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Allen Tupper True and True family papers, 1841-1987

Creator:
True, Allen Tupper, 1881-1955  Search this
Subject:
Borglum, Gutzon  Search this
Pyle, Howard  Search this
Brangwyn, Frank, Sir  Search this
Wyeth, N. C. (Newell Convers)  Search this
Type:
Photographs
Sketches
Diaries
Drawings
Christmas cards
Illustrated letters
Cartoons (working drawings)
Sketchbooks
Citation:
Allen Tupper True and True family papers, 1841-1987. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Topic:
Indians of North America -- Portraits  Search this
Mural painting and decoration, American  Search this
Works of art  Search this
Artists' studios -- Photographs  Search this
Illustrators -- Colorado -- Denver  Search this
Theme:
Sketches & Sketchbooks  Search this
Lives of artists  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)10219
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)213295
AAA_collcode_truealle
Theme:
Sketches & Sketchbooks
Lives of artists
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_213295
Online Media:

[Raku Place]: bamboo screens the house and artists' studios from the state road.

Photographer:
Kemenyffy, Susan Hale.  Search this
Collection Creator:
Garden Club of America  Search this
Extent:
1 Digital image (JPEG file, color.)
Type:
Archival materials
Digital images
Place:
Raku Place (McKean, Pennsylvania)
United States of America -- Pennsylvania -- Philadelphia -- Philadelphia
Date:
2011 Jun.
Collection Restrictions:
Access to original archival materials by appointment only. Researcher must submit request for appointment in writing. Certain items may be restricted and not available to researchers. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Collection Rights:
Archives of American Gardens encourages the use of its archival materials for non-commercial, educational and personal use under the fair use provision of U.S. copyright law. Use or copyright restrictions may exist. It is incumbent upon the researcher to ascertain copyright status and assume responsibility for usage. All requests for duplication and use must be submitted in writing and approved by Archives of American Gardens. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Topic:
Gardens -- Pennsylvania -- McKean  Search this
Bamboo  Search this
Weeping willow  Search this
Lawns  Search this
Trees  Search this
Genre/Form:
Digital images
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution, Archives of American Gardens, The Garden Club of America collection.
Identifier:
AAG.GCA, Item PA825014
See more items in:
The Garden Club of America collection
The Garden Club of America collection / Series 1: United States Garden Images / Pennsylvania / PA825: McKean -- Raku Place
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Gardens
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/kb6f6624c6d-e8c9-4595-97ab-1c61ab9db207
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aag-gca-ref17176

[Sindhu's Garden]: wooden bird and animal sculptures outside the house and studio.

Photographer:
Harris, Lawrie R.  Search this
Collection Creator:
Garden Club of America  Search this
Extent:
1 Slides (photographs) (col., 35 mm.)
Type:
Archival materials
Slides (photographs)
Place:
Sindhu's Garden (Northeast Harbor, Maine)
United States of America -- Maine -- Hancock County -- Mount Desert -- Northeast Harbor
Date:
2009 Aug.
Collection Restrictions:
Access to original archival materials by appointment only. Researcher must submit request for appointment in writing. Certain items may be restricted and not available to researchers. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Collection Rights:
Archives of American Gardens encourages the use of its archival materials for non-commercial, educational and personal use under the fair use provision of U.S. copyright law. Use or copyright restrictions may exist. It is incumbent upon the researcher to ascertain copyright status and assume responsibility for usage. All requests for duplication and use must be submitted in writing and approved by Archives of American Gardens. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Topic:
Gardens -- Maine -- Northeast Harbor  Search this
Sculpture  Search this
Houses  Search this
Artists' studios  Search this
Genre/Form:
Slides (photographs)
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution, Archives of American Gardens, The Garden Club of America collection.
Identifier:
AAG.GCA, Item ME132001
See more items in:
The Garden Club of America collection
The Garden Club of America collection / Series 1: United States Garden Images / Maine / ME132: Mount Desert -- Sindhu's Garden
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Gardens
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/kb608b6f3fe-0f29-4451-bfad-808ffca502fd
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aag-gca-ref8406

Carnegie Institute, Museum of Art records

Creator:
Carnegie Institute, Museum of Art  Search this
Names:
Art Institute of Chicago  Search this
Buffalo Fine Arts Academy  Search this
Corcoran Gallery of Art  Search this
Gallery of William Macbeth  Search this
M. Knoedler & Co.  Search this
Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Alexander, John White, 1856-1915  Search this
Beatty, John W. (John Wesley), 1851-1924  Search this
Beaux, Cecilia, 1855-1942  Search this
Brush, George de Forest, 1855-1941  Search this
Chase, William Merritt, 1849-1916  Search this
Church, Samuel Harden  Search this
East, Alfred, Sir, 1849-1913  Search this
Hassam, Childe, 1859-1935  Search this
Homer, Winslow, 1836-1910  Search this
Saint-Gaudens, Homer, b. 1880  Search this
Thayer, Abbott Handerson, 1849-1921  Search this
Extent:
265.8 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Letterpress books
Museum records
Place:
Spain -- History -- Civil War, 1936-1939
Date:
1883-1962
bulk 1885-1962
Summary:
The records of the Carnegie Institute, Museum of Art measure 252.8 linear feet and date from 1883-1962, with the bulk of the material dating from 1885-1940. The collection includes extensive correspondence between the museum's founding director, John Beatty, and his successor, Homer Saint-Gaudens, with artists, dealers, galleries, collectors, museum directors, representatives abroad, shipping and insurance agents, and museum trustees. The collection also includes Department of Fine Arts interoffice memoranda and reports; loan exhibition files; Carnegie International planning, jury, shipping, and sale records; and Department of Fine Arts letterpress copy books.
Scope and Contents:
The records of the Carnegie Institute, Museum of Art measure 252.8 linear feet and date from 1883-1962, with the bulk of the material dating from 1885-1940. The collection includes extensive correspondence between the museum's founding director, John Beatty, and his successor, Homer Saint-Gaudens, with artists, dealers, galleries, collectors, museum directors, representatives abroad, shipping and insurance agents, and museum trustees. The collection also includes Department of Fine Arts interoffice memoranda and reports; loan exhibition files; Carnegie International planning, jury, shipping, and sale records; and Department of Fine Arts letterpress copy books.

This collection is a complete record of the museum's work, starting with the planning of the first loan exhibition in 1885 and ending with the cancellation of the International at the start of World War II in 1940. The museum's day-to-day relationships with all aspects of the contemporary art world are documented within the historical context of artists' reactions to World War I; the economic repercussions of the Great Depression on art sales and museum budgets; the ramifications of fascism on German, Italian, and European art; the impact of civil war on Spanish art; and the tensions introduced by the rise of 'radical' modernist art in Europe.

Correspondence (Series 1) is the largest series in the collection (152.5 linear feet) and is comprised of extensive correspondence between the Museum of Art and over 8700 correspondents, with over 3600 correspondents specifically related to art and artists.

Correspondents related to the art world include museum staff, artists, collectors, museums, galleries, dealers, shippers, insurance agencies, art directors, associations, societies, clubs, critics, press, and governments. These exchanges include general requests for information; requests related to the museum's exhibitions, including the International; letters regarding the museum's involvement in the events of other art organizations; loan, sales, and provenance information for specific works of art; and information regarding the events of other art organizations.

The correspondence of the museum's staff provides the greatest insight into understanding the museum's evolution into an international cultural institution. Both directors' correspondence touch on their personal opinions on art, their rationale behind policy decisions, and their understanding of the extent to which the museum's work was dependent on the good relations they maintained in the art world. Additionally, the extensive, opinionated correspondence between Saint-Gaudens' European agents and museum staff during the 1920s and 1930s provide a unique perspective on emerging art trends and the skill, growth, and personalities of individual artists.

The most prolific of the museum staff correspondents include museum directors John Beatty and Homer Saint-Gaudens, Board of Trustees president Samuel Harden Church, assistant director Edward Balken, and European agents Guillaume Lerolle , Ilario Neri, Arnold Palmer, Margaret Palmer, and Charlotte Weidler. Additional prominent staff members include Helen Beatty, Robert Harshe, Caroline Lapsley, Henry Jack Nash, John O'Connor, Charles Ramsey, George Shaw, George Sheers, August Zeller, and Fine Arts Committee members John Caldwell, William Frew, William Hyett, and John Porter.

The most prolific artist correspondents include John White Alexander, George Grey Barnard, Cecilia Beaux, Frank Benson, George de Forest Brush, William Merritt Chase, William Coffin, Bruce Crane, Andre Dauchez, Charles H. Davis, Alfred East, Ben Foster, Daniel Garber, Charles P. Gruppe, John Johansen, Johanna Hailman, John McLure Hamilton, Birge Harrison, Childe Hassam, Winslow Homer, Laura Knight, John la Farge, Gaston la Touche, John Lavery, Henri le Sidaner, Jonas Lie, Hermon A. MacNeil, Antonio Mancini, Gari Melchers, Emile Menard, Henry R. Poore, Edward Redfield, W. Elmer Schofield, Leopold Seyffert, Lucien Simon, Eugene Speicher, Abbott Handerson Thayer, Robert Vonnoh, J. Alden Weir, Irving R. Wiles, and Ignacio Zuloaga. Other artists of note include: Edwin Austen Abbey, George Bellows, Edwin Blashfield, Frank Brangwyn, Mary Cassatt, Kenyon Cox, Thomas Wilmer Dewing, Thomas Eakins, William Glackens, Robert Henri, Eastman Johnson, Rockwell Kent, Paul Manship, Henry Ranger, John Singer Sargent, Edward Steichen, Alfred Stieglitz, Edmund Tarbell, James McNeil Whistler, N.C. Wyeth, and Charles Morris Young.

Frequent museum collaborators include the Art Institute of Chicago, Boston Museum of Fine Arts, Brooklyn Museum, Buffalo Fine Arts Academy, Cleveland Museum of Art, Corcoran Gallery of Art, Detroit Institute of Art, Metropolitan Museum of Art, Museum of Modern Art, Saint Louis Museum of Fine Arts, Toledo Museum of Art, and Worcester Art Museum.

Other prolific correspondents include collectors Chauncey Blair, Andrew Carnegie, Charles Lang Freer, George Hearn, Alexander Humphreys, Roy Hunt, Mrs. B.F. Jones, Burton Mansfield, Frank Nicola, Duncan Phillips, John Stevenson, and William Stimmel; dealers and galleries M. Knoedler, William Macbeth, Central Art Gallery, Charles A. Walker, C.W. Kraushaar Art Galleries, Downtown Gallery, Durand-Ruel and Sons, Ehrich Galleries, Ferargil Galleries, Frank Rehn, Frederick Keppel, Haseltine Art Gallery, R.C. Vose Galleries, and W. Scott Thurber Fine Arts; insurance agent Macomber Co.; and shippers Dicksee and Co., J.W. Hampton, P. Navel/R. Lerondelle, Stedman and Wilder, and W.S. Budworth and Son.

Correspondents not specifically related to the contemporary art world include businesses, educational institutions, libraries, and the general public. These exchanges detail the daily work of the museum, including the estimates and work orders of office suppliers, contractors, printers, and etc.; programming and research inquiries of k-12 and college/university institutions; acknowledgements of the receipt of Museum of Art publications; and general public inquiries regarding museum policies, exhibitions, and the permanent collection. Companies and institutions who worked particularly closely with the museum include Alden and Harlow (architects), Detroit Publishing Co., and Tiffany and Co.

Department of Fine Arts (Series 2) consists of art and artist lists, correspondence, memoranda, notes, and reports. These files were begun under John Beatty's tenure and streamlined under Homer Saint-Gaudens' directorship to track activities directly related to the museum's interoffice affairs. File headings continued under Saint-Gaudens focus on art considered and purchased for the permanent collection, employee records, exhibition proposals and loans, Fine Arts Committee minutes, museum programming, museum publications, press releases, requests for images, and requests for general information.

Under Saint-Gaudens, the Fine Arts Committee files contain voluminous impressions of contemporary European artists, which he composed during his annual studio tours of the continent in the early 1920s and late 1930s. These informal reports provide insight into the shaping of the International and include a running commentary on historical events of the time. The Fine Arts Committee files also document the artistic and budgetary compromises that were struck, particularly during the Great Depression and early run-up to World War II.

Exhibitions (Series 3) includes correspondence with collectors, museums, galleries, dealers, shippers, and many of the artists themselves. Additional documents include catalogs, lists, planning notes, and telegrams related to 185 traveling and loan exhibitions held at the Museum of Art from 1901 to 1940. Of these, over 100 are one-artist shows and 82 are group, survey, regional, or topical shows. The one-artist exhibitions tend to showcase contemporary artists of the time. Regional shows focused on American and European art, with two shows featuring the art of Canada and Mexico. Survey themes focused on animals, children, cities, gardens, landscapes, Old Masters, and portraitures. Many of the genre shows venture into art not typically collected by the Museum of Art, including architecture, crafts, engravings, figure studies, graphic arts, illustrations, miniatures, mural decorations, oriental rugs, prints, printed books, sculpture, small reliefs, stained glass, theater models, watercolors, and wood engravings.

The most important shows organized and curated by Museum of Art staff include the Panama-Pacific International Exposition (1915), American Sculpture Show (1915, 1920), Applied Arts Show (1917), Original Illustrations Show (1921), Mexican Art Show (1929), Garden Club Show (1922), Industrial Art Show (1924), Pittsburgh Artists Show (1935), French Survey Show (1936), English Painting Survey Show (1937), American Paintings, Royal Academy Show (1938), and Survey of American Painting Show (1940).

Important one-artist shows include Abbot Handerson Thayer (1919), George de Forest Brush (1922), Frank W. Benson (1923), Rockwell Kent (1923, 1939), Anders Zorn (1924), John Lavery (1925), Paul Manship (1925), Mary Cassatt (1925), Laura Knight (1925), Edouard Manet (1932), Edward Hopper (1936), Winslow Homer (1922, 1936), Paul Cezanne (1936), Charles Burchfield (1937), and William Glackens (1938).

