Skip to main content Smithsonian Institution

Search Results

Collections Search Center
41 documents - page 1 of 3

Joan Ludman papers relating to Fairfield Porter

Creator:
Ludman, Joan  Search this
Names:
Gallery Association of New York State  Search this
Poor, Anne, 1911-2011  Search this
Porter, Fairfield  Search this
Wheelwright, John, 1897-1940  Search this
Extent:
4.2 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Interviews
Transcripts
Date:
circa 1910-2003
bulk 1976-2001
Summary:
The Joan Ludman papers relating to Fairfield Porter measure 4.2 linear feet and are dated circa 1910-2003, bulk 1976-2001. The papers primarily document her research for Fairfield Porter: A Catalogue Raisonné of his Prints (1981) and Fairfield Porter: A Catalogue Raisonné of the Paintings, Watercolors, and Pastels (2001). There are records concerning "Prints by Fairfield Porter from the Lauris and Daniel J. Mason Collection," a traveling exhibition organized by Ludman. Also found are Ludman's records concerning her authentications of Porter's artwork, and general printed material about Porter. Photographs are of Porter and his work. A 2015 addition includes provenance forms sent to Ludman from artwork owners.
Scope and Content Note:
The Joan Ludman papers relating to Fairfield Porter measure 4.2 linear feet and are dated circa 1910-2003, bulk 1976-2001. The papers primarily document her research for Fairfield Porter: A Catalogue Raisonné of his Prints (1981) and Fairfield Porter: A Catalogue Raisonné of the Paintings, Watercolors, and Pastels (2001). There are records concerning "Prints by Fairfield Porter from the Lauris and Daniel J. Mason Collection," a traveling exhibition organized by Ludman. Also found are Ludman's records concerning her authentications of Porter's artwork, and general printed material about Porter. Photographs are of Porter and his work. A 2015 addition includes provenance forms sent to Ludman from artwork owners.

The compilation of Fairfield Porter: A Catalogue Raisonné of his Prints and its publication are documented by a variety of records. Research correspondence includes photocopies of Porter's letters from the 1930s to John Wheelwright about linoleum cuts he made for the Socialist publication Poems for a Dime. Letters from Anne Porter concerning the catalogue raisonné are among the miscellaneous correspondence. Also found is a "Log of the Work in Progress on Research and Interviews…" kept by Ludman, along with notes and transcripts of interviews conducted during the course of her research. Printed material concerns Porter's prints, and photographs include those reproduced in the catalogue raisonné.

Ludman's work on Fairfield Porter: A Catalogue Raisonné of the Paintings, Watercolors, and Pastels is documented by correspondence, a "master index," writings, printed material and photographs. Among the correspondence are questionnaires completed by owners of Porter paintings. Correspondence with Anne Porter includes typed excerpts from letters, 1922-1938, that mention her husband's painting activities. A "master index" summarizing Ludman's research is found among the writings. Printed material mentions or reproduces paintings by Fairfield Porter. Photographs include the images reproduced in the book; there are also snapshots of some early paintings, among them unidentified and unrecorded works.

Exhibition records document "Prints by Fairfield Porter from the Lauris and Daniel J. Mason Collection," a show organized by Joan Ludman that traveled in 1982 and 1983 under the auspices of the Gallery Association of New York State. Printed material provides general background information about Porter and his work. Also found are an article and book review by Fairfield Porter, along with printed material concerning members of his family and a map of Great Spruce Head Island, Maine.

Authentication records consist of letters conveying Mrs. Ludman's opinions about works purported to be by Porter. The majority of photographs are of Fairfield Porter. Also included are Manhattan street scenes photographed by Porter, and views of Joan and Harold Ludman's 1976 visit with Mrs. Porter at the home and studio.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged as 7 series:

Missing Title

Series 1: -- Fairfield Porter: A Catalogue Raisonné of his Prints -- , 1936-2003 (Box 1; 0.4 linear ft.)

Series 2: -- Fairfield Porter: A Catalogue Raisonné of the Paintings, Watercolors, and Pastels -- , 1933-2003 (Boxes 1-3; 2.6 linear ft.)

Series 3: Exhibition Records, 1982-1983 (Box 4; 4 folders)

Series 4: Printed Material, 1966-2000 (Box 4; 0.2 linear ft.)

Series 5: Authentications, 1991-2001 (Box 4; 2 folders)

Series 6: Photographs, circa1910-1976 (Box 4; 0.1 linear ft.)

Series 7: Addition to the Joan Ludman Papers Relating to Fairfield Porter, circa 1970s-2000s (Boxes 5-6, 0.8 linear feet)
Biographical Note:
Joan Ludman, an art historian with expertise in prints, developed a deep interest in the work of Fairfield Porter while living in Westbury, Long Island. She compiled and published a catalogue raisonné of Porter's prints in 1981, and another of his paintings, watercolors, and pastels in 2001. Now retired, Mrs. Ludman lives in Florida.

By the early 1970s, Joan Ludman had amassed a sizeable amount of information about Fairfield Porter and considered writing a biography. Instead, with the help of Anne Porter, the artist's widow, she began researching Porter's prints. The result was Fairfield Porter: A Catalogue Raisonné of his Prints. It was published by Highland House Publishers, Inc., a company established by Mrs. Ludman in order to assure her own standards and control the book's quality and cost.

At the same time she was compiling the catalogue raisonné of Porter's prints, Ludman was collaborating with Lauris Mason on other projects - a catalogue raisonné of George Bellow's lithographs, an anthology of essays, and five selected bibliographies about prints and printmaking. She also organized "Prints from Fairfield Porter from the Lauris and Daniel J. Mason Collection," an exhibition that traveled to several venues in 1982 and 1983.

The Estate of Fairfield Porter donated a substantial number of paintings to the Parrish Art Museum in 1979. The museum agreed to publish a catalogue raisonné, and arrangements were formalized the following year. Twice during the early 1980s, art historians who committed to writing the monograph lost interest. The project languished due to administrative problems and the discouragingly high cost of publishing such a volume. By 1988, it was apparent that the museum could not comply with the agreement. Knowing Joan Ludman's work on the catalogue raisonné of Porter's prints, Mrs. Porter approached her about the catalogue raisonné of his paintings. The highly regarded Fairfield Porter: A Catalogue Raisonné of the Paintings, Watercolors, and Pastels was published by Hudson Hills Press, Inc.

Painter Fairfield Porter (1907-1975) was known for portraits, landscapes, and still life paintings. Also a critic and writer, Porter was an editorial associate with Art News in the 1950's, wrote for The Nation, published poetry, and a monograph on Thomas Eakins.
Related Material:
Among the holdings of the Archives of American Art are the Fairfield Porter papers, 1888-2001, and an oral history interview with Fairfield Porter conducted by Paul Cummings in 1968.
Provenance:
The Joan Ludman papers relating to Fairfield Porter were donated to the Archives of American Art by Joan Ludman in 2003 and 2004. Ludman donated additional 0.8 linear feet of papers in 2015.
Restrictions:
Use of original material requires an appointment.
Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Topic:
Art patrons  Search this
Prints -- Technique  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Interviews
Transcripts
Citation:
Joan Ludman papers relating to Fairfield Porter, circa 1910-2003, bulk 1976-2001. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.ludmjoan
See more items in:
Joan Ludman papers relating to Fairfield Porter
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/mw91df4c1a5-0b6e-464d-a061-c6f63e311a47
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-ludmjoan

Oral history interview with Elizabeth Bliss Parkinson

Interviewee:
Parkinson, Elizabeth Bliss, 1907-2001  Search this
Interviewer:
Cummings, Paul  Search this
Names:
Museum of Modern Art (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Bliss, Lizzie P. (Lizzie Plummer), 1864-1931  Search this
Davies, Arthur B. (Arthur Bowen), 1862-1928  Search this
Extent:
51 Pages (Transcript)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Pages
Sound recordings
Interviews
Date:
1978 Jan. 3
Scope and Contents:
An interview of Elizabeth Bliss Parkinson conducted 1978 Jan. 3, by Paul Cummings, for the Archives of American Art.
Parkinson speaks of her childhood with her aunt, Lizzie Bliss, Bliss' relationship with Arthur B. Davies, the formation of Bliss' art collection, and her involvement in the establishment of the Museum of Modern Art.
Biographical / Historical:
Elizabeth Bliss Parkinson (1907-2001) was a patron and collector from New York, N.Y.
General:
Originally recorded on 1 sound tape reel. Reformatted in 2010 as 2 digital wav files. Duration is 1 hr., 17 min.
Provenance:
This interview is part of the Archives of American Art Oral History Program, started in 1958 to document the history of the visual arts in the United States, primarily through interviews with artists, historians, dealers, critics and others.
Restrictions:
Transcript: Patrons must use microfilm copy.
Topic:
Art -- Collectors and collecting -- New York (State) -- Interviews  Search this
Art patrons -- New York (State) -- New York -- Interviews  Search this
Genre/Form:
Sound recordings
Interviews
Identifier:
AAA.parkin78
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/mw9eba1359a-8169-4341-b28e-7e917c0f24a7
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-parkin78
Online Media:

Lillian and Frederick Kiesler papers

Creator:
Kiesler, Lillian, 1910?-2001  Search this
Names:
Anthology Film Archives  Search this
Hans Hofmann School of Fine Arts  Search this
John Simon Guggenheim Memorial Foundation  Search this
Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
University of Iowa, Museum of Art  Search this
Whitney Museum of American Art  Search this
Adnan, Etel  Search this
Andres, Jo  Search this
Arnaud, Leopold, 1895-  Search this
Bartos, Armand P., 1910-  Search this
Bultman, Fritz, 1919-1985  Search this
Buscemi, Steve, 1958-  Search this
Castelli, Leo  Search this
Copley, Alfred L.  Search this
Diller, Burgoyne, 1906-1965  Search this
Dlugoszewski, Lucia, 1931-2000  Search this
Dorazio, Piero, 1927-  Search this
Dorazio, Virginia Dortch  Search this
Dreier, Katherine Sophie, 1877-1952  Search this
Dubuffet, Jean, 1901-  Search this
Duchamp, Marcel, 1887-1968  Search this
Hawkins, Erick  Search this
Hodges, Alice  Search this
Hofmann, Hans, 1880-1966  Search this
Holtzman, Harry  Search this
Howe, George, 1886-1955  Search this
Kamler, Richard  Search this
Kiesler, Frederick  Search this
MacIver, Loren, 1909-  Search this
Meredith, Burgess, 1907-1997  Search this
Milius, Tom  Search this
Miller, Henry, 1891-  Search this
Mondrian, Piet, 1872-1944  Search this
Montgomery, Chandler  Search this
Owen, Jane Blaffer, 1915-2010  Search this
Purdy, James  Search this
Takaezu, Toshiko  Search this
Tawney, Lenore  Search this
Zogbaum, Wilfrid, 1915-1965  Search this
Extent:
49.1 Linear feet
0.001 Gigabytes
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Gigabytes
Scrapbooks
Sound recordings
Diaries
Interviews
Scripts (documents)
Motion pictures (visual works)
Date:
circa 1910s-2003
bulk 1958-2000
Summary:
The papers of New York artist Lillian Kiesler and architect and sculptor Frederick Kiesler measure 49.1 linear feet and 0.001 GB and date from circa 1910s-2003, with the bulk of the material from 1958-2000. The collection documents their personal and professional lives and the legacy of Frederick Kiesler's work through biographical material, correspondence, legal, financial and business records, teaching files, exhibition and performance files, artwork, subject files, printed and digital material, writings and interviews, monographs, photographic material, and sound and video recordings. Also found are papers related to Abstract Expressionist painter Hans Hofmann and the papers of artist Alice Hodges.
Scope and Content Note:
The papers of artist, performer, and arts educator Lillian Kiesler and sculptor, architect, set designer, educator, and writer Frederick Kiesler measure 49.1 linear feet and 0.001 GB and date from circa 1910s-2003, with the bulk of the material from 1958-2000. The collection documents their personal and professional lives and the legacy of Frederick Kiesler's work through biographical material, correspondence, legal, financial and business records, teaching files, exhibition and performance files, artwork, subject files, printed and digital material, writings and interviews, monographs, photographic material, and sound and video recordings. Also found are papers related to Abstract Expressionist painter Hans Hofmann and the papers of artist Alice Hodges.

The collection is arranged into two series: the Lillian Kiesler Papers (Series 1) and the Frederick Kiesler Papers (Series 2). Measuring 41.1 linear feet, the Lillian Kiesler Papers (Series 1) make up the bulk of the collection and document her personal life and professional career as an artist, actor, teacher, arts benefactor and promoter of Frederick Kiesler's legacy. The series spans her lifetime, although most of the material is dated after 1965. Among her papers are biographical materials, correspondence, legal and financial records, teaching files, exhibition and performance files, artwork, subject files, printed material, monographs, papers related to Frederick Kiesler and his legacy, papers of and related to Hans Hofmann, papers of Alice Hodges, photographic material, and sound and video recordings.

Found among Lillian Kiesler's personal papers are address books, numerous calendars and appointment books, and diaries and journals. Her correspondence is extensive and contains business correspondence with John Simon Guggenheim Memorial Foundation, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, The Whitney Museum of American Art, The University of Iowa Museum of Art, and Erick Hawkins Dance Foundation, and personal letters and greeting cards from friends, family, artists, scholars, and researchers, including Etel Adnan, Alcopley, Fritz Bultman, Steve Buscemi, Mike Diamond, Burgoyne Diller, Lucia Dlugoszewski, Piero Dorazio, Jean Dubuffet, Jay Gottlieb, Erick Hawkins, Burgess Meredith, Henry Miller, James Purdy, and Herrel Thomas. Of interest is a letter from Harry Holtzman postmarked March 13, 1935 describing his initial meeting with Mondrian, and a letter from E.B. Gordon describing Henry Miller in Paris.

Materials related to Lillian Kiesler's estate and last wishes can also be found, as well as teaching plans, student work, and writings by Lillian Kiesler's mentor and friend, New York University professor Chandler Montgomery. Various printed material, correspondence, scripts, and rehearsal schedules from Lillian Kiesler's exhibitions and performances are also found, and among the directors, artists and writers represented are Jo Andres, Steve Buscemi, Cindy Lugar, Tim Miller and James Purdy. Artwork contains photographs by Bob Del Fredici, drawings by Piero Dorazio, and notes to Frederick Kiesler from Lillian Kiesler.

Subject files about artists, friends, colleagues, performances, and organizations in which she supported, such as the Anthology Film Archives, include printed materials and research materials. Signed exhibition catalogs of Loren MacIver, Dina Ghen, Lenore Tawney, and Toshiko Takaezu, and a reprint article inscribed by Alcopley can be found, as well as numerous inscribed monographs, including books inscribed by Max Weiler and Piero Dorazio, an inscribed first edition of Henry Miller's Black Spring (1936), and a 1937 monograph by Harry Holtzman titled American Abstract Artists.

Series 1 also includes materials related to her husband Frederick Kiesler, papers of and related to Abstract Expressionist painter Hans Hofmann, and the personal papers of artist Alice Hodges. The Papers Related to Frederick Kiesler were primarily created or compiled by Lillian Kiesler and document her work on behalf of Frederick Kiesler's legacy. Of interest are letters from Frederick Kiesler to Lillian Kiesler and Alice Hodges; a bound volume of correspondence to Piero Dorazio; an inventory of objects in the Frederick Kiesler estate; photographs of artwork; an interview (sound recordings and transcript) with Lillian Kiesler about Frederick Kiesler for "Music of the Age," included on the tape is a portion of a Frederick Kiesler interview (1965); a recording of Lillian Kiesler interviewing Richard Kamler about Frederick Kiesler; and Frederick Kiesler's dialogue with Leo Castelli (undated).

Lillian Kiesler was a student of Hans Hofmann (1880-1966) in New York City and Provincetown, Massachusetts, as well as an enthusiastic volunteer promoter and assistant to The Hans Hofmann School of Fine Arts. The bulk of the papers of and related to Hans Hofmann were created or compiled by Lillian Kielser and are about Hofmann's career and legacy. However, also found are some papers of Hans Hofmann, including letters from Hofmann to Lillian Kiesler and Alice Hodges describing his artwork, life in Provincetown, and issues with The Hans Hofmann School of Fine Arts, typed and handwritten lectures given by Hofmann, Hofmann's 1941 address to the American Abstract Artists (AAA), three boxes of card files on students of the Hans Hofmann School of Fine Arts in New York City and Provincetown, and photographs of Hofmann and his house in Provincetown taken by Wilfrid Zogbaum and Tom Milius.

The artist Alice Hodges (b. unknown-1965) was a close friend of Lillian Kiesler, a former secretary to Frederick Kiesler, and a student of Hans Hofmann. Included among her personal papers is some correspondence from Hans Hofmann and Katherine Drier and numerous postcards from Hodges and Lillian Kiesler's trip to Europe in 1950, posters and printed material from her exhibitions, an oversized scrapbook chronicling Lillian Kiesler's teaching career, records from the United States Treasury War Bond Art Auction in 1945, original artwork and greeting cards made by Hodges and Lillian Kiesler, and 31 rolled negative strips in metal canisters of Frederick Kiesler sculptures, Provincetown and Hans Hofmann, Wellfleet, Empire State Music Festival (1955), and travels to Colorado and Europe, some of which may be printed and found in this subseries.

