This collection is arranged as 1 series. Glass plate negatives are housed separately and closed to researchers.

Missing Title

Series 1: Arthur B. Carles papers, 1912-1983 (0.6 linear feet; Box 1-2, MGP 3)
Biographical / Historical:
Arthur B. Carles (1882-1952) was a painter and art instructor active in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Born in 1882 in Philadelphia, Arthur B. Carles studied at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts from 1900-1907. There he studied with Thomas Pollock Anshutz, Hugh Breckenridge, Henry McCarter, Cecilia Beaux, and William Merritt Chase. Carles traveled to France in 1907 and stayed until 1910, becoming close friends with John Marin and Eduard Steichen. He displayed his work in the Salon d'Automne of 1908.

Upon Carles' return to Philadelphia, he accepted a position at the Pennsylvania Academy as an instructor of French and American modernism. In 1910 his work was included in the "Younger American Painters" show held at Alfred Stieglitz's New York gallery, 291. Also, Stieglitz gave Carles his first one-man show in 1912. Carles exhibited at the Armory Show of 1913.

Arthur Carles had one daughter, painter Mercedes Matter. He married Carolina Robinson as his second wife in 1972. Later in life, he suffered from alcoholism and had a stroke in 1941 that left him unable to paint. Carles died in 1952.
Separated Materials:
The Archives of American Art also holds microfilm of material lent for microfilming (reels 1052 and 4270-4273) including correspondence, writings and notes, business material, artwork, photographs, and business records. Loaned materials were returned to the lenders and are not described in the collection container inventory.
Provenance:
A portion of the Arthur B. Carles collection was loaned for microfilming by Steven Casamassima in 1976. Sara F. Swanson and Perry Ottenberg, Philadelphia collectors, donated papers in 1985 and Ottenberg lent additional material for microfilming in 1989.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment. Glass plate negatives are housed separately and not served to researchers.
Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Topic:
Art, Modern -- 20th century -- Pennsylvania -- Philadelphia  Search this
Artists' studios -- Photographs  Search this
Painting, Abstract -- Pennsylvania -- Philadelphia  Search this
Painters -- Pennsylvania -- Philadelphia  Search this
Genre/Form:
Diaries
Photographs
Citation:
Arthur B. Carles papers, 1912-1983. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.carlarth
See more items in:
Arthur B. Carles papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/mw98a6644d9-9b9e-4276-a248-ec5a94df3c68
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-carlarth
Online Media:

N W Ayer Advertising Agency Records

Creator:
Ayer (N W) Incorporated.  Search this
Names:
American Telephone and Telegraph Company -- Advertisements  Search this
Cunningham & Walsh.  Search this
Hixson & Jorgenson  Search this
United Air Lines, Inc. -- Advertisements  Search this
Ayer, Francis Wayland  Search this
De Kooning, Willem, 1904-1997  Search this
O'Keeffe, Georgia, 1887-1986  Search this
Extent:
270 Cubic feet (1463 boxes, 33 map-folders, 7 films)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Business records
Interviews
Oral history
Print advertising
Proof sheets
Proofs (printed matter)
Scrapbooks
Trade literature
Tear sheets
Advertisements
Date:
1817-1851
1869-2006
Summary:
Collection consists of records documenting one of the oldest advertising agencies created in Philadelphia. The company then moves to New York and expanses to international markets. During its history NW Ayer & Sons acquires a number of other advertising agencies and is eventually purchased. The largest portion of the collection is print advertisements but also includes radio and television. NW Ayer is known for some of the slogans created for major American companies.
Scope and Contents:
The collection consists primarily of proof sheets of advertisements created by NW Ayer & Son, Incorporated for their clients. These materials are in series one through thirteen and consist primarily of print advertisements. There are also billboards, radio and television commercials. The advertisements range from consumer to corporate and industrial products. The majority of the advertisements were created for Ayer's New York, Chicago, Los Angeles and international offices. Printed advertisements created by Cunningham & Walsh, Hixson & Jorgensen and Newell-Emmett are also included among these materials. Researchers who are interested in records created by Ayer in the course of operating an advertising agency will find these materials in Series fourteen-nineteen.

Series fourteen consists of advertisements created by NW Ayer & Son to promote their services to potential clients.

Series fifteen are scrapbooks of some of the earliest advertisements created by the company. Series sixteen are publications. Some of the publications were created by Ayer while others were about Ayer or the advertising industry in general. Provides good background materials and puts the company in perspective. Series eighteen are the legal records. Materials relating to employees including photographs, oral histories etc. are found in series nineteen.

Series twenty is one of the smallest amounts of materials and includes information relating to the history of NW Ayer & Son.

The container lists for series one-thirteen are part of a database and are searchable. The list has been printed for the convenience of the researcher and is included in this finding aid. Series fourteen-twenty container lists are also a part of the finding aid but are not in a searchable format.

Series 1, Scrapbooks of Client Advertisements, circa 1870-1920, is arranged into three boxes by chronological date. There are two bound scrapbooks and one box of folders containing loose scrapbook pages. NW Ayer & Son compiled an assortment of their earliest ads and placed them into scrapbooks. Besides the earliest advertisements, the scrapbooks contain requests to run advertisements, reading notices and listings of papers Ayer advertised in. The early advertisements themselves range from medical remedies to jewelry to machines to clothing to education and more. Most of the advertisements in the bound scrapbooks are dated.

Series 2, Proofsheets, circa 1870-1930, NW Ayer was fond of creating scrapbooks containing proofsheets. The series contains proofsheets created between 1892 and 1930, organized into 526 boxes. For convenience of storage, access and arrangement, the scrapbooks were disassembled and the pages placed in original order in flat archival storage boxes. The proofsheets are arranged by book number rather than client name. Usually the boxes contain a listing of the clients and sometimes the dates of the advertisements to be found within the box.

Series 3, Proofsheets, circa 1920-1975, is organized into 532 oversize boxes, and contain proofsheets and tearsheets created between 1920 and 1972. Within this series, materials are arranged alphabetically by company name (occasionally subdivided by brand or product), and thereunder chronologically by date of production. Many major, national advertisers are represented, including American Telephone & Telegraph, Armour Company, Canada Dry, Cannon Mills, Carrier Corporation, Domino Sugar, Caterpillar tractor company, Ford Motor Company, General Electric, Goodyear, Hills Bros. Coffee, Ladies Home Journal, National Dairy, Plymouth (Chrysler Corporation), Steinway, TV Guide, United Airlines and the United States Army. Also contained in this series are three scrapbooks of client advertisements including Canada Dry, Ford Motor, and Victor Talking Machine.

Series 4, 2001 Addendum, circa 1976-2001, is organized into ninety three oversized boxes,one folder and contains proofsheets for select Ayer clients, created between 1975 and 2001. Within this series, materials are arranged alphabetically by client name and there under chronologically by date of production. Major national advertisers represented include American Telephone & Telegraph, Avon, the United States Army, DeBeers Consolidated Diamond Mines, Dupont, TV Guide, Sealtest, Kraft Foods, Gillette, General Motors, Cannon Mills.

Series 5, Billboards, circa 1952-1956, consists of mounted and un-mounted original art/mock-ups. Twenty-two pieces of original art created as mock-ups for Texaco billboards.

Series 6, Film and Video Commercials, 1967-1970,

Series 7, Radio and Television Materials, 1933-1993, undated, is arranged into eight boxes and includes radio scripts, television scripts, and story boards for commercials.

Subseries 7.1, Scripts and storyboards for Radio and Television Commercials, dates Scripts for radio and television commercials includes title, date, length of commercial, advertising agency, client information

NW Ayer's radio and television materials mainly focus on the American Telegraph and Telephone account. Some of Ayer's materials relate to Bell Telephone Hours.

Storyboards are used in television and film to assist the director in working with crew to tell the story. To show the viewer through the use of figures, visual effects and camera angles. When directors first start thinking about their storyboard they create a story in their mind. They think of all the camera angles, visual effects and how the figures will interact in their mind. They try to create an extraordinary story in their head to attract the viewer (YOU) In order for the storyboard to be entirely effective it can't be a passive document. When done properly, a storyboard serves as a central design, meeting the needs of many team members including graphics artists, video personnel and programmers.

Another function of a storyboard is to help the team communicate during the training development process. This communication is very important in working with a large team as in the movie King, produced in 1996. Figures help the director explain to the crew how they are going to record the film and how to present it to the audience. Sometimes the director wants special effects to be added to the film, but his budget might not be that big so the director will have to change the story to fit their budget.

The Visual Effects are an important part in the storyboards it adds a special touch of creativity to your film. Camera angles are an important expects in your film because the camera angles determine where the viewing audience will look. If you want your audience to look at a certain object you must turn their attention to it by focusing on that object and maybe you might try blocking something out. Then you will have your audience's attention and you may do whatever else you have to, it could be scaring them are just surprising them or whatever you do.

Also included is talent information and log sheets relating to the storage of the commercials.

Bell Telephone Hour Program, 1942-[19??], The Bell Telephone Hour, also known as The Telephone Hour, was a five minute musical program which began April 29, 1940 on National Broadcasting Company Radio and was heard on NBC until June 30, 1958. Sponsored by Bell Telephone showcased the best in classical and Broadway music, reaching eight to nine million listeners each week. It continued on television from 1959 to 1968.

