Skip to main content Smithsonian Institution

Search Results

Collections Search Center
14 documents - page 1 of 1

Oral history interview with Tibor de Nagy, 1976 March 29

Interviewee:
De Nagy, Tibor, 1908-1993  Search this
De Nagy, Tibor, 1908-1993  Search this
Interviewer:
Cummings, Paul, 1933-1997  Search this
Subject:
Andre, Carl  Search this
Bates, Alex  Search this
Castelli, Leo  Search this
Frankenthaler, Helen  Search this
Freilicher, Jane  Search this
Hartigan, Grace  Search this
Hess, Thomas B.  Search this
Myers, John Bernard  Search this
Nivola, Costantino  Search this
O'Hara, Frank  Search this
Rivers, Larry  Search this
Tibor de Nagy Gallery  Search this
Type:
Sound recordings
Interviews
Topic:
Art galleries, Commercial -- Economic aspects  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)12568
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)212028
AAA_collcode_denagy76
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_oh_212028

American Art Association Records, circa 1853-1929, bulk 1885-1922

Creator:
American Art Association  Search this
American Art Association  Search this
Subject:
Parsons, Alfred  Search this
Carnegie, Andrew  Search this
Crocker, William H.  Search this
Kirby, Thomas Ellis  Search this
Millet, Francis Davis  Search this
American Watercolor Society  Search this
Blakeslee Galleries (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Type:
Sales records
Photographs
Drawings
Prints
Sketches
Topic:
Art -- Economic aspects  Search this
Art galleries, Commercial -- Economic aspects  Search this
Art, French  Search this
Art auctions  Search this
Art, American  Search this
Artists -- France -- Photographs  Search this
Artists -- United States  Search this
Theme:
Art Market  Search this
American Art and Artists in a Global Context  Search this
Communities, Organizations, Museums  Search this
Art Gallery Records  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)6973
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)209102
AAA_collcode_amerarta
Theme:
Art Market
American Art and Artists in a Global Context
Communities, Organizations, Museums
Art Gallery Records
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_209102
Online Media:

Los Angeles Museum of Art / Roger Wong Gallery records, 1966-1988

Creator:
Los Angeles Museum of Art  Search this
Los Angeles Museum of Art  Search this
Subject:
Bozzi, Julie  Search this
Burden, Chris  Search this
Gale, Bill  Search this
Lightbody, Joyce  Search this
Neher, Marilyn  Search this
Patterson, Pat  Search this
Stoecks, Volker  Search this
Van Kirkhoven, Annie Mie  Search this
Wong, Roger  Search this
Wood, Gary  Search this
Los Angeles Museum of Art  Search this
Roger Wong Gallery (Los Angeles, Calif.)  Search this
Type:
Photographs
Topic:
Art galleries, Commercial -- Economic aspects  Search this
Arts -- Experimental methods  Search this
Avant-garde (Aesthetics)  Search this
Theme:
Art Market  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)6530
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)215799
AAA_collcode_rogewong
Theme:
Art Market
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_215799
Online Media:

Account book with cash receipts for dates indicated

Creator:
Tibor de Nagy Gallery  Search this
Tibor de Nagy Gallery  Search this
Subject:
Reynal, Jeanne  Search this
Ripley, Dwight  Search this
Type:
Financial Records
Date:
1950 through 1953
Topic:
Art galleries, Commercial  Search this
Art market  Search this
Art--Economic aspects  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA)7228
See more items in:
Tibor de Nagy Gallery records, 1941-2016
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_item_7228
Online Media:

William Pachner, Woodstock, N.Y. letter to Wilna Hervey and Nan Mason, Anna Maria, Fla.

Creator:
Pachner, William  Search this
Hervey, Wilna, 1894-1979  Search this
Pachner, William  Search this
Type:
Correspondence
Date:
1951 Jan. 4
Topic:
Art galleries, Commercial  Search this
Art--Economic aspects  Search this
Exhibitions  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA)10099
See more items in:
Wilna Hervey and Nan Mason papers, 1883-1985
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_item_10099
Online Media:

James Graham & Sons records

Creator:
James Graham & Sons  Search this
Names:
Coe Kerr Gallery  Search this
Duveen-Graham (Gallery)  Search this
Graham Gallery  Search this
Graham Modern (Gallery)  Search this
Cicero, Carmen, 1926-  Search this
Coheleach, Guy  Search this
Crile, Susan, 1942-  Search this
De Kooning, Elaine  Search this
Dickinson, Edwin Walter, 1891-1978  Search this
Duveen, Albert  Search this
Fogel, Seymour, 1911-1984  Search this
Fried, Nancy  Search this
Graham, Robert Claverhouse, 1913-1994  Search this
Kriesberg, Irving, 1919-  Search this
Melchers, Gari, 1860-1932  Search this
Perrine, Van Dearing, 1869-1955  Search this
Santlofer, Jonathan, 1946-  Search this
Schley, Reeve, 1936-  Search this
Stevens, Peter  Search this
Thorne, Joan, 1943-  Search this
Trieff, Selina, 1934-  Search this
Wyeth, Andrew, 1917-2009  Search this
Wyeth, Jamie, 1946-  Search this
Wyeth, N. C. (Newell Convers), 1882-1945  Search this
Extent:
103.6 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Scrapbooks
Photographs
Date:
1821
1815
circa 1896-2011
Summary:
The records of the New York City gallery James Graham & Sons measure 103.6 linear feet and date from 1815, 1821, circa 1896-2011 (bulk 1950s-1980s). The collection generally documents the gallery's contemporary art department during the time in which Robert Claverhouse Graham, Sr. worked at the gallery (1940-1979); records prior to 1954 are sparse and scattered. Gallery records include artist files; correspondence; exhibition files; financial records; inventory records; printed materials; sales, loans, and consignment records; scrapbooks; and photographic materials. Also found are records from Coe Kerr Gallery regarding exhibitions.
Scope and Content Note:
The records of the New York City gallery James Graham & Sons measure 103.6 linear feet and date from 1815, 1821, circa 1896-2011 (bulk 1950s-1980s). The collection generally documents the gallery's contemporary art department during the time in which Robert Claverhouse Graham, Sr. worked at the gallery (1940-1979); records prior to 1954 are sparse and scattered. Gallery records include artist files; correspondence; exhibition files; financial records; inventory records; printed materials; sales, loans, and consignment records; scrapbooks; and photographic materials. Also found are records from Coe Kerr Gallery regarding exhibitions of artwork by Jamie Wyeth, and to a lesser extent, Andrew and N.C. Wyeth.

Over the years, the gallery changed names and established contemporary art departments. In addition to records of James Graham & Sons, the collection holds the records of Duveen-Graham Modern Art (in partnership with Albert Duveen), Graham Gallery, Graham Modern, JG|Contemporary, and, to a lesser extent, The Clapp and Graham Co.

Alphabetical files are a mix of business correspondence and business records. The bulk of the series contains correspondence with galleries, museums, other institutions, and, to a lesser extent, clients regarding sales, consignments, and loans of artwork. Also found are materials relevant to the daily operations of the gallery, including correspondence, subject files, and scattered financial, business and legal records.

Exhibition files provide scattered documentation of the gallery's exhibitions through catalogs, clippings, correspondence, guest books, notes, photographs, press materials, price lists, and sales receipts and other financial records.

