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Herbert Waide Hemphill papers

Creator:
Hemphill, Herbert Waide  Search this
Names:
Abby Aldrich Rockefeller Folk Art Center  Search this
Centennial Exhibition (1876 : Philadelphia, Pa.)  Search this
Exposition Universelle de Paris (1878 : Paris, France)  Search this
Folk Art Society of America  Search this
Museum of International Folk Art (N.M.)  Search this
National Museum of American Art (U.S.)  Search this
Aiken, Gayleen  Search this
Bogun, Maceptaw, Rev.  Search this
Borkowski, Mary  Search this
Brice, Bruce  Search this
Carpenter, Miles B. (Miles Burkholder), 1889-  Search this
Coins, Raymond  Search this
Crittenden, Varick A.  Search this
Dinsmoor, Samuel Perry, 1843-1932  Search this
Donovan, Carrie  Search this
Fancher, John W.  Search this
Finster, Howard, 1916-2001  Search this
Flanagan, Thos. J. (Thomas Jefferson), b. 1890  Search this
Fowler, Tim  Search this
Gatto, Victor Joseph, 1893-1965  Search this
Ghostley, Alice, 1926-2007  Search this
Goins, Vernon  Search this
Hall, Michael D., 1941-  Search this
Hamblett, Theora, 1895-1977  Search this
Hartigan, Lynda Roscoe  Search this
Harvey, Bessie, 1929-  Search this
Hawkins, William Lawrence, 1895-1990  Search this
Hicks, Tiny  Search this
Holley, Lonnie  Search this
Hunter, Clementine  Search this
James, A. Everette (Alton Everette), 1938-  Search this
Jennings, James Harold  Search this
Jones, S. L. (Shields Landon), 1901-  Search this
Jordan, John  Search this
Josephson, Nancy, 1955-  Search this
Klumpp, Gustave, 1902-1974  Search this
Lisk, Charles  Search this
Little, Roy  Search this
Lopez, George  Search this
Maldonado, Alexander Aramburo, 1901-1989  Search this
McCarthy, Justin, 1891-1977  Search this
Merrill, James Ingram  Search this
Morgan, Gertrude  Search this
Mr. Imagination, 1948-  Search this
Nathaniel, Inez  Search this
O'Kelley, Mattie Lou  Search this
Orth, Kevin, 1961-  Search this
Patterson, Clayton  Search this
Prince, Daniel C.  Search this
Prince, Neal A.  Search this
Robertson, Royal  Search this
Rowe, Nellie Mae, 1900-1982  Search this
Smith, Fred, 1886-1975  Search this
Smith, Robert E., 1926-  Search this
Smither, John  Search this
Smither, Stephanie  Search this
Spies, Jim  Search this
St. EOM, 1908-1986  Search this
Terrillion, Veronica  Search this
Tolliver, Mose, 1920-  Search this
Tolson, Edgar, 1904-1984  Search this
Walters, Hubert  Search this
Weissman, Julia  Search this
Young, Purvis, 1943-  Search this
Zeldis, Malcah  Search this
Extent:
26.7 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Video recordings
Watercolors
Sketchbooks
Sound recordings
Photographs
Drawings
Poems
Reports
Prints
Interviews
Date:
1776-1998
bulk 1876-1998
Summary:
The papers of folk art collector and museum curator Herbert Waide Hemphill date from 1776-1998, bulk 1876-1998, and measure 26.7 linear feet. Found within the papers are biographical materials, personal business records, files documenting his collecting, writings, art work, minutes of meetings, a scrapbook, printed material including exhibition and auction announcements and catalogs, and miscellaneous artifacts. The collection also contains numerous photographs of Hemphill, family members, his residences, friends and colleagues, exhibitions, travel, and art work. Sound and video recordings include interviews of Hemphill.
Scope and Content Note:
The papers of folk art collector and museum curator Herbert Waide Hemphill date from 1776-1998, bulk 1876-1998, and measure 26.7 linear feet. Found within the papers are biographical materials, personal business records, files documenting his collecting, writings, art work, minutes of meetings, a scrapbook, printed material including exhibition and auction announcements and catalogs, and miscellaneous artifacts. The collection also contains numerous photographs of Hemphill, family members, his residences, friends and colleagues, exhibitions, travel, and art work. Sound and video recordings include interviews of Hemphill.

Biographical material includes photocopies of Hemphill's birth certificate and passport, social security cards, and international health card, genealogical notes, an evaluation of his school work, membership cards, award certificates, address books, and an engagement calendar containing very brief annotations of his activities.

Correspondence documents Hemphill's affairs with miscellaneous museums and art institutions, discussing his presentation of lectures, exhibitions, and loans from his collection to organizations including the Abby Aldrich Rockefeller Folk Art Collection, the Folk Art Society of America, the Museum of International Folk Art, and the Smithsonian Institution's American Art Museum.

Hemphill's correspondence with friends and colleagues discuss collecting activities and pursuit of newly discovered folk art and artists. Many of the letters are from artists. Correspondents include Varick A. Crittenden, Michael D. Hall, A. Everette James, Daniel C. Prince, Neal A. Prince, and artists Rev. Maceptaw Bogun, Mary Borkowski, Tim Fowler, Joseph Victor Gatto, S. L. Jones, Gustav Klumpp, Roy Little, George Lopez, Kevin Orth, and Malcah Zeldis. There are also scattered letters from artists Miles Burkholder Carpenter, John W. Fancher, Rev. Howard Finster, William Hawkins, Sister Gertrude Morgan, Mr. Imagination, Mattie Lou O'Kelley, Clayton Patterson, St. EOM, and Mose Tolliver. One letter from Stephanie and John Smither is etched on a bone.

Personal business records include both legal and financial documents. There are wills for Hemphill, his mother, and for his friend Neal A. Prince. The records also include leases, insurance records, contracts, grant proposals, loan agreements, deeds of gift, price lists, consignment records, tax records, and miscellaneous receipts. Cancelled checks relate to Hemphill's collecting interests and activities, and include payments to artists for their work. There are court papers documenting a lawsuit by Hemphill's landlord who was attempting to evict him.

Art work consists of a sketchbook by Roy Little, a set of hand-cut Japanese mask designs, a collage of Polaroid photographs taped to glass created by Rev. Howard Finster, a hand-made book by Nancy Josephson, and miscellaneous drawings, watercolors, and prints by various artists including Justin McCarthy, Inez Nathaniel, and Nellie Mae Rowe.

Notes and writings include card files of artists, extensive bibliographic card files, and scattered notes on artists including Miles Carpenter, Raymond Coins, Rev. Howard Finster, Mattie Lou O'Kelley, Royal Robertson, Veronica Terrillion, Mose Tolliver, and Bill Traylor. Also found are lists of artists, patrons, and art work, miscellaneous notes, and minutes of meetings. Writings by Hemphill and others including Michael D. Hall, Lynda Roscoe Hartigan, A. Everett James, and Julia Weissman, consist of reports, typescripts, and poems concerning a wide range of art-related topics and travel.

A scrapbook consists of unbound pages of clippings and newsletters about Hemphill, his collection, and exhibitions of folk art.

There is extensive additional printed material illustrating Hemphill's many interests. This series primarily consists of clippings and exhibition announcements and catalogs for mainstream artists as well as folk artists. Also included are auction announcements and catalogs, announcements for festivals, press releases, and calendars of events. Numerous booklets, brochures, programs, menus, business cards, and novelty postcards concern a variety of topics including worldwide travel, the sale of art work, miscellaneous galleries, museums, organizations, conferences, schools, lectures, antiques and craft shops, films, publications, restaurants, household items, historical topics, and miscellaneous artists including Miles Carpenter, S. P. Dinsmoor, Lonnie Holley, Clementine Hunter, and Veronica Terrillion. There are also autographed copies of booklets The Black Swan and Other Poems by James Merrill, and The Blood of Jesus by Thomas Jefferson Flanagan. Novelty postcards range from photographs of Elvis Presley to cards with amusing captions or cartoon jokes. There is also sheet music by Charles Trenet. Miscellaneous printed material includes several eighteenth-century newspapers and a 1776 thirty shilling note from New Jersey.

Photographs are of Hemphill, family members, his residences, friends and colleagues including style editor Carrie Donovan, artist Rev. Howard Finster dancing at an exhibition opening, actress Alice Ghostley, Michael D. Hall, circus performers Vernon Goins and Tiny Hicks, Smithsonian curator Lynda Roscoe Hartigan, Neal A. Prince, and Jim Spies. Photographs of exhibitions include stereographic views of the International Exhibition in Philadelphia and the Exposition Universelle in Paris, and photographs of Hemphill's donation of his collection and its subsequent exhibition at the Smithsonian's American Art Museum. Travel photographs include views of South Dakota, Texas, the American West, Japan, Mexico, and The Netherlands.

Numerous photographs of art work sometimes include images of the artists with their work including Bruce Brice, Raymond Coins, John W. Fancher, Rev. Howard Finster, Theora Hamblett, Bessie Harvey, William Hawkins, James Harold Jennings, John Jordan, Charles Lisk, Alexander Maldonado, St. EOM, Fred Smith, Edgar Tolson, Hubert Walters, and Purvis Young. Some photographs of unattributed art work has been arranged by the state in which it is located and includes a Mardi Gras parade in Louisiana, a Mummer's parade in Pennsylvania, Lucy the Elephant-shaped building in New Jersey, and Holy Ghost Park in Wisconsin. Other photographs of unattributed art work include works on paper, paintings, sculpture, signs, collages, needlework, glass, ceramics, and architecture.

Sound and video recordings include a cassette from Hemphill's phone answering machine that contains only Hemphill's message to callers, cassette recordings of interviews with and concerning Hemphill, artist St. EOM, painter Robert E. Smith discussing his work, and the tour narration for a Smithsonian exhibition Made With Passion. There are videotapes about Hemphill and about artists Gayleen Aiken, Miller and Bryant, and Malcah Zeldis, and miscellaneous African American artists. There is also a videotape of an American Museum of Natural History tour group arriving in a succession of villages in Melanesia and Papua New Guinea where they are greeted by the native people and given the opportunity to purchase their art work.

Artifacts consist of a scattered assemblage of three-dimensional objects including three wooden "fringe" pieces from cigar store figures, ceramic fragments from a sword handle, a lock of horse hair, and a hand-painted View Master viewer souvenir from the opening of the American Visionary Art Museum in Baltimore. The View Master contains a disc of photographs of artists with their work including Vollis Simpson and Mary Frances Whitfield. Also included is a teacher's kit Little Adventures in Art containing four phonograph albums and four short film strips of slides showing art work in animal and bird forms.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged as 10 series; all series are arranged chronologically:

Series 1: Biographical Material, 1916-1997 (Box 1, 28; 12 folders)

Series 2: Correspondence, 1901-1998 (Boxes 1-5, 27- 28, OV 31; 4.0 linear feet)

Series 3: Personal Business Records, 1817-1997 (Box 5-7, 28; 2.0 linear feet)

Series 4: Art Work, 1911-1997 (Box 7, 32; 0.4 linear feet)

Series 5: Notes and Writings, 1938-1996 (Box 7-10, 28; 2.5 linear feet)

Series 6: Scrapbook, 1965-1976 (Box 10; 1 folder)

Series 7: Printed Material, 1776-1998 (Box 10-19, 28-29, OV 31; 9.5 linear feet)

Series 8: Photographs, 1876-1997 (Box 19-24, 29; 5.5 linear feet)

Series 9: Sound and Video Recordings, 1986-1991 (Box 25-26; 13 folders)

Series 10: Artifacts, 1968-1995 (Box 26, 30; 0.7 linear feet)
Biographical Note:
Herbert Waide Hemphill, Jr., (1929-1998) lived in New York city and was a prominent curator, historian, and collector of American folk art. Hemphill was one of the founding members of the Museum of American Folk Art, organized several large exhibitions of folk art, and co-authored Twentieth Century American Folk Art and Artist.

Hemphill was born on January 21, 1929 in Atlantic City, New Jersey, the son of businessman Herbert Waide Hemphill, Sr., and Emma Bryan Bradley Hemphill whose uncle, William Clark Bradley, was one of the owners of the Coca-Cola Company.

Hemphill was reared in his mother's home town of Columbus, Georgia, and attended Wynnton School. At the Lawrenceville School in New Jersey and the Solebury School in New Hope, Pennsylvania, Hemphill's principle interests were in art and theater. In 1948, he spent a year studying fine arts at Bard College under Stefan Hirsch, a painter and folk art collector.

Hemphill developed his interest in collecting while accompanying his mother on her shopping forays searching for Dresden china. His first acquisition was a wooden duck decoy purchased when he was seven years old. His early collections were of glass bottles, marbles, stamps, and puzzle jugs. In 1949, Hemphill moved to Manhattan and began to focus on modern European and American art and African sculpture, but after 1956 he concentrated exclusively on 19th and early 20th century American folk art. He often discovered artists during his extensive travels, especially in the American South.

In 1961, Hemphill became one of the six founding trustees of the Museum of Early American Folk Art, later named the Museum of American Folk Art, in New York City. Between 1964 and 1973, he was the museum's first curator and curated many exhibitions, helping to promote awareness of work created by self-taught or visionary artists. He later served as Trustee Emeritus for many years.

Between 1974 and 1988, Hemphill loaned portions of his extensive personal collection to 24 museums nationwide and in 1976, the American Bicentennial Commission selected works from his collection for a goodwill tour of Japan. He was named guest curator at the Brooklyn Museum in 1976 and at the Abby Aldrich Folk Art Collection in 1980, and often appeared as guest lecturer at various universities, the Smithsonian Institution, and at the Library of Congress. In 1986, Hemphill donated more than 400 folk art works to the Smithsonian Institution's American Art Museum, resulting in a landmark exhibition Made with Passion: The Hemphill Folk Art Collection of the National Museum of American Art.

Hemphill's publications include books Twentieth Century American Folk Art and Artists, co-authored with Julia Weissman in 1974, Folk Sculpture USA for the Brooklyn Museum in 1976, and Found in New York's North Country: The Folk Art of a Region, co-authored with Varick A. Chittenden in 1982 for the Munson-Williams-Proctor Institute.

Herbert Waide Hemphill, Jr. died on May 8, 1998 in New York City.
Provenance:
Herbert Waide Hemphill donated his papers in 5 installments between 1988 and 1996.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment. Use of audiovisual materials with no duplicate access copy requires advance notice.
Rights:
The Herbert Waide Hemphill papers are owned by the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Literary rights as possessed by the donor have been dedicated to public use for research, study, and scholarship. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Topic:
Art -- Collectors and collecting  Search this
Folk art -- Collectors and collecting  Search this
Curators -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Art -- Economic aspects  Search this
Genre/Form:
Video recordings
Watercolors
Sketchbooks
Sound recordings
Photographs
Drawings
Poems
Reports
Prints
Interviews
Citation:
Herbert Waide Hemphill papers, 1776-1998, bulk 1876-1998. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.hempherb
See more items in:
Herbert Waide Hemphill papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-hempherb
Online Media:

Chester Dale papers, circa 1883-2003, bulk 1920-1970

Creator:
Dale, Chester, b. 1883-  Search this
Subject:
Batigne, Claire  Search this
Batigne, Renee  Search this
Braque, Georges  Search this
Burkhardt, Rudy  Search this
Cantor, Irving  Search this
Cassatt, Mary  Search this
Cézanne, Paul  Search this
Cooper, Maria  Search this
Cooper, Veronica  Search this
Dale, Maud  Search this
Dale, Mary Towar Bullard  Search this
Dalí, Salvador  Search this
Dalí, Gala  Search this
Dmitri, Ivan  Search this
Dufy, Raoul  Search this
Elizabeth, Queen of Great Britain, II  Search this
Frost, Robert  Search this
Hamilton, Edith  Search this
Ingersoll, R. Sturgis (Robert Sturgis)  Search this
Kahlo, Frida  Search this
Kessel, Dmitri  Search this
MacNeil, Neil  Search this
Mayes, Herbert R. (Herbert Raymond)  Search this
Mellon, Paul  Search this
Mellon, Timothy  Search this
Orozco, José Clemente  Search this
Picasso, Pablo  Search this
Rivera, Diego  Search this
Salles, Georges  Search this
Wyeth, Jamie  Search this
Wyeth, Andrew  Search this
Wyeth, Nicholas  Search this
Dallas Museum of Art  Search this
Allentown Art Museum  Search this
Amherst College  Search this
Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
National Gallery of Art (U.S.)  Search this
Parrish Art Museum  Search this
Type:
Photographs
Scrapbooks
Sound recordings
Travel diaries
Place:
Europe -- description and travel
Topic:
Art -- Collectors and collecting  Search this
Art dealers -- France -- Paris  Search this
Art, French--19th century  Search this
Art, French--20th century  Search this
Art, Modern -- 20th century -- Collectors and collecting  Search this
Art, Modern--19th century--Collectors and collecting  Search this
Motion pictures (visual works)  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)7178
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)209315
AAA_collcode_daleches
Theme:
Diaries
Latino and Latin American
The Art Market
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_209315
Online Media:

Jacques Seligmann & Co. records

Creator:
Jacques Seligmann & Co  Search this
Names:
De Hauke & Co., Inc.  Search this
Eugene Glaenzer & Co.  Search this
Germain Seligmann & Co.  Search this
Gersel  Search this
Jacques Seligmann & Co  Search this
Glaenzer, Eugene  Search this
Haardt, Georges  Search this
Hauke, Cesar M. de (Cesar Mange), d. 1965  Search this
Parker, Theresa D.  Search this
Seligman, Germain  Search this
Seligmann, Arnold, 1870-1932  Search this
Seligmann, Jacques, 1858-1923  Search this
Seligmann, René  Search this
Trevor, Clyfford  Search this
Waegen, Rolf Hans  Search this
Extent:
203.1 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Gallery records
Date:
1904-1978
bulk 1913-1974
Summary:
The records of Jacques Seligmann & Co. measure approximately 203.1 linear feet and date from 1904 to 1978, with bulk dates from 1913 to 1974. The collection includes extensive correspondence files, reference material on American and European collectors and their collections, inventory and stock records, financial records, exhibition files, auction files, and the records of subsidiary companies. The collection is an invaluable resource in tracing the provenance of particular works of art and provides a comprehensive view of the activities of collectors and art dealers in the years leading up to and following World War II.
Scope and Contents note:
The Jacques Seligmann & Co., Inc., records measure approximately 203.1 linear feet and date from between 1904 and 1978, with bulk dates of 1913-1974. The records include extensive correspondence files, reference material on American and European collectors and their collections, inventory and stock records, financial records, exhibition files, auction files, and the records of subsidiary companies, including de Hauke & Co., Inc., and Modern Paintings, Inc.

Historians and researchers will find the collection an invaluable resource in tracing the provenance of particular works of art. Although in the early 1940s many records in the Paris office were destroyed by Seligmann staff to keep them from falling into the hands of the occupying German military forces, many records survive, as much of the firm's business had previously come to center in the New York office. In all, the remaining records provide a comprehensive view of the activities and transactions of collectors and art dealers in the years leading up to and following World War II.