Earlier shows featured James Melton and Francia White as soloists. Producer Wallace Magill restructured the format on April 27, 1942 into the "Great Artists Series" of concert and opera performers, beginning with Jascha Heifetz. Records indicate that the list of talents on the program included Marian Anderson, Helen Traubel, Oscar Levant, Lily Pons, Nelson Eddy, Bing Crosby, Margaret Daum, Benny Goodman, José Iturbi, Gladys Swarthout and .The series returned to radio in 1968-1969 as Bell Telephone Hour Encores, also known as Encores from the Bell Telephone Hour, featuring highlights and interviews from the original series.

National Broadcasting television specials sponsored by the Bell System, 1957-1987includes information relating to Science series, Bell system Theshold Series, Bell telephone hour and commercial and public sponsored programs

Series 8, Chicago Office Print Advertisements, 1954-1989, is arranged alphabetically by the name of the client in ninety boxes and six oversize folders. Clients include Illinois Bell Telephone (1955-1989), Microswitch (1969-1989), Teletype (1975-1984), John Deere (1974-1989) and Caterpillar (1966-1972) are particularly well represented. Other clients of interest include Dr. Scholl's shoes (circa 1968-1972), the Girl Scouts (1976-1980), Sunbeam Personal Products Company (1973-1981), Bell and Howell (1974-1983) and Alberto Culver shampoos (1967-1971), Honeywell, Incorporated, Blue Cross and Blue Shield Associations, Kraft, Incorporated, Sears, Roebuck and Company, and YMCA.

Series 9, Los Angeles Office Materials, 1950s-1987, include printed advertisements created by this office and information relating to the employees.

Subseries 9.1, Print Advertisements, 1977-1987, printed advertisements arranged in one box alphabetically by client. There is a sparse sampling of clients from this particular Ayer branch office. The majority of the advertisements contained within this series are from Pizza Hut (1986-1987). Also included are Computer Automation (1977-1978), State of the Art, Incorporated (1982) and Toshiba (1986).

Subseries 9.2, Personnel Files, 1950s-1970s, includes cards of employees who worked in the Los Angeles office. Information on the cards includes name, address, telephone number, birthday, date hired, departure date and why (retired, terminated, resigned, etc) and position. Not all cards have all information. There is also a photograph of the employees on the cards.

Series 10, Foreign Print Advertisements, 1977-1991, undated, NW Ayer maintained partnerships with international companies such as Sloanas Ayer in Argentina, Connaghan & May Paton Ayer in Australia, Moussault Ayer in Belgium, NW Ayer, LTD. in Canada, GMC Ayer in France, Co-Partner Ayer in Germany, Wong Lam Wang in Hong Kong, MacHarman Ayer in New Zealand, Grupo de Diseno Ayer in Spain, Nedeby Ayer in Sweden, and Ayer Barker in United Kingdom. This group of material is a small sampling of advertisements created from these International offices. It is arranged alphabetically by client. There are quite a few automobile advertisements (i.e. Audi, Fiat, General Motors, Mercedes-Benz, and Volkswagen). In addition there are numerous advertisements for various personal items from MacLean's toothpaste to Quick athletic shoes to Labello lip balm, etc. Most of the advertisements have the creator's name printed on the advertisements.

Series 11, Cunningham & Walsh, Incorporated Materials, 1915-1987, undated contains 98 boxes 11 folders materials from the New York advertising agency acquired by NW Ayer in the 1960s. The company began with Newel-Emmett, an agency of nine men which broke up in 1949. Two of the men Fred Walsh and Jack Cunningham formed this agency in bearing their names in 1950. The agency created "let your fingers for the walking campaign for American Telephone & Telegraph, Mother Nature for Chiffon, and Mrs. Olson for Folgers's coffee and let the good times roll for Kawasaki motorcycle. In 1986, NW Ayer Incorporated purchased Cunningham & Walsh Incorporated.

Subseries 11.1, Print Advertisements, 1915-1987, are contained in ninety eight boxes of primarily print advertisements arranged alphabetically by client name. Clients that are particularly well represented are Graybar (electrical implements, circa1926-1937), Johns-Manulle (circa1915-1971), Smith and Corono typewriters (circa 1934-1960), Sunshine Biscuit Company (circa 1925-1961), Texaco Company (circa 1936-1961), Western Electric (circa 1920- 1971) and Yellow Pages (circa 1936-1971). Cunningham and Walsh also represented several travel and tourism industry clients, including Cook Travel Services (circa 1951-1962), Italian Line (circa 1953-1961), Narragansett and Croft (circa 1956-1960) and Northwest Airlines (circa 1946-1955). There are photographs of Texaco advertisements dating from 1913-1962. There is also a scrapbook of advertisements from the Western Electric Company dating from 1920-1922.

Subseries 11.2, Radio and Television Advertisements, 1963-1967, consist of materials created for Western Electric. Materials are arranged in chronological order.

Subseries 11.3, Company Related Materials, 1962-1986, undated include client lists, information relating to NW Ayer purchase and annual report 1962.

Series 12, Hixson & Jorgensen Materials, 1953-1971, a Los Angeles advertising company, merged with Ayer in 1969. This series is housed in one box. Within the box are four scrapbooks and folders with a hodgepodge of materials relating to advertising. Of most interest are the scrapbooks. Two scrapbooks deal with Hixson and Jorgensen's self promotion ad campaign "the right appeal gets action" (1953-1957). The other two scrapbooks contain news clippings about the company and its activities (1959-1971).

Series 13, Newell-Emmet, 1942-1957, founded in 1919 and governed in the 1940s by a partnership of nine men. The partnership broke up in 1949 when the men went their separate ways. The materials consist of print advertisements for one of client, Permutit Company, a water conditioning company. The materials are arranged in one box in chronological order.

Series 14, House Print Advertisements, 1870-1991, 16 boxes consists of advertisements or self-promotion advertisements to campaign for new clients. The series is arranged chronologically by date into fifteen boxes. Within the series are two scrapbooks containing self promotion ads from 1888-1919 and 1892-1895. Numerous house ads relate to Ayer's "Human Contact" campaign. In addition to the self promotion ads, Ayer ran advertisements expounding about particular concepts or themes for example, one month the concept would "understand" while another month would be "teamwork" and yet another would be on "imagination". Some of the self promotion ads target specific groups like Philadelphia businessmen. Other advertisements incorporate the fine arts.

Series 15, Scrapbooks, 1872-1959, relates to company events, records and news clippings about Ayer's history. The six boxes are arranged by chronological date. Two of the boxes focus solely on the death of founder F.W. Ayer (1923). Another box houses a scrapbook that showcases Ayer's annual Typography Exhibition (1931-1959). One box contains a scrapbook that specifically deals with correspondences relating to Ayer's advertising. Yet another box's contents are folders of loose pages from scrapbooks that have newspaper clippings, order forms, correspondences and other company records. In one box, a bound scrapbook houses a variety of materials relating to Ayer and advertising (i.e. newspaper clippings, competitor's advertisements, NW Ayer's advertisements, correspondences for advertisements, clippings regarding the "theory of advertising."

Series 16, Publications, 1849-2006, are housed in thirty four boxes and are arranged into three main categories.

Subseries 16.1, House Publications, 1876-1994, covers diverse topics; some proscriptive works about the Ayer method in advertising, some commemorating people, anniversaries or events in the life of the agency. Materials consist of scattered issues of the employee newsletter The Next Step 1920-1921. The materials are arranged in chronological order by date of publication. Ayer in the News, The Show Windows of an Advertising Agency, 1915, book form of advertisements published on the cover of Printer's Ink, highlighting Ayer's relations with advertisers. The Story of the States, 1916, Reprint in book form of a series of articles published in Printer's Ink for the purpose of adding some pertinent fact, progressive thought and prophetic vision to the Nationalism of Advertising highlights major businesses, manufacturer, natural resources and other qualities or attractions of each state. The Book of the Golden Celebration, 1919, includes welcome address and closing remarks by founder F. Wayland Ayer, The Next Step, 1920 employee newsletter with photographs, employee profiles, in-house jokes, etc., Advertising Advertising: A Series of Fifty-two Advertisements scheduled one time a week. Twenty-seven, thirty and forty inches, a day of the week optional with publisher, 1924

Subseries 16.2, Publications about NW Ayer, 1949-2006, includes a book first published in 1939. Includes articles, documenting events and is arranged chronologically by date of publication.

Subseries 16.3, General Publications about Advertising, 1922-1974, are arranged chronologically by date of publication and relate primarily to the history of advertising.

Subseries 16.4, Publications about Other Subjects, 1948-1964, include four books about the tobacco industry primarily the history of the American Tobacco Company and Lorillard Company from the Cunningham and Walsh library.

Series 17, Business Records, circa 1885-1990s

Subseries 17.1, Contracts, 1885-1908, undated, are arranged alphabetically and span from 1885-1908. The majority of the contracts are with newspaper and magazine publishers from around the country.