Artists' Files document the numerous artists who have been represented by the gallery, especially modern American artists. Folders for each artist can contain a variety of materials, including correspondence with the artist or with institutions regarding consignments, loans, sales and exhibitions; photographic materials primarily of artwork; sales invoices; exhibition catalogs, postcards, and other printed materials; press releases; magazine and newspaper clippings; price lists; artist binders; and research materials on artists and artwork. Also found are some subject files, per original arrangement. There is extensive material related to artists Carmen Cicero, Susan Crile, Elaine De Kooning's portrait of President John F. Kennedy, Edwin Dickinson, muralist Seymour Fogel, Nancy Fried, Irving Kriesberg, Gari Melchers, Jonathan Santlofer, Reeve Schley, Peter Stevens, Joan Thorne, and Selina Trieff.

Artwork files document sales, consignments, and loans of artwork primarily from the mid-1980s to 2000s. Materials include agreements and contracts; condition reports; correspondence; invoices and receipts; photographs of artwork; shipping records; and photocopied printed material and other documentation. This series requires written permission from the donor in order to access.

Sales records from 1959-1984 (missing 1974) are found in the Financial Records series. Also found are check stub books from the mid-late 1950s; price lists; records for the Four Seasons Charter Corp.; and scattered banking, consignment, tax, and other financial records. Inventory cards from mid-1950s-1970s and inventory lists, often with notations and prices, are found in the series Inventory Records.

Coe Kerr Gallery Records regarding the Wyeths document Jamie Wyeth's exhibitions primarily from the mid-1970s-early 1980s. Also found is limited material regarding Andrew Wyeth and N.C. Wyeth. Materials include correspondence, photographs, exhibition printed materials, and extensive newspaper clippings.

There are exhibition catalogs, books, announcements, magazines, clippings, postcards, posters and other printed materials related to artists, John Graham & Sons exhibitions, and exhibitions by Graham artists held at other galleries and museums. Also found is an 1815 fifty cent note which was redeemed in 1821.

Seven scrapbooks document discrete aspects of the business, including the gallery's advertising, participation in an art fair, and the careers of artists Guy Coheleach and Van Dearing Perrine. Materials housed in the scrapbooks include clippings, catalogs, photographs, and other printed materials.

Photographic Materials include mostly black and white photographs, negatives, slides and transparencies of artwork; scattered photographs of installations, artists, and the gallery; and a handful of personal snapshots. The bulk of the photographs are undated, but were likely printed between 1950s-1990s.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged as ten series:

Missing Title

Series 1: Alphabetical Files, circa 1896, 1902-1999, bulk 1955-1986 (Boxes 1-15, 102; 15 linear feet)

Series 2: Exhibition Files, 1912, 1947-2004 (Boxes 16-24, 102; 8.1 linear feet)

Series 3: Artists' Files, circa 1907-2006, bulk 1955-1999 (Boxes 24-62, 95-96, 102-110; 47.5 linear feet)

Series 4: Artwork Files, circa early 1900s-2011, bulk mid-1980s-2009 (Boxes 63-71, 94, 101; 9.3 linear feet)

Series 5: Financial Records, circa 1937-1993 (Boxes 72-76, 96; 4.5 linear feet)

Series 6: Inventory Records, circa 1954-1993 (Boxes 76-78, 96; 2.1 linear feet)

Series 7: Coe Kerr Gallery Records Regarding Wyeths, 1964-1988 (Boxes 78-80, 97; 2.7 linear feet)

Series 8: Printed Materials, 1815, 1821, 1949-2006 (Boxes 81-82, 97; 2.1 linear feet)

Series 9: Scrapbooks, 1897-1990s (Boxes 82, 98-100; 0.9 linear feet)

Series 10: Photographic Materials, 1929-1990s (Boxes 83-93, 96, 100-101, 110; 11.5 linear feet)
Historical Note:
The James Graham & Sons gallery has been owned and managed by the Graham family in New York City since 1857. Throughout its history, the gallery has specialized in decorative arts, antiques, and 19th-early 20th century and contemporary American art.

In 1857, Samuel Graham founded a gallery at 66 Third Street and specialized in furniture. Graham was joined by his son James in the 1880s and expanded the business to include antiques and decorative arts. James A. Graham, the third generation Graham, joined the gallery in the early 20th century. James Graham and antiques dealer Marshall Clapp created Clapp & Graham in 1914, a partnership which was dissolved around 1940.

James R. Graham, the fourth generation Graham, joined the gallery in 1937, followed by his brother Robert Claverhouse Graham, Sr. in 1940. The gallery was then named James Graham & Sons and was located at 514 Madison Avenue. At this time, the gallery specialized in bronzes, ceramics, silver, sculptures, and 19th-early 20th century American art. Robert C. Graham, Sr. introduced modern American art, especially The Eight, into the gallery's inventory.

In 1955, the gallery moved to 1014 Madison Avenue, where it remained until the late 2000s. That same year, Graham opened its first contemporary department with Albert Duveen. Duveen-Graham Modern Art gallery was based on the third floor of the Madison Avenue building and dealt solely in contemporary art until its closing in 1958. Robert C. Graham, Jr. (Robin) joined the gallery in 1963, becoming the fifth generation Graham to run the family business. The gallery is currently located at 32 East 67th Street.

Betsy Fahlman's "James Graham & Sons: A Century and a Half in the Art Business" (2007) was a valuable resource in constructing this Historical Note.
Related Material:
Among the other resources relating to James Graham & Sons in the Archives of American Art is an oral history interview with Robert Claverhouse Graham, November 19, 1976, and the David Herbert papers, 1950-1995.
Provenance:
The James Graham & Sons records were donated in 2007, 2008, and 2012 by Priscilla Caldwell and Jay Grimm of James Graham & Sons and in 2018 by Cameron Shay of James Graham & Sons.
Restrictions:
This collection is open for research. Access to original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C. Research Center.
Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Topic:
Art -- Economic aspects  Search this
Painting -- United States  Search this
Sculpture -- United States  Search this
Function:
Art galleries, Commercial -- New York (State)
Genre/Form:
Scrapbooks
Photographs
Citation:
James Graham & Sons records, 1815, 1821, circa 1896-2011, bulk 1950s-1980s. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.jamegras
See more items in:
James Graham & Sons records
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/mw9ac9450b3-244a-4b81-a5b5-0426a0ade6f3
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-jamegras
Online Media:

Richard York Gallery records

Creator:
Richard York Gallery  Search this
Names:
Art Dealers Association of America  Search this
De Forest, Lockwood, 1850-1932  Search this
Goldyne, Joseph R.  Search this
Hale, Ellen Day, 1855-1940  Search this
Hill, J. W. (John William), 1812-1879  Search this
Hill, John Henry, 1839-1922  Search this
Hornby, Lester George, 1882-1956  Search this
Lozowick, Louis, 1892-1973  Search this
Lucioni, Luigi, 1900-1988  Search this
MacRae, Emma Fordyce, 1887-1974  Search this
Mapplethorpe, Robert  Search this
Marin, John, 1870-1953  Search this
Marin, John, Jr., 1915?-1988  Search this
Smith, Houghton Cranford, 1887-1983  Search this
Stella, Joseph, 1877-1946  Search this
Stevens, Will Henry, 1881-1949  Search this
Wheeler, Steve, 1912-1992  Search this
York, Richard  Search this
Extent:
89.5 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Scrapbooks
Photographs
Date:
circa 1865-2005
bulk 1981-2004
Summary:
The records of the Richard York Gallery, a New York gallery specializing in American art from early 1800s to 1950, measure 79.3 linear feet and date from circa 1865-2005, with the bulk of the material dating from 1981 to 2004. Three-fourths of the records are artists' artwork files, documenting the sale and consignment of nearly 6,500 works of art. The gallery's activities are also recorded through correspondence, client files, gallery invoices, inventories, business and financial records, printed materials, scrapbooks, photographic materials of artwork, and estate records for the John Marin estate and Sergio Stella estate (Joseph Stella). An addition of 10.2 linear feet, dated circa 1865 to 2005, includes artists' files arranged alphabetically containing printed material, clippings, exhibition announcements, and scattered correspondence and financial documents.
Scope and Content Note:
The records of the Richard York Gallery, a New York gallery specializing in American art from early 1800s to 1950, measure 79.3 linear feet and date from circa 1865-2005, with the bulk of the material dating from 1981 to 2004. Three-fourths of the records are artists' artwork files, documenting the sale and consignment of nearly 6,500 works of art. The gallery's activities are also recorded through correspondence, client files, gallery invoices, inventories, business and financial records, printed materials, scrapbooks, photographic materials of artwork, and estate records for the John Marin estate and Sergio Stella estate (Joseph Stella). An addition of 10.2 linear feet, dated circa 1865 to 2005, includes artists' files arranged alphabetically containing printed material, clippings, exhibition announcements, and scattered correspondence and financial documents.

Correspondence includes both incoming and outgoing correspondence with collectors, clients, galleries and museums, primarily regarding appraisals, consignments, exhibitions, general inquiries, loans, and sales. Also found are scattered transactional records, information sheets for artwork, and photographic materials. Correspondence from the mid-late 1980s is poorly represented.

The sale and consignment of nearly 6,500 pieces of artwork at the Richard York Gallery are documented through transactional records, photographic materials, correspondence, and scattered printed materials found in the Artists' Artwork Files. Artists for which there are significant quantities of materials (over 50 folders) include Joseph Goldyne, Ellen Day Hale, John Henry Hill, John William Hill, Lester George Hornby, Louis Lozowick, Luigi Lucioni, Emma Fordyce MacRae, John Marin, Joseph Stella, William Henry Stevens, and Steve Wheeler. Also included are the files of the Richard York photography collection, which contained works by Robert Mapplethorpe.

Similar to the Artists' Artwork Files, Client Files document the sale and consignment of artwork, but are arranged by artist's and client's name. Materials found are primarily from the early 1990s and include correspondence, notes, photographic materials, photocopied client information cards, and printed materials.

The Richard York Gallery represented the John Marin estate and the Sergio Stella estate (Joseph Stella). The records of the John Marin estate are primarily artwork in-take sheets from 1998 and inventory lists from 2001. The Sergio Stella Estate records include correspondence, inventories of artwork by Joseph Stella, and some photographic materials.

Sales and inventory records contain a nearly complete set of gallery invoices from 1995-2000, and 2004. Inventories includes gallery inventory lists, and inventory cards of sold artwork from 1981-1997 (bulk 1981-1991).

The business and financial records include accounting records, bank deposit records, corporate records, index cards for contacts, invoices for gallery expenses, materials related to Richard York's involvement in the ADAA, mailing lists, records of payments to consignors, receipts, shipping records, and tax records. The gallery migrated from paper records to Artbase, an artwork management system, around 2000-2002. Included are two CDs of database data and digital images from Artbase, as well as inventories of the digital file names.

Printed materials contain advertising tear sheets from 1998-2002, exhibition catalogs, magazine and newspaper clippings of reviews and announcements, and other miscellaneous printed materials. Printed materials are also found in eight scrapbooks which document the activities of the Richard York Gallery, Richard York, and the gallery's exhibitions from 1981-2002. Materials in the scrapbooks include clippings, correspondence, photographs, exhibition catalogs, announcements, and invitations.

Photographic materials includes color photographs, transparencies, digital prints, and scattered printed materials, as well as over 600 slides of artwork, primarily works of art which were sold or consigned by the gallery. Artists for which there is significant volume of transparencies include Houghton Cranford Smith and Lockwood de Forest, Sr.

Materials with dates prior to 1981 in this collection are primarily research materials for works of art, such as printed materials, correspondence, and transparencies, as well as some artwork artifacts, such as back labels.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged as 9 series:

Missing Title

Series 1: Correspondence, 1975-2005 (Boxes 1-7; 6.4 linear feet)

Series 2: Artists' Artwork Files, circa 1865-2004 (Boxes 7-64; 56.85 linear feet)

Series 3: Client Files, 1965, circa 1981-circa 2004 (Box 64; 0.5 linear feet)

Series 4: Estate Records, 1983-circa 2004 (Boxes 64-65; 1.0 linear feet)

Series 5: Sales and Inventory Records, 1977-2004 (Boxes 65-70; 5.0 linear feet)

Series 6: Business and Financial Records, 1974-2005 (Boxes 70-77; 6.25 linear feet)

Series 7: Printed Materials, 1980-2004 (Boxes 77-78; 1.1 linear feet)

Series 8: Scrapbooks, 1981-2002 (Boxes 78, 80; 1.0 linear feet)

Series 9: Photographic Materials, 1977-2004 (Boxes 78-79; 1.2 linear feet)

Series 10: Unprocessed Addition, circa 1865-2005 (Boxes 81-91; 10.2 linear feet)
Historical Note:
Richard T. York (circa 1950-2003) opened his eponymous gallery in the spring of 1981 on East 65th Street in New York City. Specializing in American painting and sculpture from early 1800s to 1950, the Richard York Gallery dealt in the artwork of hundreds of artists including Albert Bierstadt, Charles Demuth, Arthur Dove, Lockwood de Forest, John Graham, Georgia O'Keeffe, John Singer Sargent, Charles Sheeler, and Steve Wheeler. It also represented the estates of artists John Marin and Joseph Stella.

Richard York passed away in April 2003, and the gallery closed in May 2004.
Provenance:
The Richard York Gallery records were donated to the Archives of American Art in 2006 by Kevin Scott, the executor of Richard York's estate; and in 2015 by Lisa Bush Hankin, former gallery director.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment.
Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Topic:
Art, American  Search this
Art -- Economic aspects  Search this
Function:
Art galleries, Commercial -- New York (State)
Genre/Form:
Scrapbooks
Photographs
Citation:
Richard York Gallery records, circa 1865-2005, bulk 1981-2004. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.richyorg
See more items in:
Richard York Gallery records
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/mw9840d344b-113b-4019-9b6b-8327b4395bb0
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-richyorg
Online Media:

André Emmerich Gallery records

Creator:
André Emmerich Gallery  Search this
Names:
Galerie André Emmerich  Search this
Sotheby Parke Bernet & Co.  Search this
Sotheby's (Firm)  Search this
Caro, Anthony, 1924-  Search this
Emmerich, André  Search this
Francis, Sam, 1923-1994  Search this
Frankenthaler, Helen, 1928-2011  Search this
Greenberg, Clement, 1909-1994  Search this
Hockney, David  Search this
Hofmann, Hans, 1880-1966  Search this
Louis, Morris, 1912-1962  Search this
Noland, Kenneth, 1924-2010  Search this
Olitski, Jules, 1922-2007  Search this
Pepper, Beverly  Search this
Extent:
311.4 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Visitors' books
Sound recordings
Video recordings
Scrapbooks
Etchings
Date:
circa 1929-2009
Summary:
The André Emmerich Gallery records and André Emmerich papers measure 311.4 linear feet and date from 1929 to 2009. The collection documents the business of the André Emmerich Gallery as well as André Emmerich's life and activities related to the business of selling art. Gallery records include correspondence; appointment books; administrative and subject files; exhibition files; artist files and accounts; inventory, sales, purchase, and consignment records; chronological files; financial and legal records; printed materials; original artwork; photographic and audiovisual materials. Also found are personal papers and records relating to André Emmerich. TheA small addition received in 2014 includes general correspondence, administrative files, exhibition files, artists' files, inventory records, consignment records, printed material, photographic materials, and André Emmerich personal papers and records.
Scope and Content Note:
The André Emmerich Gallery records and André Emmerich papers measure 311.4 linear feet and date from 1929 to 2009. The collection documents the business of the André Emmerich Gallery as well as André Emmerich's life and activities related to the business of selling art. Gallery records include correspondence; appointment books; administrative and subject files; exhibition files; artist files and accounts; inventory, sales, purchase, and consignment records; chronological files; financial and legal records; printed materials; original artwork; photographic and audiovisual materials. Also found are personal papers and records relating to André Emmerich.