International (Series 4) is comprised of catalogs, correspondence, art and artist lists, itineraries, jury selection ballots, minutes, notes, and reports related to the planning, logistics, and promotion of the International Exhibition from 1895 to 1940. These documents were originally grouped and filed separately under John Beatty and were more rigorously streamlined under Homer Saint-Gaudens. The folder headings continued under Saint-Gaudens focus on art purchases, artists' invitations, artists' request for information, general exhibition planning, Foreign Advisory Committees, foreign governments, jury reception planning, loan requests, and touring logistics.

Letterpress books (Series 5) consist of 75 volumes that chronologically collect all of the Museum of Art's outgoing correspondence from 1896 to 1917. Volumes 1-8 contain the only copy of outgoing correspondence from 1896 to 1900. Duplicate copies of all outgoing correspondence dating from 1901 to 1917 were filed in Correspondence (Series 1) by museum staff.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into five series:

Missing Title

Series 1: Correspondence, 1883-1962, (Boxes 1-153, OV 267; 152.5 linear feet)

Series 2: Department of Fine Arts, 1896-1940, (Boxes 153-184, OV 268; 31.6 linear feet)

Series 3: Exhibitions, 1901-1940, (Boxes 184-204; 20 linear feet)

Series 4: International, 1895-1940, (Boxes 204-234, 265-266; 30.2 linear feet)

Series 5: Letterpress Books, 1900-1917, (Boxes 235-251; 17 linear feet)
Biographical / Historical:
The Carnegie Institute Museum of Art was established in 1895 by industrialist and philanthropist Andrew Carnegie. One of the first modern contemporary art museums in the United States, its flagship exhibition, the Carnegie International, is recognized as the longest running contemporary exhibition of international art in North America and is the second oldest in the world.

Andrew Carnegie (1835-1919) was born in Dumfermline, Scotland and migrated to America with his family in 1848. Often regarded as the second-richest man in history behind John D. Rockerfeller, Carnegie built his industrialist fortunes in the steel industry and spent the remainder of his life in support of major philanthropic projects. By the age of 33, he had developed his personal philosophy of philanthropy, which saw it as the responsibility of the wealthy to foster educational opportunities and disseminate the ideals of high culture among all levels of society. In addition to establishing over 2500 free public libraries, in 1895, he provided the funds to build the Carnegie Institute, located in the Oakland neighborhood of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. The Carnegie Institute originally maintained three separate departments under the auspices of the Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh, the Carnegie Museum of Natural History, and the Carnegie Museum of Art.

The Carnegie Institute was administered by a Board of Trustees selected by Carnegie, all prominent professional men of Pittsburgh. Within this group, eight men were selected to serve on the Museum of Art's Fine Arts Committee, which was initially granted the final say on gallery affairs. The first Fine Arts Committee was composed of two artists, Alfred Bryan Wall and Joseph Ryan Woodwell, and six businessmen. Among the latter group, John Caldwell, Henry Clay Frick, William Nimick Frew, and David Thompson Watson were also knowledgeable art patrons and collectors. Over time, the Fine Arts Committee's sway over gallery affairs would be measured by the dedication of its various members and tempered by the vision and authority of the Museum's directors, John Beatty and Homer Saint-Gaudens, and the Carnegie Institute Board of Trustees president, Samuel Harden Church.

From 1896 to 1921, John Wesley Beatty (1851-1924) served as the first director of the Museum of Art. A native Pittsburgher and an accomplished silver engraver, illustrator, and painter, Beatty attended the Royal Bavarian Academy in Munich and upon his return to America, made a living as an artist. He also taught at the Pittsburgh School of Design for Women and co-founded a small school of art with fellow local artist George Hetzel. In 1890, while serving as the secretary of the Pittsburgh Art Society, he became the primary organizer of a loan exhibition to be displayed at the opening of the Carnegie Free Library in Allegheny, Pennsylvania. In 1895, when the Carnegie Institute trustees began discussing the possibility of a similar loan exhibition for the opening of their new institution, Beatty was contacted and eventually enlisted to take on the task. Upon the success of that exhibition, he was invited to direct the gallery's affairs and served as the Museum of Art's director until his retirement.

Beatty was an enthusiastic supporter of Impressionism, Realism, Tonalism, Symbolism, and the critically acclaimed contemporary art of the 1890s. He also shared Carnegie's vision for the Museum of Art and believed in the educational and uplifting role aesthetic beauty could provide to the general public. Pursuant to the stated goals of Andrew Carnegie, under Beatty's direction the museum began to purchase important contemporary works to add to its chronological collection of "Old Masters of tomorrow" and almost immediately began planning the first of its Internationals.

The Internationals were viewed as the primary means of showcasing the Museum of Art's selection of the best in contemporary American and European painting, thereby elevating its role as an influential cultural institution on a national and international level. Juried monetary prizes would be awarded to the two best works by American artists, additional awards would be offered to artists of all nationalities, and the Museum of Art's purchases for the year would be selected from the exhibition. Certain artists and collectors were tapped to serve as unofficial representatives of the Museum of Art at home and abroad, among them John White Alexander, William Coffin, I.M. Gaugengigl, Walter Shirlaw, and Edmund Tarbell. Many of the most prominent Pittsburgh art collectors were also asked to lend works to the exhibition. While details of the jury and artist selection process, number of representatives, exhibition show dates, and amount and total number of prizes would change over the years, the planning template was set and would remain the same for future Internationals.

Beatty continued to rely on a stable of close friends and confidantes to help smooth over relations with artists, dealers, shipping agents, and galleries alike, relying heavily on John White Alexander and W. Elmer Schofield, in addition to artists Thomas Shields Clarke, Walter Gay, Robert Henri, Frank D. Millet, and critic Charles M. Kurtz. Over time, many of the artists who served on International juries or Foreign Advisory Committees also became reliable friends and advocates of the International, including Edwin Austen Abbey, Edmond Aman-Jean, Edwin Howland Blashfield, William Merritt Chase, Charles Cottet, Kenyon Cox, Charles Harold Davis, Alfred East, Ben Foster, Charles Hopkinson, John la Farge, Gari Melchers, Leonard Ochtman, Irving R. Wiles, and Robert W. Vonnoh.

From 1896 to 1921, the Museum of Art held twenty-one Internationals, with the only exceptions coming in 1906 (construction of the Hall of Architecture, Hall of Sculpture, and Bruce Galleries), 1915 (deference to the San Francisco Panama-Pacific International), and 1916-1919 (World War I). During these years, the scope and administration of the International slowly expanded, though not without growing pains. At the turn of the century, new modernist styles of art that were appearing in galleries across Europe had not yet entered major American museums and the Carnegie Museum of Art maintained this trend. The museum's generally conservative selection policies, combined with criticism regarding the timing of the exhibition and the jury selection process, led to increasingly tense relations with artists, and were only partially resolved by changes made to the format of the International. In spite of these challenges, the Carnegie International retained its reputation as a preeminent venue for contemporary art and awarded top prizes to John White Alexander, Cecilia Beaux, George W. Bellows, Frank W. Benson, Andre Dauchez, Thomas Wilmer Dewing, Thomas Eakins, Childe Hassam, Winslow Homer, John Lavery, Henri le Sidaner, Edward W. Redfield, W. Elmer Schofield, Edmund C. Tarbell, Abbot Handerson Thayer, Dwight W. Tryon, and J. Alden Weir.

In addition to the International, Carnegie's mission of bringing cultural and educational opportunities to Pittsburgh was a central priority of the museum's daily operations. Beatty cultivated relationships with fellow museum directors, which allowed for the easy co-ordination and planning of traveling exhibitions benefiting the city. The museum developed educational programs for children and adults, including lectures, gallery talks, Saturday morning classes, fine art extension classes, guided tours, and outreach to local schools. As popular Pittsburgh art societies and clubs formed, the museum also provided meeting and exhibition spaces for groups such as the Associated Artists of Pittsburgh, the Art Society of Pittsburgh, the Art Students League, the Garden Club of Allegheny County, and the Junior League.

After more than 25 years of service, Beatty made the decision to retire and put out an informal call for candidates. Being the right man at the right time, in 1921, Homer Schiff Saint-Gaudens (1880-1958) became the Museum of Art's second director.

The only child of American sculptor Augustus Saint-Gaudens and his wife and artist, Augusta Fisher Homer, Saint-Gaudens frequently traveled abroad and grew up in the company of his parents' wide circle of friends, many of them artists, poets, writers, and performers who frequented the Cornish Artists' Colony. More intimate friends of the family included former students, assistants, and colleagues, the architect Stanford White, and successful artist-couples who resided near the family's Cornish, New Hampshire home, among them Louise and Kenyon Cox, Maria and Thomas Dewing, Florence and Everett Shinn, and Emma and Abbott Thayer.

Homer Saint-Gaudens attended the preparatory school Lawrenceville, graduated from Harvard in 1903, married the artist and suffragist Carlota Dolley (1884-1927) in 1905, and remarried to Mary Louise McBride (n.d.-1974) in 1929. He began his professional career as a journalist and worked as assistant editor of The Critic (1903) and managing editor of Metropolitan Magazine (1905). During those years, he was introduced to a number of the Ash Can school artists, wrote articles on contemporary art, and honed his abilities as a writer. In 1907, Saint-Gaudens took a break from professional editing and began a second career as the stage manager for Maude Adams, the most highly paid and successful stage actress of her day, with a yearly income of over one million dollars at the peak of her popularity. Working in theater and as Adams' manager for over ten years, Saint-Gaudens learned the ins and outs of event promotion and logistics, media coverage, and maintaining diplomatic relations through compromise, ideal skills he would later use in organizing the Carnegie Internationals.

With the United States' entry into World War I, Saint-Gaudens served as the chief of the U.S. Army's first camouflage unit and was awarded the Bronze Star. After his discharge, he managed Adams' 1918 final season and simultaneously helped his mother organize a major retrospective of his father's sculptures. While organizing a section of his father's work for the 1921 International, he was invited to step into the position of assistant director of the Carnegie Museum of Art, and was promoted to the directorship upon John Beatty's retirement.

Throughout his tenure, Saint-Gaudens was able to call upon long-standing family friendships with artists and art patrons to the museum's benefit. His connections to the art world can clearly be seen in his first major stand-alone exhibition, the Garden Club Show (1922). In this, he enlisted the aid of Elizabeth Alexander, wife of John White Alexander, and Johanna Hailman, artist and wife of John Hailman, who reached out to their circle of artists and art collecting friends in search of works appropriate for the show. Their efforts, combined with the relationships Beatty had established with museum directors, galleries, and dealers, as well as Saint-Gaudens' own friendships with Kenyon Cox, Thomas Dewing, Barry Faulkner, and Gari Melchers, resulted in an assemblage of 150 paintings of note. Coming immediately upon the heels of the 1922 International, the show was a resounding success. The exhibition's opening attracted over 300 delegates of the Garden Club of America and the entirety of Pittsburgh high society, settling any concerns regarding his leadership abilities.

As director of the Museum of Art, Saint-Gaudens instituted measures intended to streamline the Internationals and improve diplomatic relations with artists. Though the basic format of the juried exhibition remained the same, his solutions to the complaints many artists raised with the artist invitation, art selection, and jury systems reformed the International's reputation at a critical time. Though he was naturally inclined to appreciate the art and artists he had grown up with, Saint-Gaudens understood the immediate necessity of introducing modernist contemporary art into the museum's exhibitions and galleries. He circumvented the conservative Fine Arts Committee's resistance to the accolades of European modernists by choosing the tamest of the new 'radical' works. Eventually, he balanced the Internationals with a mix of conservative, moderate, and advanced works that appealed to a large range of audiences and increased the status and diversity of the Internationals.

To aid in his reformation of the International, Saint-Gaudens formalized a team of European agents who worked year round to scout artists' studios, recommend suitable art and artists, navigate local politics, arrange local transportation and logistics, and maintain cordial relations with artists abroad. In the spring, Saint-Gaudens would travel to Europe to meet with his agents in person, tour the most promising studios, and meet with artists personally. His team was headed by Guillaume Lerolle, who shared Saint-Gaudens' distinction of being the son of a well regarded national artist, Henry Lerolle. Like Saint-Gaudens, Lerolle was able and willing to call upon longstanding family friendships and networks on behalf of the Museum of Art. The other core members of the team were Ilario Neri (Italy), Arnold Palmer (England), Margaret Palmer (Spain), and Charlotte Weidler (Germany).

From 1922 to 1940, the Museum of Art held seventeen Internationals, with the exceptions coming in 1932 (Great Depression) and 1940 (World War II). After a brief period of change, growth, and experimentation in the early 1920s, the museum eventually settled on a routine of planning the Internationals, arranging for traveling exhibitions, and expanding upon the most popular of their educational programs. In addition to those programs put into place under Beatty's tenure, Saint-Gaudens paved the way for a revamped lecture series featuring visiting critics and traveled as a visiting lecturer himself.

During the 1930s, financial difficulties and increasing political tensions in Europe presented ample challenges to the diplomatic skills of Saint-Gaudens and his agents, and they found themselves increasingly forced to navigate through political minefields presented by the fascist ideologies of Germany and Italy, the chaos of the Spanish civil war, and the eventual outbreak of World War II in Europe. In spite of these challenges, under Saint-Gaudens' direction, the museum remained true to Andrew Carnegie's vision. The International was expanded to accept on average over sixty additional works of art, and at its peak, included art from twenty-one countries. Beginning in 1927, top prizes and recognition were awarded to Georges Braque, Marc Chagall, Salvador Dali, Andre Derain, Raoul Dufy, Karl Hofer, Rockwell Kent, Yasuo Kuniyoshi, Henri Matisse, Pablo Picasso, and Edouard Vuillard.

Works by Arthur B. Davies, Charles Hawthorne, Edward Hopper, Augustus John, Oskar Kokoschka, Leon Kroll, Ernest Lawson, and William Orpen were added to the museum's permanent collection. And, as under Beatty's tenure, many of the artists selected to serve on the Jury of Award became advocates and friends of the museum, including Emil Carlsen, Anto Carte, Bruce Crane, Charles C. Curran, Daniel Garber, Charles Hopkinson, Laura Knight, Jonas Lie, Julius Olsson, Leopold Seyffert, Lucien Simon, Eugene Speicher, Maurice Sterne, Gardner Symons, Horatio Walker, and Charles H. Woodbury.