Subseries 17.2, General client information, 1911-1999, undated, including active and cancelled lists with dates, client gains, historical client list, (should move this to series 20) Ayer Plan User Guide Strategic Planning for Human Contact, undated

Subseries 17.3, Individual Client Account Information, 1950s-1990s, undated, contain information used by Ayer to create advertisements for some of its clients. American Telephone &Telegraph Corporate Case History, American Telephone &Telegraph Corporate advertisement memo, commissioned artists for DeBeers advertisements, DeBeers information relating to the creative process and photography credits, a case history for DeBeers Consolidated Mines, Ltd., The Diamond Engagement Ring, Managing Communication at all levels, DuPont publications, JC Penny Marketing Communication Plan Recommendation, Leaf, Incorporated, Saturn presentation, and USAREC oral presentation.

Subseries 17.4, Potential Clients, 1993, includes grouping has a questionnaire sent to Ayer by a potential client. Questionnaire response for Prudential Securities, 1993 Prudential Securities advertising account review, 1993.

Subseries 17.5, Financial Records, 1929-1938, includes balance sheet, 1929 May 1 Balance sheet and adjustments Consolidated statement of assets and liabilities, Expenses 191936-37 Business review and expenses, 1937 and 1938 Business review and expenses comparative statement, 1937 and 1938.

Series 18, Legal Records, circa 1911-1982, Ayer's legal records are arranged by twelve subject groupings within four boxes. The twelve groupings are advertising service agreements (circa 1918-1982), bylaws, copyright claims, correspondences, international correspondences, dissolution of trusts, stock information, agreements between partners, incorporation materials, reduction of capital, property information and miscellaneous materials. The bulk of the materials are the advertising service agreements. These agreements are between Ayer and their clients and state the services Ayer will offer and at what cost. The bylaws are Ayer's company bylaws from 1969 and 1972. The copyright claims are certificates stating Ayer's ownership over certain published materials (i.e. "Policy", Media Equalizer Model, and Don Newman's Washington Square Experiment). The correspondences relate to either the voting trust and receipts for agreement or the New York Corporation. The international correspondences are from either Ayer's Canadian office or London office. The dissolutions of trusts contains materials about the dividend trust of Wilfred F. Fry, the investment trust of Winfred W. Fry, the voting trust, and the New York corporation. The stock information has stock certificates and capital stock information. The agreements between partners (1911-1916) specify the terms between F.W. Ayer and his partners. The incorporation materials (circa 1929-1977) deal with Ayer advertising agency becoming incorporated in the state of Delaware. The reduction of capital grouping is a notification that shares of stock have been retired. The property information grouping contains property deeds and insurance policy (circa 1921-1939), a property appraisal (1934), and a bill of sale (1948). The miscellaneous grouping contains a house memo regarding a set of board meeting minutes and a registry of foreign companies in Commonwealth of Pennsylvania (1929-1954).

Subseries 18.1, Advertising Service Agreements, 1918-1982

Subseries 18.2, Bylaw Materials, 1969-1972

Subseries 18.3, Copyright Claims, 1962-1969

Subseries 18.4, Correspondence, 1928-1933

Subseries 18.5, International Office Correspondence, 1947-1948

Subseries 18.6, Dissolution of Trusts, 1934-1937

Subseries 18.7, Stock Information, 1934-1974

Subseries 18.8, Agreements between Partners, 1911-1916

Subseries 18.9, Incorporation Materials, 1929-1977

Subseries 18.10, Certificates of Reduction of Capital, 1937; 1975

Subseries 18.11, Property Information, 1921-1948

Subseries 18.12, Miscellaneous Materials, 1929-1977

Series 19, Personnel Records, circa 1889-2001, are arranged into eight groupings within eight boxes. The groupings are employee card files, photographs, Ayer alumni, biographies, speeches, recollections, oral histories, and miscellaneous. Typed manuscript of book A Copy Writer Speaks by George Cecil, NW Ayer, Incorporated copy head 1920s-1950s

Subseries 19.1, Employee card files, circa 1892-1915; 1929-1963, consists of index cards with the name, age, job title, date and wage increases, date of hire/fire, as well as remarks about the employee's service and/or reasons for seeking or leaving the job. Materials are arranged alphabetically by the last name of the employee within three boxes.

Subseries 19.2, Photographs, circa 1924-1984, undated, are housed in two boxes. The photographs grouped together by subjects i.e. personnel, company events, Ayer buildings, and miscellaneous. This grouping primarily consists of personnel photographs. Includes a glass plate negative dated 1924 of NW Ayer.

Subseries 19.3, Ayer Alumni, circa 1989-98, include employees who have left Ayer. There is a listing of Ayer "graduates" and their current job. Emeritus, Ayer's alumni newsletter 1989-1996, makes up the majority of materials in this grouping. The newsletter keeps the alumni up to date with the happenings of Ayer and what has become of former Ayer employees. Emeritus is a quarterly newsletter devoted to the activities, thoughts and feelings of Ayer alumni a body of people who consists of retirees and former employees.

Subseries 19.4, Biographical Information, circa 1889-1994, undated, prominent members of Ayer's operations had biographical sketches completed of them. This was true for the bio sketches of Robert Ervin, Louis T. Hagopian, and George A. Rink. There is a substantial file on Dorothy Dignam ("Mis Dig"), a leading woman in the advertising world from the 1930s to the 1950s. Also of interest is a video ("The Siano Man") compiled by Ayer employees to commemorate Jerry Siano's retirement from Ayer in 1994. The series is arranged alphabetically by last name.

Subseries 19.5, Speeches, circa 1919-1931; 1975, contains speeches made by Wilfred W. Fry and Neal W. O'Connor. Wilfred W. Fry had various speaking engagements connected with Ayer. Contained in this group is a sampling of his speeches from 1919 to 1931. Neal O'Connor's speech "Advertising: Who Says It's a Young People's Business" was given at the Central Region Convention for the American Association of Advertising Agencies in Chicago on November 6, 1975. The speeches are arranged alphabetically by the speaker's last name.

Subseries 19.6, Recollections, 1954-1984, undated, are arranged alphabetically by last name. These are recollections from Ayer employees about the company and its advertisements. Some recollections are specifically about certain types of advertisements, like farm equipment while others reflect on F. W. Ayer and the company.

Subseries 19.7, Oral History Interview Transcripts, 1983-1985; 1989-1991, include interviews with key NW Ayer personnel, conducted by Ayer alumnae Howard Davis, Brad Lynch and Don Sholl (Vice President creative) for the Oral History Program. The materials are arranged alphabetically by the last name of the interviewee.

Subseries 19.8, Oral History Interview Audio Tapes, 1985-1990, include interviews on audiotape the materials are arranged alphabetically by the last name of the interviewee.

Subseries 19.9, Internal Communications, 1993-1999, includes information sent to employees relating to retirements, management changes, awards won by the company, promotions, potential new accounts, free items, grand opening of Ayer Café, donation events, sponsorship programs, holiday schedules, discounts for employees from clients, Ayer joins MacManus Group.

Subseries 19.10, General Materials, 1940; 1970, includes agency directory entry including a list of the employees, 1970s, annual banquet program for the Curfew Club May 22, 1940 a group formed by the Philadelphia employee in 1938. It sponsored numerous sports, social and educational activities. Groups were formed in public speaking, music appreciation and a series of talks on Monday evenings title the modern woman. The front page was a series of talks for general interest. A list of officers, 1991, Twenty five year club membership, 1973 December 1, List of NW Ayer graduates, 1970, List of Officers, 1991 May 31, Obituary for Leo Lionni, 1999 October 17, List of photographers of advertisements, 2001

Series 20, Background and History Information, 1817-1999, undated includes a chronology, 1817-1990, quick reference timeline, 1848-1923, loose pages from a scrapbook containing examples of correspondence, envelopes, advertisements dating from 1875-1878; slogans coined by NW Ayer & Sons, Incorporated, 1899-1990, history of management, 1909-1923, articles and photographs about the building and art galleries, 1926-1976, publications about the Philadelphia building, 1929, pamphlet relating to memories of NW Ayer & Sons, Incorporated, 1930s-1950s, television history, 1940-1948, Article about the history of the company, 1950 January, pocket guide, 1982, AdWeek reports about standings for advertising agencies, information relating to Human Contact which is NW Ayer's Information relating to Human Contact, undated which is their philosophy on advertising.

Series 21, Materials Created by other Advertising Agencies, 1945-1978, undated, consists of print advertisements collected by Ayer from other major advertising companies. The companies include Doyle Dane Bernback, Incorporated, Leo Burnett Company, Grey Advertising Agency, D'Arcy Ad Agency, Scali, McCabe, Sloves, Incorporated and Erwin Wasey Company. The materials are arranged in alphabetical order by client and include products from Ralston Purina and Van Camp (Chicken of the Sea), Kellogg, American Export Lines and No Nonsense Fashions.