Correspondence (Series 1) is the largest series of the collection (80 linear feet) and is comprised of extensive correspondence files, primarily between Germain Seligman and his New York office staff with domestic and foreign private clients, collectors, dealers, individuals representing public museums and collections, and international scholars. The New York Office Correspondence (Series 1.1) concerns a wide variety of topics, including routine business matters, but focuses primarily on potential and realized sales and purchases and provenance documentation. Also found is detailed information on financial transactions, commissions, stock inventory, and the travel of Germain Seligman and other staff. Paris Office Correspondence (Series 1.2) is separated into a small subseries and contains correspondence written primarily by Jacques Seligmann from Paris. The subseries General Correspondence (Series 1.3) is the largest subsection of the Correspondence series and contains letters written to and received from clients and other business associates concerning business transactions and inquiries. The subseries Museum Correspondence (Series 1.4) contains letters between the firm and art institutions and museums. The subseries Germain Seligman's Correspondence (Series 1.5), contains not only personal letters but a wealth of information concerning the affairs of the firm. Much personal correspondence was marked "private."

Also of note in the Correspondence series are the Legal Correspondence Files (Series 1.6) and the Inter-Office Correspondence (Series 1.9) and Inter-Office Memoranda (Series 1.13). The Legal Correspondence Files subseries houses correspondence with both U.S. and Paris attorneys and concerns legal affairs and specific lawsuits. Of particular interest are Germain Seligman's attempts to recover Seligmann family and Paris gallery artwork and other assets stolen or confiscated by the Germans in World War II. This small subseries also contains limited information on the stock and inventory holdings of several of the firm's and Germain Seligman's subsidiary corporations, family legal affairs and lawsuits, and other related legal matters. The subseries Inter-Office Correspondence and Inter-Office Memoranda (called fiches by Seligmann staff) include memos between Germain Seligman and his staff about clients, collectors, sales, acquisitions, and other matters. These offer interesting commentary clearly intended to be read by staff only.

Also prominent is Collectors Files (Series 2), which contains numerous reference files documenting the collections of existing and potential clients with whom Seligmann & Co. maintained contacts. The files are arranged by either individual name or institution and reflect the wide scope of collector references maintained by the firm throughout its operating years. The files contain a variety of reference materials, such as photographs, provenance notes, and sales, purchase, and inventory information in cases where the collector purchased from the firm or the firm purchased from the collector. Researchers will find that many of the private and public names that appear in General Correspondence (Series 1.3) appear in the Collectors Files as well. Also found in this series are specific files relating to the Duc d'Arenberg Collection, the Clarence H. Mackay Collection, the Mortimer L. Schiff Collection, and the Prince of Liechtenstein Collection. The firm either handled substantial estate sales for these collections or purchased and sold important pieces from these collections.

Auction Files (Series 3) and Exhibition files (Series 4) trace the sales and exhibition activities undertaken by Jacques Seligmann & Co., Inc. In the Auction files, researchers will find documentation of auctions of individual works of art owned by the firm and handled by Christie's, Parke-Bernet, and other auction houses. Of particular interest is the 1948-1949 Parke-Bernet auction of the C. S. Wadsworth Trust, a "dummy" trust set up by the firm to dispose of a portion of its unsold inventory. The Exhibition Files house a variety of documentation, such as catalogs and correspondence, concerning the firm's active exhibition history. Many of the exhibitions featured works of art recently acquired by the firm, such as the 1937 exhibition, Twenty Years in the Evolution of Picasso, which included a number of Picassos the firm acquired from Madame Jacques Doucet that year.

Reference Files (Series 5) includes a card catalog to books and catalogs in the library maintained by Jacques Seligmann & Co., Inc., and a photograph reference index of works of art. Inventory and Stock Files (Series 6) tracks the firm's inventory through a series of stock books and supporting documentation that include sales and provenance information.

Financial Files and Shipping Records (Series 7) consists primarily of records of the New York office, but some Paris office documents can be found scattered throughout. Found in this series is a wide variety of financial records including purchase receipt files, credit notes, invoices, consignment invoices and books, invoices, consular invoices, sales and purchase account books, ledgers, and tax records. The records appear to be quite complete and date from 1910 to 1977. Of particular interest are the purchase receipts and credit notes and memoranda that contain detailed documentation on acquisitions and sales. The consignment invoices provide information about works of art sold on behalf of other galleries and dealers, as well as which galleries and dealers were handling works of art for Jacques Seligmann & Co., Inc. Although quite large and complex, the financial records offer a comprehensive overview of the firm's business and financial transactions.

The records of subsidiary companies that were part of Jacques Seligmann & Co., Inc., such as Contemporary American Department, de Hauke & Co., Inc., Modern Paintings, Inc., and Gersel Corp. are arranged in their own series. In 1935, the firm established the Contemporary American Department to represent young American artists. Under the direction of Theresa D. Parker, a longtime gallery employee, the department initiated an exhibition and loan program. Contemporary American Department (Series 8) includes mostly correspondence files and exhibition files.

The largest subsidiary company to operate under Jacques Seligmann & Co., Inc., was de Hauke & Co., Inc. De Hauke & Co., Inc., Records (Series 9) dates from 1925 through 1949 and contains domestic and foreign correspondence with clients, collectors, and dealers; inter-office correspondence and memoranda with Jacques Seligmann & Co., Inc.; administrative and legal files; and financial records. Modern Paintings, Inc., records (Series 10) contains the legal and financial files of this subsidiary company, which was established in 1930 to incorporate most of the stock of the liquidated de Hauke & Co., Inc. Gersel Corp. Records (Series 11) contains a small amount of material from this company.

Researchers should note that a scattering of records from most of the subsidiary companies may also be found throughout additional series, particularly Inventory and Stock Files (Series 6) and Financial Files and Shipping Records (Series 7). Records for the firms Tessa Corp. and Georges Haardt & Co., which were also owned by Germain Seligman, are not part of the Jacques Seligmann & Co., Inc., Records, although scattered references to these two firms may be encountered throughout the collection.

German Seligman's Personal papers (Series 12) includes scattered family and biographical materials, his research and writings files, and documentation of his personal art collection. Found in Family and Biographical Material (Series 12.1) are photographs of family members, including Jacques Seligmann, and of the Paris gallery. Also found is a limited amount of correspondence concerning Germain Seligman's residency status and his desire to obtain an army commission during World War II. Germain Seligman's research and writing files are found in this series and include material for his books: Roger de La Fresnaye, with a Catalogue Raisonné (1969); Merchants of Art, 1880-1960: Eighty Years of Professional Collecting (1961); The Drawings of Georges Seurat (1947); and Oh! Fickle Taste; or, Objectivity in Art (1952). Documentation of Germain Seligman's private art collection is arranged in this series and includes provenance and research files and correspondence concerning his art collection.

Overall, the historical records of Jacques Seligmann & Co., Inc., offer researchers a comprehensive and detailed resource for studying one of the most active dealers in decorative arts, Renaissance, and European contemporary art. The records clearly document the firm's numerous acquisitions and sales of important works of art to well-known European and American collectors and museums as well as Germain Seligman's extensive client contacts and references. The collection offers an insightful, intriguing, and often fascinating view into the complex field of art sales, trading, and acquisition during the first half of the twentieth century, when many major collections in the United States were formed.

Researchers interested in tracing the provenance of individual works of art should carefully check each series of the collection for information to obtain a complete history for any work. Jacques Seligmann & Co., Inc., staff set up many different files to cross-reference works of art from various angles, such as artist or creator; collector or collection; most recent owner or repository location; stock inventory number, if owned by Seligmann & Co.; and photographic reference files. The task is made somewhat more difficult by the number of commission sales and joint ownership of works of art, often documented solely in the Inventory and Stock Files (Series 6) or the Financial Files and Shipping Records (Series 7). Only by tracing a name or date through the various series can one find all of the information relating to a particular work of art and its provenance.
Arrangement note:
Following is an outline of the arrangement of the collection by series and corresponding box numbers and extent. More detailed information for each series and subseries, along with a box and folder inventory, is found in the Series Descriptions/Container Listings, which can be found by following the series links below. Glass plate negatives are housed separately and closed to researchers.

Series 1: Correspondence, 1913-1978 (1-174, 80 linear feet)

Series 2: Collectors Files, 1875, 1892-1977, undated (Boxes 175-252, 35 linear feet)

Series 3: Auction Files, 1948-1975, undated (Boxes 253-259, 2.75 linear feet)

Series 4: Exhibition Files, 1925-1977, undated (Boxes 260-272, 5.5 linear feet)

Series 5: Reference Files, 1877-1977, undated (Boxes 273-278, 2.25 linear feet)

Series 6: Inventory and Stock Files, 1923-1971, undated (Boxes 279-289, 4.5 linear feet)

Series 7: Financial Files and Shipping Records, 1910-1977 (Boxes 290-357, 30.5 linear feet)

Series 8: Contemporary American Department, 1932-1978 (Boxes 358-381, 10 linear feet)

Series 9: De Hauke & Co., Inc., Records, 1925-1949, undated (Boxes 382-416; 16 linear feet)

Series 10: Modern Paintings, Inc., Records, 1927-1950 (Boxes 417-420, 1.25 linear feet)

Series 11: Gersel Corp. Records, 1946-1969 (Box 421, 0.25 linear feet)

Series 12: Germain Seligman's Personal Papers, 1882, circa 1905-1984, undated (Boxes 422-459, OV 460, 17 linear feet)
Biographical/Historical note:
Jacques Seligmann & Co., Inc., was counted among the foremost French and American art dealers in antiquities and decorative arts and was among the first to foster and support the growth and appreciation for collecting in the field of contemporary European art. The company's clients included most of the major American and European art collectors of the era, and the art that passed through its galleries often ended up in the collections of prominent American and European museums through the donations of the wealthy benefactors who purchased them from the company. Jacques Seligmann & Co., Inc., took an active part in promoting such donations as well as providing its own donations and selling paintings, sculpture, and decorative arts directly to many museums.

The company was first established as Jacques Seligmann & Cie. in 1880 on the Rue des Mathurins in Paris by Jacques Seligmann (1858-1923), a German émigré who came to France in 1874 and soon thereafter became a French citizen. The company experienced so much success that in 1900 a new, larger Galerie Seligmann was opened on the Place Vendôme, and Jacques's two brothers, Simon and Arnold, joined the business as partners. Simon served as the company's accountant, and Arnold was in charge of correspondence with the firm's many clients. Jacques remained as the manager and was in charge of all purchases for the firm.

Prominent clients of the company included Baron Edmond de Rothschild of France, the Stroganoff family of Russia, Sir Philip Sassoon of England, and American collectors Benjamin Altman, William Randolph Hearst, J. P. Morgan, Henry Walters, and Joseph Widener. As American clients increasingly came to dominate the company's sales activities, a New York office at 7 West Thirty-sixth Street was opened in 1904. Five years later, Jacques purchased the Hôtel de Sagan (also called the Palais de Sagan by the Seligmann family) in Paris as a location where Jacques Seligmann & Cie. could stage larger exhibitions and receive its most distinguished clients.

In 1912 a family quarrel resulted in a lawsuit that split the company. Arnold remained at the Place Vendôme location, reorganized under the name Arnold Seligmann & Cie., while Jacques consolidated his operations and moved the headquarters for Jacques Seligmann & Cie. to the Hôtel de Sagan. Jacques also opened an additional gallery at 17 Place Vendôme to retain a presence near the company's original location, but this branch soon relocated to 9 Rue de la Paix. The New York office, which formerly had operated out of a single room, was upgraded to larger office space and a gallery at 705 Fifth Avenue.

Jacques's son, Germain Seligman (1893-1978), showed an interest in art connoisseurship from his early years and often accompanied his father to work in the galleries. (In 1943, when Germain Seligman became an American citizen, he dropped the second "n" from his surname, and for clarity his name appears with this spelling throughout this finding aid.) His father taught him how to deal with clients and often assigned him tasks to help in the completion of sales. Germain accompanied Jacques on many business trips and in 1910 was sent to St. Peterburg, Russia, to secure information about the selling price of the Swenigorodskoi enamels owned by the Russian collector M. P. Botkine.

Germain continued to work informally in the firm's galleries until the outbreak of World War I. Within hours of the mobilization order in 1914, Germain joined the French army as a second lieutenant in the 132nd Infantry Regiment of Rheims. By 1916 he was promoted to first lieutenant in the Twenty-fourth Infantry Brigade and in the following year achieved the rank of captain in the Fifty-sixth Infantry Division. Also in the same year, he was assigned as the first French liaison officer to the First Division of the American Expeditionary Force in France, serving as translator for Major George C. Marshall. Seligman was discharged from the French army in 1919 and was awarded the French Croix de Guerre with six citations. (In 1938 Seligman also was awarded the Office of the Legion of Honor from France, and in 1939 he was decorated by General John Joseph Pershing with the Distinguished Service Medal of the United States, in recognition for his service during World War I.)

After his discharge from military service, Germain Seligman actively joined his father's company as a partner in 1920. Jacques Seligmann & Cie. was changed to Jacques Seligmann et Fils, and Germain was placed in charge as the president of the New York office. The strong American art market necessitated Germain's making numerous cross-Atlantic trips each year. Upon the death of his father in 1923, Germain took over as president of both the Paris and New York offices, and the company was once again renamed Jacques Seligmann & Cie.

In the early years of Jacques Seligmann & Co., Inc., the firm carried few paintings, as collectors focused their interest mostly on small objects, enamels, ivories, and other decorative pieces from the Byzantine to the Renaissance eras. Stone and bronze sculptures, medieval and Renaissance tapestries, and eighteenth-century French furniture were the most avidly collected pieces of the era. The galleries of Jacques Seligmann & Co., Inc., reflected its clients' tastes, but soon after the turn of the century art trends began to change.

The 1913 Armory Show introduced many Americans to contemporary European art, and collectors in the United States began to show marked interest in it. The advent of World War I brought much of the art market to a standstill in Europe, but interest in the Impressionists continued in the United States, and it quickly resumed in Europe, as well, after the war. Both collectors and dealers began buying modern art, led by such progressive American collectors as Walter Arensberg, Albert C. Barnes, A. E. Gallatin, Mrs. Horace O. Havemeyer, Mrs. Potter Palmer, Duncan Phillips, and John Quinn, among others.

Under Germain's leadership, Jacques Seligmann & Co., Inc., began acquiring works by Pierre Bonnard, Paul Cézanne, Honoré Daumier, Edgar Degas, Pablo Picasso, Henri Rousseau, and Vincent van Gogh. While Germain promoted this trend for modern art in the New York gallery, other family partners did not approve as this was a new direction for the firm. For this reason Germain Seligman looked to establish a new, independent business venture in the evolving field of modern art. He selected as his partner César Mange de Hauke.

César Mange de Hauke was born on March 8, 1900, the son of a French engineer and a Polish mother. After completing academic and art studies in England and France in the years following World War I, de Hauke arrived in the United States in 1926. While in New York City, he was introduced to Germain Seligman by Germain's cousin, René Seligmann, and by 1927 de Hauke had joined Jacques Seligmann & Co., Inc., as a sales representative.

With their shared interest in modern French painting, Seligman and de Hauke decided to explore the feasibility of sales in this area by forming a subsidiary to Jacques Seligmann & Co., Inc., that would specialize in contemporary European artists. In 1926 Seligman personally financed the fledgling company, first called International Contemporary Art Company, Inc., and he appointed de Hauke its director, but even before the legal documents setting up the company were completed the name was changed to de Hauke & Co., Inc. Although the bulk of the new company's art purchases took place in Paris and London, the majority of its sales occurred in the United States.

Seligman and de Hauke worked out an agreement allowing de Hauke to purchase works of art that could then be sold as stock inventory of Jacques Seligmann & Co., Inc., or privately under de Hauke's own name. Ownership of paintings was often shared among various art dealers, involving complicated commission transactions upon completion of sale. Seligman provided display space for de Hauke & Co., Inc., at the new, larger gallery of Jacques Seligmann & Co., Inc., now located at 3 East Fifty-first Street. The two businesses were deeply intertwined, as evidenced by the facts that Seligman's financial records include a great deal of de Hauke material and many of de Hauke's records are written on the stationery of Jacques Seligmann Co., Inc.

During the second half of the 1920s, de Hauke showed the work of modern French School artists in New York City. He exhibited works by Pierre Bonnard, Amedeo Modigliani, Odilon Redon, Ker-Xavier Roussel, Edouard Vuillard, and many others. De Hauke was equally interested in French School drawings and watercolors, and the scope of his exhibitions also included works by nineteenth-century masters such as Paul Cézanne, Jacques-Louis David, Eugè00E8;ne Delacroix, Jean Ingres, Pierre-Auguste Renoir, and Georges Seurat.

Among the exhibitions held at the New York gallery were two highly successful shows featuring the works of Pablo Picasso. The first one, held in 1936, displayed paintings from the Blue and Rose Periods and was soon followed by the 1937 exhibition, Twenty Years in the Evolution of Picasso. The star of this exhibition was Les Demoiselles d'Avignon which Germain had recently acquired from the Jacques Doucet Estate sale.

Despite the bleak economic conditions of the 1930s, the new business venture proved so successful that the other family members of Jacques Seligmann & Co., Inc., withdrew their opposition to expanding into the field of modern art, and de Hauke & Co., Inc., was dissolved and re-formed under the new name, Modern Paintings, Inc. César M. de Hauke was appointed its director, but tensions had crept into the relationship between the former partners, and by 1931, de Hauke had resigned and returned to Paris.

The mid-1930s appear to have been a period of reorganization for the company. By 1934 Modern Paintings, Inc., was also dissolved, and it assets were assumed by Jacques Seligmann & Co., Inc., and by Tessa Corp., another subsidiary of the firm. In 1935, however, the firm established a new subsidiary, the Contemporary American Department, to represent young American artists. Theresa D. Parker, a longtime gallery employee, was selected to head the department, and she initiated an exhibition and loan program. Soon thereafter, the City of Paris offered to buy the company's building at the Hôtel de Sagan as part of a complicated negotiation for a site for the Exposition Internationale des Arts et Techniques dans la vie Modern 1937. The Paris office of Jacques Seligmann & Co., Inc., reestablished itself at 9 Rue de la Paix, but Germain selected the New York office as the headquarters for Jacques Seligmann & Co., Inc. Subsequently he filed his legal residence as New York City. Germain's half-brother, François-Gerard, was left in charge of the Paris office operations, although Germain continued to commute between the two offices until the summer of 1939.