The monumental task of establishing the Carnegie Institute Museum of Art and the Carnegie International has left an archival record that is unique and unparalleled in documenting its relations with every aspect of the contemporary art world from the turn of the century through the first forty years of the twentieth century.
Provenance:
The Carnegie Institute, Museum of Art records were loaned for microfilming in 1966 and later donated to the Archives of American Art in 1972. A small addition of corrrespondence was donated in 2017 by Elizabeth Tufts Brown.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment.
Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Topic:
Art -- Economic aspects  Search this
World War, 1914-1918  Search this
Depressions -- 1929  Search this
Art, Modern -- Exhibitions  Search this
Fascism  Search this
World War, 1939-1945  Search this
Museum directors  Search this
Function:
Art museums -- Pennsylvania
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Letterpress books
Museum records
Citation:
Carnegie Institute, Museum of Art records, 1883-1962, bulk 1885-1940. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.carninst
See more items in:
Carnegie Institute, Museum of Art records
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/mw941920dd5-82b0-485f-802d-62b012a74357
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-carninst
Online Media:

Allen Tupper True and True family papers

Creator:
True, Allen Tupper, 1881-1955  Search this
Names:
Borglum, Gutzon, 1867-1941  Search this
Brangwyn, Frank, Sir, 1867-1956  Search this
Pyle, Howard, 1853-1911  Search this
Wyeth, N. C. (Newell Convers), 1882-1945  Search this
Extent:
8.2 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Sketches
Diaries
Drawings
Christmas cards
Illustrated letters
Cartoons (working drawings)
Sketchbooks
Date:
1841-1987
Summary:
The Allen Tupper True and True family papers date from 1841 to 1987 and measure 8.2 linear feet. The collection presents a good overview of True's personal life and and his career as mural painter and illustrator specializing in Western themes.
Scope and Content Note:
The Allen Tupper True and True family papers date from 1841 to 1987 and measure 8.2 linear feet. The collection presents a good overview of True's personal life and and his career as mural painter and illustrator specializing in Western themes. Through art work, project files, photographs, and printed material, the collection offers a rich resource, both textually and visually of True's research and work on documenting early twentieth century Native Americans cultural traditions. The papers also document True's childhood and his relationship with his family through various family papers, such as correspondence, genealogies, subject files, photographs, and a scrapbook. The collection is a particularly rich resource for the study of Allen Tupper True's work, as well as original documentation of the American West and Native American culture.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into thirteen series according to material type. The contents of each series have been arranged chronologically. Glass plate negatives are housed separately and closed to researchers.

Missing Title

Series 1: Biographical Material, 1895-1964, undated (box 1, 7 folders)

Series 2: Subject Files, 1873-1955 (box 1, 23 folders)

Series 3: Correspondence, 1841-1956 (boxes 1-4, 3.5 linear ft.)

Series 4: Business Records, 1903-1951 (box 4, 4 folders)

Series 5: Notes, 1902-1920 (box 5, 10 folders)

Series 6: Writings, 1896-1926 (box 5, 5 folders)

Series 7: Artwork, 1897-1923 (boxes 5, 10, and OV 11, 0.5 linear ft.)

Series 8: Project Files, 1912-1987 (boxes 5-6 and 10, 0.75 linear ft.)

Series 9: Photographs, 1859-1950 (boxes 6-7, 1.5 linear ft.)

Series 10: Scrapbook, 1934 (box 7, 1 volume)

Series 11: Printed Material, 1875-1981 (box 7, 21 folders)

Series 12: Artifacts, ca. 1863 (boxes 7 and 10, 9 items)

Series 13: Glass Plate Negatives, undated (boxes 8-9, 0.8 linear ft.)
Biographical Note:
Allen Tupper True (1881-1955) was born in Colorado Springs, Colorado in 1881. He was a student at the University of Denver, and studied at the Corcoran School of Art, Washington, D.C. between 1901 and 1902. In 1902, he was accepted into Howard Pyle's classes in Chadd's Ford, Pennsylvania, and studied there until 1908, befriending classmates George Harding, Gordon McCouch, Thornton Oakley, and N.C. Wyeth. Through Pyle, True began his career as a magazine illustrator.

From approximately 1913-1915, True worked with British muralist Frank Brangwyn, assisting Brangwyn in the execution of murals at the Panama-Pacific Exposition in San Francisco, California.

After marrying Emma Goodman Eaton in 1915 (divorced 1934), True launched his career as a mural painter. His most notable works include the mural decorations in the state capitol buildings of Colorado, Missouri, Nebraska, and Wyoming, as well as murals for the Mountain States Telephone and Telegraph Company Building and the Civic Center in Denver, Colorado. True specialized in depicting Western and Native American themes.

From 1934-1945, True acted as consultant for the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, in charge of and designing all decoration and color schemes for the Boulder Dam power plant, Grand Coulee Dam, and the Shasta Dam, among others.

True was a Unitarian Mason, and a member of the Mural Painters of America, Beta Theta Pi, Cactus Club of Denver, and the Author's Club, London. He died in 1955.
Provenance:
The Allen Tupper True and True family papers were donated in February and April 1988 by True's daughter Jane True Mueller and his son, Frank True.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research. Patrons must use microfilm copy.
Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Occupation:
Muralists -- Colorado -- Denver  Search this
Topic:
Indians of North America -- Portraits  Search this
Mural painting and decoration, American  Search this
Works of art  Search this
Artists' studios -- Photographs  Search this
Illustrators -- Colorado -- Denver  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Sketches
Diaries
Drawings
Christmas cards
Illustrated letters
Cartoons (working drawings)
Sketchbooks
Citation:
The Allen Tupper True and True family papers, 1841-1987
Identifier:
AAA.truealle
See more items in:
Allen Tupper True and True family papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/mw9a202f3af-f0c4-4644-80c5-4909a6724102
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-truealle
Online Media:

Photograph of Jay DeFeo's cat, Pooh, in her studio

Photographer:
DeFeo, Jay, 1929-1989  Search this
Type:
Photographs
Date:
196-
Citation:
Jay DeFeo. Photograph of Jay DeFeo's cat, Pooh, in her studio, 196-. Jay DeFeo papers, circa 1940s-1979. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Topic:
Animals  Search this
Artists' studios  Search this
Cats  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA)13983
See more items in:
Jay DeFeo papers, circa 1940s-1979
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_item_13983
Online Media:

Robert Reid papers, circa 1880-circa 1930

Creator:
Reid, Robert, 1862-1929  Search this
Subject:
Reid, Sara Bigelow  Search this
Reid, Charles D.  Search this
Type:
Scrapbooks
Photographs
Citation:
Robert Reid papers, circa 1880-circa 1930. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Topic:
Artists' studios -- Photographs  Search this
Painters -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Theme:
Lives of artists  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)8400
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)210574
AAA_collcode_reidrobe
Theme:
Lives of artists
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_210574
Online Media:

Anna Coleman Ladd papers, 1881-1950

Creator:
Ladd, Anna Coleman Watts, 1878-1939  Search this
Subject:
Aldrich, William  Search this
Southwick, Jessie Eldridge  Search this
Hammond, Natalie Hays  Search this
Gardner, Isabella Stewart  Search this
Fabbricotti, Gabriella  Search this
American Red Cross. Studio for Portrait Masks (Paris, France)  Search this
Type:
Diaries
Drawings
Sketchbooks
Photographs
Sketches
Scrapbooks
Citation:
Anna Coleman Ladd papers, 1881-1950. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Topic:
Women artists  Search this
Women sculptors  Search this
Women authors  Search this
Works of art  Search this
Portrait sculpture  Search this
Architectural sculpture  Search this
Artists' studios -- Photographs  Search this
World War, 1914-1918  Search this
Theme:
Sketches & Sketchbooks  Search this
Women  Search this
Diaries  Search this
Lives of artists  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)10600
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)214076
AAA_collcode_laddanna
Theme:
Sketches & Sketchbooks
Women
Diaries
Lives of artists
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_214076
Online Media:

Elizabeth Campbell Fisher Clay papers, circa 1873-circa 2015, bulk 1890-1930

Creator:
Clay, Elizabeth Campbell Fisher, 1871-1959  Search this
Subject:
Henri, Robert  Search this
Rothenstein, William, Sir  Search this
Smith College  Search this
Type:
Sketches
Photographs
Sound recordings
Drawings
Travel diaries
Paintings
Sketchbooks
Diaries
Place:
Netherlands -- description and travel
New York (N.Y.) -- Description and views
France -- description and travel
California -- description and travel
England -- description and travel
Citation:
Elizabeth Campbell Fisher Clay papers, circa 1873-circa 2015, bulk 1890-1930. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Topic:
Art -- Study and teaching  Search this
Women artists  Search this
Women printmakers  Search this
Artists' studios -- Photographs  Search this
Theme:
Women  Search this
Lives of artists  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)16256
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)370921
AAA_collcode_clayeliz
Theme:
Women
Lives of artists
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_370921
Online Media:

Jimmy Hedges papers and Rising Fawn Folk Art Gallery records, 1969-2016, bulk 1991-2013

Creator:
Hedges, Jimmy, 1942-2014  Search this
Subject:
Lancaster, Paul  Search this
Blizzard, Georgia  Search this
Mohammed, A.J.  Search this
Green, Homer  Search this
Simmons, Charlie  Search this
Hoskinson, Danny  Search this
Harvey, Bessie  Search this
Sudduth, Jimmy Lee  Search this
Tolliver, Mose  Search this
Finster, Howard  Search this
Young, Purvis  Search this
Rising Fawn Folk Art Gallery  Search this
Type:
Photographs
Sound recordings
Video recordings
Citation:
Jimmy Hedges papers and Rising Fawn Folk Art Gallery records, 1969-2016, bulk 1991-2013. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Topic:
Self-taught artists  Search this
Art -- Collectors and collecting  Search this
Folk art  Search this
Outsider art  Search this
Artists' studios -- Photographs  Search this
Theme:
African American  Search this
Art Market  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)17336
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)380050
AAA_collcode_hedgjimm
Theme:
African American
Art Market
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_380050
Online Media:

Jeanne and Fritz Bultman working in their studio

Photographer:
Nardin, Gloria  Search this
Subject:
Bultman, Fritz  Search this
Bultman, Jeanne  Search this
Type:
Photographs
Date:
1979
Citation:
Gloria Nardin. Jeanne and Fritz Bultman working in their studio, 1979. Fritz Bultman papers, 1928-2010. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Topic:
Artists' studios  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA)16771
See more items in:
Fritz Bultman papers, 1928-2010, bulk 1940s-1990s
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_item_16771
Online Media:

Audrey Flack papers, 1950-2022

Creator:
Flack, Audrey, 1931-2024  Search this
Subject:
Janson, Anthony F.  Search this
Arizona State University  Search this
Atlantic Center for the Arts (New Smyrna Beach, Fla.)  Search this
Cooper Union for the Advancement of Science and Art  Search this
Guild Hall of East Hampton  Search this
Museum of Modern Art (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Louis K. Meisel Gallery  Search this
Type:
Scrapbooks
Photographs
Motion pictures (visual works)
Video recordings
Sound recordings
Citation:
Audrey Flack papers, 1950-2022. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Topic:
Art -- Study and teaching  Search this
Art -- Economic aspects  Search this
Artists' studios -- Photographs  Search this
Women artists  Search this
Women painters  Search this
Women sculptors  Search this
Theme:
Women  Search this
Lives of artists  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)15666
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)282435
AAA_collcode_flacaudr
Theme:
Women
Lives of artists
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_282435
Online Media:

Will Barnet papers

Creator:
Barnet, Will, 1911-2012  Search this
Names:
Art Students League (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Esther-Robles Gallery  Search this
Waddell Gallery  Search this
Barnet, Peter. Will Barnet: artist and teacher  Search this
Booth, Cameron, 1892-1980  Search this
Pearson, Henry, 1914-2006  Search this
Savelli, Angelo, 1911-  Search this
Sternberg, Harry, 1904-2001  Search this
Von Wicht, John, 1888-1970  Search this
Extent:
30.7 Linear feet
7.24 Gigabytes
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Gigabytes
Video recordings
Transcripts
Interviews
Visitors' books
Sound recordings
Sketches
Photographs
Date:
1897
1929-2016
Summary:
The papers of painter, printmaker, and educator Will Barnet date from 1897 and 1929-2016. The collection measures 30.7 linear feet and 7.24 gigabytes. Found within the papers are biographical material, including numerous recorded interviews of Barnet; personal and professional correspondence; writings and lectures; financial records; printed material; artwork; and photographs of Barnet, his family and friends, and his work. An addition received in 2016 includes biographical material, correspondence, writings, diaries and daybooks, gallery and exhibition files, project and professional files, printed material, and photographic material.
Scope and Contents:
The papers of painter, printmaker, and educator Will Barnet date from 1897 and 1929-2016. The collection measures 30.7 linear feet and 7.24 gigabytes. Found within the papers are biographical material, including numerous recorded interviews of Barnet; personal and professional correspondence; writings and lectures; financial records; printed material; artwork; and photographs of Barnet, his family and friends, and his work. An addition received in 2016 includes biographical material, correspondence, writings, diaries and daybooks, gallery and exhibition files, project and professional files, printed material, and photographic material.

Biographical materials consist of appointment and address books, curriculum vitae, a fellowship application, awards ceremony documentation, and numerous recorded interviews, including a 9 part interview with Kitty Gellhorn conducted over the course of two years. Only 6 of the 24 interviews have transcripts and most are found only on original audio and video recordings with no duplicate access copies.

Correspondence is primarily with Barnet's family, friends, fellow artists, and business associates discussing personal relationships, teaching and lecturing appointments, gallery sales, and exhibitions. Correspondents of note include Cameron Booth, Henry Pearson, Angelo Savelli, Harry Sternberg, Jon Von Wicht, Esther Robles Gallery, and the Waddell Gallery (formerly Grippi and Waddell).