Series 22, 2010 Addendum of Print Advertisements, circa 1879s-1999, undated, includes material given to the Archives Center in 2010. It is organized into seventy one oversized boxes and contains proofsheets of print advertisements for select Ayer clients. These are arranged alphabetically by client name and include substantial quantities of materials from American Telephone &Telegraph (1945-1996), Bahamas Ministry of Tourism (1967-1987), Carrier (1971-1981), Citibank (1973-1991), DeBeers (1940s-1960s and1990s), Electric Companies Advertising Program [ECAP] (1942-1970s), General Motors (1989-1998), J.C. Penney (1983-1986), Newsweek (1966-1975), and Proctor and Gamble (1980s-1890s). There are also numerous other clients represented by smaller quantities of materials.

Subseries 22.1, Print Advertisements, 1930-1990, undated

Subseries 22.2, Print Advertisements on Glass Plate Negatives, 1879-1881, undated, include Cannon towels, Cheny Brothers silks, Cornish & Company organs and pianos, Enterprise Manufacturing Company, 1879 sad iron, an ad from Harper's Weekly 1881 for ladies clothing, Ostermoor & Company mattresses, Pear's soap, Porter's cough balsam, Steinway pianos.

Series 23, Microfilm of Print Advertisements, circa 1908-1985, consists of three boxes of printed advertisements for the American Telephone and Telegraph Company. Some of the same advertisements might also be found in series two, three and four.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into twenty-three series.

Series 1: Scrapbooks of Client Print Advertisements, circa 1870-1920

Series 2: Proofsheets, circa 1870-1930

Series 3: Proofsheets, circa 1920-1975

Series 4: 2001 Addendum, circa 1976-2001

Series 5: Billboards, circa 1952-1956

Series 6: Audiovisual Materials

Series 7: Radio and Television Materials, 1933-1993, undated

Series 8: Chicago Office Print Advertisements, 1954-1989

Series 9: Los Angeles Office Materials, 1950s-1987

Subseries 9.1: Printed Advertisements, 1977-1987

Subseries 9.2: Personnel Files, 1950s-1970s

Series 10: Foreign Print Advertisements, 1977-1991, undated

Series 11: Cunningham & Walsh Incorporated Materials, 1915-1987, undated

Subseries 11.1: Printed Advertisements, 1915-1987

Subseries 11.2: Radio and Television Advertisements, 1963-1967

Subseries 11.3: Company Related Materials, 1962-1986, undated

Series 12: Hixson & Jorgensen Materials, 1953-1971, undated

Series 13: Newell-Emmet, 1942-1957

Series 14: House Print Advertisements, 1870-1991

Series 15: Scrapbooks, 1872-1959

Series 16: Publications, 1849-2006

Subseries 16.1: House Publications, 1876-1994

Subseries 16.2: Publications about NW Ayer, 1949-1995

Subseries 16.3: General Publications about Advertising, 1922-2006

Subseries 16.4: Publications about other Subjects, 1948-1964

Series 17, Business Records, circa 1885-1990s

Subseries 17.1: Contracts, 1885-1908, undated

Subseries 17.2: General Client Information, 1911-1999, undated

Subseries 17.3: Individual Client Account Information, 1950s-1990s, undated

Subseries 17.4: Potential Clients, 1993

Subseries 17.5: Financial Records, 1929-1938

Series 18: Legal Records, circa 1911-1984

Subseries 18.1: Advertising Service Agreements, 1918-1982

Subseries 18.2: Bylaw Materials, 1969-1972

Subseries 18.3, Copyright Claims, 1962-1969

Subseries 18.4: Correspondence, 1928-1933

Subseries 18.5: International Office Correspondence, 1947-1948

Subseries 18.6: Dissolution of Trusts, 1934-1937

Subseries 18.7: Stock Information, 1934-1974

Subseries 18.8: Agreements between Partners, 1911-1916

Subseries 18.9: Incorporation Materials, 1929-1977

Subseries 18.10: Certificates of Reduction of Capital, 1937; 1975

Subseries 18.11: Property Information

Subseries 18.12: Miscellaneous Materials, 1929-1977

Series 19: Employee Materials, circa 1889-2001

Subseries 19.1: Employee Card files, circa 1892-1915; 1929-1963

Subseries 19.2: Photographs, circa 1924-1984, undated

Subseries 19.3: Alumni Publications, circa 1989-1998

Subseries 19.4: Biographical Information, circa 1889-1994

Subseries 19.5: Speeches, circa 1919-1931; 1975

Subseries 19.6: Recollections, 1954-1984, undated

Subseries 19.7: Oral History Interview Transcripts, 1983-1985; 1989-1991

Subseries 19.8: Oral History Audiotapes, 1985-1990

Subseries 19.9: Internal Communications, 1993-1999

Subseries 19.1: General Materials, 1940-2001

Series 20: History and Background Information about the Company, 1817-1999, undated

Series 21: Materials Created by other Advertising Agencies, 1945-1978, undated

Series 22: 2010 Addendum of Print Advertisements, circa 1879s-1990s, undated

Subseries 22.1: Print Advertisements, 1930-1990, undated

Subseries 22.2: Print Advertisements on Glass Plate Negatives, 1879-1881, undated

Series 23: Microfilm of Print Advertisements, circa 1908-1985
Biographical / Historical:
Founded in Philadelphia in 1869, NW Ayer & Son is one of the oldest and largest advertising agencies in America. For most of its history, it was the undisputed leader and innovator in the field of advertising. In 1876, NW Ayer & Son pioneered the "open contract", a revolutionary change in the method of billing for advertising which became the industry standard for the next hundred years. NW Ayer pioneered the use of fine art in advertising and established the industry's first art department. It was the first agency to use a full-time copywriter and the first to institute a copy department. The agency relocated to New York City in 1974. During its long history, the agency's clients included many "blue-chip" clients, including American Telephone & Telegraph, DeBeers Consolidated Diamond Mines, Ford Motor Company, Nabisco, R. J. Reynolds and United Airlines. However, in later years, the Ayer's inherent conservatism left the agency vulnerable to the creative revolution of the 1960s and 1970s, the advertising industry restructuring of the 1980s and the economic recession of the early 1990s. The agency was bought out by a Korean investor in 1993. In 1996, NW Ayer merged with another struggling top twenty United States advertising agency, Darcy, Masius, Benton & Bowles, under the umbrella of the McManus Group. Ayer continues to operate as a separate, full-service agency.

Through a series of buyouts and mergers, Ayer traces its lineage to the first advertising agency founded in the United States, a Philadelphia agency begun by Volney Palmer in 1841. Palmer began his career in advertising as a newspaper agent, acting as middleman between newspaper publishers and advertisers across the country. By 1849, Palmer had founded his own newspaper, V. B. Palmer's Register and Spirit of the Press, and had developed a complete system of advertising which included securing advertising space and placing ads in scores of commercial, political, religious, scientific and agricultural journals across the country. Palmer went one step further than the "space jobbers" of the day when he began offering "advertisements carefully drawn for those who have not the time to prepare an original copy." Always an enthusiastic promoter of advertising as an incentive to trade and American economic growth, Palmer promised advertisers that "every dollar paid for advertising in country newspapers will pay back twenty-fold" and encouraged skeptical consumers that "he who wishes to buy cheap should buy of those who advertise." When Palmer died in 1863, the agency was bought by his bookkeeper, John Joy, who joined with another Philadelphia advertising agency to form Joy, Coe & Sharpe. That agency was bought out again in 1868 and renamed Coe, Wetherill & Company. In 1877, Coe, Wetherill and Company was bought out by the newly formed NW Ayer & Son.

Francis Wayland Ayer was an ambitious young schoolteacher with an entrepreneurial streak. Having worked for a year soliciting advertisements on a commission basis for the publisher of the National Baptist weekly, Francis Ayer saw the potential to turn a profit as an advertising agent. In 1869, Ayer persuaded his father, Nathan Wheeler Ayer, to join him in business, and with an initial investment of only $250.00, NW Ayer & Son was born. Notwithstanding a smallpox epidemic in Philadelphia in 1871 and the general economic depression of the early 1870s, the agency flourished. The senior Ayer died in 1873, leaving his interest in the agency to his wife, but Francis W. Ayer bought her out, consolidating his interest in the company's management. In 1877, with Coe, Wetherill & Company (the successor to Palmer's 1841 agency) on the verge of bankruptcy and heavily indebted to Ayer for advertising it had placed in Ayer publications, Ayer assumed ownership of that agency. Thus did NW Ayer lay claim to being the oldest advertising agency in the country.

Both Nathan Wheeler and Francis Wayland Ayer began their careers as schoolteachers, and one of their legacies was a commitment to the cause of education: correspondence schools and institutions of higher learning were historically well-represented among Ayer clients. Just after World War I, the agency was heralded as "co-founder of more schools than any citizen of this country" for its conspicuous efforts to advertise private schools. Well into the 1960s, an "Education Department" at Ayer prepared advertisements for over three hundred private schools, camps and colleges, representing almost half the regional and national advertising done for such institutions. In fact, to its clients Ayer presented advertising itself as being akin to a system of education. In 1886, Ayer began promoting the virtues of the Ayer way advertising with the slogan, "Keeping Everlastingly at It Brings Success."