Photographs found in the Lillian Kiesler Papers are mostly black and white and color snapshots of Lillian Kiesler's friends and family at events and at home, including candid photos of Hans Hofmann, Alice Hodges, Frederick Kiesler, and Alcopley. Slides prepared by Lillian Kiesler for a lecture on Frederick Kiesler and her lecture notes on index cards are found. Sound and video recordings include recordings of productions in which Lillian Kiesler performed, and music, film, or live stage performances written, directed, or performed by friends.

Measuring 7.1 linear feet, Frederick Kiesler's personal papers (Series 2) document his professional career and date from 1923-1992. Biographical materials include his curriculum vitae, four passports, and numerous appointment books and notes from late in his life. Correspondence with architects, publishers, editors, universities, museums, galleries, manufacturers, artists and friends includes letters from L. Alcopley, Leopold Arnaud, Armand P. Bartos, Piero and Virginia Dorazio, George Howe, Kay Johnson, Jane Owen, and others. There are also photocopied letters from Katherine Dreier, Marcel Duchamp, and Piet Mondrian. Business and financial records from the 1940s to mid-1960s comprise a significant bulk of this series and are primarily tax returns and receipts and statements used to file tax returns. Materials on the publication of "Inside the Endless House" (1966), the International Theatre Exposition (in German) in 1924 and other exhibits from shortly after his death are found, as well as student artwork and papers from Kiesler's classes in the mid-1950s. A bound copy of the "Bibliography of Writings of and About Frederick Kiesler" compiled by Lillian Kiesler is found, as well as printed material about Frederick Kiesler and a handful of photographs of artwork.

Users should note that Lillian Kiesler's and Frederick Kiesler's papers contain similar types of material that often overlap in subject matter, especially among the Papers Related to Frederick Kiesler (Subseries 1.10) in Series 1 and the Frederick Kiesler Papers (Series 2). This collection contains limited material related to Lillian Kiesler prior to the 1940s and Frederick Kiesler prior to his arrival in the United States in 1926.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into two series. Each series is divided into several subseries, with the arrangement described in detail in the series descriptions.

Missing Title

Series 1: Lillian Kiesler papers, circa 1910s-2003 (Box 1-39, 47-52, OV 53-57; 41.1 linear feet, ER01; 0.001 GB)

Series 2: Frederick Kiesler papers, 1923-1992 (Box 40-46, OV 53; 7.1 linear feet)
Biographical Note:
Frederick Kiesler (1890-1965) was a sculptor, architect, set designer, educator, and writer active in New York and Connecticutt. Lillian Kiesler (1911-2001) was a performer, arts educator, and painter married to Frederick Kiesler. She was also active in the administration of the Hans Hofmann School of Fine Arts.

Frederick Kiesler was born in Romania in 1890, although he gave various other dates for his birth and regularly cited Vienna as his birthplace. He arrived in the United States with his wife Steffi in 1926 for the International Theatre Exposition at Steinway Hall in New York City. They stayed in the United States and were granted citizenship in 1936.

Kiesler secured a teaching position at Columbia University's School of Architecture in 1930, and from 1934 through 1957 he was the scenic design director at The Juilliard School of Music. He also lectured at Yale University from 1950-1952. Often labeled a Surrealist, Kiesler's work was experimental and frequently described as ahead of its time. He published, lectured, and participated in numerous exhibitions throughout his career. He is known for his theory of "coreallism;" "The Space House" (1933), a full-scale model of a single family home; an installation designed for Peggy Guggenheim's Art of This Century gallery in 1942; "The Endless House" drawings and model (1950); "The Universal Theatre" (1961) model; and the Shrine of the Book (1965), a building to exhibit the Dead Sea Scrolls in Jerusalem. He died in New York City in December 1965.

Lillian Olinsey met architect and sculptor Frederick Kiesler in 1934. After years of friendship, they were married in 1964, a year and a half before Frederick's death in 1965.

Lillian Kiesler studied art at the Art Students League, Cooper Union, and the Hans Hofmann School of Fine Arts, where she also assisted Hofmann and the school administration. She taught art to children and young adults for twenty years in New York City. From 1945 to 1955, she taught at the Greenwich House Art workshops and the Woodward School, followed by the Brooklyn Museum (1948-1958), Barnard School (1953-1963), New York University School of Education (1955-1966), and Juilliard School of Visual Arts (1963-1965). Lillian was involved in the performing arts and between the late 1970s through the 1990s she performed in New York City with numerous directors, notably Jo Andres, Steve Buscemi, Richard Foreman, John Jesurun, Cindy Lubar, and Tim Miller. She frequently performed with her close friend, painter Maryette Charlton, who was the executor of the Lillian Kiesler estate.

Lillian Kiesler tirelessly promoted Frederick Kiesler's work and legacy after his death in 1965. From the late 1980s through the 1990s, she delivered lectures about his work at universities and museums, gave interviews, corresponded with researchers, and organized his papers to donate to the Harvard Theatre Collection, Yale School of Art and Architecture, and the Archives of American Art. In 1997, she helped found the Frederick and Lillian Kiesler Foundation in Vienna, Austria. She endowed the Austrian Frederick Kiesler Prize, an award given to a notable contributor to the field of architecture. The first recipient was Frank Gehry in 1998. Lillian Kiesler passed away in 2001 in New York City.
Related Material:
The holdings of the Archives of American Art include the Hans Hofmann Papers, 1904-1978 and the Maryette Charlton Papers, 1929-1998. Additional Frederick Kiesler papers are available at the Museum of Modern Art, the Harvard Theater Collection, and the Yale School of Art and Architecture.
Separated Material:
Some of the materials related to Frederick Kiesler were initially loaned for microfilming on reels 57 and 127-128. This material is not described in the container listing of this finding aid. Most, but not all, of the loaned material was later donated and has been merged with the other accretions.
Provenance:
The collection was donated by Lillian Kiesler and Maryette Charlton, executrix of her estate, in several accessions between 1980-2002. Some of the papers related to Frederick Kiesler were originally loaned for microfilming in 1971, most of which was later donated in 1980. Additional papers related to Frederick Kiesler were donated in 1993. Papers related to Hans Hofmann were given in 1981. Lillian Kiesler's papers were donated in 2000 by Lillian Kiesler, and in 2002, by Maryette Charlton.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment. Use of archival audiovisual recordings with no duplicate access copy requires advance notice.
Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Occupation:
Sculptors -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Set designers -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Educators -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Authors -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Painters -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Performance artists -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Art patrons -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Topic:
Architects -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Exhibition designers  Search this
Women artists  Search this
Women educators  Search this
Women painters  Search this
Women performance artists  Search this
Function:
Art schools -- Massachusetts
Art Schools -- New York (State)
Genre/Form:
Scrapbooks
Sound recordings
Diaries
Interviews
Scripts (documents)
Motion pictures (visual works)
Citation:
Lillian and Frederick Kiesler papers, circa 1910s-2003, bulk 1958-2000. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.kieslill
See more items in:
Lillian and Frederick Kiesler papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/mw92be035c5-5063-4d6e-8ac2-5f08c17ef915
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-kieslill
Online Media:

Gertrude Vanderbilt Whitney papers

Creator:
Whitney, Gertrude Vanderbilt, 1875-1942  Search this
Names:
American Ambulance Field Hospital (Juilly, France)  Search this
Greenwich House (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Whitney Museum of American Art  Search this
Whitney Studio Club  Search this
Cushing, Howard Gardiner, 1869-1916  Search this
De Meyer, Adolf, Baron, 1868-1949  Search this
Miller, Flora Whitney  Search this
Strelecki, Jean de, count  Search this
Watson, Forbes, 1880-1960  Search this
Whitney, Harry Payne, 1872-1930  Search this
Extent:
36.1 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Lithographs
Photographs
Interviews
Sketchbooks
Diaries
Scrapbooks
Blueprints
Sketches
Date:
1851-1975
bulk 1888-1942
Summary:
The Gertrude Vanderbilt Whitney papers measure approximately 36.1 linear feet and date from 1851 to 1975, with the bulk of the material dating from 1888 to 1942. The collection documents the life and work of the art patron and sculptor, especially her promotion of American art and artists, her philanthropy and war relief work, her commissions for memorial sculpture, and her creative writing. Papers include correspondence, journals, writings, project files, scrapbooks, photographs, artwork, printed material, two sound recordings, and miscellaneous personal papers.
Scope and Content Note:
The Gertrude Vanderbilt Whitney papers measure approximately 36.1 linear feet and date from 1851 to 1975, with the bulk of the material dating from 1888 to 1942. The collection documents the life and work of the art patron and sculptor, especially her promotion of American art and artists, her philanthropy and war relief work, her commissions for memorial sculpture, and her creative writing. Papers include correspondence, journals, writings, project files, scrapbooks, photographs, artwork, printed material, two sound recordings, and miscellaneous personal papers.