Writings by Barnet consist of 7 essays, 45 teaching lectures, 3 notebooks, and 4 speeches. Many of the lectures and 3 of the 4 speeches exist only as audio and video recordings for which there are no transcripts or duplicate access copies. The bulk of writings by others are biographical essays and memoirs of Barnet, including a copy of Peter Barnet's dissertation, Will Barnet: Artist and Teacher. The series also includes 4 exhibition guest registers.

Personal business records include sales and teaching contracts, gift acknowledgements, and price lists.

Printed material includes auction catalogs, clippings, audio recordings, video documentaries, exhibition announcements and catalogs, newsletters, press releases, programs, and reproductions of artwork. Video documentaries of note include Artist's Eye and Lasting Impressions, both of which Barnet contributed interviews to.

Photographic materials document people, artwork, exhibition installations, and works of art. There are early photos of Barnet teaching at the Art League, as well as photos of Barnet in his studio and with friends and family. Views of exhibition installations, award ceremonies, and events mainly document solo shows and Barnet's reception after receiving the National Arts Club's Gold Medal Award.

Artwork consists of ink, pencil, and pen sketches by Will Barnet, and a drawing by Bill Smith.

The addition to the Will Barnet papers received in 2016 includes biographical material, correspondence, writings, diaries and daybooks, gallery and exhibition files, project and professional files, printed material, and photographic material. Measuring 19.7 linear feet and 7.24 gigabytes, the addition greatly expands on the original donation, particularly in the diaries and daybooks, which include entries from over five decades. Barnet's long career and professional activities are also well documented in the gallery, exhibition, project, and professional files.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged as 8 series.

Missing Title

Series 1: Biographical Materials, 1945-1995 (2 linear feet; Boxes 1-2, FC 34)

Series 2: Correspondence, 1940-2001 (3 linear feet; Boxes 3-5, OV 12)

Series 3: Writings, 1940-2000 (3.1 linear feet; Boxes 5-9)

Series 4: Personal Business Records, 1950-1981 (5 folders; Box 9)

Series 5: Printed Material and Publications, 1938-2001 (2.3 linear feet; Boxes 9-11)

Series 6: Photographic Materials, 1939-2001 (0.5 linear feet; Box 11, OV 12)

Series 7: Artwork, 1938-1983 (3 folders; Box 11)

Series 8: Addition to the Will Barnet Papers, 1897, 1929-2016 (19.7 linear feet; Box 13-32, OV 33; 7.24 Gigabytes; ER01-ER06)
Biographical / Historical:
Will Barnet (1911-2012) was a painter, printmaker, and educator who lived and worked in New York City.

Barnet was born in Beverly, Massachusetts to Noah and Sarahdina Barnet. After showing an early interest and affinity for art, he attended the School of the Museum of Fine Arts in Boston. In 1931, he received a scholarship to attend the Art Students League where he studied with Stuart Davis and began building his printmaking techniques. In 1935, he was appointed the League's official printer, and was given his first teaching position there the following year. In 1938, working in the style of social realism, he held his first gallery show at the Hudson Walker Gallery in Manhattan. That same year, Barnet married Mary Sinclair, with whom he had three sons.

In the 1940s and 50s, Barnet began to move away from realism and started painting domestic familial subjects in geometric abstract styles, a move influenced by Native American and modern European art. By 1953, he had divorced and was remarried to Elena Ciurlys, with whom he had a daughter. Elena and his daughter were the subject of many of his representational, dimensionally flat paintings in the 1960s and 70s. During the 60s, Barnet also returned to large scale abstract art, and moved back and forth between styles throughout the rest of his career into the 2000s.

As an educator, Barnet taught graphic arts, printmaking, composition, and painting courses at the League from 1936 to 1980, and also taught courses Cooper Union, Yale, and the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts. He received numerous awards, including the first Artist's Lifetime Achievement Award given on the National Academy of Design's 175th anniversary, the College Art Association's Lifetime Achievement Award, and the 2011 National Medal of Arts.

Will Barnet died in his home in Manhattan, New York on November 13, 2012.
Related Materials:
The Archives of American Art holds three oral history interviews with Will Barnet, one conducted by Richard Baker, January 20, 1964, one by Paul Cummings, January 15, 1968, and another by Stephen Polcari on April 9, 1993. Also found are two additional related collections, a transcript of an interview by Louis Newman with Molly Barnes and Will Barnet, and Peter Barnet's research material on Will Barnet. Syracuse University holds additional papers of Will Barnet.
Separated Materials:
Also found in the Archives are papers that were lent for microfilming (reels N68-22, N69-126, and N70-48.) Most but not all of this material was included in subsequent donations, except for scattered news clippings and exhibition catalogs. The microfilm is not described in the container listing of this finding aid.
Provenance:
Will Barnet loaned his papers to the Archives of American Art for microfilming in 1968. He donated most of this material along with additional papers in several increments between 1968-2001. More papers were donated 2016 by Elena Barnet, Will Barnet's widow.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment. Use of archival audiovisual recordings with no duplicate access copy requires advance notice.
Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Occupation:
Art teachers  Search this
Topic:
Painters -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Printmakers -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Function:
Artists' studios -- New York (State)
Genre/Form:
Video recordings
Transcripts
Interviews
Visitors' books
Sound recordings
Sketches
Photographs
Citation:
Will Barnet papers, 1897, 1929-2016. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.barnwill
See more items in:
Will Barnet papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/mw94b18a14b-ad29-43f9-ba52-836c611a4da8
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-barnwill
Online Media:

Jimmy Hedges papers and Rising Fawn Folk Art Gallery records

Creator:
Hedges, Jimmy, 1942-2014  Search this
Names:
Rising Fawn Folk Art Gallery  Search this
Blizzard, Georgia, 1919-2002  Search this
Finster, Howard, 1916-2001  Search this
Green, Homer, 1910-2002  Search this
Harvey, Bessie, 1929-  Search this
Hoskinson, Danny  Search this
Lancaster, Paul  Search this
Mohammed, A.J.  Search this
Simmons, Charlie  Search this
Sudduth, Jimmy Lee, 1910-2007  Search this
Tolliver, Mose, 1920-  Search this
Young, Purvis, 1943-  Search this
Extent:
23.5 Linear feet
15.63 Gigabytes
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Gigabytes
Photographs
Sound recordings
Video recordings
Date:
1969-2016, bulk 1991-2013
Summary:
The papers of art collector and dealer Jimmy Hedges and the records of his Rising Fawn Folk Art Gallery measure 23.5 linear feet and 15.63 GB and date from 1969-2016, with the bulk of the material dating from 1991-2013. The collection documents Hedges's career as a dealer of outsider art and as an advocate for self-taught artists. Records include administrative and sales records, correspondence, artist files, collector and gallery files, exhibition and art fair files, regional files, printed and digital material, photographic material, and unidentified sound and video recordings. The bulk of the collection consists of artist files and color photographs documenting hundreds of artists that Hedges visited at their homes and studios, including Georgia Blizzard, Howard Finster, Homer Green, Bessie Harvey, Danny Hoskinson, Paul Lancaster, A.J. Mohammed, Charlie Simmons, Jimmy Lee Sudduth, Mose Tolliver, and Purvis Young, among many others.
Scope and Contents:
The records of art collector and dealer Jimmy Hedges and his Rising Fawn Folk Art Gallery measure 23.5 linear feet and 15.63 GB and date from 1969-2016, with the bulk of the material dating from 1991-2013. The collection documents Hedges's career as a dealer of outsider art and as an advocate for self-taught artists. Records include administrative and sales records, correspondence, artist files, collector and gallery files, exhibition and art fair files, regional files, printed and digital material, photographic material, and unidentified sound and video recordings. The bulk of the collection consists of artist files and color photographs documenting hundreds of artists that Hedges visited at their homes and studios, including Georgia Blizzard, Howard Finster, Homer Green, Bessie Harvey, Danny Hoskinson, Paul Lancaster, A.J. Mohammed, Charlie Simmons, Jimmy Lee Sudduth, Mose Tolliver, and Purvis Young, among many others.
Arrangement:
This collection is arranged as 9 series.

Missing Title

Series 1: Administrative and Sales Records, 1969-1971, 1991-2015 (Boxes 1-4; 3.9 linear feet, ER01-ER03; 0.134 GB)

Series 2: Correspondence, 1974, 1981, 1990-2013 (Boxes 4-5; 0.2 linear feet)

Series 3: Artist Files, 1985-2014 (Boxes 5-9, 31, 33, OV 32; 4.6 linear feet, ER04-ER15; 5.35 GB)

Series 4: Collector and Gallery Files, 1992-2014 (Boxes 9-10; 1.2 linear feet)

Series 5: Exhibition and Art Fair Records, circa 1992-2013 (Boxes 10-11; 1.3 linear feet, ER16-ER18; 1.52 GB)

Series 6: Regional Files, 1976, 1980s-2012 (Boxes 11-13; 1.7 linear feet)

Series 7: Printed Material, 1980-2013 (Boxes 13-16, OV 32; 2.2 linear feet, ER19; 0.833 GB)

Series 8: Photographic Material, circa 1990-2011 (Boxes 16-30, 34-35; 7.9 linear feet, ER20-ER35; 7.79 GB)

Series 9: Unidentified Sound and Video Recordings, undated (Boxes 30-31; 0.5 linear feet)
Biographical / Historical:
James R. "Jimmy" Hedges III (1942-2014), was an artist, art collector and dealer of Outsider Art and Folk art in Tennessee and Georgia. Hedges established the Rising Fawn Folk Art Gallery, Lookout Mountain, Georgia.

Born into a prominent family from Chattanooga, Jimmy Hedges was a lifelong philanthropist as a trustee of his family's Tonya Memorial Foundation. His true vocation, however, was as an artist, collector, and dealer of outsider art and as an advocate for self-taught artists. Hedges discovered his love of wood carving as a teenager, when he created song birds, and returned to making art at age forty. Using a chain saw, he carved sculptures of Southerners he had encountered in his travels, including artists. His colleagues in this sector of the fine art craft world were predominantly southern African American self-taught painters, sculptors, potters, and carvers. Befriending them and collecting their work led Hedges to establish Rising Fawn Folk Art Gallery in 1993, building a gallery space in the early 2000s on his 500-acre farm in Lookout Mountain, Georgia.

An unconventional art dealer, Hedges would hand-deliver work to collectors' homes, driving his truck through backroads and stopping along the way to visit with artists and purchase more works to sell. He was an active presence at the Outsider Art Fair and self-taught artist exhibitions throughout the U.S., as well as at Slotin Folk Art auctions and prison auctions. His aim was to improve the economic condition of fellow artists and raise their profiles among curators and critics. Hedges' development of an archive was essential to this goal.
Provenance:
Donated 2016 by James R. Hedges IV on behalf of the Hedges Descendants Trust and in 2018 by James R. Hedges IV on behalf of Wildcat Asset Managment, LLC.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment. Use of archival audiovisual records or born digital records with no duplicate access copy requires advance notice.
Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Occupation:
Art dealers -- Tennessee  Search this
Topic:
Self-taught artists  Search this
Art -- Collectors and collecting  Search this
Folk art  Search this
Outsider art  Search this
Artists' studios -- Photographs  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Sound recordings
Video recordings
Citation:
Jimmy Hedges papers and Rising Fawn Folk Art Gallery records, 1969-2016, bulk 1991-2013. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.hedgjimm
See more items in:
Jimmy Hedges papers and Rising Fawn Folk Art Gallery records
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/mw9ce145e76-5e8c-4c6e-988b-6c2570b7dea7
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-hedgjimm
Online Media:

William Cushing Loring papers

Creator:
Loring, William Cushing, 1879-  Search this
Names:
Musée du Louvre  Search this
National Gallery (Great Britain)  Search this
Rhode Island School of Design  Search this
Alma-Tadema, Lawrence, Sir, 1836-1912  Search this
Loring, Elizabeth  Search this
Loring, Helen  Search this
Loring, Robert  Search this
Loring, Stanton D.  Search this
Millet, Francis Davis, 1846-1912  Search this
Sargent, John Singer, 1856-1925  Search this
Photographer:
Chickering, Elmer  Search this
Extent:
0.7 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Sketches
Paintings
Photographs
Illustrated letters
Date:
1899-1961
Summary:
The papers of American portrait painter William Cushing Loring (1897-1959) measure 0.7 linear feet and date from 1899-1961. The majority of the collection consists of correspondence, including letters which document Loring's artistic education in Paris and London 1900-1904. Also found within the collection are letters from other Loring family members, printed materials which document Loring's artistic career, and photographs of the artist and his work.
Scope and Contents:
The William Cushing Loring papers measure 0.7 linear feet and date from 1899-1961. The collection documents Loring's artistic education in Paris and London and his career as an artist and instructor through correspondence, printed materials, and photographs.

Correspondence consists primarily of letters from William Cushing Loring to other Loring family members, including Stanton D. Loring, his father; Mrs. Stanton D. Loring, his mother; Robert Loring, his brother; and Elizabeth and Helen Loring, his sisters. Letters document Loring's life as an artist living abroad in Paris and London. He writes of visits to the studios of John Singer Sargent, Francis David Millet, and Lawrence Alma-Tadema; trips to museums and galleries; excursions to copy paintings in the Louvre and the London National Gallery; evening entertainment; and accounts of daily expenses. Some letters addressed to his parents include illustrations, sketches in ink and graphite, as well as miniature paintings. Letters from Helen Loring and Robert Loring to their parents, as well as unidentified letters, are also present. Envelopes are for the most part matched to letters, but fragment envelopes and letters are integrated within collection.

Printed materials include exhibition catalogs, newspaper obituary clippings for William Cushing Loring, bulletins for Rhode Island School of Design alumni, a holiday card for Loring's studio, and business cards.

Photographic material includes photographs of works of art by William Cushing Loring and photographs of the artist. Photographs of the artist include portraits and photographs of Loring with his family. Included among photographs of works of art are photos by Elmer Chickering.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged as three series.