The agency's goals were simple: "to make advertising pay the advertiser, to spend the advertiser's money as though it were our own, to develop, magnify and dignify advertising as a business." Initially, Ayer's fortunes were tied to newspapers, and the agency began to make a name for itself as compiler and publisher of a widely used American Newspaper Annual. During the first years, Ayer's singular goal was "to get business, place it [in newspapers] and get money for it"; after several years as an independent space broker, however, Francis Ayer resolved "not to be an order taker any longer." This decision led NW Ayer and Son to a change in its mode of conducting business which would revolutionize the advertising industry: in 1876, Ayer pioneered the "open contract" with Diggee & Conard, Philadelphia raised growers and agricultural suppliers. Prior to the open contract, NW Ayer & Sons and most agencies operated as "space-jobbers," independent wholesalers of advertising space, in which the opportunities for graft and corrupt practices were virtually unlimited. In contrast, the open contract, wherein the advertiser paid a fixed commission based on the volume of advertising placed, aligned the advertising agent firmly on the side of the advertiser and gave advertisers access to the actual rates charged by newspapers and religious journals. The open contract with a fixed commission has been hailed by advertising pioneer Albert Lasker as one of the "three great landmarks in advertising history." (The other two were Lasker's own development of "reason-why" advertising copy and J. Walter Thompson's pioneering of sex appeal in an advertisement for Woodbury's soap.) Although the transition to the open contract did not happen overnight, by 1884, nearly three-quarters of Ayer's advertising billings were on an open contract basis. Since Ayer was, by the 1890s, the largest agency in America, the switch to direct payment by advertisers had a significant impact on the advertising industry, as other agencies were forced to respond to Ayer's higher standard. Just as important, the open contract helped to establish N W Ayer's long-standing reputation for "clean ethics and fair dealing" -- a reputation the agency has guarded jealously for over a century. The open contract also helped to establish Ayer as a full service advertising agency and to regularize the production of advertising in-house. From that point forward, Ayer routinely offered advice and service beyond the mere placement of advertisements. Ayer set another milestone for the industry in 1888, when Jarvis Wood was hired as the industry's first full-time copywriter. Wood was joined by a second full time copywriter four years later, and the Copy Department was formally established in 1900. The industry's first Art Department grew out of the Copy Department when Ayer hired its first commercial artist to assist with copy preparation in 1898; twelve years later Ayer became the first agency to offer the services of a full time art director, whose sole responsibility was the design and illustration of ads.

Ayer's leadership in the use of fine art in advertising has roots in this period, but achieved its highest expression under the guidance of legendary art director Charles Coiner. Coiner joined Ayer in 1924, after graduating from the Chicago Academy of Fine Arts. Despite early resistance from some clients, Coiner was adamant that "the use of outstanding palette and original art forms bring a greater return in readership, in impact and prestige for the advertiser." To this end, Coiner marshaled the talents of notable painters, illustrators and photographers, including N.C. Wyeth and Rockwell Kent (Steinway), Georgia O'Keefe (Dole), Leo Lionni (DuPont), Edward Steichen (Steinway, Cannon Mills), Charles Sheeler (Ford), and Irving Penn (DeBeers). Coiner believed that there was a practical side to the use of fine art in advertising, and his success (and Ayer's) lay in the marriage of research and copywriting with fine art, an arrangement Coiner termed "art for business sake." Coiner's efforts won both awards and attention for a series completed in the 1950s for the Container Corporation of America. Titled "Great Ideas of Western Man" the campaign featured abstract and modern paintings and sculpture by leading U.S. and foreign artists, linked with Western philosophical writings in an early example of advertising designed primarily to bolster corporate image. In 1994, Charles Coiner was posthumously named to the American Advertising Federation's Hall of Fame, the first full time art director ever chosen for that honor.

Coiner and fellow art director Paul Darrow also created legendary advertising with the "A Diamond Is Forever" campaign for DeBeers; ads featured the work of Pablo Picasso, Salvador Dali and other modernist painters. The "A Diamond is Forever" tagline was written in 1949 by Frances Gerety, a woman copywriter at Ayer from 1943 to 1970. In 1999, Ad Age magazine cited "A Diamond is Forever" as the most memorable advertising slogan of the twentieth century.

Coiner also earned respect for his volunteer government service during World War II; he designed the armbands for civil defense volunteers and logos for the National Recovery Administration and Community Chest. As a founding member of the Advertising Council in 1945, Ayer has had a long-standing commitment to public service advertising. In the mid-1980s, Ayer became a leading force in the Reagan-era "War on Drugs". Lou Hagopian, Ayer's sixth CEO, brokered the establishment of the Partnership for a Drug-Free America, a media coalition which generated as much as a million dollars a day in donated advertising space and time to prevent the use and abuse of illegal drugs. Famous names appear among NW Ayer's clientele from the very earliest days of the agency. Retailer John Wanamaker, Jay Cooke and Company, and Montgomery Ward's mail-order business were among the first Ayer clients. The agency has represented at least twenty automobile manufacturers, including Cadillac, Chrysler, Ford, General Motors, Plymouth, and Rolls-Royce. Other major, long-term clients through the years have included American Telephone & Telegraph, Canada Dry, Cannon Mills, Hills Bros. Coffee Company, Kellogg's, R. J. Reynolds, Steinway and Sons, United Airlines, and the United States Army. By the time of Ayer's hundredth anniversary in 1969, some of these companies had been Ayer clients for decades if not generations, and the longevity of those relationships was for many years a source of Ayer's strength.

But the advertising industry began to change in the late 1960s and 1970s, due in part to a "creative revolution." Small advertising agencies won attention with provocative copywriting and art direction that more closely resembled art than advertising. Advances in market research allowed clients to more narrowly tailor their advertising messages to distinct groups of consumers, and this led to a rise in targeted marketing which could more readily be doled out to specialized small agencies than to larger, established firms like NW Ayer & Son. The civil rights and anti-war movements also contributed to increasing public skepticism with the values of corporate America, and by extension, with some national advertising campaigns. Older, more conservative firms like Ayer were hard pressed to meet these new challenges.

About 1970, in an effort to meet these challenges and to establish a foothold on the West Coast, Ayer bought out two smaller agencies--Hixson & Jorgenson (Los Angeles) and Frederick E. Baker (Seattle). The agency relocated from Philadelphia to New York City in 1974 in an attempt both to consolidate operations (Ayer had operated a New York office since the 1920s) and to be closer to the historic center of the advertising industry. Riding the wave of mergers that characterized the advertising industry in the late 1980s and 1990s, Ayer continued to grow through the acquisition of Cunningham & Walsh in 1986 and Rink Wells in 19xx.

During this transitional period, Ayer received widespread acclaim for its work for the United States Army, which included the widely recognized slogan "Be All You Can Be". Ayer first acquired the Army recruitment account in 1967 and with help from its direct marketing arm, the agency was widely credited with helping the Army reach its recruitment goals despite an unpopular war and plummeting enlistments after the elimination of the draft in 1973. Ayer held the account for two decades, from the Vietnam War through the Cold War, but lost the account in 1986 amid government charges that an Ayer employee assigned to the account accepted kickbacks from a New York film production house. Despite Ayer's position as the country's 18th largest agency (with billings of $880 million in 1985), the loss of the agency's second largest account hit hard.

NW Ayer made up for the loss of the $100 million dollar a year Army account and made headlines for being on the winning end of the largest account switch in advertising history to date, when fast food giant Burger King moved its $200 million dollar advertising account from arch-rival J. Walter Thompson in 1987. Burger King must have had drive-thru service in mind, however, and Ayer made headlines again when it lost the account just eighteen months later in another record-breaking account switch. Another devastating blow to the agency was the loss of its lead position on the American Telegraph and Telephone account. Ayer pioneered telecommunications advertising in 1908, when the agency was selected to craft advertising for the Bell System's universal telephone service. Despite valiant efforts to keep an account the agency had held for most of the twentieth century, and for which they had written such memorable corporate slogans as American Telephone &Telegraph "The Voice with a Smile" and "Reach Out and Touch Someone", the agency lost the account in 1996.

After a wave of mergers and acquisitions in the late 1980s, the economic recession of the early 1990s hit Madison Avenue hard, and Ayer was particularly vulnerable. Despite the agency's long history and roster of "blue-chip" clients, Ayer was not known for cutting-edge creative work. Moreover, though the agency had offices overseas, Ayer had never built a strong multinational presence, and many of the smaller international offices were sold during the financial turmoil of the 1980s. This left a real void in the new climate of global marketplace consolidation. By about 1990, earnings were declining (although Ayer was still among the top twenty United States agencies in billings), and the agency was suffering from client defections, high management turnover, expensive real estate commitments and deferred executive compensation deals, all fallout of the high-flying 1980s. This was the atmosphere in 1993, when W.Y. Choi, a Korean investor who had already assembled a media and marketing empire in his homeland, began looking for an American partner to form an international advertising network. Jerry Siano, the former creative director who had recently been named Ayer's seventh CEO, was in no position to refuse Choi's offer of $35 million to buy the now floundering agency. The infusion of cash was no magic bullet, however. Choi took a wait-and-see approach, allowing his partner Richard Humphreys to make key decisions about Ayer's future, including the purging of senior executives and the installation of two new CEOs in as many years.