During the New York World's Fair of 1939, Germain served as a member of the Exhibition Committee, which coordinated the art section. When the fair was extended for an additional year, Seligman was asked to take responsibility for planning the French art section. World political events intruded, however, and rumors of impending war affected both the European and American economies as well as the international art world. Speculative sales, particularly in Europe, made for a chaotic and unpredictable market. In June 1940 German forces invaded France and occupied Paris. Business for Jacques Seligmann & Co., Inc., took a dramatic downturn. In the summer of 1940 the Seligmann galleries and family holdings were seized by the Vichy government, along with Germain's private art collection. The family house and its contents, along with almost the entire stock of the Paris firm, was sold at public auction. Jacques Seligmann & Co., Inc., staff burned the Paris office archives in an effort to keep the records relating to works of art from falling into the hands of the Nazi occupiers, who were looting and shipping art to Germany.

Family members also experienced the pains and changes brought on by the war. Jean Seligmann, a cousin of Germain and the head of Arnold Seligmann & Cie., was captured and shot in Vincennes, France. François-Gerard, a half-brother, was drafted into the army and subsequently joined the French Resistance. Another brother, André, fled France in September 1940 and arrived in New York City, where he opened his own gallery. (He would later return to Paris after the war, but died shortly thereafter from a heart attack.)

Germain applied for a commission in the United States Army in 1942, but his application was initially turned down due to his noncitizen status. Soon thereafter, however, President Franklin D. Roosevelt signed the second War Power Act, which stipulated that naturalization could be expedited if the individual served in the military during the war. This act prompted Germain to further press his application for a post overseas, citing his citizenship status as fairly inconsequential or at least no longer a grave hindrance. Despite numerous letters exchanged with the War Department, however, his application was eventually rejected due to changes in military personnel policy.

During the war years, the Seligmann company in New York moved from its 3 East Fifty-first Street location to smaller quarters at 5 East Fifty-seventh Street. The first exhibition in this space was held in the spring of 1944. By 1945 the Contemporary American Department was reactivated, with Theresa D. Parker as its head.

In the years following the war, a rapprochement occurred among the family members who had been split since the family quarrel between Jacques and Arnold Seligmann. With the death of Jean Seligmann during the war, Arnold Seligmann & Co. had been left without a director. Germain consolidated the two family businesses, but made separate financial and administrative entities of the Paris and New York offices. Henceforth they were affiliated "only by ties of affection."

During the early to mid-1950s, many of the activities involving Jacques Seligmann & Co., Inc., centered upon the recovery of looted artwork and property as well as resolving outstanding issues from the consolidation of the various family businesses. The firm was also involved in the sale of several significant collections.

In 1951 Germain was commissioned by the family of the Duc d'Arenberg to sell the family's collection of important illuminated manuscripts, engravings, and select paintings. Jan Vermeer's Portrait of a Young Girl was purchased for over a quarter million dollars.

Jacques Seligmann & Co., Inc., also handled the 1953 sale of works from the Prince of Liechtenstein's collection and negotiated the purchase of seven Italian marble sculptures that were eventually sold to the Samuel H. Kress Foundation in 1954. From the late 1950s up until the closing of the company in 1977-1978, the exhibitions mounted by the firm seem to indicate a gradual focus back toward drawings and more traditional art. Contemporary American artists continued to be shown as well, but the firm no longer maintained its leading edge in the art market.

Germain, who during the 1940s had written several works, among them a monograph on Roger de La Fresnaye in 1945 and The Drawings of Georges Seurat in 1947, devoted himself more and more to writing. In Oh! Fickle Taste; or, Objectivity in Art, published in 1952, Seligman addressed the importance of political and social climates in understanding the evolution of art collecting in the United States. He followed this book with the 1961 publication of Merchants of Art, 1880-1960: Eighty Years of Professional Collecting which memorialized his father and traced the history of Jacques Seligmann & Co., Inc. Germain's most significant work, Roger de La Fresnaye, with a Catalogue Raisonné (1969), was lauded by art critics and listed among the 1969 "Best Ten Books of the Year" by the New York Times.

With the death of Germain Seligman in 1978, the firm doors closed, leaving behind a legacy of collecting that helped to establish American collectors and museums in the forefront of the international art world. A survey of the major art museums and collections in the United States reveals the significant number of works that were acquired either by sales or through donation from Jacques Seligmann & Co., Inc. The influence the company wielded is also demonstrated through the network of relationships it built with collectors, art museums and institutions, and other dealers, such as Dr. Albert C. Barnes, Bernheim-Jeune, George Blumenthal, Sen. William A. Clark, the Detroit Institute of Arts, M. Knoedler & Co., Inc., the Metropolitan Museum of Art, the Museum of Modern Art in New York, the National Gallery of Art, Marjorie Merriweather Post, Henry Walters, and Wildenstein & Co., among others.

1858, September 18 -- Jacques Seligmann born in Frankfurt, Germany.

1874 -- Jacques Seligmann leaves Germany to work in Paris, France, as an assistant at Maître Paul Chevallier, a leading Paris auctioneer. Soon after he leaves to work for Charles Mannheim, an expert in medieval art.

1880 -- Jacques Seligmann opens his own shop at the Rue des Mathurins. An early client is Baron Edmond de Rothschild.

1893, February 25 -- Germain Seligman is born in Paris, France. His mother's maiden name is Blanche Falkenberg (d. 1902).

1900 -- Jacques Seligmann & Cie. is formed when Jacques's brothers, Arnold and Simon, join him as partners and the business moves to the Place Vendôme.

1904 -- The New York City office of Jacques Seligmann & Co., Inc., is established, with Eugene Glaenzer as the manager. Beginning in 1905, Seligmann begins yearly visits to the New York office.

1907 -- Jacques Seligmann is elected a Fellow for Life of the Metropolitan Museum of Art.

1909 -- Jacques Seligmann & Cie. acquires the Hôtel de Sagan on the Rue Saint Dominique. Jacques moves the headquarters for the company to this location and reserves its use for the most exclusive and important clients, but his brother Arnold continues to oversee the general operations of the company at the Place Vendôme.

1912 -- A lawsuit between Jacques Seligmann and his brother, Arnold, results in a split in the family company. Arnold remains at Place Vendôme under the name Arnold Seligmann & Cie. Jacques consolidates his activities at the Hôtel de Sagan. He also opens another gallery at 17 Place Vendôme, but this is soon moved to 9 Rue de la Paix.

1914 -- As a result of the split in the family business, a new office and gallery are opened at 705 Fifth Avenue, and Jacques Seligmann & Co., Inc., is incorporated within the State of New York.

1914-1919 -- Germain Seligmann serves in the French army as a second lieutenant in the 132nd Infantry Regiment of Rheims. Later he is assigned as the first French liaison officer to the First Division of the American Expeditionary Force in France. He is discharged from active service in 1919.

1920 -- Germain Seligman becomes a partner with his father and formally joins Jacques Seligmann & Fils as the president of the New York office.

1923, October -- Jacques Seligman dies.

1924 -- Germain Seligman becomes the president of both the Paris and New York offices. Several of his brothers and sisters become partners in the firm. Theresa D. Parker joins the New York office.

1926 -- The New York office moves to 3 East Fifty-first Street. Germain Seligman, with César Mange de Hauke, sets up de Hauke & Co., Inc., to sell modern European paintings to American clients.

1930 -- De Hauke & Co., Inc., becomes Modern Paintings, Inc.

1931 -- De Hauke resigns as head of Modern Paintings, Inc., and returns to Paris.

1934 -- Modern Paintings, Inc., is dissolved, and its assets are assumed by Jacques Seligmann & Co., Inc., and by Tessa Corp., another subsidiary of the parent company.

1935 -- The Contemporary American Department is created as a part of Jacques Seligmann & Co., Inc., and Theresa D. Parker directs its operations.

1936-1937 -- Jacques Seligmann et Fils moves out of its gallery space at the Hôtel de Sagan and briefly reestablishes its headquarters at 9 Rue de la Paix. By 1937, however, the company headquarters moves to New York City. Germain Seligman establishes his legal residence there.

1939 -- World War II begins.

1940 -- During the summer, the Seligmann family house and its contents (at Rue de Constantine) are seized and sold by order of the Vichy government, along with Germain's private art collection and the gallery's stock. The Paris archives of Jacques Seligmann & Co., Inc., is destroyed by the Seligmann staff in order to keep the records from falling into the hands of the Nazis. René Seligmann dies in a New York hospital in June; François-Gerard, Germain's half-brother, is called up to serve in the army and joins the French Resistance. Another brother, André, escapes to the United States and opens a gallery in New York. Jean Seligmann, a cousin of Germain and the head of Arnold Seligmann & Cie., is captured and shot at Vincennes, France.

1943 -- Germain Seligman becomes an American citizen (and drops the second "n" from his original surname).

1944, Spring -- The New York gallery holds its first exhibition in the new 5 East Fifty-seventh Street location in New York City. During the war years, the firm had moved from its Fifty-first Street location to smaller quarters.

1945 -- The Contemporary American Department is reactivated.

1946 -- After the war, Arnold Seligmann & Cie. is left without a director, although it remains at the Rue de la Paix location. Germain consolidates the two firms but organizes the Paris and New York offices as separate financial and administrative entities.

1969 -- Germain Seligman publishes Roger de La Fresnaye, with a Catalogue Raisonné. The book receives acclaim and is listed on the 1969 New York Times "Ten Best Books of the Year."

1978, March 27 -- Germain Seligman dies.
Provenance:
The records of the Paris and New York art dealer Jacques Seligmann & Co., Inc., were donated to the Archives of American Art in 1978 by Mrs. Ethlyne Seligman, widow of Germain Seligman. A small addition of 19 linear feet was donated in 1994.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment.
Rights:
The records of Jacques Seligmann & Co. are owned by the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Literary rights as possessed by the donor have been dedicated to public use for research, study, and scholarship. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Topic:
Mackay, Clarence Hungerford, 1874-1938 -- Art collections  Search this
Schiff, Mortimer L. -- Art collections  Search this
Arenberg, duc d' -- Art collections  Search this
Liechtenstein, House of -- Art collections  Search this
Art -- Collectors and collecting -- France -- Paris  Search this
Art -- Collectors and collecting  Search this
Art galleries, Commercial -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Art dealers -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
World War, 1939-1945 -- Art and the war  Search this
Art dealers -- France -- Paris  Search this
La Fresnaye, Roger de, 1885-1925  Search this
Art, Renaissance  Search this
Decorative arts  Search this
Art treasures in war  Search this
Art, European  Search this
Art galleries, Commercial -- France -- Paris  Search this
Genre/Form:
Gallery records
Citation:
Jacques Seligmann & Co. records, 1904-1978, bulk 1913-1974. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.jacqself
See more items in:
Jacques Seligmann & Co. records
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-jacqself
Online Media:

Ira and William Glackens papers

Creator:
Glackens, Ira, 1907-1990  Search this
Names:
Delaware Art Museum  Search this
Kraushaar Galleries  Search this
National Gallery of Art (U.S.)  Search this
National Portrait Gallery (Smithsonian Institution)  Search this
Williams College. Museum of Art.  Search this
Barnes, Albert C. (Albert Coombs), 1872-1951  Search this
Barnes, Laura L., 1875-1966  Search this
Buckley, Charles E.  Search this
Bullard, E. John(Edgar John), 1942-  Search this
Dimock, Ira  Search this
Fitzgerald, Irene Dimock  Search this
Glackens, Edith  Search this
Glackens, William J., 1870-1938  Search this
Kuhn, Walt, 1877-1949  Search this
Liff, Vivian  Search this
Luks, George Benjamin, 1867-1933  Search this
Morse, Stearns  Search this
Perlman, Bennard B.  Search this
Prendergast, Eugénie  Search this
Prendergast, Maurice Brazil, 1858-1924  Search this
Schwab, Arnold T.  Search this
Shinn, Everett, 1876-1953  Search this
Sloan, Helen Farr, 1911-2005  Search this
Extent:
2.3 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Sound recordings
Writings
Date:
circa 1900-1990
Summary:
The Ira and William Glackens papers, circa 1900-1990, measure 2.3 linear feet. The collection consists primarily of the papers of Ira Glackens relating to the artwork of his father, William Glackens, but also contains scattered correspondence of William and his wife Edith, including letters from Albert Barnes. Ira Glackens' papers include books written by Ira; exhibition catalogs and clippings about William and others; photographs of the Glackens family and friends, of Ira, and of the Glackens residence; and an audio recording of William Glackens' remarks upon accepting an award at the Carnegie International Exhibition in 1936. There are also records of the Sansom Foundation, which was set up by Ira Glackens and his wife Nancy.
Scope and Content Note:
The Ira and William Glackens papers, circa 1900-1990, measure 2.3 linear feet. The collection consists primarily of the papers of Ira Glackens relating to the artwork of his father, William Glackens, but also contains scattered correspondence of William and his wife Edith, including letters from Albert Barnes. Ira Glackens' papers include books written by Ira; exhibition catalogs and clippings about William and others; photographs of the Glackens family and friends, of Ira, and of the Glackens residence; and an audio recording of William Glackens' remarks upon accepting an award at the Carnegie International Exhibition in 1936. There are also records of the Sansom Foundation, which was set up by Ira Glackens and his wife Nancy.

Biographical information consists of genealogical research on the Glackens family and a copy of Ira Glackens birth certificate.

Correspondence of the artist William Glackens includes letters to his wife, Edith, written while on a trip to Paris in 1912 to purchase paintings for collector Albert C. Barnes. Barnes' letters to William and Edith Glackens are about paintings in the Barnes Collection, the educational plans of his Foundation, and Glackens' work and exhibitions. Letters to Edith Dimock Glackens are from relatives and friends including her father, Ira Dimock, her sister, Irene Dimock FitzGerald, author James L. Ford, and painter Maurice Prendergast. There is also a copy of a letter concerning the estate of Lenna G. Borton, the Glackens' daughter.

Ira Glackens' correspondence largely concerns exhibitions, sales, loans, donations and the authentication of artwork by William Glackens. Correspondents include museums, galleries and artists, in addition to personal correspondence with family and friends. Names of significant correspondents in Ira Glackens' correspondence include Laura (Mrs. Albert C.) Barnes, Charles Buckley, Delaware Art Museum, Kraushaar Gallery, Walt Kuhn, Vivian Liff, George Luks, Stearns Morse, National Gallery, National Portrait Gallery, Bennard Perlman, Eugenie Prendergast, Arnold T. Schwab, Helen (Mrs. John) Sloan, and Williams College Museum of Art.

Noteworthy writings include speeches, a memoir, and a short play by Ira Glackens, and family recollections of Edith Glackens. A 1936 audio recording is of remarks made by William Glackens upon being presented with an award for his entry in the Carnegie Institute's International Exhibition. Writings by others include essays by John Bullard and Everett Shinn about Glackens.

Printed material includes Ira Glackens' books, catalogs of group and solo exhibitions featuring the work of William Glackens, clippings concerning William Glackens, and reviews of Ira Glackens' books.

Records of the Sansom Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization founded in 1950 by Ira and Nancy Glackens to oversee their art interests, consist of annual reports, a charitable trust registration form, and financial and tax records.

Photographs are of the Glackens family, travel scenes and artwork by William Glackens, The Eight, and other artists.

A card index of William Glackens' paintings, prepared by Ira Glackens, provides details of artwork in William Glackens' estate.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged as 8 series.

Series 1: Biographical Information, circa 1900-1990 (Box 1; 2 folders)

Series 2: Correspondence, 1902-1989 (Box 1; 0.7 linear feet)

Series 3: Writings, 1963-1982 (Boxes 1, 3; 0.2 linear feet)

Series 4: Sansom Foundation, Inc., 1957-1973 (Box 2; 0.2 linear feet)

Series 5: Printed Material, 1903-1989 (Boxes 2-3; 0.6 linear feet)

Series 6: Scrapbook, 1956-1980 (Box 3; 0.1 linear feet)

Series 7: Photographs, circa 1900-1986 (Box 2; 0.3 linear feet)

Series 8: Card Index of William Glackens' Paintings, circa 1940-1949 (Box 3; 0.2 linear feet)
Biographical Note:
Ira Dimock Glackens (1907-1990), the first child of painter and illustrator William Glackens and Edith Dimock Glackens, was born in New York City. Raised in the art world, he was well acquainted with his father's friends and colleagues. Upon his father's death in 1938, Ira became responsible for managing and administering the art remaining in William Glackens's estate.

Educated at the Choate School, Ira Glackens became a writer. He published two books about his father: William Glackens and the Ashcan Group: The Emergence of Realism in American Art (1957) and William Glackens and the Eight: The Artists who Freed American Art (1984). An opera expert, Ira Glackens was also the author of Yankee Diva: Lillian Nordica and the Golden Days of Opera (1963) and an authority on apples.

William Glackens (1870-1938) was born in Philadelphia and studied at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts with Robert Henri while working as an illustrator for local newspapers, including the Philadelphia Press. In 1895, he departed for a year in Paris and then moved to New York City where he continued to work as an illustrator for various newspapers and periodicals. Before long, Glackens began to focus on scenes of city life and street crowds and, in 1908, he participated in the groundbreaking exhibition of The Eight at the Macbeth Gallery in New York City.

Between 1925 and 1932 William Glackens lived and worked in France and his painting was strongly influenced by Renoir. He spent the remainder of his life in New York City, exhibiting widely from 1894 on. Glackens was named an Associate of the National Academy of Design and was the recipient of several awards including those of the 1901 Pan-American Exposition (gold), the 1904 St. Louis Exposition, the 1915 Pan-Pacific Exposition, the 1933 Society of Independent Artists Exhibition, and the 1936 Carnegie International Exhibition.
Related Materials:
The Archives also holds several collections related to Ira and William Glackens, including the Ira Glackens letters to Jane Wasey; the Illustrations by William Glackens and letter from Ira Glackens; the Lillian E. Travis papers relating to William Glackens and Charles Prendergast; and the Thomas Hart Benton and Ira Glackens letters. Substantial correspondence between William Glackens and the Kraushaar Gallery can also be found in the Kraushaar Galleries records.
Separated Material:
Published books not authored by Glackens family members or related to Glackens' family members were transferred to the Smithsonian's American Art Museum Library in 2007. A few pieces of artwork were given to Williams College, also in 2007.
Provenance:
The Ira and William Glackens papers were donated to the Archives of American Art by Ira Glackens in 1987, and by his estate in 1991. In 2007 a small cache of papers found in the Glackens home was donated by Susan Corn Conway, who had purchased the Glackens' house.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment.
Rights:
The Ira and William Glackens papers are owned by the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Literary rights as possessed by the donor have been dedicated to public use for research, study, and scholarship. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Topic:
Illustrators -- Pennsylvania -- Philadelphia  Search this
Authors -- Pennsylvania -- Philadelphia  Search this
Painting, American  Search this
Eight (Group of American artists) -- Photographs  Search this
Art -- Collectors and collecting  Search this
Painting, Modern -- 20th century -- United States  Search this
Painters -- Pennsylvania -- Philadelphia  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Sound recordings
Writings
Citation:
Ira and William Glackens papers, circa 1900-1990. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.glacwill
See more items in:
Ira and William Glackens papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-glacwill
Online Media:

Charles Lang Freer Papers

Creator:
Freer, Charles Lang, 1856-1919  Search this
Extent:
131 Linear feet (29 architectural drawings)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Diaries
Financial records
Correspondence
Photographs
Place:
China
Syria
Egypt
India
London (England)
Japan
Boston (Mass.)
Detroit (Mich.)
Washington (D.C.)
Kandy (Sri Lanka)
Sri Lanka
Anuradhapura (Sri Lanka)
Date:
1876-1931
Summary:
The personal papers of Charles Lang Freer, the industrialist and art collector who founded the Freer Gallery of Art. The papers include correspondence, diaries, art inventories, scrapbooks of clippings on James McNeil Whistler and other press clippings, and photographs.
Scope Content:
The personal papers of Charles Lang Freer, the industrialist and art collector who founded the Freer Gallery of Art. The papers include correspondence, diaries, art inventories, scrapbooks of clippings on James McNeil Whistler and other press clippings, financial material, architectural drawings, and photographs.