Material relating to more personal aspects of Whitney's life include school papers, a paper doll book dating from her childhood, financial material, interviews, awards and honorary degrees, address and telephone books, committee files, and other items. Correspondence consists of incoming and outgoing letters concerning both personal and professional matters, including her patronage of the arts and sponsorship of artists, her sculpture commissions and exhibitions, and her war relief work and other philantrophic activities. Also found are family correspondence and correspondence received by the Flora Whitney Miller and the Whitney Museum of American Art after Whitney's death. Journals include personal ones that she kept periodically from the time she was a child to near the end of her life, in which she recorded her travels, her impressions of people, her experiences with friends, and her thoughts on art, among other topics; and social ones, in which she recorded dinners and dances attended, and people invited to different social gatherings, and in which she collected invitations received and accepted.

Scattered files can be found that relate to the Whitney Studio Club and the Whitney Museum of American Art, consisting of notebooks, catalogs, a financial report, and other material. Files relating to Whitney's own sculpture projects are more extensive and consist of correspondence, contracts, printed material, notes, financial material for proposed and completed commissions for fountains, memorials, and monuments. The Whitney Museum of American Art, rather than Whitney herself, seems to have kept these files. Files relating to Whitney's philanthropic activities span from the time just before to just after the First World War and consist of correspondence, minutes, reports, and printed material stemming from her contributions to charities and war relief organizations, her sponsorship of the war hospital in Juilly, France, and her support of the Greenwich House Social Settlement.

Whitney's writings include extensive drafts, and handwritten and typed manuscripts and copies of novels, plays, and stories, as well as some autobiographical and early writings, notes and writings on art, and clippings of published writings, documenting her principle means of creative expression towards the end of her life. Also found are some writings by others. Scrapbooks consist of clippings, photographs, letters and other material, compiled by Whitney, Flora Whitney Miller, and possibly others, documenting Whitney's public life, her sculpture commissions and exhibitions, exhibitions at the Whitney Studio, the war hospital in Juilly, France, the death of Harry Payne Whitney in 1930, and the sickness and death of Whitney in 1942.

Photographs include ones of the Whitney and Vanderbilt families, ones of Gertrude Vanderbilt Whitney (including portraits taken by Baron Adolf de Meyer and Count Jean de Strelecki), ones of various Vanderbilt and Whitney residences and of Whitney's studios, ones of Whitney's sculpture exhibitions as well as exhibitions at her studio, and ones of her sculptures, as well as some miscellaneous and unidentified ones. Artwork consists of sketchbooks and sketches by Whitney (including sketches for sculptures) and artwork by others (including a sketchbook of Howard Cushing's containing a sketch of her and albums of World War I lithographs) collected by Whitney. Also found amongst the collection are printed material (clippings, exhibition catalogs, programs, and publications) and blueprints (including drawings for Whitney's studio on MacDougal Alley and various of her sculptures).
Arrangement:
The Gertrude Vanderbilt Whitney papers are arranged into twelve series:

Missing Title

Series 1: Miscellaneous Personal Papers, 1888-1947, 1975 (Boxes 1-3, 33-34, OV 42; 2.5 linear feet)

Series 2: Correspondence, 1889-1949, 1959 (Boxes 3-9; 6 linear feet)

Series 3: Journals, circa 1886-1939 (Boxes 9-12, 33; 2.5 linear feet)

Series 4: Whitney Studio Club and Whitney Museum of American Art Files, 1921-1943 (Box 12; 0.2 linear feet)

Series 5: Sculpture Files, 1900-1960 (bulk 1909-1942) (Boxes 12-15; 3 linear feet)

Series 6: Philanthropy Files, 1902-1923 (bulk 1915-1920) (Boxes 15-17; 2 linear feet)

Series 7: Writings, 1889-1942, 1974 (Boxes 17-26; 10 linear feet)

Series 8: Scrapbooks, 1893-1942 (Boxes 26-27, 33, 35; 1.5 linear feet)

Series 9: Printed Material, 1859-1942 (Boxes 27-28, 36; 0.8 linear feet)

Series 10: Photographs, 1862-1942 (Boxes 28-32, 36-41, OV 43-51; 6.4 linear feet)

Series 11: Artwork, 1871-1930s (Boxes 32, 41, OV 52-54; 0.8 linear feet)

Series 12: Blueprints, 1913-1945 (OV 55; 0.1 linear feet)
Biographical/Historical note:
New York art patron and sculptor, Gertrude Vanderbilt Whitney (1875-1942), was the eldest daughter of Cornelius Vanderbilt II and Alice Gwynne Vanderbilt, and founder of the Whitney Museum of American Art.

Whitney was born January 9, 1875 in New York City, the. She was educated by private tutors and attended Brearley School in New York. From the time she was a young girl, she kept journals of her travels and impressions of the people she met, and engaged in creative pursuits such as sketching and writing stories. In 1896, she was married to Harry Payne Whitney. They had three children, Flora, Cornelius, and Barbara.

In 1900, Whitney began to study sculpture under Hendrik Christian Anderson, and then under James Fraser. Later, she studied with Andrew O'Connor in Paris. From the time she started studying sculpture, her interest in art grew, as did her particular concern for American art and artists. In 1907, she organized an art exhibition at the Colony Club, which included several contemporary American paintings. She also opened a studio on MacDougal Alley, which became known as the Whitney Studio and was a place where shows and prize competitions were held. (She also had other studios in Westbury, Long Island and Paris, France.) Over the years, her patronage of art included buying work, commissioning it, sponsoring it, exhibiting it, and financially supporting artists in America and abroad. From 1911 on, she was aided in her work by Juliana Force, who started out as Whitney's secretary, was responsible for art exhibitions at the Whitney Studio, and became the first director of the Whitney Museum of American Art.

The first recognition Whitney received for her sculpture came in 1908 when a project on which she had collaborated (with Grosvenor Atterbury and Hugo Ballin) won a prize for best design from the Architectural League of New York. The following year she received a commission to do a fountain sculpture for the Pan-American Building in Washington, D. C. She went on to do numerous other commissioned works over the next several decades, including: a fountain for the New Arlington Hotel in Washington D.C. (the design of which was reproduced in various sizes and materials, one cast being submitted to the 1915 Panama-Pacific International Exposition where it won a bronze medal and a later cast being installed on the campus of McGill University, Montreal, Canada in 1930); the Titanic Memorial (designed in 1913 and erected in 1930); the Buffalo Bill Memorial (1924) in Cody, Wyoming; the Columbus Memorial (1929) in Port of Palos, Spain; the Peter Stuyvesant statue in Stuyvesant Square (1939); and The Spirit of Flight (1939) for the New York World's Fair. In 1916, she had her first one-man show at the Whitney Studio, another at the Newport Art Association, and a retrospective at the San Francisco Art Association Palace of Fine Arts. A traveling exhibition in the Midwest followed in 1918.

During the First World War, Whitney was involved with numerous war relief activities, most notably establishing and supporting a hospital in Juilly, France. She made several trips to France during the war, keeping a journal and eventually publishing a piece on the hospital in several newspapers. Her sculpture during this period was largely focused on war themes. In 1919, she exhibited some of these works at the Whitney Studio in a show called "Impressions of War." In the years after the war, she was also commissioned to do several war memorials, including the Washington Heights War Memorial (1922) and the St. Nazaire Memorial (1926) commemmorating the landing of the American Expeditionary Force in France in 1917.

In 1918, Whitney opened the Whitney Studio Club, which served as pioneering organization for American art, putting on exhibition programs and offering social space and recreational amenities to its members (one point numbering over four hundred artists living in New York). She planned an "Overseas Exhibition" of American art, which traveled to Paris and other European cities in 1920-1921, and had her own shows in Paris and London in 1921. In 1928, the Whitney Studio Club was transformed into an art gallery, known as the Whitney Studio Galleries and directed by Juliana Force, which eventually became the Whitney Museum of American Art in 1931.