The agency's downward trend continued with the loss of another longtime client, the DeBeers diamond cartel in 1995. Adweek reported that Ayer's billings fell from $892 million in 1990 to less than $850 million in 1995. Several top executives defected abruptly, and the agency failed to attract major new accounts. Ayer was facing the loss not merely of revenue and personnel, but the loss of much of the respect it once commanded. Ayer remained among the twenty largest U.S. agencies, but an aura of uncertainty hung over the agency like a cloud. A new CEO was appointed, and Mary Lou Quinlan became the agency's first woman CEO in 1995. A year later, Ayer and another struggling top twenty agency, D'arcy, Masius, Benton & Bowles, combined as part of the McManus Group of companies. In 1998, the McManus Group had worldwide billings of more than $6.5 billion.

Under the McManus Group, Ayer was able to expand its international operations and begin to rebuild a stronger global presence. Several important new clients were won in 1997 and 1998, including Avon, General Motors, Kitchenaid, several Procter & Gamble brands and, most notably, Continental Airlines worldwide accounts. Born in the nineteenth century, Ayer may be one of a very few advertising agencies to successfully weather the economic and cultural transitions of both the twentieth and twentieth first centuries. Ayer was eventually acquired by the Publicis Groupe based in Paris, France which closed down the N.W. Ayer offices in 2002.
Related Materials:
Materials in the Archives Center

Warshaw Collection of Business Americana (AC0060)

Hills Bros. Coffee Incorporated Records (AC0395)
Provenance:
The collection was donated by N W Ayer ABH International, April 15, 1975 and by Ayer & Partners, October 30, 1996.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use.

Physical Access: Researchers must use microfilm copy. Researchers must handle unprotected photographs with gloves. Researchers must use reference copies of audiovisual materials. When no reference copy exists, the Archives Center staff will produce reference copies on an "as needed" basis, as resources allow.

Technical Access: Viewing the film portion of the collection without reference copies requires special appointment, please inquire; listening to audio discs requires special arrangement. Do not use original materials when available on reference video or audio tapes.
Rights:
Publication and production quality duplication is restricted due to complex copyright, publicity rights, and right to privacy issues. Potential users must receive written permission from appropriate rights holders prior to obtaining high quality copies. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Advertising agencies  Search this
advertising  Search this
Genre/Form:
Business records -- 1840-2000
Interviews -- 1980-2000
Oral history -- 1980-1990
Print advertising
Proof sheets
Proofs (printed matter)
Scrapbooks -- 1840-1990
Trade literature
Tear sheets
Advertisements
Citation:
NW Ayer & Sons, incorporated Advertising Agency Records, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0059
See more items in:
N W Ayer Advertising Agency Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8920ed035-d211-4a58-9047-b31fa79464bd
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0059
Online Media:

Division of Cultural History Lantern Slides and Stereographs

Creator:
Maertz, J.F., Department Store (Milwaukee, Wis.).  Search this
Stanley-Brown, Joseph, 1858-1941  Search this
Keystone View Company  Search this
Rau, William H.  Search this
Extent:
8 Cubic feet ((29 boxes))
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Stereographs
Lantern slides
Place:
Milwaukee (Wis.)
California
Date:
1887-1930
bulk 1900-1930
Summary:
Collection consists of lantern slides and stereographs produced by several companies: Keystone View Company, Better America Lecture Service, Incorporated, American Press Association, J. Stanley-Brown, William H. Rau, and J. F. Maertz Department Store. The lantern slides were primarily intended to be used for educational presentations about the United States, other countries, history, and society. Many of the slides and stereographs are accompanied by descriptive text and in some instances by small cards--one card for each slide--and in other instances directly on the back of a stereoview. The majority of images were taken from 1900 to 1930.
Scope and Contents:
The collection consists of lantern slides and stereographs primarily designed for use in audio-visual educational presentations about the United States, other countries, history, and society. Many of the slides and stereographs are accompanied by descriptive text. In some instances on small cards--one card for each slide-- and in other instances printed directly on the back of a stereoview. A few of the lantern slides, particularly the ones of the J. F. Maertz Department Store of Milwaukee, Wisconsin, are advertisements for consumer products. The majority were taken from 1890 through 1930. While the collection as a whole is in good general condition, some lantern slides, stereographs, and text cards are missing, and some of the lantern slides are cracked.

The collection will appeal to researchers examining the course of nineteenth-century social history broadly, especially how lantern slides were marketed to educators to teach geography, social studies, science, history and reading. The lantern slides as artifacts will be of interest to those who study material culture.

Series 1, Keystone View Company Lantern Slides and Stereographs, undated, is divided into seven subseries: Subseries 1, #1-#600, undated; Subseries 2, H-1 to H-300; Subseries 3, Biblical, undated; Subseries 4, Santa Barbara, California, undated; Subseries 5, Roads, undated; and Subseries 6, Miscellaneous, undated.

The series depicts scenes from around the United States and the rest of the world. Each image is intended to be characteristic of its location and in most cases is accompanied by a text card that describes the scene and gives the geographic coordinates (latitude and longitude) of the location. Many of the glass lantern slides have corresponding stereoviews and in these instances two box numbers are given.

Subseries 1, #1-#600, undated, is arranged in order by the numbers on the image. Views #1-261 are arranged in a rough geographic order beginning in Maine and proceeding down the Atlantic Coast, through the former Confederate states, into the Midwest and Plains states, the mountain West states and the West coast, and ending in the territories of Alaska and Hawaii and the Panama Canal. Views #262-346 begin in eastern Canada, proceed across Canada and move through Mexico and Central America into the Caribbean, thence the length of South America and the Antarctic. Views #347-554 begin in the British Isles and move through Northern and Southern Europe and into Central Europe and then Russia, the Middle East, South Asia, and the Far East. Views #556-592 begin in North Africa and cover the length of the continent and a few areas in the Pacific. The series concludes with views of several planets, President McKinley reviewing Civil War heroes (1899), and the work of a Mexican artist (1900).

Subseries 2, H-1 to H-300, undated, is arranged in order by the numbers on the image. H-1 to H-258 depict scenes and sites of American history beginning with several images of indigenous peoples and proceeding, roughly chronologically, through major events and locations to about 1925. Images H-259 to H-300 document a range of localities and activities across the country in the mid-1920s, including major buildings in Washington, D.C., industrial activities, and modern agricultural practices.

Subseries 3, Biblical, undated, shows religious art works and rural scenes.

Subseries 4, Santa Barbara, California, undated, contains two images. One is pastoral with a Franscican friar, the other a fountain.

Subseries 5, Roads, undated, includes three images of roads, one with a person on horseback, the other two depicting wagons.

Subseries 6, Miscellaneous, undated, contains lithoprint stereographs, each with a short description, depicting scenes such as landmarks in the United States; news events in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries; warfare; domestic scenes and scenes of foreign countries.

Series 2, Hillis Better America Lecture Service lantern slides, undated, is divided into 12 subseries: Subseries 1, Ability Lecture Slides, undated; Subseries 2, Bolshevism Lecture Slides, undated; Subseries 3, Builders Lecture Slides, undated; Subseries 4, Equality Lecture Slides, undated; Subseries 5, Fathers Lecture Slides, undated; Subseries 7, General Lecture Slides, undated; Subseries 8, Poverty Lecture Slides, undated; Subseries 9, Property Lecture Slides, undated; Subseries 10, Republic Lecture Slides, undated; Subseries 11, Socialism Lecture Slides, undated; and Subseries 12, Miscellaneous Lecture Slides, undated.

This series consists of lantern slides produced by Newell Dwight Hillis' Better America Lecture Service Incorporated. Newell Dwight Hillis (1858-1929), was a noted clergyman, lecturer and author. The Better American Lecture Service sought to make better Americans and to inspire greater loyalty to American institutions. Better America Lecture Service rented the lecture manuscript and slides to churches, societies, schools, and patriotic organizations. Slides were sent in a tin box and contained suggestions for publicity arrangements. (Nevada Educational Bulletin, December 1920).

Hillis published more than twenty volumes including collections of his sermons, inspirational works, and a novel. In addition, many of Hillis addresses were published and distributed as pamphlets. The slides were intended to be used for lectures on subjects such as socialism and equality. The slides generally consist of text, drawings, images of persons, paintings, and landscapes. A few slides in each set are missing, and there is no text accompanying any of the slides. The series is arranged into twelve subseries alphabetically by topic.

Series 3, American Press Association lantern slides, undated, is divided into ten subseries: Subseries 1, General Images, undated; Subseries 2, Coffins and soliders, undated; Subseries 3, Mexican War, undated; Subseries 4, Niagara Falls Conference, undated; Subseries 5, Pancho Villa and Major Gonzales, undated; Subseries 6, Parade, undated; Subseries 7, Refugees, undated; Subseries 8, Warships, undated; Subseries 9, West Virginia Mine Explosion, undated; and Subseries 10, Women March for Votes (Suffrage), undated.

The series consists of lantern slides from the American Press Association depicting news events from early twentieth century history (e.g., Mexican War; Ludlow Colorado strike; suffragettes; Gettysburg veterans; various ship disasters). Each slide has a caption with a brief description of the scene. Many slides are cracked; one is completely broken and is in a folded paper. There are also approximately fifty slides with scenes of events associated with the Mexican-American War, most with short captions identifying the scenes. Many of these slides are cracked.