Correspondence, circa 1860-1921, includes Freer's correspondence, 1876-1920, with artists, dealers, collectors, museums, and public figures; letterpress books contain copies of Freer's outgoing letters, 1892-1910; correspondence collected by Freer of James McNeill Whistler, and his wife Beatrix, 186?-1909, with Lady Colin Campbell, Thomas R. Way, Alexander Reid, Whistler's mother, Mrs. George W. Whistler, and others; correspondence of Whistler collector Richard A. Canfield, 1904-1913, regarding works in Canfield's collection; and correspondence of Freer's assistant, Katharine Nash Rhoades, 1920-1921, soliciting Freer's letters from his associates, and regarding the settlement of his estate.

Also included are twenty-nine pocket diaries, 1889-1890, 1892-1898, 1900-1919, recording daily activities, people and places visited, observations, and comments; a diary kept by Freer's caretaker, Joseph Stephens Warring, recording daily activities at Freer's Detroit home, 1907-1910. Inventories, n.d. and 1901-1921, of American, European, and Asian art in Freer's collection, often including provenance information; vouchers, 1884-1919, documenting his purchases; five volumes of scrapbooks of clippings on James McNeill Whistler, 1888-1931, labeled "Various," "Peacock Room," "Death, etc.," "Paris, etc.," and "Boston...London" ; three volumes of newsclippings, 1900-1930, concerning Freer and the opening of the Freer Gallery of Art.

Correspondence regarding Freer's gift and bequest to the Smithsonian Institution, 1902-1916; and photographs, ca. 1880-1930, of Freer, including portraits by Alvin Langdon Coburn and Edward Steichen, Freer with others, Freer in Cairo, China and Japan, Freer's death mask, and his memorial service, Kyoto, 1930; photographs of artists and others, including Thomas Dewing, Ernest Fenollosa, Katharine Rhoades taken by Alfred Stieglitz, Rosalind B. Philip, Augustus Saint-Gaudens, Abbott H. Thayer, Dwight Tryon, and Whistler; and photographs relating to Whistler, including art works depicting him, grave and memorial monuments, works of art, the Peacock Room, and Whistler's memorial exhibition at the Copley Society.
Organization of the Papers:
This collection is organized into twelve series.

Series 1: Genealogical and Biographical Data

Series 2: Correspondence

Series 3: Diaries

Series 4: Freer Colleague Materials

Series 5: Art Inventories

Series 6: Financial Materials

Series 7: Exhibition Loan Files

Series 8: Biblical Manuscripts and Gold Treasure Files

Series 9: American School of Archaeology in China

Series 10: Printed Material

Series 11: Outsize Material

Series 12: Photographs
Biographical Note:
1854 February 25 -- Born in Kingston, New York

1873 -- Appointed accountant and paymaster of New York, Kingston and Syracuse Railroad by Frank J. Hecker (1846-1927)

1876 -- Moves to Indiana to work, with Hecker, for the Detroit and Eel River and Illinois Railroad

1880 -- Moves to Detroit, participates in organization of the Peninsular Car Works with Hecker

1883 -- Becomes vice president and secretary of Peninsular Car Company when it succeeds Peninsular Car Works

1883 -- Begins collecting European prints

1884 -- Peninsular Car Company constructs plant on Ferry Avenue

1887 -- Meets Howard Mansfield (1849-1938)

1887 -- Acquires proofs of 26 etchings, Venice, Second Series(1886), by James McNeill Whistler (1834-1903)

1887 -- Purchases a small Japanese fan attributed to Ogata Karin(1658-1715)

1887 -- Buys land on Ferry Avenue

1889 -- Meets Frederick Stuart Church (1826-1900) and Dwight William Tryon (1849-1925) in New York

1890 -- Commissions Wilson Eyre (1858-1944) to design house on Ferry Avenue, Detroit, Michigan

1890 -- On first trip to London, meets James McNeill Whistler(1834-1903)

1892 -- Moves to Ferry Avenue house

1892 -- Tryon and Thomas Wilmer Dewing (1851-1938) undertake decoration of reception rooms

1893 -- Lends American paintings to World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago

1893 -- Purchases first piece of Chinese art, a small painting of white herons by an anonymous Ming dynasty (1368-1644) artist

1894 -- Begins yearlong trip around the world, which includes visit to the Whistlers in Paris and first trip to Asia, stopping in Ceylon (now Sri Lanka), India, China, and Japan

1896 -- Meets Matsuki Bunkyo (1867-1940) in Boston

1899 -- Takes part in consolidation of railroad-car building companies then retires from active business

1900 -- Attends Exposition International Universelle in Paris

1900 -- Buys villa in Capri with Thomas S. Jerome

1901 -- Meets Siegfried Bing (1838-1905) in Paris and Ernest Fenollosa(1853-1908), who visits Freer in Detroit

1902 -- Meets Dikran Kelekian (1868-1951)

1902 -- Spends summer in Britain building Whistler collection

1902 -- Views Whistler's, Harmony in Blue and Gold: The Peacock Room

1904 -- Purchases Whistler's Peacock Room

1904 -- Offers his art collections and funds to build a museum in which to house them to the Smithsonian Institution

1905 -- Smithsonian committee visits Freer in Detroit

1906 -- United States government formally accepts Freer's gift on January 24

1906 -- Freer signs Deed of Gift to Smithsonian Institution on May 5

1907 -- On second tour of Asia, meets Hara Tomitaro 1868-1939) in Yokohama, Japan

1908 -- Takes third trip to Asia, specifically to West Asia to study Rakka ware

1909 -- Tours Europe to study art museums

1909 -- On fourth trip to Asia, attends memorial ceremony for Fenollosa (d.1908 September) at Miidera, Japan, and meets Duanfang (1861-1911) in China

1910 -- On last trip to Asia, visits Longmen Buddhist caves in China

1911 -- Suffers stroke

1912 -- Lends selection of objects for exhibition at Smithsonian Institution

1913 -- Meets Eugene (1875-1957) and Agnes E. (1887-1970) Meyer

1913 -- Commissions Charles Adams Platt (1861-1933) to design museum building in Washington

1914 -- Meets Katharine Nash Rhoades (1885-1965) in Detroit

1915 -- Settles in New York City

1915 -- Site of future Freer Gallery of Art is determined

1916 -- Platt's plans for Freer Gallery are approved by Smithsonian Regents and Commission of Fine Arts and ground is broken in September

1918 -- After falling ill in Detroit, Freer travels to New York for treatment

1918 -- Work on the museum building is delayed by the war

1919 -- Freer appends codicil to will permitting acquisitions of Asian, Egyptian, and Near Eastern (West Asian) art

1919 -- Dies in New York City on 25 September and is buried in Kingston, New York

1919 -- Construction of Freer Gallery completed

1920 -- John Ellerton Lodge (1876-1942) is appointed director of the Freer Gallery

1923 -- Freer Gallery opens to the public on May 9

1930 -- Memorial ceremony for Freer is held at Koetsuji, Kyoto

Charles Lang Freer was an American industrialist who founded the Freer Gallery of Art. He was a well-known collector of Asian art, and strongly supported the synthesis of Eastern art and Western art. One of his most famous acquisitions was James McNeill Whistler's Peacock Room.
Index:
Index to cross-referenced correspondents in the series Charles Lang Freer correspondence

Beal, Junius E. -- See: -- Warring, Joseph Stephens

Black, George M. -- See: -- Saint-Gaudens, Augustus

Board of Education (Kingston, New York) See: Michael, M. J.

Bonner, Campbell See: University of Michigan

Boughton, George H. See: Yardley, F. C.

British Museum See: Binyon, Laurence; Hobson, R. L.

Brown, Harold H. See: Art Association of Indianapolis

Buchner, Evelyn B. See: Knoedler, M., and Company

Buckholder, C. H. See: Art Institute of Chicago

Butler, S. B. See: Unidentified correspondents

Carnegie Institute See: Balken, Edward Duff; Harshe, Robert B.

Carpenter, Newton H. See: Art Institute of Chicago

Caulkins, Horace James See: Pewabic Pottery

Chao, Shih-chin See: Gunn, Chu Su

Chicago & North Western Railway Co. See: Hughett, Marvin

Clark, Charles Upson See: Clark, Arthur B.

Cleveland Museum of Art See: Whiting, Frederic Allen

Columbia University See: Braun, W. A.; Gottheil, Richard; Hirth, Friederich

Commission of Fine Arts See: Moore, Charles

Corcoran Gallery of Art See: Minnigerode, C. Powell

Crocker, Anna B. See: Portland Art Association

Dannenberg, D. E. See: Karlbeck, Orvar

De Menoncal, Beatrice See: Lien, Hui Ch'ing Collection

De Ricci, Seymour See: Ricci, Seymour de

Defnet, William A., Mrs., See: Franke, Ida M.

DeMotte See: Vigouroux, J.

Detroit Institute of Arts See: Detroit Museum of Art

Detroit Publishing Company See: Livingstone, W. A.

Detroit School of Design See: George Hamilton; Stevens, Henry

DeVinne Press See: Peters, Samuel T.; Witherspoon, A. S.

Dyrenforth, P. C. See: Philip, Rosalind Birnie

Eddy, Arthur J. See: Philip, Rosalind Birnie

Eggers, George Williams See: Art Institute of Chicago

Farr, Daniel H. See: Robinson and Farr

Farrand School (Detroit) See: Yendall, Edith

Field Museum of Natural History (Chicago) See: Laufer, Berthold

Flagg, Frederick J. See: Allen, Horace N.

Fogg Art Museum, Harvard University See: Forbes, Edward; Pope, Arthur Upham; Sachs, Paul J.

French, M. R. See: Art Institute of Chicago

Fu, Lan-ya See: Pang, Lai-ch'en

Fujii, Yoshio See: Yoshio, Fujii

Gerrity, Thomas See: Knoedler, M., and Company

Goupil Gallery See: Marchant, William

Gray, William J. See: Barr, Eva

Great Lakes Engineering Works See: Hoyt, H. W.

Grolier Club See: Philip, Rosalind Birnie

Heinemann, W. See: Philip, Rosalind Birnie

Holden, Edward S. See: West Point, U. S. Military Academy

Hudson, J. L. See: Weber, William C.

Hutchins, Harry B. See: University of Michigan

Hutchins, Charles L. See: Art Institute of Chicago

Kelekian, H. G. See: Kelekian, Dikran G.

Kent, H. W. See: Metropolitan Museum of Art

Lee, Kee Son See: Li, Chi-ch'un

Levy, John See: Schneider, A. K.

Library of Congress See: Rice, Richard A.; Wright, Helen

Louvre (Paris, France) See: Midgeon, Gaston

Matsuki, Z. See: Matsuki, Kihachiro

McKim, Mead and White See: White, Stanford

Mills, A. L., Colonel See: Saint-Gaudens, Augustus

Miner, Luella See: Lien, Hui Ch'ing Collection

Minneapolis Institute of Arts See: Breck, Joseph; Van Derlip, John R.

Monif, R. Khan See: Rathbun, Richard

Museum of Fine Arts, Boston See: Lodge, John Ellerton

Naser, Katen & Nahass See: Katen, K.

Nordlinger, Marie, Miss See: Meyer-Riefstahl, Marie

Panama Pacific International Exposition See: Moore, Charles C.; Trask, John E. D.

Peabody Museum See: Morse, Edward Sylvester

Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts See: Trask, John E. D.

Perry, Mary Chase, Miss., See: Pewabic Pottery

Philip, Ronald M. See: Philip, Rosalind Birnie

Pope, G. D. See: Barr, Eva

Reinhart, A. G. See: Gottschalk, E.

Reitz, Sigisbert Chrétien Bosch See: Bosch-Reitz, Sigisbert Chrétien

Rutgers College See: Van Dyke, John C.

Saint-Gaudens, Augusta H. See: Saint-Gaudens, Augustus

Saint-Gaudens, Homer See: Saint-Gaudens, Augustus

Samurai Shokai See: Nomura, Yozo

San Francisco Art Association See: Laurvik, J. Nilsen

Scribner's, Charles, Sons See: Van Dyke, John C.

Shaw, Wilfred B. See: University of Michigan

Shirae, S. Z. See: Yamanaka and Company

Smith College See: Clark, Arthur B.

Smithsonian Institution See: Holmes, William Henry; Rathbun, Richard; Ravenel, Walcott, Charles D.

Society of Arts and Crafts (Detroit) See: Plumb, Helen

Societe des Beaux-Arts See: Reid, Alexander

Stevens, George W. See: Toledo Museum of Art

Stratton, Mary Chase Perry See: Pewabic Pottery

Tanaka, Kichijiro See: Yamanaka and Company

Tuttle, William F. See: Art Institute of Chicago

Union Trust Company (Detroit) See: Philip, Rosalind Birnie

United States Military Academy See: West Point, U. S. Military Academy

University of Chicago See: Zug, George Breed

University of Pennsylvania, Univ. Mus. See: Gordon, George Bryon

Ushikubo, D. J. R. See: Yamanaka and Company

Wallis & Son See: Barr, Eva; Thompson, C. Croal Ward, Clarence See: Oberlin College

Warren, Edward K. See: Philip, Rosalind Birnie

Warring, Stephen See: Warring, Joseph Stephens

Watkin, Williams R. T. See: Philip, Rosalind Birnie

Watson, Margaret, Miss See: Parker, Margaret Watson

Whistler, Anna See: Stanton, Anna Whistler

Whiting, Almon C. See: Toledo Museum of Art

Williams College See: Rice, Richard A

Wright, F. G. See: Orbach and Company

Yatsuhashi, H. See: Yamanaka and Company
Index to cross-referenced correspondence in the series Whistler correspondence

Bell, William See: Unidentified correspondents

Brown, Ernest See: Painter Etchers' Society, Committee

Cowen, John T. See subseries: Charles Lang Freer Correspondence

Ford, Sheridan See: Reid, Alexander

Haden, Francis Seymour See: Painter Etchers' Society, Committee

Haden, Francis Seymour, Lady See: Haden, Deborah Whistler

Leighton, Frederick, Baron See: Campbell, Lady Colin

Moore, Albert See: Reid, Alexander

Morley, Charles See: Pall Mall Gazette

Morris, Harrison S. See: Reid, Alexander

Pennell, Joseph See: Miscellaneous typescripts

Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts See: Reid, Alexander

Prange, F. G. See: Reid, Alexander

Societe des Beaux-Arts See: Reid, Alexander

Society of Portrait Painters See: Reid, Alexander

Stevens Fine Art See: Reid, Alexander

Studd, Arthur See: Miscellaneous typescripts

[Vanderbilt?], George, Mrs. See: George, Mrs.

Whistler, William McNeill, Mrs. See: Whistler, Nellie

Whistler Memorial Committee See: Miscellaneous typescripts
Related Material:
The Archives of American Art microfilmed portions of the Freer papers in 1992. The microfilm is available at the Archives of American Art's Washington D.C. office, the Freer Gallery of Art Library, and through interlibrary loan.
Provenance:
Gift of the estate of Charles Lang Freer.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Permission to publish, quote, or reproduce must be secured from the repository.
Topic:
Art, American -- Collectors and collecting  Search this
Art, Asian -- Collectors and collecting  Search this
Art -- Collectors and collecting  Search this
Architecture -- Asia  Search this
Genre/Form:
Diaries
Financial records
Correspondence
Photographs
Citation:
Charles Lang Freer Papers. Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives. Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. Gift of the estate of Charles Lang Freer.
Identifier:
FSA.A.01
See more items in:
Charles Lang Freer Papers
Archival Repository:
Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-fsa-a-01
Online Media:

Arthur L. and Joyce Lyon Dahl papers

Creator:
Dahl, Arthur L., 1942-  Search this
Dahl, Joyce Lyon  Search this
Names:
Barnett, Arthur  Search this
Guérin, Jacques  Search this
Hallsten, Pehr, d. 1965  Search this
Johnson, Dan Rhodes  Search this
Malraux, André, 1901-1976  Search this
Mathieu, Georges, 1921  Search this
Seitz, William Chapin  Search this
Seligman, Otto D., 1890-1966  Search this
Speyer, Darthea  Search this
Tobey, Mark  Search this
Willard, Marian, 1904-  Search this
Wummer, John  Search this
Extent:
3.6 Linear feet ((microfilmed on 7 reels))
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Scrapbooks
Date:
1926-1988
Scope and Contents:
Letters; photographs; writings; sketches; financial records; a scrapbook; a phonograph album; exhibition announcements and clippings mainly relating to Mark Tobey.
REEL 3829: Six letters to Dahl from Mark Tobey; a letter from Jermayne MacAgy requesting Tobey's painting "Autobiography" for an exhibit and Dahl's response; a letter from the Whitney Museum of Art regarding a Tobey painting; and a letter from the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahai's of the U.S. regarding a Tobey exhibit. Also included is a phonograph album, 1959, of a Tobey musical composition "Suite for Flute," performed by John Wummer, inscribed on the jacket "To Mark Tobey, composer - Marion - 12/59."
REELS 1785-1788: Correspondence; writings on Tobey; three sketches by Tobey; financial records relating to the sale of art works; organizational records of the Pacific Northwest Arts Center; exhibition announcements and catalogs; clippings; a scrapbook; and 13 photographs. Among the correspondents are Tobey, Pehr Hallsten, art dealers Otto D. Seligman, Dan Rhodes Johnson, and Marian Willard Johnson, museum curator William C. Seitz, and Tobey's attorney Arthur Barnett.
REEL 1819: Photographs of two retrospective exhibitions of Mark Tobey's paintings at the Musee des Arts Decoratifs, Louvre, Paris, 1961, and at the Museum of Modern Art, New York, 1962. Included are installation shots and photographs of Tobey, Pehr Hallsten, William C. Seitz, Joyce Lyon Dahl, Andre Malraux, Georges Mathieu, Otto Seligman, Darthea Speyer, Arthur Barnett, Marian Willard Johnson, and Jacques Guerin.
REEL 4909(fr. 972-980): Two letters 1971 & 1975, from Arthur Barnett to Arthur Dahl regarding Tobey; a black and white photograph taken by Arthur Dahl of Mark Tobey having tea with friends, including Joyce Dahl, on the occassion of his retrospective at the Louvre, 1961; and a snapshot of Dahl, his wife, Tobey, Pehr, and others taken at the home of George and Lucile Herbert.
Biographical / Historical:
Art collectors; Pebble Beach and San Francisco, California. The Dahls became close friends with Mark Tobey (1892-1976) through their involvement in the Baha'i World Faith and corresponded regularly with him.
Provenance:
Donated 1977-1986 by Arthur and Joyce Lyon Dahl.
The second movement of Mark Tobey's composition, "Suite for Flute," was used on the sound track of "Mark Tobey," a 20-minute experimental film made in Seattle in 1952 by Robert Gardner. In 1959, Marian Willard Johnson, on the occasion of Tobey's birthday, engaged John Wummer to record this work privately. The record contained within this set of papers is the one she gave to Mark Tobey. Tobey gave the record to Dahl sometime before moving to Switzerland in 1960.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C., Research Center. Microfilmed materials must be consulted on microfilm. Contact Reference Services for more information.
Occupation:
Painters -- France -- Paris  Search this
Painters -- Washington (State) -- Seattle  Search this
Topic:
Abstract expressionism -- France -- Paris  Search this
Art -- Collectors and collecting  Search this
Artists and patrons -- France -- Paris  Search this
Genre/Form:
Scrapbooks
Identifier:
AAA.dahlarth
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-dahlarth

Otto and Ilse Gerson papers

Creator:
Gerson, Otto  Search this
Gerson, Ilse, 1901-1980  Search this
Names:
Fine Arts Associates  Search this
Galerie Dina Vierny  Search this
Marlborough-Gerson Gallery  Search this
Otto Gerson Gallery (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Lipchitz, Jacques, 1891-1973  Search this
Marcks, Gerhard  Search this
Smith, David, 1906-1965  Search this
Turner, J. M. W. (Joseph Mallord William), 1775-1851  Search this
Valentin, Curt, 1902-1954  Search this
Wotruba, Fritz, 1907-1975  Search this
Extent:
3 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Date:
1933-1980
Summary:
The papers of New York art dealers and gallery owners Otto and Ilse Gerson measure 3 linear feet and date from 1933 to 1980. This collection includes biographical materials, correspondence, exhibition files, artists' files, collectors' files, business records, inventory and stock records, printed materials, and photographs.
Scope and Contents:
The papers of New York art dealers and gallery owners Otto and Ilse Gerson measure 3 linear feet and date from 1933 to 1980. This collection includes biographical materials, correspondence, exhibition files, artists' files, collectors' files, business records, inventory and stock records, printed materials, and photographs.