The records document the gallery's daily business operations, exhibitions, and relationships with artists, dealers, clients, galleries, and museums. Artists particularly well-represented throughout the collection include Anthony Caro, Sam Francis, Helen Frankenthaler, David Hockney, Hans Hofmann, Morris Louis, Kenneth Noland, Jules Olitski, and Beverly Pepper.

Records pre-dating the gallery's establishment in 1954 are primarily newspaper and magazine clippings related to artists, personal photographs and photographs of artists, an original etching, and some of André Emmerich's personal records including biographical materials, correspondence, writings, and legal and financial records. Records post-dating the gallery's closure in 1998 are primarily residual business records related to the final disposition of artwork, clippings, photographs of André Emmerich and gallery staff, biographical materials, personal correspondence, writings, legal and financial records, and condolences received by Emmerich's wife upon his death in 2007.

Correspondence is primarily with galleries, museums and clients about business matters. Correspondence files also cover topics such as appraisals, authentications, offers of sale, artists seeking representation, image requests, job applications and recommendations. Also included are the New York gallery's copies of correspondence between the New York staff and the Zurich staff.

André Emmerich's appointment books document appointments, notes, and reminders about Emmerich's business and personal activities. Four appointment books relating to the birth of Emmerich's three sons and second marriage were kept by the family. The appointment books are access restricted and require written permission to use.

Administrative files include corporate records establishing the Andre Emmerich gallery's structure, records documenting the gallery's daily operations, advertising and publicity material, and records about the Sotheby's acquisition. There are also materials related to Top Gallant Farm, from its establishment to its closure. Travel records relate to André Emmerich's business trips and vacations along with some files on the travels of a several staff members at the gallery. Files about the operations of the Galerie André Emmerich in Zurich, Switzerland are included in the series as well.

Subject files relate to Emmerich's gallery business as well as personal and political interests, such as antiquities, art fairs and exhibitions, lecture research, art associations, and sculpture parks. There are several files on the art critic Clement Greenberg and former president of Gay Men's Health Crisis, Nathan Kolodner, who was also an art dealer and director of the Andre Emmerich Gallery.

Exhibition files contain numerous exhibition catalogs and printed materials related to exhibitions held or organized by the André Emmerich Gallery in Manhattan and Galerie André Emmerich in Zurich. The files contain materials ranging such as exhibition invitations, posters, printed materials, press releases, and guest books. Photographs of exhibitions can be found in the Photographic Materials series.

Artist files include biographical materials, clippings, correspondence, mailing lists, price lists, printed materials, and occasionally lectures, writings, and audiovisual materials for many of the artists represented or shown by André Emmerich Gallery. The General Correspondence files might contain duplicates or expanded versions of some of the correspondence. Photographs of artists can be found in the Photographic Materials series.

Artist accounts comprise account statements prepared periodically by the gallery documenting each artist's expenses and sales. Ledgers and general accounting files can be found in the Other Financial and Legal Records series.

Inventory records include inventory cards describing artwork entering and leaving the gallery and files containing various gallery inventories. Artist inventory cards, representing artists from both the New York and Zurich galleries, list the artist, title, date, media and measurements of an artwork. The cards also indicate whether the work was ultimately sold, returned to the artist, consigned, etc., and divided into categories accordingly. Inventory files show various gallery inventories.

Sales records document gallery sales and include paid invoices, records relating to Zurich sales, general sales records such as price lists and canceled sales, and Sotheby's Parke-Bernet auction reports. There are gaps in sales invoices in 1961-1964 and 1969-1971.

Purchase records include correspondence and invoices related to purchases and offers; annotated invoices for works of art bought by the gallery; André Emmerich, Inc. related purchase records; "Non-Modern" art related purchase records.

Consignment records include correspondence and consignment agreements documenting consignments to and from the André Emmerich Gallery; consignments from other galleries to André Emmerich, Inc.; and general consignment records.

Chronological files include copies of invoices or cover letters documenting the movement of artwork into and out of the gallery through sales, consignments, loans, and approvals. Records dating January through August 1968, January through March 1969, and September 1969 through July 1971 are missing.

Financial and legal records include client and partner account statements, resale and exempt organization certificates, accounting ledgers, and legal files related to disputes involving or of interest to the gallery.

Printed materials include auction catalogs and reports, books, and clippings describing André Emmerich, the galleries in New York and Zurich, Top Gallant Farm, and the art world. Also included is a large scrapbook created by the gallery containing clippings and gallery announcements dated 1955-1958. Clippings relating to particular artists can be found in the Artists Files series.

There are two pieces of original artwork in the collection. One is a 1974 print of a 1933 composite etching by Esther Dick Gottlieb, Adolphe Gottlieb, Edgar Levy, Lucille Corcos Levy, David Smith, and Dorothy Dehner Smith. The second is a 1998 lithograph by Louise Bourgeoise, called The Face of the Critic. The artist gave the lithograph as a gift in honor of Robert Hughes and the Archives of American Art and is numbered 61 out of a series of 300.

Photographic materials include prints, slides, negatives, and transparencies. Subjects include artists, André Emmerich, gallery installations, Top Gallant Farm, events, artists' studios, gallery staff, gallery space, and artwork. Photographs which show André Emmerich are indicated as such in the finding aid.

Audiovisual materials includes videocassettes and one audiocassette related to the art world. Videocassettes related to specific artists can be found in the Artists Files series. Videocassettes related to André Emmerich can be found in the André Emmerich Personal Papers and Records series. Videocassettes related to Top Gallant Farm and Sotheby's can be found in the Administrative Files series.

Personal papers and records relating to André Emmerich include biographical materials, personal correspondence, writings and lectures, and legal and financial records. The biographical materials include an address book, interviews and identifying documents. Writings include articles, edits, dissertations, lectures, etc. There are also some miscellaneous correspondence which is organized chronologically.