Missing Title

Series 1: Correspondence, 1899-1904 (0.5 linear feet; Box 1-2)

Series 2: Printed Material, circa 1905-1961(4 folders; Box 2)

Series 3: Photographic Material, circa 1905 (4 folders; Box 2, OV 3)
Biographical / Historical:
William Cushing Loring (1897-1959) was an American painter and teacher born in Newton Center, MA. He studied at Boston Museum of Fine Arts, Chase's Art School in New York, Academie Colarossi and Academie Delecluse in Paris, and for two years in Holland and London. Loring was best known for his portraiture. He was appointed head of the painting and drawing department at the Rhode Island School of Design in 1905, and taught at La Salle Junior College in Auburn, Massachusetts from 1921 to 1939.
Provenance:
The collection was donated by William Loring Cushing, Jr., son of the artist, in 1985.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C. Research Center. Contact Reference Services for more information.
Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Occupation:
Painters -- Massachusetts  Search this
Topic:
Expatriate painters -- France -- Paris  Search this
Art -- Study and teaching -- France -- Paris  Search this
Expatriate artists -- England -- London  Search this
Art -- Study and teaching -- England -- London  Search this
Educators -- United States  Search this
Function:
Artists' studios -- France
Genre/Form:
Sketches
Paintings
Photographs
Illustrated letters
Citation:
William Cushing Loring papers, 1899-1961. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.loriwill
See more items in:
William Cushing Loring papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/mw9da93cc29-2538-42dc-8708-4412075c86de
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-loriwill
Online Media:

Robert Reid papers

Creator:
Reid, Robert, 1862-1929  Search this
Names:
Reid, Charles D.  Search this
Reid, Sara Bigelow  Search this
Extent:
0.9 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Scrapbooks
Photographs
Date:
circa 1880-circa 1930
Summary:
The papers of New York painter Robert Reid measure 0.9 linear feet and date from circa 1880-circa 1930. The collection provides scattered documentation of Reid's career and family history through a certificate, letters, an essay of family recollections, scrapbooks containing letters, writings, printed material and family photographs, printed material about Reid, and photographs of Reid, his studio, travels, and works of art.
Scope and Contents:
The papers of New York painter Robert Reid measure 0.9 linear feet and date from circa 1880-circa 1930. The collection provides scattered documentation of Reid's career and family history through a certificate, letters, an essay of family recollections, scrapbooks containing letters, writings, printed material and family photographs, printed material about Reid, and photographs of Reid, his studio, travels, and works of art.

Letters are primarily from Robert Reid to his sister Sara Bigelow Reid and document a single year in Reid's life (1887) when he moved to Paris and traveled to Italy, serving as a diary of his activities through October of that year. Writings consist of an essay and journal entries entitled "Really Random Recollections of Charles D. Reid for Robert N. Reid" written by Robert Reid's brother Charles between 1918 and 1920. Scrapbooks 1 and 2 were compiled by Charles D. Reid and document Reid family history. Scrapbook 3 consists primarily of correspondence between Charles D. Reid and various schools concerning his interest in vocational education and a 1913 paper he wrote on that subject. Scrapbook 4 has had most entries removed and is inscribed by Charles D. Reid's father "Jared Reid Jr., Hartford Ct., Jan. 1880." Charles D. Reid presumably removed the entries to place in Scrapbooks 1-3.

Photographs of Reid include a group of men (circa 1880s) with Reid in the back row, of Reid working on a mural, and a 1927 portrait of Reid. Additional photographs of Reid are found in the scrapbooks. Also found is a copy print of Reid's studio, photographs of Europe, photographs of works of art by Reid, and a photograph of the stage and crowd at an unidentified event.
Arrangement:
Due to the small size of the collection the papers are arranged as one series.

Missing Title

Series 1: Robert Reid Papers, circa 1880-circa 1930 (Boxes 1-2; 0.9 linear feet)
Biographical / Historical:
Robert Reid (1862-1929) was a painter, muralist, craftsman, and teacher who worked primarily in New York City and Colorado.

Robert Reid was born in 1862 in Stockbridge Massachusetts and studied at the School of Painting and Drawing of the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, from 1880-1884. He then moved to New York City and studied at the Art Students' League before moving to Paris in 1885, where he continued his studies at the Académie Julian over the next four years.

In 1887 Reid embarked on a tour of Italy that included visits to Milan, Venice, Florence, Rome and Naples. On his visits to Naples he was accompanied by several cousins, including Clara Field, who were on an extended European tour. Throughout the year Reid recorded his experiences and impressions in letters to his sister, Sara Bigelow Reid. In March of 1887 he submitted the first of three paintings to the Paris Salon, all of which were subsequently accepted.

In 1889 Reid returned to the United States and settled in New York City, teaching at the Cooper Union and the Art Students' League and painting portraits before embarking on various mural and decorative art projects. His first mural project was for one of the eight domes in the Liberal Arts Building of the World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago in 1892. In 1897 he painted allegories of the five senses for octagonal panels in the Library of Congress, and in 1899 executed a large allegorical mural for the New York Appellate Division Court House. The Boston State House includes three large panels, including "Paul Revere's Ride" and the "Boston Tea Party," painted by Reid between 1901 and 1904. His stained glass work included a 1906 series of ten windows for the Unitarian Memorial Church at Fairhaven, Massachusetts.

During the 1890s Reid's return to outdoor work and his easel paintings demonstrated a balance between decorative and Impressionist techniques, and were often of women in landscape settings holding or carrying flowers. In 1898 he exhibited as one of the Ten American Painters who seceded from the Society of American Artists in favor of a less traditional, more Impressionistic style.

In the 1920s Reid moved to Colorado Springs and taught at the Broadmoor Art Academy. Several years before his death, Reid taught himself to paint with his left hand after suffereing a stroke that resulted in paralysis of his right hand. He died in Clifton Springs, New York, in 1929.

H. Barbara Weinberg's 1975 essay "Robert Reid: Academic 'Impressionist'" (Archives of American Art Journal, Vol 15, No. 1, 1975) was used in the writing of this Biographical Note.
Provenance:
The collection was donated to the Archives of American Art by Joseph Bowdring in 1973. Bowdring purchased the papers along with Reid's paintings.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C. Research Center. Contact Reference Services for more information.
Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Topic:
Artists' studios -- Photographs  Search this
Painters -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Genre/Form:
Scrapbooks
Photographs
Citation:
Robert Reid papers, circa 1880-circa 1930. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.reidrobe
See more items in:
Robert Reid papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/mw9c60f3ab0-1270-4c8e-a32f-8c6758a98d60
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-reidrobe
Online Media:

Elizabeth Campbell Fisher Clay papers

Creator:
Clay, Elizabeth Campbell Fisher, 1871-1959  Search this
Names:
Smith College  Search this
Henri, Robert, 1865-1929  Search this
Rothenstein, William, Sir, 1872-1945  Search this
Extent:
1.9 Linear feet
0.057 Gigabytes
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Gigabytes
Sketches
Photographs
Sound recordings
Drawings
Travel diaries
Paintings
Sketchbooks
Diaries
Place:
Netherlands -- description and travel
New York (N.Y.) -- Description and views
France -- description and travel
California -- description and travel
England -- description and travel
Date:
circa 1873-circa 2015
bulk 1890-1930
Summary:
The papers of Massachusetts lithographer and etcher Elizabeth Campbell Fisher Clay measure 1.9 linear feet and 0.057 GB and date from circa 1873 to circa 2015, with the bulk of materials from 1890 to 1930. This collection includes biographical materials, correspondence, writings, fifteen diaries, six travel diaries, teaching files, artwork, printed materials, and photographs.
Scope and Contents:
The papers of Massachusetts lithographer and etcher Elizabeth Campbell Fisher Clay measure 1.9 linear feet and 0.057 GB and date from circa 1873 to circa 2015, with the bulk of materials from 1890 to 1930. This collection includes biographical materials, correspondence, writings, fifteen diaries, six travel diaries, teaching files, artwork, printed materials, and photographs.

Biographical materials include ephemera from a Spain trip, and other miscellany.

The bulk of the correspondence consists of letters from artist Robert Henri giving advice and information about travel plans and visits. Other correspondents include family members, the artist William Rothenstein, and a few others.

Writings include annotated appointment calendars, art class notes, notebooks, and a book register. Diaries and travel diaries describe Smith College, feedback from Robert Henri regarding artwork, and travels abroad to England, France, and Holland, as well as to New York and California. There are a few sketches scattered throughout the diaries. There is an audiocassette and digitized photographs and content related to the diaries. There is also an annotated chronological list of the diaries.

Artwork consists of one sketchbook and several folders of loose sketches, drawings, and paintings of people and places.

Printed materials consist of a few news clippings about Smith College, a newspaper image of an art class trip to Spain, 2 reviews of exhibitions, and a clipping about the New York School of Art.

Photographs are of Elizabeth Campbell Fisher Clay, family, friends, artists, travel, and houses. There are three photograph albums: one of the woods around Smith College; another album of travel photographs in France and Holland that includes photographs of Clay and fellow art students painting at various locations; and an album of Paris photographs that depict the studio Clay shared with other students, friends, and a few images of Robert Henri. Some photographs are annotated.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged as 7 series.

Missing Title

Series 1: Biographical Material, 1906-circa 2015 (0.1 linear feet, 0.001 MB; Box 1, ER01)

Series 2: Correspondence, 1897-1960 (0.1 linear feet; Box 1)

Series 3: Writings and Notebooks, circa 1898-1959 (0.1 linear feet; Box 1)

Series 4: Diaries, 1887-circa 2005 (1 linear feet, 0.016 GB; Boxes 1-2, ER02-ER03)

Series 5: Artwork, circa 1890-circa 1957 (0.3 linear feet, Boxes 2-3, OV 4)

Series 6: Printed Materials, 1894-1957 (0.1 linear feet; Box 3, OV 4)

Series 7: Photographs, circa 1873-1987 (0.2 linear feet; Box 3)
Biographical / Historical:
Elizabeth Campbell Fisher Clay (1871-1959) was a lithographer and etcher who worked in Massachusetts and Halifax, England.

Elizabeth Campbell Fisher Clay was born in West Dedham, Massachusetts in 1871. Her parents were Joseph and Mary Elizabeth Fisher and she had 2 siblings, Hattie and Joseph. Clay graduated from Smith College in Northampton, Massachusetts in 1892. She then attended the Museum of Fine Arts in Boston and the New York School of Art, where she studied under Robert Henri and William Merritt Chase from approximately 1898 to 1909. Around this same time, Clay traveled abroad and studied art in Holland and Spain. She also attended the Art Students League of New York and studied in Paris where she shared a studio with other art students. Robert Henri, whom Clay considered a mentor, regularly visited the Paris studio to review the students' work.

In 1908, Clay had a solo exhibition at Rowland's Gallery in Boston. In 1909, she married Howard Clay in Dedham, Massachusetts. Henry was the alderman of Halifax, England, and the couple moved there sometime after their marriage. They had three children, Howard Fisher Clay, Monica Mary, and Harriet.

Clay continued to exhibit her artwork in England for over 30 years. She exhibited at the British Society of Women Artists, the New English Art Club, the Royal Academy of Arts, the Royal Cambrian Academy of Art, the Royal Society of British Artists, the Women's International Art Club, and the Yorkshire Union of Arts. In Massachusetts, her artwork was in exhibitions at the Boston Art Club, the Copley Society of Art, and other venues.

Elizabeth Campbell Fisher Clay eventually returned to the United States and passed away in Philadelphia in 1959.
Provenance:
This collection was donated to the Archives of American Art in 2015 by Harriet Fisher Bemus, Elizabeth Campbell Fisher Clay's daughter.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washingon, D.C. Research Center. Contact Reference Services for more information. Use of archival audiovisual recordings with no duplicate access copy requires advance notice.
Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Occupation:
Lithographers -- Massachusetts  Search this
Etchers -- Massachusetts  Search this
Topic:
Art -- Study and teaching  Search this
Women artists  Search this
Women printmakers  Search this
Artists' studios -- Photographs  Search this
Genre/Form:
Sketches
Photographs
Sound recordings
Drawings
Travel diaries
Paintings
Sketchbooks
Diaries
Citation:
Elizabeth Campbell Fisher Clay papers, circa 1873-circa 2015, bulk 1890-1930. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.clayeliz
See more items in:
Elizabeth Campbell Fisher Clay papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/mw94cb6f3e6-516d-4599-b45d-bd675608cf03
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-clayeliz

Joseph Cornell Study Center Collection

Artist:
Cornell, Joseph  Search this
Names:
Benton, Elizabeth Cornell  Search this
Cornell, Robert  Search this
Extent:
196.8 Linear feet
186 Nitrate negatives
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Nitrate negatives
Photographic photoprints
Photographs
Place:
New York, New York
Date:
1750-1980, bulk 1930-1972
Summary:
The Joseph Cornell Study Center collection measures 196.8 linear feet and dates from 1750 to 1980, with the bulk of the material dating from 1930 to 1972. Documenting the artistic career and personal life of assemblage artist Joseph Cornell (1903-1972), the collection is primarily made up of two- and three-dimensional source material, the contents of the artists' studio, his record album collection, and his book collection and personal library. The collection also includes diaries and notes, financial and estate papers, exhibition materials, collected artifacts and ephemera, photographs, correspondence, and the papers of Robert Cornell (1910-1965) and Helen Storms Cornell (1882-1966), the artist's brother and mother.
Scope and Contents:
The Joseph Cornell Study Center collection measures 196.8 linear feet and dates from 1750 to 1980, with the bulk of the material dating from 1930 to 1972. Documenting the artistic career and personal life of assemblage artist Joseph Cornell (1903-1972), the collection is primarily made up of two- and three-dimensional source material, the contents of the artists' studio, his record album collection, and his book collection and personal library. The collection also includes diaries and notes, financial and estate papers, exhibition materials, collected artifacts and ephemera, photographs, correspondence, and the papers of Robert Cornell (1910-1965) and Helen Storms Cornell (1882-1966), the artist's brother and mother.