Biographical material consists of Otto and Ilse Gerson's naturalization certificates and Ilse Gerson's will.

Correspondence includes a mixture of personal and professional letters. There are a few scattered letters between Otto and Ilse Gerson as well as correspondence with clients, museums, dealers, and artists. Notable correspondents include art dealer Curt Valentin and the artist Gerhard Marcks. There is also correspondence with the Dina Vierny Gallery in Paris, France.

There is a small number of files on the Joseph Mallord William Turner exhibition at Gerson Gallery in 1960 which include correspondence, loan forms, and printed material.

Artists' files contain correspondence, estimates, inventories, sales records, and printed material for art work by five different artists such as Jacques Lipchitz, David Smith, and Fritz Wotruba.

Collectors' files include correspondence, invoices, photographs, and other material related to purchases by various art collectors.

Business records consist of purchase and sales records, audit reports, balance sheets, certificates of authenticity, a sales ledger, and legal documents regarding the business conducted by Fine Arts Associates and Otto Gerson Gallery, and legal agreements and contracts related to the Marlborough-Gerson Gallery merger.

Inventory and stock records include assorted art inventories, a stock book, and stock cards for artists.

Printed material includes a few Gerson Gallery exhibition catalogs and clippings of exhibition reviews.

Photographs consists of a few snapshots of Otto and Ilse Gerson and images of gallery installations.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged as 9 series.

Series 1: Biographical Material, 1933-1973 (0.1 linear feet; Box 1)

Series 2: Correspondence, 1937-1980 (0.5 linear feet; Box 1)

Series 3: Turner Exhibition Files, 1960-1961 (0.1 linear feet; Box 1)

Series 4: Artists' Files, 1950-1966 (0.3 linear feet; Boxes 1-2)

Series 5: Collectors' Files, 1956-1966 (0.3 linear feet; Box 2)

Series 6: Business Records, circa 1945-1964 (0.3 linear feet; Box 2)

Series 7: Inventory and Stock Records, 1946-1965 (1.3 linear feet; Boxes 2-3)

Series 8: Printed Material, 1951-1962 (0.1 linear feet; Box 3)

Series 9: Photographs, circa 1945-circa 1960 (2 folders; Box 3)
Biographical / Historical:
Otto Gerson was born in Germany and immigrated to the United States, where he met and married Ilse Goehler in 1939. They both became U.S. citizens and together they rose to prominence as art dealers in New York City, circa 1940-1962, bringing works by noted post-war European (and some American) artists to the American market.

The Gersons also owned and operated galleries in New York, including Fine Arts Associates and Gerson Gallery. The Gerson Gallery was located at 41 East 57th Street in New York City and later merged with another gallery to form the Marlborough-Gerson Gallery around 1963, shortly after Otto Gerson's death.
Provenance:
The Otto and Ilse Gerson papers were donated to the Archives of American Art in 1984 by Indian Head Bank North on behalf of Otto and Ilse Gerson.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C. Research Center. Contact Reference Services for more information.
Rights:
The Otto and Ilse Gerson papers are owned by the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Literary rights as possessed by the donor have been dedicated to public use for research, study, and scholarship. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Topic:
Art galleries, Commercial -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Art galleries, Commercial -- France -- Paris  Search this
Art -- Collectors and collecting  Search this
Gallery owners  Search this
Art dealers  Search this
Art, Modern -- 20th century  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Citation:
Otto and Ilse Gerson papers, 1933-1980. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.gersotto
See more items in:
Otto and Ilse Gerson papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-gersotto

Erle Loran papers

Creator:
Loran, Erle, 1905-1999  Search this
Names:
Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco  Search this
Friends of Ethnic Art  Search this
San Francisco Art Institute  Search this
University of California, Berkeley -- Faculty  Search this
Bearden, Romare, 1911-1988  Search this
Cézanne, Paul, 1839-1906  Search this
Dasburg, Andrew, 1887-1979  Search this
Greenberg, Clement, 1909-1994  Search this
Haley, John, 1905-1991  Search this
Hartley, Marsden, 1877-1943  Search this
Hatfield, Dalzell, 1893-1963  Search this
Hofmann, Hans, 1880-1966  Search this
Levinson, Harry  Search this
Sabean, Samuel  Search this
Schaefer, Bertha, 1895-1971  Search this
Still, Clyfford, 1904-  Search this
Wilke, Ulfert, 1907-1987  Search this
Extent:
12.6 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Watercolors
Sketches
Photographs
Writings
Date:
1912-1999
Summary:
The papers of California painter, writer, and teacher Erle Loran measure 12.6 linear feet and date from 1912 to 1991. Found are biographical materials; two linear feet of personal and professional correspondence; personal business records; writings which include extensive drafts and notes for Loran's book Cezanne's Composition; over 400 items of artwork that include watercolors, drawings, charcoal, and pastel studies; printed materials; photographs of Loran, family, and friends, and artwork; and one audio recording of a lecture by Loran on Cezanne.
Scope and Content Note:
The papers of California painter and teacher Erle Loran measure 12.6 linear feet and date from 1912 to 1991. Found are biographical materials; two linear feet of personal and professional correspondence; personal business records; writings which include extensive drafts and notes for Loran's book Cezanne's Composition; over 400 items of artwork that include watercolors, drawings, charcoal, and pastel studies; printed materials; photographs of Loran, family, and friends, and artwork; and one audio recording of a lecture by Loran on Cezanne.

Biographical materials include biographical sketches, curriculum vita, a will, notes and a notebook, and an appointment book for 1987. Also found is an anniversary invitation, a certificate from the University of California, and the Pepsi-Cola award for 1948.

Two linear feet of correspondence is with artists, critics, galleries, and universities. Correspondents inlcude Romare Bearden, Andrew Dasburg, Clement Greenberg, John Haley, Dalzell Hatfield, Hans Hofmann, Harry Levinson (president of Permanent Pigments), Sam Sabean, Bertha Schaefer, Clyfford Still, and Ulfert Wilke. There is also correspondence with the University of California.

Personal business records include exhibition files, price and consignment lists, teaching materials, University of California Press records, and records relating to the publication of his book on Cézanne. Some of these records also document Loran's involvement with the Fine Arts Museum, Friends of Ethnic Arts, and the San Francisco Art Institute. In addition, there are records related to Loran's role in a donation of forty-five paintings by Hans Hofmann to the University Art Center. Also found are materials related to Loran's activities as an art collector including sales receipts, auction catalogs, and photographs of artwork owned by Loran.

Writings by Loran include a complete manuscript version of Cézanne's Composition along with additional notes and drafts, and numerous other short essays on Cézanne's life and art. Loran's other writings include essays about Hans Hofmann, Marsden Hartley, symbology in abstract art, and contemporary art.

Loran's career as an artist is extensively documented by four linear feet of original artwork, mostly preliminary sketches. The work demonstrates a variety of techniques including watercolor, pastel, pencil, pen, gouache, and oil sketches. Content includes landscapes, portraits, fantasy scenes, urban scenes, and rural scenes.

Printed materials include extensive newsclippings from seven decades, exhibition announcements, and exhibition catalogs. Photographs are of Loran, his second wife Clyta, the Loran family, friends and colleagues, artwork, and source materials. Also found within the papers is an audio recording on cassette of a lecture by Loran on Cézanne.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into 8 series:

Series 1: Biographical Materials, 1930s-1990s (Box 1; 0.25 linear feet)

Series 2: Correspondence, 1912-1992 (Boxes 1-3; 2.0 linear feet)

Series 3: Personal Business Records, 1930s-1992 (Box 3; 0.25 linear feet)

Series 4: Writings, 1921-1999 (Boxes 3-4; 1.25 linear feet)

Series 5: Artwork, 1920s-1980s (Boxes 4-8, 13-14; 4.3 linear feet)

Series 6: Printed Material, 1925-1999 (Boxes 8-10, 14; 2.3 linear feet)

Series 7: Photographs, 1910s-1990s (Boxes 10-12, 14; 2.5 linear feet)

Series 8: Audio Recording, 1982 (Box 12; 1 folder)
Biographical Note:
California painter, writer, and teacher Erle Loran was born on October 2, 1905 in Minneapolis, Minnesota. He attended the Minneapolis School of Art and graduated in 1926. That same year, Loran won the Paris Prize from the Chaloner Foundation which enabled him to study in France for the next three years. Here, he immersed himself into the world of Paul Cezanne. He lived for two years in Cézanne's studio, meeting many who knew Cezanne, including painter Emile Bernard, and art dealer Ambroise Vollard. This experience was critical to the development of Loran's artistic vision and his later writings and lectures about Cézanne.

In 1929, Loran returned to the United States, and published the article "Cézanne's Country" in The Arts in 1930. He then spent the early 1930s in Minnesota, after returning to Minneapolis to be treated for tuberculosis. There, Loran began to paint in a regionalist style, producing landscapes and scenes of life in rural Minnesota. In 1931, Loran was given his first one-man show at the Kraushaar Gallery in New York. During the depression, Loran began teaching art and was given painting commissions as part of the federal arts programs of the WPA.

Loran moved to California in 1937 and accepted a position as professor in the art department at the University of California, Berkeley. There he taught until retiring in 1973, serving as the department's chair in the 1950s. He established a program to invite east coast artists to teach at the university, and participants included Conrad Marca-Relli and Milton Resnick. Loran's students included Jay DeFeo, Richard Diebenkorn, and Sam Francis. In 1941 Loran began to write the synthesis of his research and interpretations about Cézanne's work, culminating in his pioneering book Cézanne's Composition published in 1943 by the University of California Press.

During this period Loran associated himself with modernist Hans Hofmann. Loran's early paintings were lyrical abstractions in primary colors; however, his style constantly changed with the times. Watercolor was Loran's medium of choice because it lent itself to his often-remote plein air locations, such as the ghost towns of California and Nevada. With John Haley and Worth Ryder he formed the "Berkeley Group," whose paintings consisted of scenes of the California and southwestern landscape painted in flat, open areas of color. During the war, painting in the open became increasingly difficult and Loran transitioned from plein-air painting to studio work. Shortly thereafter he began to focus his painting on abstraction.

Loran's artwork during the 1950s consisted primarily of abstractions based on natural forms like crystal and driftwood. In 1955, he spent six weeks studying with Hans Hofmann, whom he later called, along with Cézanne, a second "great father figure." In 1960, he was instrumental in securing a gift of forty-five paintings by Hans Hofmann for Berkeley's University Art Center. In the late 1960s, his work became a fusing of Op, Pop, and Hard Edge. From this he moved to figurative painting and later to geometric designs and symbols.

Loran continued to paint throughout the rest of his life in a variety of styles, including nudes, abstractions, and landscapes. Besides being an artist and a teacher, Loran was also a lifelong collector of ethnic art who specialized in African, Asian, Native American, and pre-Columbian tribal art. Many works from his collection are presently housed at the de Young Museum in San Francisco. Loran died in 1999 in Berkeley, at the age of 93.
Related Material:
Found in the Archives of American Art is an oral history interview with Erle Loran conducted by Herschel Chipp, June 18, 1981, and a 1981 interview with Erle and Clyta Loran in the Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco Interviews With Artists collection. Also found is a letter from Loran to Richard Wattenmaker, 1975.
Separated Material:
The Archives of American Art also holds material lent for microfilming (reel 906) including photographs of artwork by Erle Loran and two clippings of reproductions of Loran's artwork. Lent materials were returned to the lender and are not described in the collection container inventory.
Provenance:
Erle Loran lent the Archives of American Art materials for microfilming and donated papers in 1975. In 1999 Mrs. Ruth Schora-Loran, Loran's widow, donated additional material, including artworks.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment.
Rights:
The Erle Loran papers are owned by the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Literary rights as possessed by the donor have been dedicated to public use for research, study, and scholarship. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Topic:
Art, Abstract  Search this
Art teachers -- California -- Berkeley  Search this
Art -- Collectors and collecting -- California -- San Francisco Bay Area  Search this
Painters -- California -- Berkeley  Search this
Painting, Modern -- 20th century -- California -- Berkeley  Search this
Art, Modern -- 20th century  Search this
Genre/Form:
Watercolors
Sketches
Photographs
Writings
Citation:
Erle Loran Papers, 1912-1999. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.loraerle
See more items in:
Erle Loran papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-loraerle
Online Media:

Oral history interview with Edith Gregor Halpert

Interviewee:
Halpert, Edith Gregor, 1900-1970  Search this
Interviewer:
Phillips, Harlan B. (Harlan Buddington), 1920-  Search this
Names:
C.W. Kraushaar Art Galleries  Search this
Daniel Gallery  Search this
Downtown Gallery (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Ferargil Galleries  Search this
Grand Central Art Galleries  Search this
M. Knoedler & Co.  Search this
Montross Gallery  Search this
New Gallery (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Bacon, Peggy, 1895-1987  Search this
Barr, Alfred H., Jr., 1902-1981  Search this
Barrie, Erwin S., 1886-1983  Search this
Benton, Thomas Hart, 1889-1975  Search this
Brackman, Robert, 1898-  Search this
Bridgman, George Brant, 1864-1943  Search this
Brixey, Richard de Wolfe  Search this
Cahill, Holger, 1887-1960  Search this
Calder, Alexander, 1898-1976  Search this
Cary, Elisabeth Luther, 1867-1936  Search this
Chase, William Merritt, 1849-1916  Search this
Coleman, Glenn O., 1887-1932  Search this
Crowninshield, Frank, 1872-1947  Search this
Daniel, Charles, 1878-1971  Search this
Davis, Stuart, 1892-1964  Search this
Demuth, Charles, 1883-1935  Search this
Deskey, Donald, 1894-  Search this
Dove, Arthur Garfield, 1880-1946  Search this
Dudensing, F. Valentine, 1892-1967  Search this
Fergusson, John Duncan, 1874-1961  Search this
Field, Hamilton Easter  Search this
Force, Juliana, 1876-1948  Search this
Ford, Ford Madox,, 1873-1939  Search this
Frost, Robert, 1874-1963  Search this
Fuller, R. Buckminster (Richard Buckminster), 1895-1983  Search this
Goodyear, A. Conger (Anson Conger), 1877-1964  Search this
Greenberg, Clement, 1909-1994  Search this
Halpert, Samuel, 1884-1930  Search this
Hartley, Marsden, 1877-1943  Search this
Hirsch, Stefan, 1899-1964  Search this
Hopkinson, Charles, 1869-1962  Search this
Hopper, Edward, 1882-1967  Search this
Johns, Jasper, 1930-  Search this
Kline, Franz, 1910-1962  Search this
Knox, Seymour H., 1898-1990  Search this
Kroll, Leon, 1884-1974  Search this
Kuhn, Walt, 1877-1949  Search this
Kuniyoshi, Yasuo, 1889-1953  Search this
Laurent, Robert, 1890-1970  Search this
Lawrence, Jacob, 1917-2000  Search this
Levine, Jack, 1915-2010  Search this
Levy, Julien  Search this
Locke, Charles, 1899-  Search this
Luks, George Benjamin, 1867-1933  Search this
Léger, Fernand, 1881-1955  Search this
Marin, John, Jr., 1915?-1988  Search this
McBride, Henry, 1867-1962  Search this
Mellon, Paul  Search this
Mercer, Henry Chapman  Search this
Montross, N. E. (Newman E), 1849-1932  Search this
Noguchi, Isamu, 1904-1988  Search this
O'Keeffe, Georgia , 1887-1986  Search this
Pascin, Jules, 1885-1930  Search this
Picasso, Pablo, 1881-1973  Search this
Pollock, Jackson, 1912-1956  Search this
Pound, Ezra, 1885-1972  Search this
Rivera, Diego, 1886-1957  Search this
Robinson, Edward G., 1893-1973  Search this
Rockefeller, Abby Aldrich  Search this
Saarinen, Aline B. (Aline Bernstein), 1914-1972  Search this
Saklatwalla, Beram K.  Search this
Sandburg, Carl, 1878-1967  Search this
Shahn, Ben, 1898-1969  Search this
Sheeler, Charles, 1883-1965  Search this
Siporin, Mitchell, 1910-1976  Search this
Soutine, Chaim, 1893-1943  Search this
Steichen, Edward, 1879-1973  Search this
Stein, Gertrude, 1874-1946  Search this
Stella, Frank  Search this
Stern, Louis E., 1886-1962  Search this
Stieglitz, Alfred, 1864-1946  Search this
Tannahill, Robert Hudson  Search this
Vollard, Ambroise, 1867-1939  Search this
Weber, Max, 1881-1961  Search this
Whitney, Gertrude Vanderbilt, 1875-1942  Search this
Williams, William Carlos, 1883-1963  Search this
Wittenberg, Philip, 1895-1987  Search this
Zerbe, Karl, 1903-1972  Search this
Zorach, Marguerite, 1887-1968  Search this
Zorach, William, 1887-1966  Search this
Extent:
436 Pages (Transcript)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Pages
Date:
1962-1963
Scope and Contents:
An interview of Edith Halpert conducted 1962-1963, by Harlan Phillips, for the Archives of American Art.
Halpert speaks of her childhood in Russia and growing up in New York City; working at Bloomindale's, Macy's, Stern Brothers, and Cohen Goldman; her marriage to artist Sam Halpert, his health, and living in Paris in 1925; becoming an art student at the Academy of Design and feeling that Leon Kroll was an excellent art teacher until he began to correct her drawings; when George Bridgman thought she was ruining his class; the Lincoln Square Arcade, when she and Ernest Fiener and Robert Brackman would rent Conan's studio evenings and bring in instructors; how Newman Montross influenced her more than anybody about showing her art that she loved; burning all of her work because Kroll said she had no talent; receiving a painting from John Marin; her friendship and working relationship with Abby Rockefeller and other family members.
She recalls opening the Downtown Gallery, in Greenwich Village, in 1926; a brief history of modern art; many artists helping decorate the new Daylight Gallery in 1930 and the first show being called "Practical Manifestations of Art"; meeting Robert and Sonia Delaunay in France; when she refused to allow Ezra Pound to speak at one of the gallery lectures because of his anti-Semite remarks and William Carlos Williams and Ford Madox Ford argued with her over it; experiencing jealousy and professional attacks from other dealers; the successful "Pop" Hart show and book in 1929; the "Thirty-three Moderns" show in 1930 at the Grand Central Galleries; the Jules Pascin show in 1930; in America, most of the art buyers supporters of culture were women, until the WPA and World War II, when it became fashionable for men to be involved; Ambroise Vollard's advice on selling art; handling the frustrations of working in the art field; friendships with Stuart Davis,Charles Sheeler, and Ben Shahn; how artists work through dry periods in their creativity and the "Recurrent Image" show; a discussion on modern art galleries of New York City, such as Daniel, Knoedler, Ferargil, the New Gallery, 291, the Grand Central, Kraushaar, and Montross; her travels through Pennsylvania and Maine for good examples of folk art for the gallery; the "The Artist Looks at Music" show; the non-competitive spirit of the early modern American artists; of being saved financially in 1940 by selling a William Harnett painting to the Boston Museum and then renting new space for the gallery.
Also, Mitchell Siporin bringing Halpert and Edmund Gurry to Mitchell Field during World War II for a camouflage show and consequently Downtown Gallery artists and others were enlisted in the camouflage corps for the U.S. Air Force; Charles Sheeler and his wife find Halpert a house in Newtown, Conn.; her decision in 1933 to push folk art for acquisition by the William Rockhill Nelson Gallery in Kansas City, Missouri; her great concern about what to do with her folk art literature collection; dismay and that no one writes about the history of folk art and those responsible for its creation and popularity; Louis Stern hiring her to organize a municipal exhibit in Atlantic City, N.J., with Donald Deskey designing the furniture and Holger Cahill managing the publicity; Joe Lillie helping her meet Fiorello La Guardia and Joe McGoldrick in 1934 about a municipal show in New York City, but it is moved to Radio City Music Hall through Nelson Rockefeller; the "Salons of America" show; wanting articles written about art for love rather than art for investment; working with Aline Saarinen on her book, "Proud Possessors;" letters from Stuart Davis, William Zorach and others that hurt her feelings; enjoying giving educational lectures and considering retirement because of ill health; the desire to write a book on the history of trade signs in folk art; feeling that the young artists are being ruined by too much support without working for it; planning to write a book entitled, "Unsung Heroes," about artists brave enough to experiment; organizing a show in Russia at her own expense; later representing the U.S. in art at the "American National Exposition"; the agitators and success of the exposition; Alfred Stieglitz and Georgia O'Keeffe.
Halpert also recalls Juliana Force, Gertrude Vanderbilt Whitney, Yasuo Kuniyoshi, Buckminster Fuller, George Luks, Edsel Ford, Max Weber, Danny Diefenbacker, Hamilton Easter Field, Frank Stella, Glenn Coleman, Margaret Zorach, Diego Rivera, Frida Kahlo, Henry Mercer, Romany Marie, Edward G. Robinson, Paul Mellon, Charles Pollet, Alex Brook, Lunca Curass, Dorothy Lambert, Duncan Candler, Frank Rhen, Louis Rittman, Bea Goldsmith, Arthur Craven, Robert Frost, Philip Wittenberg, Caesar de Hoke, Richard deWolfe Brixey, Seymour Knox, Walt Kuhn, Elisabeth Luther Cary, Charles Locke, Duncan Fergusson, Mrs. Solomon Guggenheim, Bob Tannahill, David Thompson, Marsden Hartley, Erwin Barrie, Robert Laurent, Conger Goodyear, Henry McBride, Edward Hopper, Charles Daniel, William Merritt Chase, Charles Hopkinson, Thomas Hart Benton, Frank Crowninshield, Alfred Barr, Lord Duveen, Jacob Lawrence, John Marin Jr., Karl Zerbe, Franz Kline, Arthur Dove, Julian Levy, Jack Levine, Valentine Dudensing, Peggy Bacon, Stefan Hirsch, Gertrude Stein, Isamu Noguchi, Jasper Johns, Chaim Soutine, B. K. Saklatwalla; Fernand Leger, Pablo Picasso, Ben Shahn, Charles Demuth, Alexander Calder, Jackson Pollock, Edward Steichen, Carl Sandburg, Clement Greenberg, and others.
Biographical / Historical:
Edith Halpert (1900-1970) was an art dealer from New York, N.Y.
General:
Originally recorded on 7 tape reels. Reformatted in 2010 as 27 digital wav files. Duration is 32 hrs., 27 min.
Provenance:
This interview is part of the Archives of American Art History Program, started in 1958 to document the history of the visual arts in the United States, primarily through interviews with artists, historians, dealers, critics and others. The transcript was microfilmed in 1996.
Topic:
Art -- Economic aspects  Search this
Art dealers -- New York (State) -- New York -- Interviews  Search this
Camouflage  Search this
Folk art -- Collectors and collecting  Search this
Function:
Art galleries, Commercial -- New York (State) -- New York
Identifier:
AAA.halper62
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-halper62

Rudolph Schaeffer papers

Creator:
Schaeffer, Rudolph  Search this
Names:
East & West Gallery (San Francisco, Calif.)  Search this
Rudolph Schaeffer School of Design  Search this
Adams, Ansel, 1902-1984  Search this
Cunningham, Imogen, 1883-1976 -- Photographs  Search this
Frey, Caroline  Search this
Frey, Fred  Search this
Tobey, Mark  Search this
Wright, Frank Lloyd, 1867-1959 -- Photographs  Search this
Extent:
13.3 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Scrapbooks
Diaries
Christmas cards
Designs
Interviews
Sketchbooks
Sketches
Sound recordings
Transcripts
Place:
Japan -- Description and Travel
Date:
1880s-1997
Summary:
The collection measures 13.3 linear feet, dates from the 1880s-1997 and documents the life and varied career of Rudolph Schaeffer, artist, designer, teacher, writer, collector of Asian art, and pioneer in the field of color study who founded the Rudolph Schaeffer School of Design in San Francisco in 1926. The papers include biographical information, correspondence, subject files, writings, diaries, journals, artwork, scrapbooks, sound recordings, and photographs.
Scope and Content Note:
The collection measures 13.3 linear feet, dates from the 1880s-1997, and documents the life and varied career of Rudolph Schaeffer, artist, designer, teacher, writer, collector of Asian art, and pioneer in the field of color study who founded the Rudolph Schaeffer School of Design in San Francisco in 1926. The papers include biographical information, correspondence, subject files, writings, diaries, journals, artwork, scrapbooks, sound recordings, and photographs.

Correspondence documents Schaeffer's personal and professional activities as well as the Rudolph Schaeffer School of Design. Subject files contain various combinations of correspondence, photographs, printed material, and drawings reflecting Schaeffer's activities, projects, and interests. Within the subject files is correspondence with artists, including Mark Tobey. Extensive writings include manuscripts for published and unpublished articles and drafts, notes, and manuscripts of several unpublished books including Collected Lectures of Rudolph Schaeffer on Color and Design, Color and Design, Prismatic Color Theory, and Rhythmo-Chromatics, all undated. Diaries include a volume recording Schaeffer's 1936 trip to Japan. 42 volumes of journals, compiled between 1954 and 1987, contain entries on a wide range of subjects including lists of errands, invitation lists, class notes, drafts of letters, notes including staff assignments and staff meetings, autobiographical notes and reminiscences, and musings on religion and philosophy.

The Artwork series houses artwork by Schaeffer and his students. Found are hand-made Christmas cards, designs, sketches, and sketchbooks. Seven scrapbooks document Rudolph Schaeffer's career, his school and former students, and the San Francisco art scene. They contain printed material, photographs, letters, and a small amount of artwork. Volume 3 is devoted to East West Gallery, and volume 7 documents Rudolph Schaeffer's 90th Birthday and the 50th Anniversary of the Rudolph Schaeffer School of Design.

Most untranscribed sound recordings (audio cassettes and reels) are of lectures by Schaeffer and others delivered at the Rudolph Schaeffer School of Design.

Miscellaneous records includes a series of hand-baticked fabric samples from the Wiener Werkstatte, as well as transcripts of an oral history with Schaeffer and other interviews.

Printed material concerns the career of Rudolph Schaeffer, his school and former students, the San Francisco art scene, and general art topics. Included are articles and a book by Schaeffer, catalogs and other items produced by the Rudolph Schaeffer School of Design, and miscellaneous items about or mentioning Schaeffer and his school. Items of note are announcements of courses taught by Schaeffer in Piedmont and San Francisco prior to the opening of his school, and theatre programs from productions with sets and some costumes designed by Schaeffer in the early 1920s.

Photographs are of artwork, people, places, events, stage designs, and miscellaneous subjects. Artwork includes some designs by Rudolph Schaeffer; people include Schaeffer, his family, friends, and students. Of particular note are a photograph of Frank Lloyd Wright's visit to the Rudolph Schaeffer School of Design, and one of Rudolph Schaeffer and Imogen Cunningham. Places include interior and exterior views of the Rudolph Schaeffer School of Design at its St. Anne Street and Mariposa Street locations. Also included are photographs by Ansel Adams of the home of Ed and Caroline Fey.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged as 10 series:

Series 1: Biographical Information, 1900-1988 (Box 1; 0.1 linear ft.)

Series 2: Correspondence, 1906-1989 (Box 1, 19; 0.5 linear ft.)

Series 3: Subject Files, 1907-1988 (Boxes 1-2, OV 16; 1.3 linear ft.)

Series 4: Writings, circa 1910-1987 (Boxes 2-6, 15, 19, 21; 4.2 linear ft.)

Series 5: Artwork, 1911-1957 (Boxes 6-15, 19, 21 OV 17; 0.6 linear ft.)

Series 6: Scrapbooks, 1933-1976 (Boxes 6, 14, 19; 0.6 linear ft.)

Series 7: Sound Recordings, 1949-1986 (Boxes 11-13; 1.2 linear ft.)

Series 8: Miscellaneous Records, 1905-1986 (Box 7, 19, 22; 0.8 linear ft.)

Series 9: Printed Material, 1906-1994 (Boxes 7-8, 15, 19, 22; 1.2 linear ft.)

Series 10: Photographs, 1880s-circa 1988 (Boxes 8-10,15, 20, 22, OV 18; 1.8 linear ft.)
Biographical Note:
Rudolph Schaeffer (1886-1988), a proponent of the Arts and Crafts movement, aspired to unite technology, science, and lifestyle in order to live in harmony with nature. An individual with many talents and interests, he was best known for his work in the field of color study and as a teacher and the founder of the Rudolph Schaeffer School of Design in San Francisco.

Born on a farm in Clare, Michigan in 1886, Rudolph Schaeffer displayed musical and artistic talent from a young age. Although he initially wanted to become a professional musician, he began focusing more on art when his musical abilities were compromised by an improperly set broken wrist. Schaeffer received his first formal art training as a high school student and then attended the Thomas Normal Training School in Detroit, where he studied music, art, and design. He continued studying independently, developing interests in calligraphy and metal craft.

In 1907, Schaeffer taught manual training courses in the Columbus, Ohio, public schools. The following summer he traveled to Paris and London. While in London he saw an exhibition of Josef Hoffman's modern interiors that had a great impact on his own design ideas. He then returned to Michigan and taught in schools close to home. In 1909, Schaeffer attended a design course in Minneapolis taught by A. E. Batchelder, director of Throop Polytechnic Institute in Pasadena. Both Batchelder and his course were strong influences on Schaeffer, as was Ralph Johnot, a proponent of Arthur Wesley Dow's design principles. In 1910 Schaeffer joined the faculty of Throop Polytechnic Institute, where he remained for five years.

The U. S. Commission on Education selected Schaeffer to be part of a delegation of twenty-five American teachers sent to Munich for several months in 1914 to investigate the exemplary industrial design curriculum offered in their secondary schools. Schaeffer subsequently expected to begin teaching at the Manual Arts High School in Los Angeles at the start of the 1914 school year, but World War I erupted while he was in Germany and his return to the United States was delayed so long that another teacher had to be hired to fill his place.

In 1915 Schaeffer was a manual training instructor at the California College of Arts and Crafts (formerly the Hopkins School), and taught design and metal crafts at the University of California Berkeley. For a number of years afterwards, he did free lance design work, taught private classes, and ran a small summer school in his Piedmont studio. Schaeffer was a visiting professor at Stanford University in 1918 when he was drafted and sent to drafting and surveying courses by the Army. Between 1917 and 1924 Schaeffer was on the faculty of the California College of Arts and Crafts where he taught design, color, handicrafts, and interior design. During this period he developed a new approach to teaching color and design based on the prismatic color wheel.

During the early 1920s Schaeffer worked as a set designer and as Art Director of Greek Theatre at the University of California at Berkeley, Schaeffer began applying prismatic color theory to set and costume design. He also designed sets for productions in Detroit. In 1925, Schaeffer saw the Paris Exposition and researched interior and stage design while in France.

The Rudolph Schaeffer School of Design which, in its early days was called the Rudolph Schaeffer School of Rhythmo-Chromatic Design, opened on St. Anne Street in San Francisco's Chinatown in 1926. In 1951 the school then moved to Union Street on Telegraph Hill where it remained for nearly a decade. In 1960, the school purchased a former boys' school on Mariposa Street, Portero Hill. Rudolph Schaeffer lived in a small cottage built for him at the rear of the property where he designed and tended a remarkable "Peace Garden."

The Rudolph Schaeffer School of Design was best known for its courses in color and interior design. Schaeffer was the first person in the United States to teach prismatic color theory, is credited with being the first to use the term "interior design" rather than "interior decoration" and the first to incorporate the use of models into interior design coursework. In 1959 the school's courses were expanded from 2 to 3-year programs and a diploma was awarded. Former students include many successful interior designers, textile designers, furniture designers, industrial designers, commercial artists, color consultants, teachers, and master flower arrangers.

In addition to the interior design and color diploma courses, the school offered a summer session, classes for children, a brief lecture series for the general public, and a wide variety of classes including advertising art, architecture and design, art history, art in public schools, calligraphy, color design, color for television, color for weavers, color theory, design, drawing, environmental aesthetics, fashion design, fashion illustration, flower arrangement, industrial design, interior design, Notan, sculpture, space planning, textile design, and weaving. Always struggling financially and sometimes lacking adequate enrollment, the school nevertheless managed to stay open for nearly 60 years. In 1984, the Board of Directors voted to remove Schaeffer from the board and close the school. Two years earlier the board had forced Schaeffer to retire, appointed him Director Emeritus, and brought in a new director charged with making the institution financially solvent, reorganizing the curriculum, and working toward accreditation. Unable to separate himself from the school (though he had done so legally when it was incorporated in 1953), Schaeffer balked and refused to cooperate with plans for revitalizing the institution.

One of the aims of the Rudolph Schaeffer School of Design was to interpret Asian esthetic principles. To this end the East West Gallery was established at the school in 1950. A membership organization, it offered exhibitions, lectures, concerts, and other programs that encouraged cultural integration. Exhibitions alternated between East (Asian art and artifacts from Rudolph Schaeffer's collection or other sources) and West (student work or work of local artists illustrating the influence of the Asian esthetic on contemporary art and design). East West Gallery was a membership organization, the first space of its kind in San Francisco for Asian art and operated in each of the school's locations.

In addition to running the school Schaeffer was involved in many other activities. He wrote several articles about flower arrangement, color, and color theory that were published in popular magazines. In 1935, he published Flower Arrangement Folio I (said to be the first on the subject published in this country) and in 1942 edited and wrote the introduction to Sunset's Flower Arrangement Book by Nell True Welch. Over a period of many years, he worked on several monographs on color, design, and "rhythmo-chromatics." None were ever published.

A sought-after speaker on the subjects of color, interior design, flower arrangement, and myriad other art topics, Schaeffer frequently served as a juror for art exhibitions and flower shows. From the 1930s on, the San Francisco department store Emporium used his services as a color consultant, as did Dutch Boy paints, and numerous textile and clothing manufacturers. Builders also asked Schaeffer to select interior and exterior colors for suburban housing developments.

Schaeffer worked on planning and designing the decorative arts exhibition at the 1939-40 Golden Gate International Exposition. In 1943-44, he participated in the Red Cross's Arts and Skills program, using color therapy with shell-shocked soldiers in a psychiatric unit.

The Rudolph Schaeffer Collection of Asian Art began as a collection of ceramics, both historical and contemporary examples chosen for their form and color, which he used for flower arrangements and in set-ups for still life classes. It soon expanded to include color prints, paintings, screens, and other works of art and portions were exhibited frequently in the East West Gallery. Selections from this collection were exhibited in Kansas City in 1960 and at the Asian Art Museum of San Francisco in 1976.