Series 4, J. F. Maertz Department Stores advertisement lantern slides, early 1920s, is divided into thirteen subseries: Subseries 1, Bathrooms, undated; Subseries 2, Children's shoes and clothing, undated; Subseries 3, Dress goods, undated; Subseries 4, Dress patterns, undated; Subseries 5, Hosiery, undated; Subseries 6, House furnishings, undated; Subseries 7, House wares, undated; Subseries 8, Ladies' Home Journal, undated; Subseries 9, Shoes, undated; Subseries 10, Store advertising, undated; Subseries 11, Underwear, undated; Subseries 12, Women's clothing, undated; and Subseries 13, Miscellaneous, undated.

The series consists of lantern slides showing advertisements used in J.F. Maertz Department Store catalogs for consumer goods. Slides are categorized by type of goods, including children's shoes and clothes, bathroom needs, dress patterns, men's wear, shoes, house furnishings, house wares, Ladies' Home Journal, and underwear.

Series 5, J. Stanley-Brown and E. H. Harriman lantern slides, undated, is divided into nineteen subseries: Subseries 1, Alaska-California scenes, undated; Subseries 2, Animal life, undated; Subseries 3, Artifacts, undated; Subseries 4, California/Franciscan life, undated; Subseries 5, California Indians, undated; Subseries 6, California mission exteriors, undated; Subseries 7, California mission interiors, undated; Subseries 8, Eskimos,undated; Subseries 9, Franciscans, undated; Subseries 10, Indians, undated; Subseries 11, Landscapes, undated; Subseries 12, Maps, undated; Subseries 13, Mission interiors, undated; Subseries 14, Seascapes, undated; Subseries 15, General images (#1-7;10), undated; Subseries 16, General images (#11-14; 16-17; 19-20), undated; Subseries 17, General images (#21-30), undated; Subseries 18, General images (#31-33; 36-40), undated; and Subseries 19, General images (#42; 45-50), undated.

The series contains lantern slides, each labeled with the names of distributors, "J. Stanley-Brown, 1318 Massachusetts Avenue, Washington, D.C. and E.H. Harriman, 1 East, 55th Street, New York." The slides, some with captions, depict maps; landscapes; seascapes; Eskimos; animal life; Franciscan dwellings; Indians of California; California missions and Franciscan life. There are slides depicting various scenes of California missions and scenes of indigenous Alaskans. Some slides are cracked.

Series 6, Miscellaneous Stereographs, 1894-1907, is divided into seventeen subseries: Subseries 1, American Series, 1887; Subseries 2, C.H. Graves Publisher, 1907; Subseries 3, Griffith and Griffith, 1894; Subseries 4, Pesko Binocular Company, 1907; Subseries 5, William H. Rau Publisher,undated; Subseries 6, Domestic scenes,undated; Subseries 7, Military, undated; Subseries 8, Miscellaneous, undated; Subseries 9, Places--Asia, undated; Subseries 10, Places--Cuba, undated; Subseries 11, Places--Egypt, undated; Subseries 12, Places--France, undated; Subseries 13, PLaces--Germany, undated; Subseries 14, Places--Italy, undated; Subseries 15, Places--Monte Carlo, undated; Subseries 16, Places-- Palestine, undated; and Subseries 17, Places--United States, undated.

The series consists of lantern slides and stereoviews from distributors that include the American Series; Griffith and Griffith; Pesko Binocular Company; William H. Rau Publisher; and the Universal Photo Art Company.

The stereographs related to domestic and military issues and geography are dated circa 1905, and copyrighted by H. C. White, and distrbuted by World Series.

The stereo views produced by William H. Rau, a publisher in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, show parades and other ceremonies at Grand Army of the Republic (GAR) encampments and Elks conventions held in Philadelphia. The Grand Army of the Republic (GAR) was a fraternal organization composed of veterans of the Union Army who served in the American Civil War.
Arrangement:
The collection is divided into six series.

Series 1: Keystone View Company Lantern Slides and Stereographs, undated

Subseries 1, #1-#600, undated

Subseries 2, H-1 to H-300, undated

Subseries 3, Biblical, undated

Subseries 4, Santa Barbara, California, undated

Subseries 5, Roads, undated

Subseries 6, Miscellaneous, undated

Series 2: Hillis Better America Lecture Service Lantern Slides, undated

Subseries 1, Ability Lecture Slides, undated

Subseries 2, Bolshevism Lecture Slides, undated

Subseries 3, Builders Lecture Slides, undated

Subseries 4, Equality Lecture Slides, undated

Subseries 5, Ftahers Lecture Slides, undated

Subseries 7, General Lecture Slides, undated

Subseries 8, Poverty Lecture Slides, undated

Subseries 9, Property Lecture Slides, undated

Subseries 10, Republic Lecture Slides, undated

Subseries 11, Socialism Lecture Slides, undated

Subseries 12, Miscellaneous Lecture Slides, undated

Series 3: American Press Association Lantern Slides, undated

Subseries 1, General Images, undated

Subseries 2, Coffins and Soliders, undated

Subseries 3, Mexican War, undated

Subseries 4, Niagara Falls Conference, undated

Subseries 5, Pancho Villa and Major Gonzales, undated

Subseries 6, Parade, undated

Subseries 7, Refugees, undated

Subseries 8, Warships, undated

Subseries 9, West Virginia Mine Explosion, undated

Subseries 10, Women March for Votes (Suffrage), undated

Series 4: J. F. Maertz Department Store Advertisement Lantern Slides, early 1920s

Subseries 1, Bathrooms, undated

Subseries 2, Children's shoes and clothing, undated

Subseries 3, Dress goods, undated

Subseries 4, Dress patterns, undated

Subseries 5, Hosiery, undated

Subseries 6, House furnishings, undated

Subseries 7, House wares, undated

Subseries 8, Ladies' Home Journal, undated

Subseries 9, Shoes, undated

Subseries 10, Store advertising, undated

Subseries 11, Underwear, undated

Subseries 12, Women's clothing, undated

Subseries 13, Miscellaneous, undated

Series 5, J. Stanley-Brown and E.H. Harriman lantern slides, undated

Subseries 1, Alaska-California scenes, undated

Subseries 2, Animal life, undated

Subseries 3, Artifacts, undated

Subseries 4, California/Franciscan life, undated

Subseries 5, California Indians, undated

Subseries 6, California mission exteriors, undated

Subseries 7, California mission interiors, undated

Subseries 8, Eskimos, undated

Subseries 9, Franciscans, undated

Subseries 10, Indians, undated

Subseries 11, Landscapes, undated

Subseries 12, Maps, undated

Subseries 13, Mission interiors, undated

Subseries 14, Seascapes, undated

Subseries 15, General images (#1-7;10), undated

Subseries 16, General images (#11-14; 16-17; 19-20), undated

Subseries 17, General images (#21-30), undated

Subseries 18, General images (#31-33; 36-40), undated

Subseries 19, General images (#42; 45-50), undated

Series 6: Miscellaneous Stereographs, 1887-1907

Subseries 1, American Series, 1887

Subseries 2, C.H. Graves Publisher, 1907

Subseries 3, Griffith and Griffith, 1894

Subseries 4, Pesko Binocular Company, 1907

Subseries 5, William H. Rau Publisher, undated

Subseries 6, Domestic scenes, undated

Subseries 7, Military, undated

Subseries 8, Places-Asia, undated

Subseries 9, Places-Cuba, undated

Subseries 10, Places-Egypt, undated

Subseries 11, Places-France, undated

Subseries 12, Places-Germany, undated

Subseries 13, Places-Italy, undated

Subseries 14, Places-Monte Carlo, undated

Subseries 6.15, Palestine, undated

Subseries 6.16, Places-United States, undated

Subseries 6.17: Miscellaneous, undated

Series 7: Miscellaneous Lantern Slides, undated
Historical:
Lantern slides are hand-drawn, painted, or photographic images on glass, intended for viewing by projection; often made in sets. Photographic lantern slides were introduced in the United States by 1850 and popular through World War I; commonly 3.25 x 4 in. (9 x 10 cm.) with a black paper mask, a cover glass, and taped edges. Thesaurus of Graphic Materials

Stereographs consist of two nearly identical photographs or photomechanical prints, paired to produce the illusion of a single three-dimensional image, usually when viewed through a stereoscope. Typically, the images are on card mounts, but they take the form of daguerreotypes, glass negatives, or other processes. Stereographs were first made in the 1850s and are still made today. They were most popular between 1870 and 1920.

In 1851 stereo daguerreotypes were exhibited for the first time to the general public at the London International Exhibition (Crystal Palace). Shortly thereafter, American photographers began making stereographs. One of the first American photographic firms to produce stereographs was the team of William and Frederick Langenheim. The Library owns a set of their early stereoviews of American cities on the East Coast.

By 1860 both amateur photographers and publishing firms were making stereographs. The major stereo publishers sold their views by mail order, door-to-door salesmen, and in stores. Stereographs were sold individually and in boxed sets.