Whitney pursued creative writing throughout her life, but beginning in the 1930s writing became her principle means of creative expression. Over the years, she produced numerous manuscripts for stories, novels, and play. One novel, Walking the Dusk, was published in 1932 under the pseudonym L. J. Webb. Beginning in 1940, Whitney took a "Professional Writing" course at Columbia University with Helen Hull, which resulted in the production of numerous short stories. In 1941, she collaborated with Ronald Bodley to adapt one of her stories as a play and attempted to get it produced, although unsuccessfully.

In 1934, Whitney was involved in a custody battle for her niece, Gloria Vanderbilt (daughter of her late brother, Reginald Vanderbilt and his wife, Gloria Morgan Vanderbilt). In an agreement reached by the court, custody was awarded to Whitney and visitation rights to Gloria's mother. Litigation continued in the ensuing years.

In 1935, Whitney established the World's Fair Five Organization, with Juliana Force and four architects, to work on preparing a plan for the site of the 1939 New York World's Fair at Flushing Meadow, although the fair's own Board of Design ended up coming up with its own plan.

Whitney continued her work in sculpture, writing, art patronage, and philanthropy throughout the remaining years of her life. She died on April 18, 1942.
Related Archival Materials note:
Related material found in the Archives includes Research Material on Gertrude Vanderbilt Whitney compiled by Flora Miller Irving and the Whitney Museum of American Art artists' files and records, available on microfilm only (originals are located in the Whitney Museum of American Art). Also found in the Archives of American Art's Miscellaneous Exhibition Catalog Collection are a bundle of Whitney Studio Club and Mrs. H. P. Whitney's Studio catalogs and announcements.
Provenance:
The Gertrude Vanderbilt Whitney papers were donated in 1981 and 1991 by Whitney's granddaughter, Flora Miller Irving.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C. Research Center. Use of archival audiovisual recordings with no duplicate access copy requires advance notice. Contact Reference Services for more information.
Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Occupation:
Sculptors -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Philanthropists -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Topic:
Art patrons -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Women artists  Search this
Women sculptors  Search this
World War, 1914-1918  Search this
Genre/Form:
Lithographs
Photographs
Interviews
Sketchbooks
Diaries
Scrapbooks
Blueprints
Sketches
Citation:
Whitney Museum of American Art, Gertrude Vanderbilt Whitney Papers, 1851-1975 (bulk 1888-1942). Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.whitgert
See more items in:
Gertrude Vanderbilt Whitney papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/mw9db113d72-cc31-4974-85fe-3e99c53dd62e
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-whitgert
Online Media:

Oral history interview with Nelson Aldrich Rockefeller

Interviewee:
Rockefeller, Nelson A. (Nelson Aldrich), 1908-1979  Search this
Interviewer:
Cummings, Paul  Search this
Names:
Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Museum of Modern Art (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Extent:
12 Pages (Transcript)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Pages
Sound recordings
Interviews
Date:
1972 July 24
Scope and Contents:
An interview of Nelson Aldrich Rockefeller conducted 1972 July 24, by Paul Cummings, for the Archives of American Art. Rockefeller speaks of his family's art collection, and the influence of growing up surrounded by art; his interest in architecture; his involvement with the Museum of Modern Art and the Metropolitan Museum of Art; the development of his own collection; his methods for collecting.
Biographical / Historical:
Nelson Aldrich Rockefeller (1908-1979) was a collector, patron, governor of New York, and U.S. Vice-President under Gerald Ford.
General:
Originally recorded on 2 sound tape reels. Reformatted in 2010 as 1 digital wav file. Duration is 49 min.
Provenance:
This interview is part of the Archives' Oral History Program, started in 1958 to document the history of the visual arts in the United States, primarily through interviews with artists, historians, dealers, critics and others.
Topic:
Art -- Collectors and collecting -- New York (State) -- Interviews  Search this
Art patronage  Search this
Art patrons -- New York (State) -- New York -- Interviews  Search this
Genre/Form:
Sound recordings
Interviews
Identifier:
AAA.rockef72
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/mw93acf8fa7-93db-419c-a672-f5e7018c466b
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-rockef72

Edna Reindel papers

Creator:
Reindel, Edna M.  Search this
Names:
Lucioni, Luigi, 1900-1988  Search this
Nelson, Carl Gustaf, 1898-1988  Search this
Taylor, Elizabeth, 1932-2011  Search this
Extent:
0.8 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Date:
circa 1918-1990
Summary:
The papers of artist Edna Reindel measure 0.8 linear feet and date from circa 1918-1990. The collection contains biographical material, printed material, artist files and photographs that document Reindel's career and her friendships with Hollywood celebrities, art patrons, and artists.
Scope and Contents:
The papers of artist Edna Reindel measure 0.8 linear feet and date from circa 1918-1990. The collection contains biographical material, printed material, artist files and photographs that document Reindel's career and her friendships with Hollywood celebrities, art patrons, and artists.
Arrangement:
Due to the small size of this collection the papers are arranged as one series.
Biographical / Historical:
Edna Reindel (1894–1990) was a painter, illustrator, and sculptor active from the 1920s to the 1960s. Born in Detroit, Michigan she studied at the Pratt Institute in New York and had her first solo exhibition in 1934 at the Macbeth Gallery. Reindel is best known for her work in large-scale murals, New England landscapes, and later for her commissioned work of women workers in WWII shipyard and aircraft industries as published in Life magazine in 1944.
Separated Materials:
The Archives of American Art also holds material lent for microfilming (reel 1205) including correspondence, primarily with Robert Macbeth, Homer Saint-Gaudens, Frank Crowninshield, Louis M. Eilshemius, Juliana Force, Karl Free, Greer Garson, Stanley William Hayter, Roland McKinney, Vincent Price, Benita Hume Colman (Mrs. George Sanders), and Ernest Watson. Also included is a WPA contract and related letters from Olin Dows and Edward B. Rowan, a transcript of a radio interview, and a portrait of Reindel by Elizabeth Taylor as a child. There are book illustrations, printed material, autographs of prominent individuals such as Douglas Fairbanks and Hedda Hopper, and an autographed photo of Greer Garson. Loaned materials were returned to the lender and are not described in the collection container inventory.
Provenance:
The papers of Edna Reidel on reel 1205 were lent for microfilming by Reindel in 1977. The unmicrofilmed material was donated in 1991 by Reindel's estate through executor and friend, Pauline Davidson.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C., Research Center. Contact Reference Services for more information.
Occupation:
Painters -- California -- Los Angeles  Search this
Painters -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Actors  Search this
Sculptors -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Sculptors -- California -- Los Angeles  Search this
Book illustrators -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Topic:
Women artists  Search this
Surrealism  Search this
Regionalism  Search this
Women illustrators  Search this
Women painters  Search this
Women sculptors  Search this
Citation:
Edna Reindel papers, circa 1918-1990. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.reinedna
See more items in:
Edna Reindel papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/mw947b0aba0-b812-4b8e-bbab-42901911ef66
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-reinedna

Oral history interview with Nanette Laitman

Interviewee:
Laitman, Nanette L., 1924-  Search this
Interviewer:
Riedel, Mija, 1958-  Search this
Creator:
Nanette L. Laitman Documentation Project for Craft and Decorative Arts in America  Search this
Names:
Nanette L. Laitman Documentation Project for Craft and Decorative Arts in America  Search this
Extent:
2 Items (sound files (1hr., 50 min.), digital, wav)
50 Pages (Transcript)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Pages
Sound recordings
Interviews
Date:
2009 May 29
Scope and Contents:
An interview of Nanette Laitman conducted 2009 May 29, by Mija Riedel, for the Archives of American Art's Nanette L. Laitman Documentation Project for Craft and Decorative Arts in America, at Mrs. Laitman's home, in New York, N.Y.
Biographical / Historical:
Nanette L. Laitman (1924- ) is a philanthropist in New York, N.Y. Laitman's generous giving has funded The Nanette L. Laitman Documentation Project for Craft and Decorative Arts in America at the Archives of American Art.
General:
Originally recorded on 1 sound disc. Reformatted in 2010 as 2 digital wav files. Duration is 1 hr., 50 min.
Provenance:
This interview is part of the Archives of American Art Oral History Program, started in 1958 to document the history of the visual arts in the United States, primarily through interviews with artists, historians, dealers, critics and administrators.
Restrictions:
This transcript is open for research. Access to the entire recording is restricted. Contact Reference Services for more information.
Occupation:
Art patrons -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Philanthropists -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Genre/Form:
Sound recordings
Interviews
Identifier:
AAA.laitma09
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/mw910a7f6fc-fdeb-45d5-9820-070bdfc09f76
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-laitma09
Online Media:

Oral history interview with Peter Busa

Interviewee:
Busa, Peter, 1914-1985  Search this
Interviewer:
Seckler, Dorothy Gees, 1910-1994  Search this
Names:
Gorky, Arshile, 1904-1948  Search this
Extent:
45 Pages (Transcript)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Pages
Interviews
Sound recordings
Date:
1965 September 5
Scope and Contents:
An interview of Peter Busa conducted 1965 September 5, by Dorothy Seckler, for the Archives of American Art. Busa speaks of family background; influences on his work; and his work on the WPA. He recalls Arshile Gorky, Stuart Davis, Jackson Pollock, William Baziotes, Kamrowski, and discusses his work being purchased by art patron Walter Chrysler in the late 1950's.
Biographical / Historical:
Peter Busa (1914-1985) was a painter and sculptor from Minneapolis, Minnesota.
General:
Originally recorded as 2 sound tapes. Reformatted in 2010 as 3 digital wav files. Duration is 1 hr., 37 min.
Provenance:
These interviews are part of the Archives of American Art Oral History Program, started in 1958 to document the history of the visual arts in the United States, primarily through interviews with artists, historians, dealers, critics and others.
Restrictions:
Transcript available on the Archives of American Art website.
Topic:
Art, Abstract  Search this
Painters -- Minnesota -- Interviews  Search this
Painters -- New York (State) -- New York -- Interviews  Search this
Painters -- Massachusetts -- Provincetown -- Interviews  Search this
Genre/Form:
Interviews
Sound recordings
Identifier:
AAA.busa65
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/mw95ae8c60e-3092-4cbc-8c93-b9ef0cb0a222
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-busa65
Online Media:

Adam A. Sanders papers

Creator:
Sanders, Adam A., b. 1889  Search this
Extent:
0.4 Linear feet ((partially microfilmed on 2 reels))
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Date:
1914-1961
Scope and Contents:
Writings, photographs, sketches, printed material, and letters.
REEL 98: Autobiographical sketch; exhibition catalogs; clippings about Sanders; pencil sketches, photographs of Sanders and his work; and three printed essays by Sanders, COSMOGONY, THE PRINCIPLE OF ALTOFORM, and THE THEORY OF ALTOFORM.
REEL 284: Letters from Fred Hovey Allen, art commissioner of the Hotel Majestic in New York City arranging for a hotel sculpture studio for Sanders; letters from an early art patron, Harriet Bishop Lanier; copies of THE THEORY OF ALTOFORM and THE PRINCIPLES OF ALTOFORM; sketches; photographs; and clippings.
UNMICROFILMED: Photographs of Sanders's works; sketches; pamphlets on the theory of altoform; clippings; and miscellaneous printed materials.
Biographical / Historical:
Sculptor, writer; New York City. Sanders's theory of altoform explains the reason for elongation of the human figure in art, particularly American.
Provenance:
Donated 1971-1972 by Sanders.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C., Research Center. Microfilmed materials must be consulted on microfilm. Contact Reference Services for more information.
Topic:
Sculpture, Modern -- 20th century -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Sculptors -- New York (State) -- New York -- Interviews  Search this
Identifier:
AAA.sandadam
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/mw9a2c19bfc-7e18-40b3-b729-8328a7ff7dad
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-sandadam

Marcel Duchamp scrapbooks

Creator:
Duchamp, Marcel, 1887-1968  Search this
Extent:
7 Volumes ((on 1 microfilm reel))
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Volumes
Date:
1916-1969
Scope and Contents:
Scrapbooks compiled by Mrs. Marcel Duchamp containing: ca. 15 letters and telegrams to Marcel Duchamp, 1947-1967; poems sent to Duchamp from admirers; an essay on Duchamp by Guy Beatrice, 1954; transcript of an address given by Duchamp to the New York State Chess Association, 1952; an annotated transcript of a press conference interview at Knoedlers, 1967; printed material on Duchamp and others, including exhibition catalogues, announcements, invitations (some annotated by Duchamp), obituaries, and magazine articles; awards and an honorary degree; and miscellany, including a hairnet sent from Ray Johnson, a few photographs of his works, a poster, and airline tickets.
Biographical / Historical:
Painter and sculptor. Born in France, Duchamp exhibited at the Armory Show in 1913 and came to the U.S. in 1915, staying with art patrons Walter and Louise Arensburg. During the First World War, he worked with the Dada group in New York. Duchamp became a U.S. citizen in 1955.
Provenance:
Mrs. Marcel Duchamp placed the scrapbooks on deposit at the Philadelphia Museum of Art, although she still retained ownership. The Philadelphia Museum of Art no longer has the original, but only a copy made from AAA microfilm. Family member, Jacqueline Matisse Monnier, Duchamp family member, retains the original.
Restrictions:
The Archives of American art does not own the original papers. Use is limited to the microfilm copy.
ACCESS RESTRICTED: written permission required.
Occupation:
Painters  Search this
Sculptors  Search this
Topic:
Art, Modern -- 20th century  Search this
Dadaism  Search this
Identifier:
AAA.duchmarc
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/mw936787d17-17f7-44eb-a738-6766c6952fb5
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-duchmarc

Andrew Dasburg and Grace Mott Johnson papers

Creator:
Dasburg, Andrew, 1887-1979  Search this
Names:
Carlson, John F., 1874-1945  Search this
Cramer, Florence Ballin, 1884-1962  Search this
Davidson, Florence Lucius, d. 1962  Search this
Davidson, Jo, 1883-1952  Search this
Frankl, Walter  Search this
Hartley, Marsden, 1877-1943  Search this
Howard, Lila  Search this
Johnson, Grace Mott, 1882-1967  Search this
Kuhn, Vera, d. 1961  Search this
Lockwood, Ward  Search this
Luhan, Mabel Dodge, 1879-1962  Search this
McFee, Henry Lee, 1886-1953  Search this
Riley, Mary G., 1883-1939  Search this
Simonson, Lee, 1888-  Search this
Sterling, Lindsey, 1876-1931  Search this
Wright, Alice Morgan, 1881-1975  Search this
Extent:
8.8 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Poetry
Diaries
Sketchbooks
Photographs
Date:
1833-1980
bulk 1900-1980
Summary:
The papers of painter Andrew Dasburg and his wife and sculptor Grace Mott Johnson date from 1833 to 1980 (bulk 1900 to 1980), and measure 8.8 linear feet. The collection documents each artist's career and personal lives, including their brief marriage and their friendships with many notable artists in the New Mexico and New York art colonies during the early twentieth century. The papers of Dasburg (6 linear feet) and Johnson (2.8 linear feet) include biographical materials; extensive correspondence with family, friends, and fellow artists, such as John F. Carlson, Mabel Dodge Luhan, Marsden Hartley, Henry Lee McFee, and Ward Lockwood; writings by Dasburg, Johnson, and others; scattered legal, financial, and business records; clippings; exhibition materials; numerous photographs of Johnson and Dasburg, friends, family, and artwork; and original artwork, including two sketchbooks by Johnson.
Scope and Content Note:
The papers of painter Andrew Dasburg and sculptor Grace Mott Johnson date from 1833 to 1980, with the bulk of the materials dating from 1900 to 1980, and measure 8.8 linear feet. The collection is divided into the papers of Andrew Dasburg (6 linear feet) and the papers of Grace Mott Johnson (2.8 linear feet), and documents each artist's career and personal lives, including their brief marriage, and friendships with many notable artists in New Mexico and New York art colonies during the early twentieth century. Found are scattered biographical, legal, and financial materials. Extensive correspondence (particularly in Dasburg's papers) is with family, friends, and fellow artists, such as John F. Carlson, Florence Ballin Cramer, Mabel Dodge Luhan, Marsden Hartley, Henry Lee McFee, Vera Spier Kuhn, and Ward Lockwood. Dasburg's papers also include letters to Johnson and his two later wives.

Johnson's correspondence is also with numerous artist friends and others, including John F. and Margaret Carlson, Florence Ballin Cramer, Jo Davidson, Florence Lucius, Walter Frankl, Lila Wheelock Howard, Henry Lee McFee, Mary Riley, Lee Simonson, Lindsey Morris Sterling, Alice Morgan Wright, Mabel Dodge Luhan, and Vera Spier Kuhn. Letters to her son Alfred are quite detailed and revealing. Writings are by Dasburg, Johnson, and others. Johnson's writings include a very brief diary and her poetry. Writings by others are about the Taos and New Mexico art communities. Printed materials about both artists include clippings and exhibition catalogs. There are numerous photographs of Dasburg and Johnson, individually and together, and with friends and family. Of note are a group photograph of Birge Harrison's art class in Woodstock, New York, which includes Johnson and Dasburg, and a photograph of Dasburg with friends Konrad Cramer and John Reed. Dasburg's papers also include snapshots of Florence Lucius, Konrad and Florence Ballin Cramer, Frieda and D. H. Lawrence, and Mabel Dodge Luhan. Original artwork by the two artists include two sketchbooks by Johnson and three prints and two drawings by Dasburg.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into 2 series of each artist's papers:

Missing Title

Series 1: Andrew Dasburg Papers, circa 1900-1980 (Box 1-7; 6.0 linear feet)

Series 2: Grace Mott Johnson Papers, 1833-1963 (Box 7-10; 2.8 linear feet)
Biographical Note:
Andrew Michael Dasburg (1887-1979) was born in Paris, France, to German parents. After his father died and when he was five, Dasburg and his mother moved to New York City. In 1902 Dasburg started attending classes at the Art Students' League and studied with Kenyon Cox and Frank Du Mond. He also took night classes with Robert Henri. In 1907 he received a scholarship to the Art Students' League summer school in Woodstock, New York and spent three summers studying there in Birge Harrison's painting class. While in school he became friends with many young artists, including Morgan Russell and his future wife, Grace Mott Johnson.