The City of San Francisco declared June 26, 1986, Schaeffer's 100th birthday, "Rudolph Schaeffer Day" and it was observed with great fanfare. He died at home on March 5, 1988, a few months before his 102nd birthday.
Provenance:
The Rudolph Schaeffer papers were donated in 1991 by Rudolph Schaeffer and the Rudolph Schaeffer School of Design administrator Peter Docili, and in 1999 and 2000 by James Alexander, a friend of both Schaeffer and Docili, who had been storing portions of Docili's estate after his death in 1998, with the assistance of Frances Valesco, a fiber artist and researcher. An addition was received in 2007 by William Woodworth, a close friend and caretaker of Schaeffer's and in 2017 and 2018 by Frances Valesco.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C. Research Center. Contact Reference Services for more information. Use of archival audiovisual recordings requires advance notice.
Rights:
The Rudolph Schaeffer papers are owned by the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Literary rights as possessed by the donor have been dedicated to public use for research, study, and scholarship. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Topic:
Artists -- California -- San Francisco  Search this
Designers -- California -- San Francisco  Search this
Art -- Collectors and collecting -- California -- San Francisco  Search this
Art, Asian  Search this
Art -- Study and teaching  Search this
Art teachers -- California -- San Francisco  Search this
Artists -- California -- San Francisco  Search this
Authors -- California -- San Francisco  Search this
Color -- Study and teaching  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Scrapbooks
Diaries
Christmas cards
Designs
Interviews
Sketchbooks
Sketches
Sound recordings
Transcripts
Citation:
Rudolph Schaeffer papers, 1880s-1997. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.scharudo
See more items in:
Rudolph Schaeffer papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-scharudo

Chester Dale papers

Creator:
Dale, Chester, b. 1883  Search this
Names:
Allentown Art Museum  Search this
Amherst College  Search this
Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
National Gallery of Art (U.S.)  Search this
Parrish Art Museum  Search this
Batigne, Claire  Search this
Batigne, Renee  Search this
Braque, Georges, 1882-1963  Search this
Burkhardt, Rudy  Search this
Cantor, Irving  Search this
Cassatt, Mary, 1844-1926  Search this
Cooper, Maria  Search this
Cooper, Veronica  Search this
Cézanne, Paul, 1839-1906  Search this
Dale, Mary Towar Bullard, 1892-1984  Search this
Dale, Maud, 1875-1953  Search this
Dallas Museum of Art  Search this
Dalí, Gala  Search this
Dalí, Salvador, 1904-  Search this
Dmitri, Ivan, 1900-1968  Search this
Dufy, Raoul, 1877-1953  Search this
Elizabeth, Queen of Great Britain, II, 1926-  Search this
Frost, Robert, 1874-1963  Search this
Hamilton, Edith, 1867-1963  Search this
Ingersoll, R. Sturgis (Robert Sturgis), b. 1891  Search this
Kahlo, Frida  Search this
Kessel, Dmitri  Search this
MacNeil, Neil  Search this
Mayes, Herbert R., 1900-1987 (Herbert Raymond)  Search this
Mellon, Paul  Search this
Mellon, Timothy  Search this
Orozco, José Clemente, 1883-1949  Search this
Picasso, Pablo, 1881-1973  Search this
Rivera, Diego, 1886-1957  Search this
Salles, Georges  Search this
Wyeth, Andrew, 1917-2009  Search this
Wyeth, Jamie, 1946-  Search this
Wyeth, Nicholas  Search this
Extent:
8.4 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Scrapbooks
Sound recordings
Travel diaries
Place:
Europe -- description and travel
Date:
circa 1883-2003
bulk 1920-1970
Summary:
The papers of New York art collector Chester Dale measure 8.4 linear feet and date from circa 1883-2003. Dale amassed one of the world's most complete collections of nineteenth and twentieth century French art, was a collector of eighteenth century American portraitists, and a patron and collector of twentieth American artists including George Bellows and Mary Cassatt. The bulk of the collection dates from 1920 to 1970 and documents Dale's activities through biographical material, correspondence, memoirs and other writings, purchase, sales and estate records, printed material, scrapbooks, and photographs.
Scope and Contents:
The papers of New York art collector Chester Dale measure 8.4 linear feet and date from circa 1883-2003. Dale amassed one of the world's most complete collections of nineteenth and twentieth century French art, was a collector of eighteenth century American portraitists, and a patron and collector of twentieth American artists including George Bellows and Mary Cassatt. The bulk of the collection dates from 1920 to 1970 and documents Dale's activities through biographical material, correspondence, memoirs and other writings, purchase, sales and estate records, printed material, scrapbooks, and photographs.

Biographical material comprises brief genealogical and biographical notes on Dale's father's side of the family; four pieces of miscellaneous artwork; several certificates, membership cards, and programs; circa six unidentified dictaphone recordings; and a home movie of an unidentified social event.

Correspondence provides scattered documentation of Dale's activities as a collector and benefactor, including correspondence relating to gifts to various museums such as the Dallas Museum of Fine Arts and the Metropolitan Museum of Art, as well as posthumous gifts to the Allentown Art Museum and Amherst College. Also documented is Dale's election as president of the National Gallery of Art in 1955. There are several letters to and from Salvador and Gala Dali, copies of two letters from Diego Rivera, and letters from other friends and business associates, including historian Georges Salles. Over one third of the correspondence consists of condolence telegrams and letters sent to Mary Dale following Dale's death. Other correspondence documents Mary Dale's work as exhibition chairman for the Parrish Museum of Art, and includes letters from Andrew, Jamie, and Nicholas Wyeth.

Writings include typed drafts of Dale's memoirs which recall the beginning of his career in banking, and include stories of his early experiences in buying art. Dale credits the highly discerning and influential eye of his first wife, Maud Dale, for guiding him in his early selections, and his memoirs recall his unconventionally direct way of doing business with the Paris art dealers. Two travel diaries record a 1904 trip to Europe, and five trips to Europe and the Caribbean between 1949 and 1953. Writings by others include several essays on Dale by various authors, several essays on art by Maud Dale, and a typed draft of a manuscript on Dale's life by Neil MacNeil.

Extensive inventories, estate appraisals, and will disbursement records document the contents of the Chester Dale collection in Series 4. Also found here are receipts for specific purchases of works by Cezanne, Cassatt, Dali, Dufy, Picasso, and others.

Printed material includes catalogs for auction sales annotated with sales prices and other purchase information; catalogs of Dale's collection; and exhibition catalogs and announcements for the Parrish Museum of Art during Mary Dale's tenure as exhibition chairman. Some of the catalogs include essays by Maud Dale. News clippings and magazine articles document press coverage of Dale's activities at home and abroad.

Scrapbooks contain additional printed material, primarily news clippings, documenting press coverage of Chester Dale's life from the 1920s until his death. One of the scrapbooks includes multiple photographs of Dale and others, including a photo of Frida Kahlo and Jose Orozco. An additional scrapbook of photographs and clippings documents Mary Dale's life before and after her marriage to Dale.

Photographs are of Dale, Mary Dale, Maud Dale, family, friends, and colleagues. There are photographs of Dale and Mary Dale with artists including George Braques, Salvador and Gala Dali, Diego Rivera and Frida Kahlo, and Jamie and Nicholas Wyeth; and friends and associates Renee and Claire Batigne, Veronica "Rocky" Cooper and Maria Cooper, Robert Sturgis Ingersoll, Edith Hamilton with Robert Frost, Neil MacNeil, Herbert Mayes, and Paul and Timothy Mellon. There are individual photos and three photograph albums of Dale's various residences and his collection, including photographs taken shortly before his death at his Plaza Hotel apartment showing some of his favorite pictures. Photographers include Rudolph Burkhardt, Irving Cantor, Ivan Dmitri, and Dmitri Kessel. There are also many photographs of exhibition openings and museum events, especially events at the National Gallery of Art, including the presentation of Dale's gift of Dali's The Sacrament of the Last Supper to the museum in 1956, and the occasion of Queen Elizabeth II of England's visit to the museum in 1957. Photographs also include photographs of artwork in Dale's collection.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged as seven series.

Series 1: Biographical Material, circa 1897-circa 1960, 2003 (Boxes 1, 7-8; FC 20; 0.45 linear feet)

Series 2: Correspondence, 1911-1984 (Box 1; 0.9 linear feet)

Series 3: Writings, 1904-1963 (Boxes 2, 8; 0.55 linear feet)

Series 4: Chester Dale Collection, circa 1930-1968 (Boxes 2-3; 1 linear foot)

Series 5: Printed Material, 1925-circa 1972 (Boxes 3-4, 8, OV 9; 1.2 linear feet)

Series 6: Scrapbooks, circa 1920s-1963 (Box 4, BVs 10-14; 1.2 linear feet)

Series 7: Photographs, circa 1883-1972 (Boxes 4-6, 19, BVs 15-17, OV 18; 3.3 linear feet)
Biographical / Historical:
New York art patron and collector of French and American art Chester Dale (1883-1962), made his fortune as a banker who pioneered the sale of public utility securities. He began purchasing French paintings in the mid-1920s and retired from the investment security business in 1935 in order to focus full time on the acquisition of art.

Dale was encouraged to begin collecting art by his first wife, Maud Dale, who was an artist, a writer, and a former chairman of the Exhibition Committee of the Museum of French Art. With the benefit of his wife's knowledge, passion, and perception, Dale began to lay the foundation of his collection in 1926, and amassed circa seven hundred pictures within ten years. His collection is considered to be one of the most complete collections of nineteenth and twentieth century French art in the world, and includes some of the finest examples of works by Braque, Corot, Delacroix, Degas, Derain, Dufy, Leger, Matisse, and Renoir, as well as by artists representative of the French tradition in art including Modigliani, Picasso, Rivera, and Van Gogh.

Although primarily interested in French art, Dale also collected and encouraged American artists. He was a patron of George Bellows and Salvador Dali, and had his portrait painted by both artists. Dale presented the Metropolitan Museum of Art and the National Gallery of Art with their first Dali paintings, the latter being The Sacrament of the Last Supper. Dale also purchased works by Mary Cassatt, representative works by "the Eight," and examples of eighteenth century American portraitists John Smibert, Gilbert Stuart and Thomas Sully. In the early 1940s he visited Diego Rivera and Frida Kahlo in Mexico, and Rivera subsequently completed a portrait of Dale in 1945.

Dale served as a trustee to the Metropolitan Museum of Art, the Chicago Art Institute, and the Philadelphia Museum of Art. He made the first of a series of gifts to the National Gallery of Art when it opened in 1941. In 1955 he was elected president of the museum, by which time his collection occupied ten of its galleries. Dale bequeathed the bulk of his remaining collection to the National Gallery in his will. This final gift included eighty of his favorite pictures, which had been located in his Manhattan apartment at the Plaza Hotel up until his death.

A year after the death of Maud Dale in 1953, Dale married Mary Towar Bullard, whom he had employed as his secretary for twenty-five years. Mary Dale oversaw the disbursement of her husband's estate, following Dale's death from a heart attack in 1962.
Related Materials:
Holdings at the Archives of American Art also include the Chester Dale papers concerning George Bellows, 1919-1956, comprising correspondence, a photograph, and invoices relating to Chester Dale's relationship with George Bellows and Dale's interest in artwork by Bellows; and the Chester Dale eulogy, consisting of one 35 minute, 9 second sound tape reel of a eulogy delivered by an unidentified speaker.
Provenance:
The collection was donated in 1972 by Mary Dale, Chester Dale's second wife, and in 1985 by Mary Dale's estate.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D. C., Research Center. Use of archival audiovisual recordings with no duplicate copy requires advance notice.
Rights:
The Chester Dale papers are owned by the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Literary rights as possessed by the donor have been dedicated to public use for research, study, and scholarship. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Topic:
Art -- Collectors and collecting  Search this
Art dealers -- France -- Paris  Search this
Art, French--19th century  Search this
Art, French--20th century  Search this
Art, Modern -- 20th century -- Collectors and collecting  Search this
Art, Modern--19th century--Collectors and collecting  Search this
Motion pictures (visual works)  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Scrapbooks
Sound recordings
Travel diaries
Citation:
Chester Dale papers, circa 1883-2003, bulk 1920-1970. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.daleches
See more items in:
Chester Dale papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-daleches
Online Media:

Thomas Benedict Clarke scrapbooks

Creator:
Clarke, Thomas B. (Thomas Benedict), 1848-1931  Search this
Names:
Century Association (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Exposition universelle internationale de 1900 (Paris, France)  Search this
Lambs (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Lincoln Club (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Merchants Club (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
National Academy of Design (U.S.)  Search this
Union League Club (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
World's Columbian Exposition (1893 : Chicago, Ill.)  Search this
Barye, Antoine-Louis, 1796-1875  Search this
Inness, George, 1825-1894  Search this
Smyth, Frederick, 1832-1900  Search this
Vereshchagin, Vasili Vasilevich, 1842-1904  Search this
Extent:
3.6 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Scrapbooks
Date:
1880-1936
bulk 1883-1920
Summary:
The scrapbooks of Thomas Benedict Clarke measure 3.6 linear feet and date from 1879-1930. Twelve scrapbooks contain mostly newspaper clippings, but also include correspondence, invitations, exhibition catalogs, programs, magazine articles, art auction catalogs, and other material relating to Clarke's personal art collection and general art patronage. The scrapbooks also include clippings and miscellany relating to the Clarke family and influential society clubs, such as the Union League, Lambs, and New York Athletic clubs.
Scope and Content Note:
The scrapbooks of Thomas Benedict Clarke measure 3.6 linear feet and date from 1879-1930. Twelve scrapbooks contain mostly newspaper clippings, but also include correspondence, invitations, exhibition catalogs, programs, magazine articles, art auction catalogs, and other material relating to Clarke's personal art collection and general art patronage. The scrapbooks also include clippings and miscellany relating to the Clarke family and influential society clubs, such as the Union League, Lambs, and New York Athletic clubs.

Scrapbook 1 dates from 1880-1884 and includes information about the Lincoln Club, the Century Association, Motto Club, Rembrandt Club, Merchants Club, Art Club, and Union League Club. Scrapbook 2 dates from 1883-1884 and includes an index of artists in the Clarke art colletion, as well as information about the artists. Scrapbook 3 dates from 1887-1889 and includes information about artists Vasily Vereshchagin and Antoine Louis-Barye. Scrapbook 5 dates from 1891-1894 and contains clippings about the Clarke Prize, the opening of Clarke's "Art House" in Manhattan, New York, the 1891 Clarke exhibition at the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts, the 1892 Columbian Loan Exhibition, and the 1893 Worlds' Columbian Exhibition. Scrapbook 6 dates from 1891-1902 and includes clippings regarding the art and auction sales of Greek, Continental, Persian, and Oriental antiquities, rugs, and porcelains. Scrapbook 7 dates from 1894-1898 and covers Clarke's support of Justice Frederick Smyth, his parents' 50th anniversary celebration, his daughter's society introduction reception, and events at the Lambs and Union League Clubs. Scrapbook 8 dates from 1894-1920 and houses announcements of the George Inness memorial exhibition, coverage of the Inness 1895 estate auction sale, copies of correspondence between Inness and Clarke, and two original photographs of Inness' studio. Scrapbook 9 is dated 1899-1900 and includes coverage of events at clubs, particularly the Lambs and Union League clubs, the Clarke Prize, Paris Exposition, Dewey Arch, and the private art collection of William T. Evans. Scrapbook 10 dates from 1899-1936 and consists primarily of coverage of the 1899 Clarke art auction to fund the National Academy of Design's Clarke prize. Scrapbook 11 dates from 1900-1902 and covers Clarke's Hampton cottage, his daughter's marriage and divorce suit, the New York School of Design for Women, and the Academy of Design annual exhibition. Scrapbook 12 is dated from 1899-1918 contains clippings regarding William Tilden Evans, a contemporary art collector and friend of Clarke's.

A 670 page annotated index of Books 1-6 and Books 10-12 is available on microfilm reels N598-N599.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into 1 series:

Series 1: Scrapbooks, 1880-1936 (Boxes 1-2, 4 BVs; 2.6 linear feet)
Biographical Note:
Thomas Benedict Clarke (1848-1931) was a prominent New York businessman and one of the first major collectors of contemporary American paintings in the 1870s-1880s. He purchased his first painting in 1872 and eventually amassed one of the largest private collections of American art at the turn of the century.

After retiring from the business world, Clarke served as President of the New York School of Applied Design for Women, Treasurer of the National Society of Arts, and Chairman of the House Committee of the Union League Club. He was a founding member of the National Sculpture Society and National Arts Club, and founded the Clarke Prize of the National Academy of Design in 1883. He was also a member of several New York gentlemen's clubs, including the Century, Lotos, Lamb, and Manhattan Clubs.

In 1890, Clarke announced he would no longer officially acquire or deal in works of art, except as an agent for his friend, George Inness. Concentrating his attentions on a new venture, in 1891, he opened "Art House" off of Fifth Avenue in New York City, a showcase for English furniture, Oriental porcelains, and Continental antiquities. In 1899, he announced he would be putting his collection of 375 American paintings up for sale during a landmark, week-long auction at the American Art Association. Included in the sale were 32 works by George Inness and 30 works by Winslow Homer.

In 1912, Clarke returned to active art collecting, this time focusing his energies on building a collection of Colonial American art.
Related Material:
The Archives also has the Thomas B. Clarke letters from or about Homer Dodge Martin, 1893-1897, which have been digitized and are available online via the Archives of American Art's website.

Also found in the Archives are Letters to Thomas B. Clarke from artists, 1883-1918 and the handwritten catalog Private art collection of Thomas B. Clarke, 1872-1879, both of which have been microfilmed and are available on reels D5 and 2802.
Provenance:
The scrapbooks of Thomas Benedict Clarke were donated by the Whitney Museum of Art director, Lloyd Goodrich, in 1978.
Restrictions:
Use of originals requires an appointment. Patrons must use microfilm copy due to fragility of the original scrapbooks.
Rights:
The Thomas Benedict Clarke scrapbooks are owned by the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Literary rights as possessed by the donor have been dedicated to public use for research, study, and scholarship. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Topic:
Collectors and collecting -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Scrapbooks
Citation:
Thomas Benedict Clarke scrapbooks, 1880-1936, bulk 1883-1920. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.clarthom
See more items in:
Thomas Benedict Clarke scrapbooks
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-clarthom

Harriet Collins Allen papers relating to Solon Borglum

Creator:
Allen, Harriet Collins  Search this
Names:
Borglum, Emma Vignal, 1864-1934  Search this
Borglum, Gutzon, 1867-1941  Search this
Extent:
0.2 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Date:
1897-1925
Summary:
The papers of art patron Harriet Collins Allen measure 0.2 linear feet and date from 1897-1925. Found within the papers are letters primarily written by Solon Borglum and his wife, Emma, to Harriet Collins Allen. The letters were written from Omaha, London, Paris, and New York and provide a cursory overview of some of the events in Borglum's career and insights into his relationship with his older brother sculptor Gutzon Borglum. Borglum writes about meeting and working with other sculptors in Paris and New York and his wife writes about conflicts between the two brothers and exhibitions of Solon's work. Also found within the papers are clippings, a brochure for Borglum's book A Comparative Analysis of Natural Forms and Their Relation to the Human Figure, and photographs of Borglum in his studio and of his works.
Scope and Content Note:
The papers of art patron Harriet Collins Allen measure 0.2 linear feet and date from 1897-1925. Found within the papers are letters primarily written by Solon Borglum and his wife, Emma to Harriet Collins Allen. The letters were written from Omaha, London, Paris, and New York and provide a cursory overview of some of the events in Borglum's career and insights into his relationship with his older brother sculptor Gutzon Borglum. Borglum writes about meeting and working with other sculptors in Paris and New York and his wife writes about conflicts between the two brothers and exhibitions of Solon's work. Also found within the papers are clippings, a brochure for Borglum's book A Comparative Analysis of Natural Forms and Their Relation to the Human Figure, and photographs of Borglum in his studio and of his works.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged as 3 chronological series:

Series 1: Letters, 1897-1925 (Box 1; 19 folders)

Series 2: Printed Material, 1898-1907, undated (Box 1; 1 folder)

Series 3: Photographs, undated (Box 1; 3 folders)
Biographical Note:
Harriet Collins Allen and her husband, Dr. Samuel Allen, befriended sculptor Solon Borglum while he was studying at the Cincinnati Art Academy in the mid-1890s.