Correspondence is with collectors, museums, galleries, artists, friends, family, charity organizations, admirers and those admired by Cornell, and World War II European pen pals. Discussions about the appreciation, donation, sale, purchase, and exhibition of Cornell's works are frequent, with the inclusion of shipping and loan documentation or notices of payment installments. Galleries and museums frequently request that Cornell agree to an exhibition, which he often declines, and fans request free works be mailed or affordable works be sold to them. With friends, artists, and those he admired, Cornell discussed topics that fascinate him, included bits of poetry or philosophical musings, sent clippings or a collaged letter, and occasionally discussed a project or work in process. After World War II, when so many were displaced by the war in Europe, Cornell answered ads for pen pals in the "Christian Science Monitor," often responding to requests for clothing or other goods, and sometimes exchanging many letters over several years. Family correspondence is with his mother, sisters, brother, and others, and often notes activities of the day, foods eaten, and general musings, as well as occasionally mentioning a project or artwork. Correspondents of note include Stan Brakhage, Betty Freeman, Charles Henri Ford, Allegra Kent, Yayoi Kusama, Roberto Matta, Marianne Moore, Octavio Paz, Sonia Sekula, Pavel Tchelitchew, Parker Tyler, Dorothea Tanning, and Betsy von Furstenberg, among others.

Cornell was often preoccupied with his thoughts, feelings, memories, a project or thematic "exploration," and jotted notes on seemingly any surface available. Notes and musings are on napkins, the backs of envelopes, newspaper clippings, and paper bags from record and magazine stores. Frequently, an observation would trigger a lengthy nostalgic moment, or a "feé," fairy-like child or girl, would capture his imagination and lead him to thoughts of 18th-century ballerinas and silent film stars. Cornell wrote longer diary notes, sometimes expanding on an earlier notation or emotion, and often wrote when he experienced trouble sleeping or woke early. Drafted letters to imaginary muses or admired individuals are interspersed among diaries, often revealing Cornell's yearnings to find emotional intimacy and human connection. Over time, Cornell revisited his notes and occasionally made further notations about renewed thoughts on a topic, dating the note with "revisited" or "reviewed." Notes are often written in a stream-of-consciousness style, for example, jumping from the mention of a record album or composer, to a ballerina of the same period, a note about a French poet, the memory of childhood, or an observation made earlier in the day, all in the space of a few lines. Notes about artistic processes or meanings behind works or images do occasionally emerge from the tangled, poetic notations. Notes also often provide insights into Cornell's internal emotional state and give clues about his intentions behind an artwork or a particular thematic fixation.

Financial materials document Cornell's professional and personal business activities, including the sale of artworks, annual expenses for supplies and household incidentals, payments and schedules for personal assistants, receipts for donations to charities and nonprofits, and tax documents. There is also information about who worked as assistants, or "helpers," in his later years and where Cornell purchased art supplies. Additionally, specific details are documented through receipts and invoices, such as what kind of paint he purchased. Estate records include preparations made for Cornell's artworks after his death, and clippings about other deceased artist's estates show that he thought often about such arrangements in his later years.

Exhibition files highlight several select solo exhibitions for Cornell, as well as preparations and planning for the "Robert Cornell: Memorial Exhibition" in honor of his brother in 1966. Also included are several early exhibition catalogs and announcements, including "Surréalisme" (January 9-29, 1932) and "Exhibition of Objects (Bibloquet) by Joseph Cornell" (December 6-31, 1939) at the Julien Levy Gallery, and "Romantic Museum: Portraits of Women, Constructions and Arrangements by Joseph Cornell" (December 1946) at the Hugo Gallery.

Film projects and collected film materials consist of files related to Cornell's various experimental film projects: "Aviary," "Cappuccino," "Centuries of June," "Fable for Fountains," "Nymphlight," "Serafina's Garden," and unrealized film scenario "Monsieur Phot." Files include film-making notes, correspondence, and photographs. Cornell's interest in film also led him to collect film-related materials, such as film stills, film posters, and screening programs. Scattered correspondence documents the interest other institutions and individuals had in purchasing and viewing his collection. Though most of his collected film stills and movie posters were donated to the Anthology Film Archives, film stills from "Escape Me Never" (1935) and "The Passion of Joan of Arc" (1928) are still within the collection, as well as film-screening programs for Cornell's collection of films.

Writing and design projects document Cornell's work authoring articles and designing issues of specialty dance magazine "Dance Index," and his layouts for popular magazines like "Good Housekeeping," "House and Garden," and "Mademoiselle." Other writing projects include brochures dedicated to opera singers Maria Malibran and Giulia Grisi, "Maria" and "Bel Canto Pet." Materials used for these brochures, such as copper photo engraving plates, are also found. Design work includes a series of Christmas cards created with The Museum of Modern Art as well as traced patterns ("textile tracings") and design clippings from Cornell's time working as a "textile designer" for Traphagen Commercial Textile Studio.

Cornell acquired troves of source material from bookstalls, antique stores, sporting good and department stores, hardware stores, and magazine and record shops. He kept boxes and files of material on admired individuals, such as actresses, artists, dancers, and singers, as well as on art projects or thematic "explorations." Files are on general topics such as American history, scientific phenomena, animals, plants, and humankind, as well as on series of artworks, such as "Castles," "Homage to the Romantic Ballet," and "Medici Slot Machines." Focused "exploration" projects include "Celestial Theatre," "Colombier," "GC 44," and "Switzerland," among others. Materials include photographs, photostats, maps, book fragments, autographed letters, notes, collage clippings and cutouts, collected prints and engravings, box and collage fragments, and scattered artifacts.

Collected ephemera includes large amounts of blank postcards and greeting cards, stamps, collected bus and train tickets, food labels and packaging, decals, and other materials. Artifacts are three-dimensional collected objects and source objects, which include found objects from the streets, dried flowers, and pieces of nature gathered from walks around his neighborhood. Cornell may have gathered materials because they inspired a memory or nostalgic feeling, or because they fit with a bin of other similar objects to select from for an artwork in progress.

Photographs found within the collection are of Cornell at work and as a child with family. Also found are assorted personal and family photographs, photographs of Cornell's attic and garage storage, and photographs of his Utopia Parkway house. Photographs of artwork include few installation photographs, in addition to photographs of Cornell's boxes and collages. Collected photographic materials include vintage photographs, such as tintypes, a cyanotype, stereoscopic glass slides, albumen prints, cabinet cards, and cartes-de-visite. Cornell also collected cased photographs, such as daguerreotypes, ambrotypes, and one opalotype. Negatives and photostats were often produced from various prints and even other photographs and used in Cornell's boxes and collages. Images are of men and women, actors, authors, dancers, performers, well-known men and women, royalty, places, and artwork. Photographs of note include those by Hans Namuth of Willem and Lisa de Kooning and of Edward Hopper's bedroom; photographs by Henri Cartier-Bresson; a photograph by Julia Margaret Cameron; photographs by Brassai; and a photogravure by Alfred Stieglitz from "Camerawork."

Also found in the collection are works of art by others, including a sketch by Pavel Tchelitchew, as well as artwork by Cornell, such as unfinished collages, Rorschach drawings or ink blots, and childhood artwork. Printed material includes assorted bulletins, flyers, exhibition materials for other artists, journals, and sent printed membership and charity materials. Magazines, including "View," are also included, and often have annotations by Cornell or a note to "cut" or "review" with page numbers. A large amount of magazine and newspaper clippings are in the collection, sometimes collected with a group of like material by Cornell, and at other times simply gathered in heaps. Occasional annotations are also found on the clippings.

Cornell's personal library and book collection includes over 2500 titles, ranging from fiction, poetry, and cinema, to history, science, and travel. Notable among the titles are "Baedeker's" travel guides that Cornell often sourced for his "Hotel" box series, as well as an influential publication by Max Ernst, "La Femme 100 têtes," which includes a typed letter and exhibition flyer tucked within. Books often have annotations, some fairly extensive, by Cornell, and assorted collected items, notes, and correspondence tucked between pages. Pages were often cut by Cornell, either to make photostats and use in a box, or to file with other thematic "explorations." A wide range of authors and topics provide insight into Cornell's interests and to ideas behind artwork and diary notes. Cornell's collection of record albums includes over 145 records. These contain inserted notes and clippings and are often referenced in diary notes Cornell made, noting a recent album or song listened to while at work in his studio.

The papers of Cornell's mother, Helen Storms Cornell, and his brother, Robert Cornell, are also included in the collection. Both lived with Cornell his whole life, spending the most time with him at their home at 3708 Utopia Parkway. Financial materials document shared responsibilities for billing, utilities, household fixes and chores, and expenditures, and Helen kept detailed financial records in a series of ledgers. Robert notes when he borrowed money from Cornell, or when he means to pay Cornell back for the purchase of a typewriter. Activities documented in diaries also occasionally cross paths with Cornell, noting his visitors or an exchange of letters continued after introductions through Cornell. Personal activities, such as Robert's interest in his train collection and his drawing projects and cartoon series, are also documented.
Arrangement:
The Joseph Cornell Study Center Collection is arranged into 15 series:

Series 1: Biographical Material, 1917-1972 (Boxes 1, 98, OV118; 0.9 linear feet)

Series 2: Correspondence, 1813, 1934-circa 1973 (Boxes 1-8, 86; 6.5 linear feet)

Series 3: Diaries and Notes, 1940-1976 (Boxes 8-10, 98-99, 135, OV108, OV119; 3.5 linear feet)

Series 4: Personal Business and Estate Records, 1950-1978 (Boxes 10-14; 4.1 linear feet)

Series 5: Exhibition Files, 1932-1973 (Box 14; 0.3 linear feet)

Series 6: Film Projects and Collected Film Materials, circa 1924-1972 (Boxes 14-16, 100, 133; 1.6 linear feet)

Series 7: Writing and Design Projects, circa 1910s, 1936-1962 (Boxes 16-18, 86, 100, 131-132, OV109-OV111, OV120-OV122; 3.6 linear feet)

Series 8: Source Material, 1750-circa 1911, 1926-1972 (Boxes 19-49, 86-92, 96, 100-105, 126-130, 132-137, OV112-OV115, OV125; 42.2 linear feet)

Series 9: Artifacts and Ephemera, 1768, circa 1839-1972 (Boxes 49-52; 3.2 linear feet)

Series 10: Photographic Material, circa 1800s-1972 (Boxes 52-56, 80-86, 93, 106, 128, 133, OV116, OV123-OV124; 7.5 linear feet)

Series 11: Artwork, circa 1810-1972 (Boxes 56-57, 107, OV117; 1.2 linear feet)

Series 12: Printed Material, 1855-1972 (Boxes 57-76, 94-96, 107; 16 linear feet)

Series 13: Book Collection and Personal Library, 1722-1980 (99.8 linear feet)

Series 14: Record Album Collection, circa 1925-1974 (3.2 linear feet)

Series 15: Cornell Family Papers, 1910-1980 (Boxes 77-79, 97, 107; 3.2 linear feet)
Biographical / Historical:
Joseph Cornell (1903-1972) was a self-taught assemblage and collage artist, and filmmaker, active in New York City. He was born in Nyack, New York on December 24, 1903, and died of heart failure at his home in Queens, New York on December 29, 1972. The oldest of four children, he was born Joseph I. Cornell to his mother, Helen Storms Cornell (1882-1966), and his father, Joseph I. Cornell (1875-1917). Cornell had two younger sisters, Elizabeth ("Betty") Cornell Benton (1905-2000) and Helen ("Sissy") Cornell Jagger (1906-2001), as well as one brother, Robert Cornell (1910-1965), who had cerebral palsy.

Cornell attended the Phillips Academy, a preparatory boarding school in Andover, Massachusetts, beginning shortly after his father's death in 1917. He attended for four years but did not receive a diploma, and soon began work as a textile salesman for the William Whitman Company in Manhattan. His work took him, by foot, through the city, visiting secondhand bookshops on Fourth Avenue, browsing music stores and magazine shops, and catching early shows at the Metropolitan Opera House. He would occasionally wait outside the stage doors for favorite singers and dancers to emerge, requesting signatures on photographs or bits of costumes.

Around 1926, Cornell joined the Christian Science Church, joined by his brother Robert shortly thereafter, and both continued to be lifelong members. Cornell kept a number of books in his personal library on Christian Science teachings and regularly subscribed to "The Christian Science Monitor."

After living in several rental houses in Bayside, New York, Cornell's mother purchased a house for the family in 1929 in Flushing, Queens. Cornell, along with his mother and brother, would live at 3708 Utopia Parkway, for the rest of their lives. His two sisters soon married and moved away, eventually settling in Westhampton, Long Island and in the poultry-farming business.

With no formal art training to speak of, Cornell's first work was a Max Ernst-inspired collage, "Untitled (Schooner)," created in 1931. He was especially inspired by Ernst's collage novel, "La Femme 100 têtes," published in 1929. French artist Odilon Redon was also among the few artists Cornell named as an influence on his art. His first sculptural works were small, cardboard pill boxes with bits of ephemera, costume adornments, and nature hidden inside. Cornell also created a series of glass bell jar works, placing small trinkets and Victorian-era-like compositions within. It was these early collages and bell jar works that were included in Cornell's debut exhibition, "Surréalisme" (January 9-29, 1932), a group show at the Julien Levy Gallery. Cornell designed the announcement for the show and exhibited alongside Max Ernst, Man Ray, Pierre Roy, Pablo Picasso, Marcel Duchamp, Eugène Atget, George Platt Lynes, Jean Cocteau, and Salvador Dalí. Months later, Cornell was invited to have his first solo show, "Objects by Joseph Cornell: Minutiae, Glass Bells, Shadow Boxes, Coups d'Oeil, Jouets Surréalistes" (November 26-December 30, 1932), also at the Julien Levy Gallery.

In 1932, after eleven years of work, Cornell was laid off from the William Whitman Company due to the Great Depression. Soon after, he took on more responsibility in the church, working part-time as an attendant in the Christian Science Reading Room in Great Neck, New York. Beginning in 1933, he taught Sunday school classes for three years and in 1935, became the Sunday school librarian. However, his religious activities and artistic ventures continued to remain separate.