Grace Mott Johnson (1882-1967) was born in New York City. She began drawing when she was four years old, and when the family moved to a farm in 1900 she enjoyed sketching horses and other farm animals. At the age of 22 she left home to study at the Art Students' League with sculptors Gutzon Borglum and James Earle Fraser, and also attended Birge Harrison's painting class in Woodstock. Throughout her career she would sculpt animals from memory, and would often attend circuses and farms for inspiration.

In 1909 Johnson and Dasburg went to Paris and joined the modernist circle of artists living there, including Morgan Russell, Jo Davidson, and Arthur Lee. During a trip to London that same year they were married. Johnson returned to the United States early the next year, but Dasburg stayed in Paris where he met Henri Matisse, Gertrude and Leo Stein, and became influenced by the paintings of Cezanne and Cubism. He returned to Woodstock, New York in August and he and Johnson became active members of the artist community. In 1911 their son Alfred was born. Both Dasburg and Johnson showed several works at the legendary Armory Show in 1913, and Dasburg also showed at the MacDowell Club in New York City, where he met the journalist and activist John Reed who later introduced him to Mabel Dodge (Luhan), a wealthy art patron and lifelong friend. In 1914 Dasburg met Alfred Stieglitz and became part of his avant-garde circle. Using what he had seen in Paris, Dasburg became one of the earliest American cubist artists, and also experimented with abstraction in his paintings.

Dasburg and Johnson lived apart for most of their marriage. By 1917 they had separated and Dasburg began teaching painting in Woodstock and in New York City. In 1918 he was invited to Taos, New Mexico by Mabel Dodge, and returning in 1919, Johnson joined him there for a period of time. Also in 1919, Dasburg was one of the founding members of the Woodstock Artists Association with John F. Carlson, Frank Swift Chase, Carl Eric Lindin, and Henry Lee McFee. In 1922 Dasburg and Johnson divorced, and also at that time he began living most of the year in Santa Fe with Ida Rauh, spending the rest of the year in Woodstock and New York City. Dasburg became an active member of the Santa Fe and the Taos art colonies, befriending many artists and writers living in these communities, and remaining close friends with Mabel Dodge Luhan. Here he moved away from abstraction, and used the southwestern landscape as the inspiration for his paintings.

In 1928 he married Nancy Lane. When that marriage ended in 1932, he moved permanently to Taos, and with his third wife, Marina Wister, built a home and studio there. Dasburg periodically taught art privately and at the University of New Mexico. In 1937 he was diagnosed with Addison's disease, which left him unable to paint again until 1946. In 1945 he and his wife Marina separated. Dasburg was recognized for his career as an artist in a circulating retrospective organized by the American Federation of Arts in 1959. He also had retrospectives in Taos in 1966 and 1978. His artwork influence several generations of artists, especially in the southwest, and he continued creating art until his death in 1979 at the age of 92.

Grace Mott Johnson lived in the Johnson family home in Yonkers, New York during the 1920s and later moved to Pleasantville, New York. In 1924 she went to Egypt to study ancient Egyptian sculpture. During the 1930s she became a civil rights activist. She produced very little art during the last twenty years of her life.
Related Material:
Also found in the Archives of American Art are two oral history interviews with Andrew Dasburg, July 2, 1964 and March 6, 1974. Additional related collections at other repositories include the Andrew and Marina Wister Dasburg Papers at the New Mexico State Archives, the Andrew Dasburg Papers at Syracuse University Library, and the Grace Mott Johnson Papers at the Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library, Yale University.
Separated Material:
The Archives of American Art also holds microfilm of material lent for microfilming. Reel 2803 contains photocopies of ten Morgan Russell letters to Dasburg. Reels 4276-4278 include biographical material, subject files, photographs, correspondence, writings, and exhibition material. The photocopies on reel 2803 were discarded after microfilming, and the items on 4276-4278 were returned to the lender. This material is not described in the collection container inventory.
Provenance:
The Andrew Dasburg and Grace Mott Johnson papers were donated by their son, Alfred Dasburg, in 1980. Syracuse Univresity lent materials for microfilming in 1978 and 1989.
Restrictions:
The collection has been digitized and is available online via AAA's website.
Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Occupation:
Painters -- New Mexico  Search this
Painters -- New York (State)  Search this
Topic:
Works of art  Search this
Sculptors -- New York (State)  Search this
Function:
Artist colonies -- New York (State)
Artist colonies -- New Mexico
Genre/Form:
Poetry
Diaries
Sketchbooks
Photographs
Citation:
Andrew Dasburg and Grace Mott Johnson papers, 1833-1980 (bulk 1900-1980). Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.dasbandr
See more items in:
Andrew Dasburg and Grace Mott Johnson papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/mw9c161f331-506a-40a4-b904-cdd21bf7f1b8
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-dasbandr
Online Media:

Oral history interview with Elizabeth Bliss Parkinson

Interviewee:
Parkinson, Elizabeth Bliss, 1907-2001  Search this
Interviewer:
Cummings, Paul  Search this
Extent:
97 Pages (Transcript)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Pages
Sound recordings
Interviews
Date:
1970 Nov. 30-Dec. 17
Scope and Contents:
Interview of Elizabeth Bliss Parkinson conducted 1970 Nov. 30-Dec. 17, by Paul Cummings, for the Archives of American Art.
Biographical / Historical:
Elizabeth Bliss Parkinson (1907-2001) was an art collector and patron from New York, N.Y.
General:
Originally recorded on 2 sound tape reels. Reformatted in 2010 as 3 digital wav files. Duration is 3 hrs., 23 min.
Provenance:
These interviews are part of the Archives of American Art Oral History Program, started in 1958 to document the history of the visual arts in the United States, primarily through interviews with artists, historians, dealers, critics and others.
Topic:
Art -- Collectors and collecting -- New York (State) -- Interviews  Search this
Art patrons -- New York (State) -- New York -- Interviews  Search this
Genre/Form:
Sound recordings
Interviews
Identifier:
AAA.parkin70
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/mw9a5825bfe-889a-4481-a3fd-58db9ccd9a06
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-parkin70
Online Media:

Oral history interview with Bernard J. Reis

Interviewee:
Reis, Bernard J.  Search this
Interviewer:
Cummings, Paul  Search this
Names:
Grosz, George, 1893-1959  Search this
Guggenheim, Peggy, 1898-  Search this
Lipchitz, Jacques, 1891-1973  Search this
Rothko, Mark, 1903-1970  Search this
Extent:
64 Pages (Transcript)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Pages
Sound recordings
Interviews
Date:
1976 June 3-1976 June 10
Scope and Contents:
An interview of Bernard Reis conducted 1976 June 3-1976 June 10, by Paul Cummings, for the Archives of American Art.
Reis speaks of his family background and education; the development of his art collection; and his friendship with various artists, including Jacques Lipchitz, George Grosz and Mark Rothko. He also recalls Peggy Guggenheim.
Biographical / Historical:
Bernard J. Reis (1895-1978) was a art collector and patron from New York, N.Y.
General:
Originally recorded on 2 sound tape reels. Reformatted in 2010 as 4 digital wav files. Duration is 3 hr., 31 min.
Provenance:
These interviews are part of the Archives' Oral History Program, started in 1958 to document the history of the visual arts in the United States, primarily through interviews with artists, historians, dealers, critics and others.
Topic:
Art, American  Search this
Art -- Collectors and collecting -- New York (State) -- Interviews  Search this
Art patrons -- New York (State) -- New York -- Interviews  Search this
Genre/Form:
Sound recordings
Interviews
Identifier:
AAA.reis76
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/mw9cbdc1da9-bb60-45c7-af14-ea01af3e0937
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-reis76
Online Media:

Oral history interview with Blanchette F. H. Rockefeller

Interviewee:
Rockefeller, Blanchette Hooker, 1909-1992  Search this
Interviewer:
Cummings, Paul  Search this
Extent:
22 Pages (Transcript)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Pages
Sound recordings
Interviews
Date:
1970 July 30-August 19
Scope and Contents:
An interview of Blanchette F. H. Rockefeller conducted 1970 July 30-August 19, by Paul Cummings, for the Archives of American Art.
Biographical / Historical:
Blanchette F. H. Rockefeller (1909-1992) was an art collector and patron from New York, N.Y.
General:
Originally recorded on 2 sound tape reels. Reformatted in 2010 as 2 digital wav files. Duration is 1 hr., 49 min.
Sound quality is poor.
Provenance:
This interview is part of the Archives' Oral History Program, started in 1958 to document the history of the visual arts in the United States, primarily through interviews with artists, historians, dealers, critics and others.
Topic:
Art, American  Search this
Art -- Collectors and collecting -- New York (State) -- Interviews  Search this
Art patrons -- New York (State) -- New York -- Interviews  Search this
Genre/Form:
Sound recordings
Interviews
Identifier:
AAA.rockef70
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/mw953eb2ed6-ff5e-4b58-8c76-56dcc0455ec5
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-rockef70
Online Media:

Oral history interview with David M. Solinger

Interviewee:
Solinger, David M., 1906-1996  Search this
Interviewer:
Cummings, Paul  Search this
Extent:
1 Sound tape reel (5 in.)
31 Pages (Transcript)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Sound tape reels
Pages
Sound recordings
Interviews
Date:
1977 May 6
Scope and Contents:
An interview with David M. Solinger conducted 1977 May 6, by Paul Cummings, for the Archives of American Art.
Biographical / Historical:
David M. Solinger (1906-1996) was an art collector and patron from New York, N.Y.
General:
Originally recorded on 1 sound tape reel. Reformatted in 2010 as 2 digital wav files. Duration is 1 hr., 58 min.
Provenance:
These interviews are part of the Archives of American Art Oral History Program, started in 1958 to document the history of the visual arts in the United States, primarily through interviews with artists, historians, dealers, critics and others.
Topic:
Art, Modern -- 20th century -- United States  Search this
Art -- Collectors and collecting -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Art patronage -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Art patrons -- New York (State) -- New York -- Interviews  Search this
Genre/Form:
Sound recordings
Interviews
Identifier:
AAA.soling77
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/mw9b7ac6c0d-59f2-4523-852f-08dd3882ffd4
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-soling77
Online Media:

Oral history interview with David M. Daniels

Interviewee:
Daniels, David M., 1927-2002  Search this
Interviewer:
Cummings, Paul  Search this
Extent:
52 Pages (Transcript)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Pages
Sound recordings
Interviews
Date:
1972 November 29
Scope and Contents:
Interview of David M. Daniels conducted 1972 November 29, by Paul Cummings, for the Archives of American Art.
Biographical / Historical:
David M. Daniels (1927-2002) was an art collector and patron from New York, New York.
General:
Originally recorded on 1 sound tape reel. Reformatted in 2010 as 2 digital wav files. Duration is 1 hr., 24 min.
Provenance:
This interview is part of the Archives of American Art Oral History Program, started in 1958 to document the history of the visual arts in the United States, primarily through interviews with artists, historians, dealers, critics and others.
Restrictions:
For information on how to access this interview contact Reference Services.
Topic:
Art, American  Search this
Art -- Collectors and collecting -- New York (State) -- Interviews  Search this
Art patrons -- New York (State) -- New York -- Interviews  Search this
Genre/Form:
Sound recordings
Interviews
Identifier:
AAA.daniel72
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/mw90d9e3e07-bac7-4c4e-8226-3683e13871a7
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-daniel72
Online Media:

Oral history interview with Huntington Hartford

Interviewee:
Hartford, Huntington, 1911-2008  Search this
Interviewer:
Cummings, Paul  Search this
Extent:
1 Sound tape reel (Sound recording (1 hour), 7 in.)
19 Pages (Transcript)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Sound tape reels
Pages
Sound recordings
Interviews
Date:
1970 May 19
Scope and Contents:
An interview of Huntington Hartford conducted 1970 May 19, by Paul Cummings, at the artist's home in New York, N.Y., for the Archives of American Art.
Biographical / Historical:
Huntington Hartford (1911-2008) was an art collector and patron from New York, N.Y.
Provenance:
This interview is part of the Archives' Oral History Program, started in 1958 to document the history of the visual arts in the United States, primarily through interviews with artists, historians, dealers, critics and others.
Restrictions:
Transcript available on the Archives of American Art website.
Topic:
Art, American  Search this
Art patronage -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Art -- Collectors and collecting -- New York (State) -- Interviews  Search this
Art patrons -- New York (State) -- New York -- Interviews  Search this
Genre/Form:
Sound recordings
Interviews
Identifier:
AAA.hartfo70
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/mw90d6e830c-61b4-4416-abc2-0a5099b149bd
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-hartfo70
Online Media:

Oral history interview with Ben Heller

Interviewee:
Heller, Ben, 1925-  Search this
Interviewer:
Cummings, Paul  Search this
Extent:
1 Sound tape reel (Sound recording, 5 in.)
54 Pages (Transcript)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Sound tape reels
Pages
Sound recordings
Interviews
Date:
1973 Jan. 8
Scope and Contents:
An interview of Ben Heller conducted 1973 Jan. 8, by Paul Cummings, for the Archives of American Art. Heller speaks of his youth and education in New York; his early interest in music and literature; starting his painting and sculpture collection; the relationship between artists and collectors; art movements and the impact of collectors on them; art as a financial investment; the changes in his collecting interests; becoming a dealer, and some of the problems involved; the lack of financial support for art institutions; and traveling exhibitions of his collection.
Biographical / Historical:
Ben Heller (1925-) is an art collector, patron, and dealer from New York, N.Y.
Provenance:
This interview is part of the Archives' Oral History Program, started in 1958 to document the history of the visual arts in the United States, primarily through interviews with artists, historians, dealers, critics and others.
Topic:
Art -- Collectors and collecting -- New York (State) -- Interviews  Search this
Art dealers -- New York (State) -- New York -- Interviews  Search this
Art patrons -- New York (State) -- New York -- Interviews  Search this
Genre/Form:
Sound recordings
Interviews
Identifier:
AAA.heller73
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/mw92c5ed8a5-09d6-4d1c-ae57-a91435f77740
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-heller73
Online Media:

Oral history interview with Alice M. Kaplan

Interviewee:
Kaplan, Alice M.  Search this
Interviewer:
Cummings, Paul  Search this
Names:
American Federation of Arts  Search this
Westbeth Gallery  Search this
Extent:
122 Pages (Transcript)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Pages
Sound recordings
Interviews
Date:
1978 February 21-March 8
Scope and Contents:
An interview of Alice Kaplan conducted 1978 February 21-March 8, by Paul Cummings, for the Archives of American Art.
Biographical / Historical:
Alice M. Kaplan (1903-1995) was an art patron and collector of New York, New York. Kaplan was a trustee and president of the American Federation of Arts. She founded Westbeth, a project designed to provide housing for artists. She was also a supporter of the Cooper-Hewitt Museum, the Henry Street Settlement, and the Fiftieth anniversary exhibition of the 1913 Armory Show. Kaplan collected art from many cultures with an emphasis on master drawings.
General:
Originally recorded on 2 sound tape reels as 4 digital wav files. Duration is 3 hrs., 29 min.
Provenance:
This interview is part of the Archives' Oral History Program, started in 1958 to document the history of the visual arts in the United States, primarily through interviews with artists, historians, dealers, critics and others.
Topic:
Art -- Collectors and collecting  Search this
Art patrons -- New York (State) -- Interviews  Search this
Genre/Form:
Sound recordings
Interviews
Identifier:
AAA.kaplan78
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/mw9bd674048-76f2-4468-90e3-8c2d0ca961e7
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-kaplan78
Online Media:

Oral history interview with Roy R. Neuberger, 1975 September 19-26

Interviewee:
Neuberger, Roy R. (Roy Rothschild), 1903-2010  Search this
Neuberger, Roy R. (Roy Rothschild), 1903-2010  Search this
Interviewer:
Cummings, Paul, 1933-1997  Search this
Type:
Sound recordings
Interviews
Topic:
Art, American  Search this
Art -- Collectors and collecting -- New York (State) -- Interviews  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)11610
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)212987
AAA_collcode_neuber75
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_oh_212987

Modify Your Search







or


Narrow By
  • Archives of American Art