The small addition received in 2014 includes general correspondence, administrative files, exhibition files, artists' files, inventory records, consignment records, printed material, photographic materials, and André Emmerich personal papers and records.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged as 19 series:

Missing Title

Series 1: General Correspondence Files, 1958-2006 (boxes 1-18, OV 314-315; 18.2 linear feet)

Series 2: André Emmerich Appointment Books, 1954-2007 (boxes 19, 325, 326; 1.7 linear feet)

Series 3: Administrative Files, 1954-2003 (boxes 20-31, 306, OV 314, OV 316-319; 11 linear feet)

Series 4: Subject Files, 1958-1967, 1971-2000 (boxes 31-32, 306, OV 318, OV 320; 2 linear feet)

Series 5: Exhibition Files, circa 1954-1998 (boxes 32-40, 306, 307, OV 318-322; 8.5 linear feet)

Series 6: Artists Files, 1929-1932, 1938-2007 (boxes 40-68, 307, 308, OV 320-323; 28 linear feet)

Series 7: Artist Accounts, 1958-1998 (boxes 68-81; 13.5 linear feet)

Series 8: Inventory Records, circa 1954-2000(boxes 82-128; 46.5 linear feet)

Series 9: Sales Records, 1959-1998 (boxes 128-168; 40 linear feet)

Series 10: Purchase Records, 1961-1966, 1972-1994 (boxes 168-170; 2 linear feet)

Series 11: Consignment Records, 1961-2002 (boxes 170-177; 7.7 linear feet)

Series 12: Chronological File of Incoming and Outgoing Artwork, 1968-1998 (boxes 178-185; 8 linear feet)

Series 13: Other Financial and Legal Records, 1956-1999 (boxes 186-202; 16.5 linear feet)

Series 14: Printed Materials, 1955-1960, 1965-2008 (boxes 202-204, 308, 309; 3 linear feet)

Series 15: Original Artwork, 1933, 1974, 1998 (box 205, 310; 0.7 linear feet (2 folders))

Series 16: Photographic Materials, circa 1930-1935, 1941-1998, circa 2005 (Boxes 205-296, 311-313, OV 324; 92.8 linear feet)

Series 17: General Audio and Video Recordings, 1985, 1990-1995 (Boxes 297-298; 1.3 linear feet)

Series 18: André Emmerich Personal Papers and Records, 1937-1940, 1946-2008 (Boxes 298-305, OV 321, OV 323; 7.7 linear feet)

Series 19: Addition to the The André Emmerich Gallery records and André Emmerich papers, 1956-2009 (Boxes 328-329, OV 330; 2.1 linear feet)
Historical Note:
André Emmerich (1924-2007) was one of America's most noted contemporary art dealers and opened the André Emmerich Gallery in New York in 1954. The gallery showcased contemporary art, particularly Color Field painting and monumental sculpture.

André Emmerich was born on October 11, 1924 in Frankfurt, Germany. From age 7 he was raised in Amsterdam before emigrating with his family to New York City in 1940. He studied at Oberlin College and developed an interest in pre-Columbian art and antiquities. After graduation, he spent ten years in Paris working as a writer and editor before returning to New York. He married Constance Emmerich and the couple had three sons, Adam, Noah, and Toby.

In 1954 Emmerich opened the André Emmerich Gallery at 18 East 77th Street and initially specialized in contemporary American and European art and pre-Columbian antiquities. In 1956, the gallery moved to 17 East 64th Street, and in 1959 to the Fuller Building at 41 East 57th Street. Emmerich wrote two books about pre-Columbian art, Art Before Columbus in 1963 and Sweat of the Sun, Tears of the Moon: Gold and Silver in Pre-Columbian Art in 1965.

In 1961, Emmerich learned that French and Company, a gallery advised by art critic Clement Greenberg, was closing its department of contemporary art. French and Company had represented Color Field painters Morris Louis, Kenneth Noland, and Jules Olitski. Emmerich immediately invited Louis and Noland to be represented by his gallery. In 1966 he extended the invitation to Olitski as well, and Helen Frankenthaler joined soon after. The gallery's reputation as one of the earliest and most important promoters of Color Field painters was launched.

In addition to Color Field painters, the gallery represented, among others, Pierre Alechinsky, Karel Appel, Milton Avery, Herbert Ferber, Sam Francis, John Graham, Al Held, David Hockney, Hans Hofmann, John Hoyland, Judy Pfaff, Miriam Schapiro, and Anne Truitt.

Until January 1983, sales of pre-Columbian art primarily went through an entity called André Emmerich Inc. (AE Inc.), while sales of contemporary went through the André Emmerich Gallery Inc. (AEG). In 1983, the two entities were merged and operated under the name André Emmerich Gallery Inc.

In 1971, Emmerich began operating a downtown gallery at 420 West Broadway, in SoHo, in space shared with Leo Castelli, Virginia Dwan, and Ileana Sonnabend. In 1972, Emmerich opened a branch of his gallery in Zurich. He incorporated the Galerie André Emmerich Gmbh primarily for the purpose of leasing gallery space in Zurich. Until February 1974, sales of Pre-Columbian art in Zurich were made by an entity called André Emmerich Gallery Inc., New York Filiale Zurich. The Galerie André Emmerich Gmbh was officially liquidated in May 1982. The Filiale was formally closed in October 1996. Galerie André Emmerich also enjoyed a short-lived joint venture with Gimpel & Hanover.

André Emmerich served as president of the Art Dealers Association of America from 1972-1974 and again from 1991-1994.

Emmerich opened a private 150 acre sculpture park, Top Gallant Farm, on his estate in Pawling, New York, in 1982, where he stored and exhibited monumental sculptures by artists his gallery represented including Anthony Caro, Beverly Pepper, Alexander Liberman, Alexander Calder, Mark di Suvero, George Rickey, and Keith Haring. David Hockney painted waves onto floor of the property's swimming pool in 1986. Emmerich operated the sculpture park until 1996.

Emmerich sold his gallery to Sotheby's in 1996. He continued to be affiliated with the gallery until Sotheby's closed the gallery in 1998. Emmerich then began work on his memoir, My Life With Art, excerpts of which have been published in Art News, the Wall Street Journal, and The New Criterion.

Andre Emmerich died in New York 2007 and is survived by his second wife, Susanne Emmerich.
Related Material:
Among the holdings of the Archives of American Art is an oral history interview with André Emmerich conducted by Mona Hadler on January 18, 1993.
Provenance:
The André Emmerich Gallery records and André Emmerich papers were donated to the Archives of American Art by André Emmerich in eight accretions between 1999 and 2002. Two additional accretions were donated by Emmerich's wife Susanne in 2008 and 2009; and by James Yohe, Emmerich's former business partner, in 2009 and 2014.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C. Research Center. Access of diaries and appointment books required written permission.
Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Topic:
Sculpture, Abstract  Search this
Color-field painting  Search this
Art -- Economic aspects  Search this
Artists' studios -- Photographs  Search this
Function:
Art galleries, Commercial -- New York (State)
Art galleries, Commercial -- Switzerland
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Visitors' books
Sound recordings
Video recordings
Scrapbooks
Etchings
Citation:
André Emmerich Gallery records and André Emmerich papers, circa 1929-2009. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.andremmg
See more items in:
André Emmerich Gallery records
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/mw995f3b4aa-1b0f-46f4-8b5d-e0bf1191a740
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-andremmg
Online Media:

Oral history interview with Tibor de Nagy

Interviewee:
De Nagy, Tibor, 1908-1993  Search this
Interviewer:
Cummings, Paul  Search this
Names:
Tibor de Nagy Gallery  Search this
Andre, Carl, 1935-  Search this
Bates, Alex  Search this
Castelli, Leo  Search this
Frankenthaler, Helen, 1928-2011  Search this
Freilicher, Jane, 1924-  Search this
Hartigan, Grace  Search this
Hess, Thomas B.  Search this
Myers, John Bernard  Search this
Nivola, Costantino, 1911-1988  Search this
O'Hara, Frank, 1926-1966  Search this
Rivers, Larry, 1925-2002  Search this
Extent:
41 Pages (Transcript)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Pages
Sound recordings
Interviews
Date:
1976 March 29
Scope and Contents:
An interview of Tibor de Nagy conducted 1976 March 29, by Paul Cummings, for the Archives of American Art. de Nagy disusses his family and educational background; his partnership with John Myers; exhibitions by Carl Andre, Helen Frankenthaler, Jane Freilicher, Grace Hartigan, Constantino Nivola, and Larry Rivers at the Tibor de Nagy Gallery; the gallery's clientele including Leo Castelli, Frank O'Hara, Alex Bates, Thomas Hess, and others. De Nagy also speaks of his relationship with museum curators and changes in the art market during the 1950s.
Biographical / Historical:
Tibor de Nagy (1908-1993) was an art dealer from New York, New York.
General:
Originally recorded on 1 sound tape reel. Reformatted in 2010 as 2 digital wav files. Duration is 1 hr., 56 min.
Provenance:
This interview is part of the Archives' Oral History Program, started in 1958 to document the history of the visual arts in the United States, primarily through interviews with artists, historians, dealers, critics and others.
Restrictions:
Transcript available on the Archives of American Art website.
Occupation:
Art dealers -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Topic:
Art galleries, Commercial -- Economic aspects  Search this
Genre/Form:
Sound recordings
Interviews
Identifier:
AAA.denagy76
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/mw9e69ebba4-731f-45ff-939f-3348bbd7f5da
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-denagy76
Online Media:

Los Angeles Museum of Art / Roger Wong Gallery records

Creator:
Los Angeles Museum of Art  Search this
Names:
Los Angeles Museum of Art  Search this
Roger Wong Gallery (Los Angeles, Calif.)  Search this
Bozzi, Julie  Search this
Burden, Chris, 1946-  Search this
Gale, Bill  Search this
Lightbody, Joyce, 1954-  Search this
Neher, Marilyn  Search this
Patterson, Pat  Search this
Stoecks, Volker  Search this
Van Kirkhoven, Annie Mie  Search this
Wong, Roger  Search this
Wood, Gary  Search this
Extent:
4 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Date:
1966-1988
Summary:
The Los Angeles Museum of Art / Roger Wong Gallery records measure 4 linear feet and date from 1966 to 1988. Owned by Roger Wong, the gallery was located in Los Angeles, California and primarily exhibited avant-garde art. Biographical materials, correspondence, artists' files, administration records, financial and legal records, printed materials, and photographs document the gallery's operations.
Scope and Contents:
The Los Angeles Museum of Art / Roger Wong Gallery records measure 4 linear feet and date from 1966 to 1988. Owned by Roger Wong, the gallery was located in Los Angeles, California and primarily exhibited avant-garde art. Biographical materials, correspondence, artists' files, administration records, financial and legal records, printed materials, and photographs document the gallery's operations.

Biographical materials include a few miscellaneous documents such as a passport and estate papers.

Correspondence is with family, gallery owners, art collectors, friends, and artists such as Chris Burden, Pat Patterson, and Gary Wood regarding personal and professional matters.

Administration records consist of mailing lists, membership information, publicity materials, and assorted forms.

Artists' files include resumes, correspondence, photographs, price lists, announcements, and other material. Notable artists are Julie Bozzi, Bill Gale, Joyce Lightbody, Marilyn Neher, Volker Stoecks, Annie-Mie Van Kerkhoven, and others.

Financial and legal records consist of agreements and contracts with artists as well as documents related to the business of running the gallery such as leases, invoices, expenses, receipts, and utility bills.

Printed materials include reviews and clippings about the gallery and some miscellaneous newsletters and articles.

Photographs is a small series with images of Roger Wong, the entrance of the gallery, an unidentified art performance, and other subjects.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged as 7 series.

Missing Title

Series 1: Biographical Materials, 1966-1985 (0.1 linear feet; Box 1)

Series 2: Correspondence, 1969-1988 (0.6 linear feet; Box 1)

Series 3: Administrative Records, 1975-1982 (0.2 linear feet; Box 1)

Series 4: Artists' Files, 1974-1982 (1.1 linear feet; Boxes 1-2)

Series 5: Financial and Legal Records, 1973-1986 (1.7 linear feet; Boxes 3-4)

Series 6: Printed Materials, 1977-1988 (0.2 linear feet; Box 4)

Series 7: Photographs, 1974-1984 (0.1 linear feet; Box 4)
Biographical / Historical:
The Los Angles Museum of Art / Roger Wong Gallery specialized in avant-garde art and operated from the mid-1970s to the early 1980s.

Roger Wong (1945-1994) opened his eponymous gallery at 3808 Beverly Boulevard in Los Angeles, California around 1974. The Roger Wong Gallery often featured local artists and art installations. The gallery name was changed to the Los Angeles Museum of Art around 1978 and closed in 1982-1983.
Provenance:
The Los Angeles Museum of Art / Roger Wong Gallery records were donated in 1994 by John Chase, an art collector who was the recipient of all Roger Wong's art work.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C. Research Center. Contact Reference Services for more information.
Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Topic:
Art galleries, Commercial -- Economic aspects  Search this
Arts -- Experimental methods  Search this
Avant-garde (Aesthetics)  Search this
Function:
Art galleries, Commercial -- California
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Citation:
Los Angeles Museum of Art / Roger Wong Gallery records, 1966-1988. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.rogewong
See more items in:
Los Angeles Museum of Art / Roger Wong Gallery records
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/mw9a62e8f3f-a80a-4c07-892a-2b3a0d8f98d2
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-rogewong

Frank Perls papers and Frank Perls Gallery records

Creator:
Perls, Frank  Search this
Names:
Curt Valentin Gallery (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
M. Knoedler & Co.  Search this
Amato, Sam, 1924-  Search this
Brice, William, 1921-  Search this
Chuey, Robert  Search this
Lebrun, Rico, 1900-1964  Search this
Lipchitz, Jacques, 1891-1973  Search this
Matisse, Henri, 1869-1954  Search this
McGarrell, James, 1930-  Search this
Peake, Channing, 1910-  Search this
Perls, Klaus  Search this
Picasso, Pablo, 1881-1973  Search this
Ray, Man, 1890-1976  Search this
Strombotne, James  Search this
Warsaw, Howard  Search this
Extent:
23.8 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Short stories
Scrapbooks
Photographs
Sales records
Gallery records
Date:
circa 1920-1983
bulk 1949-1975
Summary:
The Frank Perls papers and Frank Perls Gallery records measure 23.8 linear feet and date from 1920-1983, with the bulk dating from 1949-1975. Personal papers include writings, military records, appointment calendars, and photographs. Gallery records date from its opening in 1939 until its closure in 1981 and consist of financial, sales, and legal records; exhibition files; exhibition catalogs and announcements; subject files that contain a variety of correspondence with artists, dealers, galleries, museums, and friends and family, as well as reference materials and photographs; and scrapbooks.
Scope and Content Note:
The Frank Perls papers and Frank Perls Gallery records measure 23.8 linear feet and date from 1920-1983, with the bulk dating from 1949-1975. Personal papers include writings, military records, appointment calendars, and photographs. Gallery records date from its opening in 1939 until its closure in 1981 and consist of financial, sales, and legal records; exhibition files; exhibition catalogs and announcements; subject files that contain a variety of correspondence with artists, dealers, galleries, museums, and friends and family, as well as reference materials and photographs; and scrapbooks.