In the early 1930s, Cornell progressed from movie lover to filmmaker. When Julien Levy began his New York Film Society in 1933, holding screenings of various experimental films in the gallery, Cornell began buying and collecting films and film stills in earnest. He set up a 16-millimeter projector in his home to screen favorites, such as those by Georges Méliès, D.W. Griffith, and Louis Feuillade. His collection quickly grew to over 2,500 film stills and several hundred films, and included silent era films, such as nature documentaries, goofy newsreels, travelogues, early cartoons, and slapstick comedies, as well as several feature films. In 1933, Cornell wrote a screenplay, or "scenario," entitled "Monsieur Phot." Between 1935 and 1937, Cornell also occasionally created publicity photomontages for Universal and Columbia studios. Of the nearly thirty films Cornell created, periods of activity can generally be separated into two areas: collage films of the late 1930s, consisting of combined elements from films in his own collection, and films he directed in the 1950s, which were collaborations with other filmmakers set in New York City. "Rose Hobart," Cornell's most celebrated collage film, was created and shown in the Julien Levy Gallery in 1936 and includes clipped footage from "East of Borneo." Later films were directed and filmed with cinematographers Stan Brakhage, Rudy Burckhardt, and Larry Jordan.

In 1934, Cornell began a job at the Traphagen Commercial Textile Studio as a "textile designer," a job he held for six years. Continuing to work at his kitchen table in the evenings, Cornell completed his first assemblage box construction, "Untitled (Soap Bubble Set)," in 1936. It was first exhibited at The Museum of Modern Art's show, "Fantastic Art, Dada and Surrealism" (December 9, 1936-January 17, 1937). This work was also the first to be acquired by a museum, purchased for $60.00 by the Wadsworth Atheneum in Hartford, Connecticut in 1938. Cornell's European debut was also in 1938, as one of three Americans represented in the "Exposition Internationale du Surréalisme" (January 17-Febuary 24, 1938) at the Galerie Beaux-Arts in Paris, alongside Man Ray and Anne Clark.

At the end of 1939, Cornell began corresponding with poet Charles Henri Ford, founder of avant-garde magazine "View," Pavel Tchelitchew, and Parker Tyler. After his "Soap Bubble Sets," this period saw the development of Cornell's homages to singers and actresses, including "Untitled (Fortune-Telling Parrot for Carmen Miranda)," the destroyed "Garbo (Greta Garbo in the Legendary Film 'The Crystal Mask,' c. 1845)," and "Dressing Room for Gilles." He also began using photostats of art reproduction prints, as with the print of Jean Antoine-Watteau's painting, "Pierrot" (circa 1719), used in his "Gilles" box.

In the 1940s, the Romantic ballet emerged as Cornell's new topic of interest. Through his friend Pavel Tchelitchew, Cornell was introduced to the School of American Ballet and New York City Ballet founders, Lincoln Kirstein and George Balanchine. Cornell collected dance memorabilia and had a great love of the Romantic ballet. His favorite dancers were primarily ballerinas of the nineteenth century, including Fanny Cerrito, Marie Taglioni, Fanny Elssler, Lucille Grahn, and Carlotta Grisi. Cornell's "Homage to the Romantic Ballet" works largely took the shape of jewel-box style wooden boxes with glass overlays and included bits of velvet, tulle, sequins, crystals, and chiffon, occasionally collected from dancers themselves. His most well-known work of this series is "Taglioni's Jewel Casket" (1940). Cornell also admired several living ballet dancers, including Tamara Toumanova, Zizi Jeanmaire, and Allegra Kent, who would all make their way into Cornell's box works and/or collages. Collecting for the "exploration," "Portrait of Ondine," Cornell's cased portfolio dedication to Fanny Cerrito and her role in the ballet "Ondine," began in the 1940s, though not completed until around 1960.

In late 1940, Cornell quit his job at Traphagen to concentrate on freelance commercial magazine design and editorial work during the day and his artwork at night. That same year, Charles Henri Ford started "View" magazine to promote Surrealists and Neo-Romantics in New York City and often asked Cornell to contribute. Published in the December 1941-January 1942 issue, one of his early contributions was a collage dedication to stage actress Hedy Lamarr: "Enchanted Wanderer: Excerpt from a Journey Album for Hedy Lamarr" (1941). Along with writing the accompanying text, he created a photomontage of Lamarr with her face overlaying the painted portrait of a Renaissance boy by Italian painter Giorgione. Peggy Guggenheim, at the advice of Marcel Duchamp, purchased multiple Cornell works prior to opening her new gallery, Art of This Century. Cornell also befriended Roberto Matta Echaurren, another Surrealist living in exile, who introduced him to Robert Motherwell.

After deciding to fully dedicate his time to his art in early 1940, he set up a studio in his basement. Complete with floor-to-ceiling wooden shelving, he kept his large collection of boxed source material stacked with handwritten labels in cardboard boxes. Themed folders of materials such as "Stamps" or "Maps" were kept in stacks and works in progress and finished works were stored in the basement, garage, and attic. Entering a renewed period of productivity, Cornell embarked on many new and important box projects in 1942. One of the first boxes created in his new basement studio, and the first of the "Penny Arcade" or "Medici Slot Machine" series, was "Medici Slot Machine" (1942), which includes a photostat of "Portrait of Marquess Massimiliano Stampa" (1557) by Sofonisba Anguissola. Another work from this time is the first of his "Castle" or "Palace" series, "Setting for a Fairy Tale" (1942), which uses a photostat of a French building from Jacques Androuet du Cerceau's book, "Les Plus excellents bastiments de France" (1576). "Untitled (Pharmacy)" (circa 1942) was the first of his "Pharmacy" series and included twenty-two apothecary jars. Cornell tended to work in series and created thirteen "Palace" boxes between 1942 and 1951, and ultimately created six "Pharmacy" works.

In 1943, Cornell began working at an electronics company, the Allied Control Company, Inc., to do his part to contribute to the defense effort during the war. He also sent correspondence and care packages to displaced Europeans, who listed their needs in "The Christian Science Monitor." Influenced by World War II, one of his strongest works to emerge in 1943 was "Habitat Group for a Shooting Gallery." Another notable work to come out of this period, "The Crystal Cage (Portrait of Berenice)," was an excerpt from one of his album "explorations" that was published in the January 1943 issue of "View."

Cornell left his job at Allied Control in 1944, but soon began working at the Garden Centre in Flushing, owned by a fellow Christian Scientist. Cornell was often nostalgic for this time in his life, devoting an entire "exploration" of material fondly remembered as "GC 44." He rode a bicycle to work and enjoyed collecting trips gathering dried grasses, driftwood, shells, and other relics of nature on the same bicycle as he rode through the streets of Queens. During this time, he continued to tend to his projects for "Dance Index," a magazine founded in 1942 by Lincoln Kirstein, but taken over by Donald Windham in 1944. Cornell designed several covers for the magazine and was given control of the entire summer 1944 issue, which he devoted to the Romantic ballet. He also devoted a special 1945 issue to Hans Christian Andersen, making great use of the New York Public Library Picture Collection.

Throughout the 1940s, Cornell continued to support himself with commercial design work for magazines like "Vogue," "Good Housekeeping," "Harper's Bazaar," "Town & Country," and "Mademoiselle." In 1946, after thirteen years at the Julien Levy Gallery, he joined the Hugo Gallery. In December 1946, Cornell's solo exhibition, "Romantic Museum at the Hugo Gallery: Portraits of Women by Joseph Cornell," celebrated his favorite movie stars, singers, and ballet dancers, and included his work created for the show, "Untitled (Penny Arcade Portrait of Lauren Bacall)." Cornell's "Greta Garbo" box, as well as "Souvenir for Singleton," an homage to Jennifer Jones and her role in the film "Love Letters," were also included in the show. In late 1948, his West Coast debut was in the exhibition, "Objects by Joseph Cornell," held at the Copley Gallery. The end of the 1940s saw the final issue of "View" magazine in 1947, the closure of the Julien Levy Gallery in April 1949, and Cornell's departure from the Hugo Gallery after his last show in November 1949.

In late 1949, Cornell joined the Charles Egan Gallery, known primarily for showing Abstract Expressionists. At this time, Cornell was working on a new series of boxes known as his "Aviary" works, most of which include a white-painted box with cutouts of birds mounted on wood. Though he had worked on bird-related boxes before, including an "Owl" series in the mid-1940s, his "Fortune Telling Parrot" (1939), and "Object 1941" (1941), these newer works were stripped of French elements and left "clean and abstract" by design. His first show at the Egan Gallery, "Aviary by Joseph Cornell" (December 7, 1949-January 7, 1950), included twenty-six "Aviary" works, nearly all created in 1949. Donald Windham agreed to write the foreword for the exhibition catalog, a single folded sheet, and Cornell gave him one of the boxes in the show, "Cockatoo: Keepsake Parakeet," in appreciation. Through the Egan Gallery, Cornell became friends with a new group of artists, including Franz Kline, Jack Tworkov, and Willem de Kooning. Cornell also held two screenings of a selection of his collected films at Subjects of the Artist, an art school founded by Robert Motherwell, Mark Rothko, David Hare, and William Baziotes.

In 1950, Cornell's second show at the Egan Gallery, "Night Songs and Other New Work" (December 1, 1950-January 13, 1951), introduced his new "Observatory" series. These works are largely defined by stark, whitewashed spaces with astronomical charts and constellations replacing colorful birds. The Museum of Modern Art purchased its first Cornell work from this show in early 1951, "Central Park Carrousel, in Memoriam" (1950).

For three months in 1951, Cornell was beset by various ailments and had trouble finding the energy to create new work. He worried more for his aging mother and the health of his brother. After a monthlong vacation with his sisters in Westhampton, he returned with renewed interest in Emily Dickinson's poetry. His whitewashed boxes took on a new form in his newest "Dovecote" series, using grids and circular cutouts. The works then transformed into homages to Dickinson, notably "Toward the Blue Peninsula: For Emily Dickinson" (circa 1953), and then to his "Hotel" series. Cornell's "Hotel" boxes include photostats of vintage European ads for hotels collected from vintage travel guides, especially "Baedeker's," adhered to the back walls of the boxes. Another new series of work, his "Juan Gris" series, was dedicated to Cubist artist Juan Gris. Between 1953 and the mid-1960s, Cornell created at least fifteen "Juan Gris" boxes, which often include a cutout of a white cockatoo in a Cubist-collage habitat. Cornell's third and last show at Egan Gallery, "Night Voyage" (February 10-March 28, 1953), included some of these newest works. After leaving Egan Gallery, his work was introduced to Chicago collectors in a solo show at the Frumkin Gallery, "Joseph Cornell: 10 Years of His Art" (April 10-May 7, 1953), which included nearly thirty pieces. Cornell's first museum retrospective was this same show held at the Walker Art Center in Minneapolis (July 12-August 30, 1953).

As New York City continued to change, Cornell grew more nostalgic for the city he had explored since the 1920s. The impending closure of the Third Avenue El train prompted him to dream up a film project to capture its last days, resulting in "Gnir Rednow," a reworking of Stan Brakhage's 1955, "Wonder Ring." During this time, Cornell joined the Stable Gallery, run by Eleanor Ward, interacting often with Robert Rauschenberg, Cy Twombly, and Joan Mitchell, remaining there until the end of the 1950s. His astronomy-themed exhibition, "Winter Night Skies" (December 12, 1955-January 13, 1956), included his "Night Skies" series of work with celestial chart fragments, Greek mythological figures, and paint-splattered "windows" representative of star-filled night skies. In 1956, he became aware of ballerina Allegra Kent, and began a series of work devoted to her, the first of which was "Via Parmigianino (Villa Allegra)" (1956), which included a photostat of a painting by Parmigianino, "The Madonna of the Long Neck" (circa 1540). In late 1957, after two years, Cornell had his last show at Stable Gallery, "Joseph Cornell: Selected Works" (December 2-31, 1957), consisting of a series of "Sand Fountain" boxes and "Space Object" or "Celestial Navigation" works. The "Sand Fountain" boxes included different colors of sand meant to flow within, often from the tops into cordial glasses. His "Celestial Navigations" included galaxy-like compositions set within the boxes, with rolling, painted cork balls, metal rings, and constellation charts, sometimes hovering over cordial glasses or clay pipes. This last Stable Gallery show earned him his first published profile, written by Howard Griffin for the December 1957 issue of "Art News." Also in 1957, he won the Kohnstamm Prize for Construction at the Art Institute of Chicago's 62rd Annual Exhibition of Paintings and Sculpture.

Towards the end of the 1950s, Cornell spent less time creating new bodies of work, and focused more on revisiting previous series and reviewing piles of collected source material. In 1959, Cornell returned to making collages, frequently sourcing popular magazines. In December 1959, Cornell was awarded $1,500 for his "Orion" collage, entered in the Art Institute of Chicago's "63rd American Exhibition of Painting and Sculpture." Also in December, he was offered a show at Bennington College in Vermont, which he titled, "Bonitas Solstitialis: Selected Works by Joseph Cornell and an exploration of the Colombier" (November 20-December 15, 1959). The show included one of his newest "explorations" of collected material related to "colombier," or pigeon houses.

By 1962, Cornell was working diligently on new collages, using Masonite boards and colorful magazine clippings. He also began creating collages using nude images interspersed with constellation clippings or hazy blue dyes. As in previous decades and art movements, Cornell became acquainted with new artists, spending less time in the city and more time hosting visitors at his Utopia Parkway home. Visitors included artists Walter De Maria, Robert Whitman, Andy Warhol, James Rosenquist, and Robert Indiana. Tony Curtis also became a frequent visitor and friend, introduced by Richard Feigen in 1964. The early 1960s was also the first time Cornell put out an advertisement for assistants in the "Long Island Star-Journal," employing a number of young men and women who helped organize clippings and run errands. Cornell also met Joyce Hunter, a young runaway waitress at a city coffee shop, who would occupy his thoughts and diary notes for the next several years. When she was murdered at the end of 1964, Cornell paid for her funeral. He went on to make several "Penny Arcade" collages in memoriam to her, including, "Penny Arcade (re-autumnal)" (1964).