Stereographs are usually mounted. They were typically published with caption information printed under the image or on the back of the mount. The mount also provided information about the publisher, photographer, and sometimes the series or a list of views available from the photographer or publisher.

Stereographs were collected by many middle-class families in the late 19th century. People acquired stereographs of tourist sites they had visited, as well as exotic locales that they would only experience through the wonder of the stereoscope. Viewing stereographs was a common activity, much like watching television or going to the movies today. Stereoviews were also used as an education tool in classrooms. (Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Online Catalog, Stereograph Format)

The Division of Cultural History at the National Museum of American History assembled a collection of miscellaneous lantern slides and stereographs beginning in 1943. Other collection contents were acquired over many years in unrecorded transactions.

Several distributors and publishers of stereographic images are represented in the collection. One of the most prominent was the Keystone View Company of Meadville, Pennsylvania. Founded by Benneville Lloyd Singley (d.1938), a former Underwood & Underwood salesman, Keystone became a major distributor of stereographic images. From 1892 through 1963 it produced and distributed both educational and comic/sentimental stereoviews and stereoscopes used to see the images in 3-D. By 1905 it was the world's largest stereographic company. In 1963 Department A (stereoviews sold to individual families) and the education departments were closed, but Keystone continued to manufacture eye-training stereographic products as a subsidiary of Mast Development Company. In 1972 Mast closed the Meadville manufacturing site.

All of Keystone's manufacturing was done in Meadville, but branch offices were in New York, St. Louis, San Francisco, Portland, Oregon, Chicago, Toronto, Canada and London, England. Salesmen and photographers were scattered around the world, and the company offered 20,000 different views.

Selling stereoviews and lantern slides to schools was a field pioneered by Underwood & Underwood, and for several years Underwood & Underwood and Keystone were competitors for the growing educational market. According to the 1953 Keystone Sales Manual the more aggressive sales methods and the more progressive editorial policies of the Keystone View Company soon made it the acknowledged leader in the industry, and Underwood & Underwood decided to give up the contest.

Between 1915 and 1921 Keystone View Company purchased the negatives of nearly all of its competitors. They also continued to have staff photographers travel the world, so that by 1935 Keystone had approximately two million stereoscopic negatives.

Keystone View Company produced stereographic sets up through the mid-twentieth century, and had a stereoscopic photographer on staff until at least 1955.

References

Thesaurus of Graphic Materials, (2007), http://www.loc.gov/rr/print/tgm1/ (accessed February 10, 2011).

Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Online Catalog, Stereograph Format, http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/stereo/background.html (accessed February 14, 2011).
Related Materials:
Materials in the Archives Center, National Museum of American History

Underwood & Underwood Glass Stereograph Collection, 1895-1921, (AC0143)

Other Institutions with Materials

University of California, Riverside/California Museum of Photography

George Eastman House

Temple University

Brooklyn Historical Society
Provenance:
Donated to the Department of Anthropology, United States National Museum by Mrs. Joseph Stanley-Brown, through Mrs. Herbert Feis, in 1943.

The Division of Cultural History (now Division of Cultural and Community Life) at the National Museum of American History assembled a collection of miscellaneous lantern slides and stereographs beginning in 1943. Other collection contents were acquired over many years in unrecorded transactions. An unknown portion of the collection transferred to the Archives Center, date unknown.
Restrictions:
Collection open for research on site by appointment. Unprotected lantern slides and stereographs must be handled with gloves.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Reproduction permission from Archives Center: reproduction fees may apply.
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- Black-and-white photoprints -- Stereographs -- 1900-1950
Stereographs -- 1900-1910
Photographs -- Lantern slides -- 1900-1950
Lantern slides
Citation:
Division of Cultural History Lantern Slides and Stereographs, dates, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0945
See more items in:
Division of Cultural History Lantern Slides and Stereographs
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep86d81f125-9f9b-4867-97a9-8992b58fb403
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0945
Online Media:

Asa Philip Randolph

Artist:
Seymour Kattelson, 11 Feb 1923 - 24 Nov 2018  Search this
Sitter:
Asa Philip Randolph, 15 Apr 1889 - 16 Mar 1979  Search this
Medium:
Gelatin silver print
Dimensions:
Image/Sheet/Mount: 27.6 × 27.2 cm (10 7/8 × 10 11/16")
Mount (second): 50.6 × 40.6 cm (19 15/16 × 16")
Mat: 71.1 × 55.9 cm (28 × 22")
Type:
Photograph
Place:
United States\Pennsylvania\Philadelphia\Philadelphia
Date:
1948
Topic:
Costume\Headgear\Hat  Search this
Exterior  Search this
Costume\Jewelry\Necklace\Pearl  Search this
Equipment\Smoking Implements\Cigar  Search this
Baggage & Luggage\Bag  Search this
Costume\Dress Accessory\Handkerchief  Search this
Architecture\Building  Search this
Equipment\Camera  Search this
Sign  Search this
Costume\Jewelry\Pin  Search this
Costume\Dress Accessory\Neckwear\Tie\Necktie  Search this
Asa Philip Randolph: Male  Search this
Asa Philip Randolph: Journalism and Media\Magazine publisher  Search this
Asa Philip Randolph: Performing Arts\Performer\Actor  Search this
Asa Philip Randolph: Society and Social Change\Reformer\Labor leader  Search this
Asa Philip Randolph: Society and Social Change\Reformer\Activist\Civil rights activist  Search this
Asa Philip Randolph: Presidential Medal of Freedom  Search this
Portrait  Search this
Credit Line:
National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution
Object number:
NPG.87.46
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
Copyright:
© Estate of Seymour Kattelson
See more items in:
National Portrait Gallery Collection
Exhibition:
The Struggle for Justice Refresh
On View:
NPG, West Gallery 220
Data Source:
National Portrait Gallery
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sm43afe0581-fef0-446e-ad56-724a6c0a6c31
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:npg_NPG.87.46

[Belfield]: painting, 1816.

Painter:
Peale, Charles Willson, 1741-1827  Search this
Collection Creator:
Garden Club of America  Search this
Extent:
1 Slides (photographs) (black-and-white.)
Type:
Archival materials
Slides (photographs)
Place:
Belfield (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania)
United States of America -- Pennsylvania -- Philadelphia County -- Philadelphia
Date:
[1930?]
General:
Oil on canvas - 1816 - Germantown. This scene gives prominent view of unusual plants in foreground. Peale practiced both scientific agriculture and artistic landscape.
Collection Restrictions:
Access to original archival materials by appointment only. Researcher must submit request for appointment in writing. Certain items may be restricted and not available to researchers. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Collection Rights:
Archives of American Gardens encourages the use of its archival materials for non-commercial, educational and personal use under the fair use provision of U.S. copyright law. Use or copyright restrictions may exist. It is incumbent upon the researcher to ascertain copyright status and assume responsibility for usage. All requests for duplication and use must be submitted in writing and approved by Archives of American Gardens. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Topic:
Painting  Search this
Gazebos  Search this
Ponds  Search this
Garden houses  Search this
Houses  Search this
Fountains  Search this
Gardens -- Pennsylvania -- Philadelphia  Search this
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution, Archives of American Gardens, The Garden Club of America collection.
Identifier:
AAG.GCA, Item PA006003
See more items in:
The Garden Club of America collection
The Garden Club of America collection / Series 1: United States Garden Images / Pennsylvania / PA006: Philadelphia -- Belfield
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Gardens
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/kb6e3d081a8-c949-4c43-8723-b49d34128001
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aag-gca-ref16928
Online Media:

[The Village of Arts and Humanities]: view from front of garden; the mosaic columns provide an artistic frame for this inspirint site.

Photographer:
Beckoff, Ira  Search this
Collection Creator:
Garden Club of America  Search this
Extent:
1 Slides (photographs) (col., 35 mm.)
Type:
Archival materials
Slides (photographs)
Place:
Village of Arts and Humanities (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania)
United States of America -- Pennsylvania -- Philadelphia County -- Philadelphia
Date:
1998 Aug.
Collection Restrictions:
Access to original archival materials by appointment only. Researcher must submit request for appointment in writing. Certain items may be restricted and not available to researchers. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Collection Rights:
Archives of American Gardens encourages the use of its archival materials for non-commercial, educational and personal use under the fair use provision of U.S. copyright law. Use or copyright restrictions may exist. It is incumbent upon the researcher to ascertain copyright status and assume responsibility for usage. All requests for duplication and use must be submitted in writing and approved by Archives of American Gardens. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Topic:
Gardens -- Pennsylvania -- Philadelphia  Search this
Community gardens  Search this
Mural painting and decoration  Search this
Sculpture  Search this
Trees  Search this
Shrubs  Search this
Sidewalks  Search this
Mosaics  Search this
Birds -- Design elements  Search this
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution, Archives of American Gardens, The Garden Club of America collection.
Identifier:
AAG.GCA, Item PA355003
See more items in:
The Garden Club of America collection
The Garden Club of America collection / Series 1: United States Garden Images / Pennsylvania / PA355: Philadelphia -- The Village of Arts and Humanities
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Gardens
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/kb6ff256c54-b23d-4770-bc31-028ba9140a52
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aag-gca-ref17123

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