Personal papers contain biographical materials, including military records from Perls' service in the army during World War II, personal photographs, documentation on his estate settlement, and numerous short stories. Of particular interest are Perl's stories about his interactions with Pablo Picasso and his work to uncover fraud, fakes, and corruption in the art world. There are also many photographs of Picasso, photographs of family, the war, and Perls, including two original photographs of Perls by Man Ray.

Gallery sales, purchases, consignments, insurance appraisals, loans, provenance research, and general business expenses are well documented in the General Business and Financial Records. Perls jointly owned artwork with several galleries in New York, including the Curt Valentine Gallery and M. Knoedler Gallery, and these consignment and joint sales are documented in the invoices. A complete accounting of the Gallery's income and expense reports from 1950-1971 is also be found in this series. Artists extensively documented through financial transactions are William Brice, James Strombotne, and Howard Warsaw.

Extensive exhibition files document the gallery's exhibitions and Perl's curatorial work. Files contain varied documentation, such as photographs, catalogs, announcements, and publicity for Frank Perls Gallery shows from 1939 through 1971. Artists represented in this series include Sam Amato, Robert Chuey, Jaques Lipchitz, Pablo Picasso, James McGarrell, and James Strombotne. Files are also found for the two major retrospective exhibitions Perls organized and curated, Matisse Retrospective at University of California, Los Angeles and Sixty Years of Picasso Prints at the Los Angeles County Museum of Art, both in 1966. Additional information about these exhibitions is also found in the Subject Files.

Subject Files are extensive and varied in name, content, and topic. They consist mostly of correspondence with friends, family, colleagues, artists, critics, galleries and dealers, clients, arts organizations and associations, publications, and others. There are also reference files and exhibition files for exhibitions held at other galleries and museums in which Perls was interested, guest curated, or loaned artwork. The contents of each file unit varies, but many include correspondence, photographs, appraisal records, sales records, invoices, reports, and membership records. The files highlight his close personal relationship with many artists, including William Brice, Rico Lebrun, James McGarrell, Channing Peake, Pablo Picasso, and James Strombotne. Subject Files also contain abundant correspondence with colleagues and family members, including his brother Klaus, who owned and operated the Perls Gallery in New York. Many of the files concern Perl's work with art documentation and authentication. Subject Files have been arranged according to Frank Perls original order.

Finally, scrapbooks contain newspaper articles, catalogs, and announcements about exhibitions at the Perls Gallery in New York during the late 1930s and the Frank Perls Gallery in Los Angeles during the 1950s.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into 5 series:

Missing Title

Series 1: Frank Perls papers, circa 1920-1981 (Box 1-2, 28; 1.1 linear feet)

Series 2: General Financial and Business Records, 1949-1975 (Box 2-4, 23-27; 3.4 linear feet)

Series 3: Exhibition Files, 1937-1975 (Box 5-6; 1.5 linear feet)

Series 4: Subject Files, circa 1939-1983 (Box 6-22; 16.5 linear feet)

Series 5. Scrapbooks, 1937-1957 (Box 28; 0.3 linear feet)
Historical Note:
Frank Perls (1910-1975) was founder and sole owner of the Frank Perls Gallery in Beverly Hills, California.

Frank Perls was born in Germany on October 23, 1910. His parents, Hugo and Kaethe Perls, owned one of the leading art galleries in Berlin, and sold the work of many well-known artists. Artists works included in the gallery inventory were pieces by Edvard Munch, Pablo Picasso, Claude Monet, Vincent van Gogh, and Paul Cézanne, among others. His parents enjoyed a close friendship with Picasso, a relationship Perls maintained until Picasso's death in 1973. After his parents divorce in 1931, his mother left Germany and eventually opened the Galerie Kaethe in Paris.Frank Perls studied art history at the Universities of Munich, Berlin, and Frankfurt and joined his mother at the Galerie Kaethe in 1932.

Frank Perls immigrated to the United States in 1937 and partnered with his brother, Klaus Perls, to open the Perls Galleries in New York. Two years later he moved to California and opened the Frank Perls Gallery on Sunset Boulevard in Hollywood. During those first years, the Gallery hosted exhibitions by Man Ray, Eugene Berman, and John Decker.

Perls closed his gallery in 1942 when he enlisted in the United States Army. Because he was fluent in both French and German, Perls served as an interpreter at the Military Intelligence Service, European Theater of Operations. He landed in Normandy with the 30th Infantry Division and was awarded the Bronze Star in 1944. In 1945, Perls was assigned to the Arts and Monuments Section of Allied Military Government in Germany. He was honorably discharged in September, 1945.

After the war, Perls returned to Los Angeles and managed the recently opened Associated American Artists Gallery in Beverly Hills. The gallery was organized in 1934 and marketed art to the middle classes with the opportunity to purchase prints at affordable prices. Perls made significant contacts during his tenure at the gallery and eventually opened his own Beverly Hills gallery in 1950.

The Frank Perls Gallery on Camden Drive was closely associated with the Pierre Matisse Gallery and the Curt Valentin Gallery in New York, both major sources of exhibition materials for the early years. Perls introduced southern California to artists he believed represented the best modern art of America and Europe - Henri Matisse, Georges Braque, Alexander Calder, Pablo Picasso, Ben Shahn, Georgia O'Keeffe, Marc Chagall, Paul Klee, and Jean Dubuffet. Between 1950 to 1954, Frank Perls Gallery organized the first West coast exhibitions of Joan Miro, Marino Marini, and Alberto Giacometti. Perls also gave exhibitions to newly emerging artists of Southern California artists, including William Brice, Robert Chuey, Rico Lebrun, James McGarrell, Channing Peake, and Howard Warsaw.

Perls moved his gallery to Wilshire Boulevard in 1965 and stopped representing California artists at that time to focus primarily on major exhibitions of Henri Matisse and Picasso. In 1966, he helped organize an extensive traveling Henri Matisse exhibition at UCLA called Matisse Retrospective. Perls worked with Matisse's children, Pierre, Jean, and Marguerite Duthuit, to identify 345 prints and sculptures and attach family inventory numbers to them.

Frank Perls also organized several large Picasso exhibitions, including the Bonne Fete Monsieur Picasso exhibit at UCLA in 1961 and the 45 Selected Picasso Graphics exhibition at Frank Perls Gallery in 1971. For his work in preparing these major exhibitions in California of Matisse and Picasso, Perls was made a life fellow of the Los Angeles County Museum.

Perls was a member of the Art Dealers of America, serving for several years on the Board of Directors and as director. He was also dedicated to exposing art fakes and forgeries, earning a reputation for discovering, exposing, and pursuing disreputable art appraisers and dealers. Perls wrote extensively about modern art and artists, as well as his experiences in short stories that often appeared in print.