In 1964, Cornell began friendships with several women including artist Carolee Schneeman, who was his first assistant in the early 1960s. He also met artist Yayoi Kusama through art dealer Gertrude Stein. After becoming friends, she visited him often and they exchanged letters and notes. As he did with other artist friends, Cornell supported her by purchasing several of her early watercolor paintings, and they stayed connected until his death in 1972.

Cornell's life greatly changed in 1965 with the death of his brother, Robert. By this time, his mother lived with his sister in Long Island, and Cornell was alone in the Utopia Parkway house for the first time. He exchanged frequent letters and phone calls with his mother and devoted much time to thinking about Robert and Joyce, often aligning them in his diary notations. Cornell also created a series of collages dedicated to his brother's memory, incorporating photostats of Robert's hundreds of drawings into Cornell's work, as with the later collage, "The Heart on the Sleeve" (1972). Cornell's "Time Transfixed" series of collages were also dedications to Robert's memory, referencing Magritte and Robert's love of trains. He mounted an exhibition, "Robert Cornell: Memorial Exhibition" (January 4-29, 1966), at the Robert Schoelkopf Gallery, where he showed Robert's artwork alongside his newly created collage dedications.

After Robert's death, Cornell relied more heavily on assistants, going through many part-time "helpers." In October 1966, Cornell's mother died, adding her to his constant thoughts and diaries. Though he was still grieving, he was given two major retrospectives in 1967. The first was at the Pasadena Art Museum, put on by James Demetrion and Walter Hopps, "An Exhibiton of Works by Joseph Cornell" (January 9-February 11, 1967). The second retrospective was at the Guggenheim Museum just three months later, "Joseph Cornell" (May 4-June 35, 1967), organized by Diane Waldman. After these shows, he was highlighted in the December 15, 1967 issue of "Life" in the article, "The Enigmatic Bachelor of Utopia Parkway."

In 1968, Cornell was given an "award of merit," which included a medal and $1,000, by the American Academy and Institute of Arts and Letters. He was also given a medal and $1,000 by the Brandeis University Creative Arts Awards in the painting category, along with an exhibition. Days later, "The New York Times" announced Cornell the winner, along with Donald Judd, of India's first Triennale of Contemporary World Art. The Brandeis exhibition, "Boxes and Collages by Joseph Cornell" (May 20-June 23, 1968), was organized by William Seitz and concentrated on Cornell's more recent 1960s collages. Cornell was also included in the Metropolitan Museum of Art's hundredth anniversary show, "New York Painting and Sculpture: 1940 to 1970" (October 18, 1969-February 1, 1970), where twenty-two of Cornell's boxes were shown in their own gallery. At the end of 1970, Cornell was given a solo show at the Metropolitan, "Collages by Joseph Cornell" (December 10, 1970-January 24, 1971), which included forty-five of his newest collages.

Now preferring to stay closer to his home in Flushing, Cornell was more interested in sharing his art with young adults and children, than an adult audience. He hosted a group of high school students, sponsored by the Metropolitan Museum of Art's education department, at his home in conjunction with his collage show (1970-1971). He also showed his work in the art department of Queens College of the City University of New York. Cornell still hosted visitors on occasion, having Yoko Ono and John Lennon at his home at least once. Leila Hadley, Betsy von Furstenberg, and Anne Jackson also made frequent visits. With his deteriorating health, Cornell worried about what would happen to his work after his death and hired lawyer Harry Torczyner to help him plan his estate and get his affairs in order.

In 1972, Cornell had a show at the Cooper Union, a college in New York, specifically for children. He displayed his boxes and collages at child-height and had cherry soda and brownies at the opening reception on February 10. He then held a show at the Albright-Knox Art Gallery in Buffalo, also for children: "Children's Preview of the Exhibition of Joseph Cornell – Collages and Boxes (April 18-June 17, 1972). In the winter of 1972, at the request of the Phoenix House drug treatment and prevention program, Cornell contributed to a charity project compiling limited-edition lithographic prints for a portfolio, which included artists like David Hockney, James Rosenquist, and Ellsworth Kelly.

On December 29, 1972, a week after turning sixty-nine, Cornell died of heart failure at his home. He was cremated and interred near the graves of his mother, father, and brother, overlooking the Hudson River in Nyack, New York.

Works Cited:

1. Hartigan, Lynda Roscoe. "Joseph Cornell: Navigating the Imagination." New Haven, Connecticut and London: Yale University Press, 2007. Exhibition Catalog.

2. McShine, Kynaston. "Joseph Cornell." New York: Museum of Modern Art, 1980.

3. San Francisco Cinematheque and The San Francisco Museum of Modern Art. "Joseph Cornell: Films." 2007. Exhibition Program. (Presented in conjunction with SFMOMA's exhibition of "Joseph Cornell: Navigating the Imagination").

4. Schaffner, Ingrid and Lisa Jacobs. "Julien Levy: Portrait of an Art Gallery." Cambridge, Massachusetts and London: The MIT Press, 1998.

5. Solomon, Deborah. "Utopia Parkway: The Life and Work of Joseph Cornell." New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1997.
Separated Materials:
The Smithsonian Archives of American Art houses the Joseph Cornell papers, 1804-1986, bulk 1939-1972.
Provenance:
The Joseph Cornell Study Center collection was donated to the Smithsonian American Art Museum by Joseph Cornell's sister and brother-in-law, Elizabeth Cornell Benton and John A. Benton, in 1978, which prompted the creation of the Joseph Cornell Study Center. Additional materials were donated in installments by the artist's estate, the Joseph and Robert Cornell Memorial Foundation, from 1985 to 1997. Elizabeth and John A. Benton originally donated 66 linear feet of three-dimensional and non-textual source material and 50 linear feet of books to the Smithsonian Archives of American Art, which were subsequently transferred to the Smithsonian American Art Museum's Joseph Cornell Study Center in 1994 and 1995.
Restrictions:
Access to the collection requires an advanced appointment. Contact collection staff at least two weeks prior to preferred date, at AmericanArtCornellStudy@si.edu.

Series 9: Artifacts and Ephemera, Series 13: Personal Library and Book Collection, and Series 14: Record Album Collection, are still undergoing processing and preservation and may not be available for research use. Record albums are unavailable for playback. Contact collection staff for full lists of publications and record albums.
Rights:
Unpublished materials are protected by copyright. Permission to publish, quote, or reproduce must be secured from the repository and the copyright holder.
Occupation:
Collagists -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Topic:
Art, Modern -- 20th century -- United States  Search this
Assemblage (Art)  Search this
Assemblage artists -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Found objects (Art)  Search this
Works of art  Search this
Celebrities  Search this
Filmmakers -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographic photoprints -- Silver gelatin -- 1900-1950
Photographs -- 1860-1870 -- Black-and-white photoprints -- Silver albumen -- Cartes-de-visite
Photographs -- Daguerreotypes -- 1840-1860
Citation:
Joseph Cornell Study Center, Smithsonian American Art Museum.
Identifier:
SAAM.JCSC.1
See more items in:
Joseph Cornell Study Center Collection
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian American Art Museum, Research and Scholars Center
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ih7d97fc249-474d-41bf-953d-5305df1e4c06
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-saam-jcsc-1

Anna Coleman Ladd papers

Creator:
Ladd, Anna Coleman, 1878-1939 (sculptor)  Search this
Names:
American Red Cross. Studio for Portrait Masks (Paris, France)  Search this
Aldrich, William  Search this
Fabbricotti, Gabriella  Search this
Gardner, Isabella Stewart, 1840-1924  Search this
Hammond, Natalie Hays, 1905-  Search this
Southwick, Jessie Eldridge  Search this
Extent:
4.26 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Diaries
Drawings
Sketchbooks
Photographs
Sketches
Scrapbooks
Date:
1881-1950
Summary:
The papers of sculptor Anna Coleman Ladd measure 4.26 linear feet, date from 1881-1950, and document the career of sculptor Anna Coleman Ladd. Found within the papers are biographical material, letters, diaries, financial material, notes and writings, art work, a file concerning the American Red Cross Studio for Portrait-Masks, scrapbooks, printed material, and photographs.
Scope and Contents note:
The papers of sculptor Anna Coleman Ladd measure 4.26 linear feet, date from 1881-1950, and document the career of sculptor Anna Coleman Ladd. Found within the papers are biographical material, letters, diaries, financial material, notes and writings, art work, a file concerning the American Red Cross Studio for Portrait-Masks, scrapbooks, printed material, and photographs.

Biographical materials are scattered and include calling cards, biographical sketches notes, and certificates.

Correspondence includes letters written to Anna Coleman Ladd from various family members, friends, and colleagues. Notable correspodents include William Aldrich, Gabriella Fabbricotti, Isabella Stewart Gardner, Natalie Hays Hammond, and Jessie Eldridge Southwick.

Diaries are daily diaries dating from 1903-1905 and from 1911-1912. Each diary includes short descriptions of Ladd's days.

Financial materials include receipts, stock certificates, travel materials, lists, and an account book for Dr. Maynard Ladd.

Writings and notes consists of notebooks, lists of works of art, inventories, manuscripts by Ladd and by others.

Artworks include two sketchbooks, loose drawings, and a plaster relief by Ladd as well as several sketches by others.

American Red Cross Studio for Portrait-Masks files include correspondence, writings, a scrapbook, printed materials, and photographs. Materials concern portrait masks used to disguise the disfigured faces of World War I veterans.

Scrapbooks consists of three scrapbooks containing photographs, printed materials, and writings.

Printed materials include clippings, exhibition announcements and catalogs for Ladd's works, books and booklets, and posters, some of which are French World War I propaganda.

Photographs include photographs of Anna Coleman Ladd with her works of art and in the studio, Dr. Maynard Ladd, friends, family, colleagues, and works of sculpture.
Arrangement note:
The collection is arranged as 10 series. Glass plate negatives are housed separately and closed to researchers.

Missing Title

Series 1: Biographical Material, 1910-1950 (Box 1; 4 folders)

Series 2: Correspondence, 1895-1937 (Box 1-2; 1.1 linear feet)

Series 3: Diaries, 1903-1912 (Box 2; 2 folders)

Series 4: Financial Material, 1899-1934 (Box 2; 6 folders)

Series 5: Writings and Notes, 1888-1949 (Box 2, 6, OV 7; 0.6 linear feet)

Series 6: Artwork, 1901-1928 (Box 2, 6, OV 7; 0.2 linear feet)

Series 7: American Red Cross Studio for Portrait-Masks File, 1914-1925 (Box 2-3, 6; 0.4 linear feet)

Series 8: Scrapbooks, 1900-1940 (Box 3; 0.3 linear feet)

Series 9: Printed Material, 1889-1942 (Box 3, 6, OV 7; 0.5 linear feet)

Series 10: Photographs, 1881-1932 (Box 4-6, MGP 1; 0.8 linear feet)
Biographical/Historical note:
Born in 1878 in Philadelphia to John and Mary Watts, Anna Coleman Ladd (née Watts) was educated in private schools and Europe. She also studied in America under Charles Grafly.

She moved to Boston in 1905 and married Boston pediatrician Maynard Ladd with whom she had two daughters, Gabriella May Ladd and Vernon Abbott Ladd. Working in her studio on Clarendon Street, Ladd became one of the city's most prolific sculptors, creating fountain pieces, portrait busts, memorials, and reliefs in addition to authoring two novels, Hieronymus Rides in 1912, and The Candid Adventurer in 1913.

Between 1907 and 1915, Ladd had solo exhibitions at the Gorham Gallery in New York, the Corcoran Gallery in Washington, D.C., and the Pennsylvania Academy in Philadelphia. She was also invited to exhibit her bronzes at the Panama Pacific Exposition in San Francisco. In 1914 she executed a bronze statuette of Eleanora Duse for which the actress posed, and later completed portrait busts of Anna Pavlova and Ethel Barrimore.

In late 1917 in Paris, Ladd founded the American Red Cross Studio for Portrait-Masks to provide cosmetic masks to be worn by men who had been badly disfigured in World War I. Her services earned her the Légion d'Honneur Crois de Chevalier and the Serbian Order of Saint Sava.

For many years, Ladd maintained a summer studio "Arden" at Beverly Farms in Beverly, Massachusetts. In 1923, she received an honorary degree of Master of Arts from Tufts College.

Anna Coleman Ladd died June 3, 1939 in Santa Barbara, California.
Provenance:
The Anna Coleman Ladd papers were donated in 1991 by William Terry on behalf of Robert Edwards, a friend of Anna Coleman Ladd.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment.
Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Occupation:
Authors -- Massachusetts -- Boston  Search this
Sculptors -- Massachusetts -- Boston  Search this
Topic:
Women artists  Search this
Women sculptors  Search this
Women authors  Search this
Works of art  Search this
Portrait sculpture  Search this
Architectural sculpture  Search this
Artists' studios -- Photographs  Search this
World War, 1914-1918  Search this
Genre/Form:
Diaries
Drawings
Sketchbooks
Photographs
Sketches
Scrapbooks
Citation:
Anna Coleman Ladd papers, 1881-1950. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.laddanna
See more items in:
Anna Coleman Ladd papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/mw91cb4fc5e-c01f-43e3-908b-b202a008717e
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-laddanna
Online Media:

Richard H. Recchia in his Studio [photograph] / (photographed by Peter A. Juley & Son)

Photographic firm:
Peter A. Juley & Son  Search this
Subject:
Recchia, Richard H  Search this
Type:
Photograph
Topic:
Portrait male--Full length  Search this
Occupation--Art--Artist  Search this
Occupation--Art--Sculptor  Search this
Architecture interior--Studio--Recchia, Richard H  Search this
Object--Art Object--Sculpture  Search this
Image number:
SSC S0002013
See more items in:
Photograph Study Collection
Metropolitan Museum of Art Study Collection of American Sculpture Photographs
Data Source:
Photograph Study Collection, Smithsonian American Art Museum
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_jul_128729
Online Media:

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