Frank Perls died on February 8, 1975 from complications following open-heart surgery. The Gallery remained open until 1981 while his executor and family distributed the gallery inventory.
Provenance:
The Frank Perls papers and Frank Perls Gallery records were donated by Joan Hazlitt, one of the executors of the Perls' estate, from 1976-1988.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment.
Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Occupation:
Gallery owners -- California  Search this
Topic:
Art -- Economic aspects  Search this
Art -- Collectors and collecting -- California -- Beverly Hills  Search this
World War, 1939-1945  Search this
Curators -- California  Search this
Art -- Forgeries  Search this
Function:
Art galleries, Commercial -- California
Genre/Form:
Short stories
Scrapbooks
Photographs
Sales records
Gallery records
Citation:
Frank Perls papers and Frank Perls Gallery records, circa 1920-1983, bulk 1949-1975. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.perlfran
See more items in:
Frank Perls papers and Frank Perls Gallery records
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/mw9163380a7-6151-44d0-b553-a17e8aae42a0
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-perlfran
Online Media:

American Art Association Records

Creator:
American Art Association  Search this
Names:
American Watercolor Society  Search this
Blakeslee Galleries (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Carnegie, Andrew, 1835-1919  Search this
Crocker, William H.  Search this
Kirby, Thomas Ellis, 1846-1924  Search this
Millet, Francis Davis, 1846-1912  Search this
Parsons, Alfred, 1847-1920  Search this
Extent:
27.8 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Sales records
Photographs
Drawings
Prints
Sketches
Date:
circa 1853-1929
bulk 1885-1922
Summary:
The American Art Association records measure 27.8 linear feet and date from circa 1853-1929, with the bulk of the material dating from circa 1885-1922. The records include auction and sales files, general financial and legal files, inventory and stock records, client files, printed materials, photographic materials, artwork, and the personal papers of founder Thomas Ellis Kirby.
Scope and Contents:
The American Art Association records measure 27.8 linear feet and date from circa 1853-1929, with the bulk of the material dating from circa 1885-1922. The records include auction and sales files, general financial and legal files, inventory and stock records, client files, printed materials, photographic materials, artwork, and the scattered personal papers of founder Thomas Ellis Kirby.

Auction files contain a wide variety of materials regarding auction schedules, auctions, gallery sales, and estate sales. The files primarily contain correspondence, sales statements and ledgers, estate inventories and appraisals, and photographs. Of interest is a handwritten letter from Andrew Carnegie concerning the Second Prize Fund Exhibition.

Records of sales are documented in named files, sales ledgers, client account books, and Blakeslee Gallery sales ledgers. Files are found for specific art collections and estates. Sales ledgers list sales transactions of the Association by collection, department, genre, or named auction and provide the most detailed sales information, often noting title or subject, size, owner, lot number, date, purchaser, and price, and sometimes an index of artists. Other ledgers document consignment and exhibition sales, as well as sales conducted by other galleries or auction houses, both in the United States and in Europe. Exhibition sales documented include those of Alfred Parsons and Frank Millet in 1903, the American Watercolor Society in 1902, and the American Painters and Illustrators in 1905, and others. Client account books provide itemized costs accrued by individuals or estates over the course of a sale or purchase. Many of the ledgers contain name indexes.

General financial and legal files primarily consist of cash and expense ledgers documenting daily, monthly, and yearly costs and expenses related to the production of auction and sales catalogs, costs associated with leasing spaces and equipment, shipping and crating, employee sales commissions, art department expenses, book department expenses, and other costs. Legal files contain scattered forms and contractual documents, as well as correspondence and documents related to two lawsuits.

Inventory and stock records document the Association's inventory through a series of stock books and inventory cards that include sales and provenance information.

Client files consist of cards divided into clients interested in art and clients interested in books. They also include some information on specific client sales and purchases. Also found are numerous client address books. Printed materials include auction catalogs, clippings, and newspapers.

Photographs depict works of art and materials sold and collected. Of interest is a collection of cabinet photographs of French artists collected when the American Art Association was actively involved in the auction sales of thousands of paintings by French artists. Also found are four photo albums depicting auction items for a 1907 auction, prepared for the American Art Association by William H. Crocker. Several unsigned prints, sketches, and drawings are found in the artwork series.

Thomas Ellis Kirby's scattered personal papers include an address book, scattered family and biographical materials, correspondence with clients and associates, writings and speeches, legal material, auction records, and photographs.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged as 9 series. Folder titles have been retained from the original records, and occasionally devised for clarity.

Missing Title

Series 1: Auctions, circa 1885-1922 (1.9 linear feet; Boxes 1-2, BV23-24)

Series 2: Sales, circa 1884-1923 (8.1 linear feet; Boxes 2-6, 20-21, BV25-39)

Series 3: General Financial and Legal Files, circa 1883-1923 (9.3 linear feet; Boxes 6-11, BV40-62)

Series 4: Inventory and Stock Records, circa 1887-circa 1922 (0.8 linear feet; Box 11, BV63-65)

Series 5: Client Files, circa 1895-circa 1922 (2.1 linear feet; Boxes 11-13)

Series 6: Printed Materials, circa 1853-1923 (1.1 linear feet; Boxes 13-14, 21)

Series 7: Photographic Material, circa 1885-circa 1922 (0.8 linear feet; Boxes 14-15, 21-22)

Series 8: Artwork, circa 1888-circa 1900 (0.1 linear feet; Boxes 15, 22)

Series 9: Thomas Ellis Kirby Personal Papers, circa 1861-1929 (3.6 linear feet; Boxes 15-19)
Biographical / Historical:
The American Art Association was an art gallery and auction house based in New York City, New York, formed in 1883 by James F. Sutton, R. Austin Robertson, and Thomas E. Kirby. It was the first auction house in the United States.

The Association was founded to promote American art and exhibit the work of American artists in its American Art Galleries in New York City. In its first year of operation, the Association exhibited Thomas B. Clarke's collection of American paintings as a benefit for the National Academy of Design. After the successful management of the public sale of the George I. Seney art collection in 1885, with Thomas E. Kirby as auctioneer, the Association continued conducting auctions and managing estate sales. Austin Robertson died in 1892 and Sutton became a special partner in 1895. In 1912 Kirby's son, Gustavus T. Kirby, joined the Association as a general partner and later also acquired Sutton's interest and became a full partner. The Association was sold in 1923 to Cortlandt Field Bishop, and merged with the Anderson Auction Company to form the American Art Association-Anderson Galleries, Inc, in 1929. The firm was taken over by Parke-Bernet Galleries, Inc., in 1938.
Provenance:
A portion of the American Art Association records were donated in 1968 by Thomas Ellis Kirby's daughter, Mrs. Thomas B. Waller. The remaining records were donated by the American Antiquarian Society in 1978 and 1993.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C. Research Center. Contact Reference Services for more information.
Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Topic:
Art -- Economic aspects  Search this
Art galleries, Commercial -- Economic aspects  Search this
Art, French  Search this
Art auctions  Search this
Art, American  Search this
Artists -- France -- Photographs  Search this
Artists -- United States  Search this
Function:
Arts organizations -- New York (State)
Art galleries, Commercial -- New York (State)
Auction houses -- New York (State)
Genre/Form:
Sales records
Photographs
Drawings
Prints
Sketches
Citation:
American Art Association Records, circa 1853-1929, bulk circa 1885-1922. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.amerarta
See more items in:
American Art Association Records
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/mw939050007-8b8b-4880-adc9-5f8df25c792d
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-amerarta
Online Media:

The business of art unveiled : New York art dealers speak up / Ulrike Klein

Author:
Klein, Ulrike 1964-  Search this
Physical description:
vii, 247 p. ; 21 cm
Type:
Books
Place:
New York (State)
New York
Date:
1994
C1994
Topic:
Art--Economic aspects  Search this
Art galleries, Commercial  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_496166

The art trade in the District of Columbia 1929-1950 / by Raylene Decatur

Author:
Decatur, Raylene  Search this
Physical description:
107 leaves ; 29 cm
Type:
Books
Place:
Washington (D.C.)
Date:
1986
Topic:
Art galleries, Commercial  Search this
Art--Economic aspects  Search this
Call number:
N6535.W3 D29 1986
N6535.W3D29 1986
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_330155

Modify Your Search







or


Narrow By