Solon Hannibal Borglum was born December 22, 1868 in Ogden, Utah. He was the younger brother of noted sculptor Gutzon Borglum. Both brothers spent their early lives on a ranch near Omaha, Nebraska. From 1883 to 1884, Solon and Gutzon traveled to California where Gutzon studied art and both earned a living at ranching. After spending a short time at his brother's studio in Sierra Madre, and living as an artist in Santa Ana, Solon enrolled at the Cincinnati Art Academy, where he studied from 1895 to 1897 as a student of Louis Rebisso.

Solon traveled to Paris and met sculptor Augustus Saint-Gaudens who persuaded him to study at the Académie Julian. There he studied under Denys Puech and began winning awards for work exhibited in both France and the United States. In 1898, Solon married Emma Vignal in Paris. They spent four years living at the Crow Creek Reservation in South Dakota, an experience that influenced his art work. In 1901, Solon was elected to the National Sculpture Society, later becoming vice-president. He set up a studio in New York.

Borglum displayed several works at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, the Lewis and Clark Exposition in Portland, Oregon, and at the Panama-Pacific Exposition in San Francisco. Among his most noted commissions was the "Rough Rider Monument" commemorating Captain William Owen "Buckey" O'Neill in Prescott, Arizona. In 1906, Borglum moved to Silvermine, Connecticut, where his studio became the center of a colony called the Silvermine Group of Artists. It was also during this time that Paul Manship was employed as one of Borglum's assistants and lived with the family.

From 1916 to 1917 Solon taught at the Beaux-Arts Institute of Design in New York and worked on an art textbook. During World War I, he served as the Director of Sculpture for the American Expeditionary Forces Art Training Center. Following the war, Borglum returned to New York City and established a School of American Sculpture in New York City.

Solon Hannibal Borglum died suddenly after an appendectomy in January 1922 in New York City.
Related Material:
The Archives holds several additional collections relating to Solon Borglum, including a loan of Gutzon Borglum papers microfilmed on reel 3056 (originals housed at the San Antonio Museum of Art) and the Solon H. Borglum and Borglum Family papers. The Library of Congress holds additional papers of Solon H. Borglum and is the primary repository of Gutzon Borglum's papers.
Provenance:
The Harriet Collins Allen papers relating to Solon Borglum were donated in 1989 by Joan Parsons Wang, granddaughter of Harriet Collins Allen.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research. Use requires an appointment and is limited to the Washington, D.C. research facility.
Rights:
The Harriet Collins Allen papers relating to Solon Borglum are owned by the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Literary rights as possessed by the donor have been dedicated to public use for research, study, and scholarship. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Topic:
Art -- Collectors and collecting  Search this
Art patrons -- Ohio -- Cincinnati  Search this
Sculpture, American  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Citation:
Harriet Collins Allen papers relating to Solon Borglum, 1897-1925. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.alleharr
See more items in:
Harriet Collins Allen papers relating to Solon Borglum
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-alleharr

Ilse Martha Bischoff papers

Creator:
Bischoff, Ilse, 1901-1990  Search this
Names:
Cadmus, Paul, 1904-1999  Search this
French, Jared, 1905-1988  Search this
Extent:
1.2 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Sketches
Writings
Photographs
Date:
1893-1981
Summary:
The papers of illustrator, writer and collector Ilse Martha Bischoff measure 1.2 linear feet and date from 1893-1981. Found are scattered personal and business records, correspondence, pencil and watercolor sketches, notes and writings, printed material and photographs. Correspondence is primarily with family members and colleagues including Paul Cadmus and Jared French. Photographs are of Bischoff, her family, and colleagues including Paul Cadmus and Jared French.
Scope and Content Note:
The papers of illustrator, writer and collector Ilse Martha Bischoff measure 1.2 linear feet and date from 1893-1981. Found are scattered personal and business records, correspondence, pencil and watercolor sketches, notes and writings, printed material and photographs.

Correspondence is primarily with family members and colleagues including Paul Cadmus and Jared French. Artwork includes pencil and watercolor sketches, and notes and writings consist primarily of typescripts of Bischoff's short stories. Printed material includes clippings, exhibition announcements and catalogs, and miscellaneous printed material relating to Bischoff's European travel. Of special interest are photographs of Bischoff, her family, and colleagues including Paul Cadmus and Jared French.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged as 6 series:

Series 1: Personal Records, 1934-1938, 1955-1968 (Box 1; 3 folders)

Series 2: Correspondence, 1922-1981 (Box 1; 47 folders)

Series 3: Artwork, circa 1920-circa 1959 (Box 1; 1 folder)

Series 4: Notes and Writings, 1929-1975 (Box 1; 33 folders)

Series 5: Printed Material, 1929-1976 (Box 1; 15 folders)

Series 6: Photographs, 1893-1971 (Box 2; 20 folders)
Biographical Note:
Ilse Martha Bischoff was born on November 21, 1901 in New York City, to Adele Maria Timme Bischoff and Ernst Bischoff, founder of the Ernst Bischoff (pharmaceuticals) Company of Ivoryton, Connecticut.

Bischoff began her education at the Horace Mann School, later studying costume design at the Parson's School of Design. At the Art Students League, she studied painting under Frank Du Mond and etching with Joseph Pennell. While at the Art Students League, Bischoff befriended painters Paul Cadmus and Jared French. She also studied art in Paris, France, and Munich, Germany.

From 1928 to 1946, Bischoff illustrated 12 books and wrote two novels about George Washington's Portraitist, Gilbert Stuart: Painter's Coach in 1943, and Proud Heritage in 1949. Her autobiography, Drive Slowly: Six Dogs, was published in 1953. She was also an avid collector of Meissen porcelain.

Bishoff's artwork is represented in the collections of the Metropolitan Museum of Art, the New York Public Library, the Museum of Fine Arts in Boston and the Hood Museum at Dartmouth.

Ilse Martha Bischoff died December 5, 1990, in Hartland, Vermont.
Provenance:
The Ilse Martha Bischoff papers were donated in 1980-1981 by the artist.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment.
Rights:
The Ilse Martha Bischoff papers are owned by the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Literary rights as possessed by the donor have been dedicated to public use for research, study, and scholarship. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Topic:
Art -- Collectors and collecting  Search this
Authors -- Vermont  Search this
Illustrators -- Vermont  Search this
Genre/Form:
Sketches
Writings
Photographs
Citation:
Ilse Martha Bischoff papers, 1893-1981. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.biscilse
See more items in:
Ilse Martha Bischoff papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-biscilse

Downtown Gallery records

Creator:
Downtown Gallery  Search this
Names:
American Folk Art Gallery  Search this
Boris Mirski Gallery (Boston, Mass.)  Search this
Ernest Brown & Phillips  Search this
Our Gallery (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Breinin, Raymond, 1910-  Search this
Broderson, Morris, 1928-2011  Search this
Brook, Alexander, 1898-1980  Search this
Burlin, Paul, 1886-1969  Search this
Cahill, Holger, 1887-1960  Search this
Carlen, Robert, 1906-1990  Search this
Cikovsky, Nicolai, 1894-  Search this
Coleman, Glenn O., 1887-1932  Search this
Crawford, Ralston, 1906-1978  Search this
Davis, Stuart, 1892-1964  Search this
Demuth, Charles, 1883-1935  Search this
Doi, Isami, 1903-1965  Search this
Dole, William, 1917-  Search this
Dove, Arthur Garfield, 1880-1946  Search this
Felix Landau Gallery  Search this
Fredenthal, David, 1914-1958  Search this
Garbisch, Edgar  Search this
Guglielmi, Louis, 1906-1956  Search this
Halpert, Edith Gregor, 1900-1970  Search this
Halpert, Samuel, 1884-1930  Search this
Harnett, William Michael, 1848-1892  Search this
Hart, George Overbury, 1868-1933  Search this
Hartley, Marsden, 1877-1943  Search this
Karfiol, George  Search this
Karolik, Maxim  Search this
Kuniyoshi, Yasuo, 1889-1953  Search this
Lane, William H.  Search this
Laurent, Robert, 1890-1970  Search this
Lawrence, Jacob, 1917-2000  Search this
Lea, Wesley  Search this
Levi, Julian E. (Julian Edwin), 1900-1982  Search this
Levine, Jack, 1915-2010  Search this
Lewandowski, Edmund, 1914-  Search this
Marin, John, 1870-1953  Search this
Morris, George L. K., 1905-  Search this
Nakian, Reuben, 1897-1986  Search this
O'Keeffe, Georgia, 1887-1986  Search this
Osborn, Robert Chesley, 1904-1994  Search this
Pascin, Jules, 1885-1930  Search this
Pattison, Abbott L. (Abbott Lawrence), 1916-1999  Search this
Pippin, Horace, 1888-1946  Search this
Pollet, Joseph C., 1897-1979  Search this
Rattner, Abraham  Search this
Rockefeller, Abby Aldrich  Search this
Saklatwalla, Beram K.  Search this
Shahn, Ben, 1898-1969  Search this
Sheeler, Charles, 1883-1965  Search this
Siporin, Mitchell, 1910-1976  Search this
Spencer, Niles, 1893-1952  Search this
Stasack, Edward  Search this
Steichen, Edward, 1879-1973  Search this
Steig, William, 1907-  Search this
Stella, Joseph, 1877-1946  Search this
Stieglitz, Alfred, 1864-1946  Search this
Storrs, John Henry Bradley, 1885-1956  Search this
Tam, Reuben  Search this
Tannahill, Robert Hudson  Search this
Tseng, Yu-ho, 1924-  Search this
Varian, Dorothy, 1895-1985  Search this
Walters, Carl, 1883-1955  Search this
Webb, Electra Havemeyer  Search this
Weber, Max, 1881-1961  Search this
Wilde, Isabel Carleton, 1877?-1951  Search this
Zajac, Jack, 1929-  Search this
Zerbe, Karl, 1903-1972  Search this
Zorach, Marguerite, 1887-1968  Search this
Zorach, William, 1887-1966  Search this
Photographer:
Adams, Ansel, 1902-1984  Search this
Bry, Doris  Search this
Karfiol, Bernard, 1886-1952  Search this
Klein, Carl  Search this
Maya, Otto  Search this
Newman, Arnold, 1918-2006  Search this
Ray, Man, 1890-1976  Search this
Reynal, Kay Bell, 1905-1977  Search this
Siegel, Adrian  Search this
Sunami, Soichi, 1885-1971  Search this
Valente, Alfredo  Search this
Van Vechten, Carl, 1880-1964  Search this
Yavno, Max  Search this
Extent:
109.56 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Video recordings
Photographs
Motion pictures (visual works)
Date:
1824-1974
bulk 1926-1969
Summary:
The records of the Downtown Gallery date from 1824 to 1974 (bulk 1926-1969) and measure 109.56 linear feet. The records present a comprehensive portrait of a significant commercial gallery that operated as a successful business for more than forty years, representing major contemporary American artists and engendering appreciation for early American folk art. There is an unprocessed addition to this collection dating circa 1970 of a single financial/legal document.
Scope and Content Note:
The Downtown Gallery records constitute 109.56 linear feet on 167 reels of microfilm. The records are dated 1824 to 1974 with bulk dates from 1926 to 1969. There is an unprocessed addition to this collection dating circa 1970 of a single financial/legal document.

The Downtown Gallery was established in 1926 as Our Gallery and operated under the name Downtown Gallery from 1927 until 1973. Nineteenth-century material consists of items acquired by Edith Gregor Halpert for research purposes or to document works of art in the gallery's inventory. The few records postdating the closing of the gallery relate to the estate of Edith Gregor Halpert.

The extensive records of the Downtown Gallery present a comprehensive portrait of a significant commercial gallery that operated as a successful business for more than forty years, representing major contemporary American artists and engendering appreciation for early American folk art. Edith Halpert, the gallery's founder and director, was an influential force in the American art world for a large part of the twentieth century.

Personal papers are intermingled with the business records of the Downtown Gallery. Many of the artists represented by the gallery were Halpert's personal friends, and over the years she developed social relationships and friendships with many clients. These relationships are reflected by the contents of the records, especially the correspondence, some of which is purely personal. In addition, there are a small number of letters from relatives, photographs of Halpert's family, home and friends, and limited information about her country house and personal finances.

The Downtown Gallery records consist largely of correspondence with collectors, including Edgar and Bernice Chrysler Garbisch, Preston Harrison, Mr. and Mrs. Maxim Karolik, William H. Lane, Abby Aldrich Rockefeller, Beram K. Saklatwalla, Robert Tannahill, and Electra Havemeyer Webb; with dealers, including robert Carlen, Landau Gallery, Leicester Galleries, Mirski Gallery, and Isabel Carleton Wilde; and with large numbers of curators and museum directors, including many affiliated with university museums. In addition, there is correspondence concerning routine gallery business and administrative affairs.

Artist files and an extensive series of notebooks (American Folk Art Gallery notebooks, artist notebooks, and publicity notebooks) compiled by gallery staff contain a wide variety of material and are a rich source of information about individual artists and the Downtown Gallery's exhibition history.

Business records include exhibition records, stock records, sales records, transit records, financial records, lists of artwork and clients, legal documents, minutes, insurance records, research files, and architectural plans.

Writings by Edith Gregor Halpert consist of articles on American folk art, speeches, and short stories; also included are her school notebooks and "Daily Thoughtlets" compiled at age seventeen. All writings by other authors are on art subjects, and most are texts or introductions for exhibition catalogs.

Among the miscellaneous records are biographical material on Edith Gregor Halpert and Samuel Halpert, works of art by Edith Gregor Halpert and other artists, artifacts, and audiovisual materials. The artifacts include wooden weather vane molds and supporting documentation as well as awards presented to Halpert. Audiovisual materials are 16-mm motion picture films of the Westinghouse Broadcasting Corporation television series, America: The Artist's Eye, produced between 1961 and 1963 in association with Jensen Productions. An additional 16-mm motion picture film includes "tails out" footage of Charles Sheeler at home and at work, circa 1950. A copy of the program about Sheeler, along with the "tails out" material, is also on videocassette. In addition, there is a sound recording of a talk on collecting given by Halpert's client, folk art collector Maxim Karolik, in 1962.

Printed matter consists of items produced by the Downtown Gallery, including exhibition catalogs, checklists, invitations, announcements, and press releases. There are also news clippings about Halpert, the Downtown Gallery, and the Edith Gregor Halpert Collection; other art-related clippings are arranged topically. Miscellaneous printed matter not produced by the Downtown Gallery includes newsletters, press releases, publications of art organizations, and reproductions of artwork. A selection of twenty-five volumes from the personal library of Edith Gregor Halpert has been retained.

The photographs series includes images of people: Edith Gregor Halpert, family, friends, also many images of her dog, Adam, and views of her country home in Newtown, Connecticut. Other photographs of people include portraits of artists, most of whom were affiliated with the Downtown Gallery. There are also photographs of works of art (with a large number of black-and-white negatives, 35-mm color slides, and glass plate negatives) and of exhibitions, of the exterior and interior of the Downtown Gallery, and of an award presented to Halpert.

See Appendix B for a chronological list of Downtown Gallery exhibitions.
Arrangement:
It is not certain how well arranged the files were while still the property of the gallery, though Halpert's background as an efficiency expert and her talents as an organizer suggest that the gallery's records were well maintained. It is clear, however, that much of the original order has been lost; Halpert is known to have removed files, including many records concerning the Harnett-Peto controversy.

Correspondence (Series 1) is arranged chronologically, and Artist Files (Series 2) is arranged alphabetically. The remaining series are organized into subseries that reflect either a function or specific record type, and the arrangement of each is explained in the detailed series descriptions. Glass plate negatives are housed separately and closed to researchers.

The Downtown Gallery records are arranged into eight series:

Series 1: Correspondence, 1926-1974, undated (Boxes 1-22; 22 linear ft.; Reels 5488-5545)

Series 2: Artist Files, A - Z, 1917-1970, undated (Boxes 23-27; 5 linear ft.; Reels 5545-5558)

Series 3: Notebooks, 1835, 1874, circa 1880-1969, undated (Boxes 28-59; 32.5 linear ft.; Reels 5558-5603)

Series 4: Business Records, 1925-1974, undated (Boxes 60-94, OV 95, OV 96, OV 97; 34.5 linear ft.; Reels 5603-5636)

Series 5: Writings, 1917-1968, undated (Box 98; 1 linear ft.; Reels 5636-5638)

Series 6: Miscellaneous Material, circa 1835, 1883, 1913-1970, undated (Boxes 99-101, 103, OV 102, OV 104, FC 120-124; 3.25 linear ft.; Reels 5638-5639)

Series 7: Printed Matter, 1824-1865, 1920-1969, undated (Boxes 105-108; 4 linear ft.; Reels 5640-5647)

Series 8: Photographs, circa 1880-1960s, undated (Boxes 109-118, OV 119, MGP 4; 8.75 linear ft.; Reels 5647-5654)
Historical Note:
As a very young woman, Edith Gregor Halpert (1900-1970) attended art school sporadically while pursuing a business career that began in advertising and included work as a personnel manager and efficiency expert. She continued her business career after marrying artist Samuel Halpert (1884-1930) in 1918 and eventually became a highly paid executive with an investment firm. Well-invested bonuses provided the capital for Halpert to open her own business.

In November 1926, Halpert and business partner Berthe (Bea) Kroll Goldsmith opened Our Gallery at 113 West 13th Street for the purpose of promoting a group of progressive American artists, many of whom were friends of Edith and Samuel Halpert. The following year, at the suggestion of William Zorach, the gallery changed its name to Downtown Gallery--emphasizing its Greenwich Village location, unique for the time--and the name survived despite relocation to midtown Manhattan (to 43 East 51st Street in 1940, to 32 East 51st Street in 1945, and to the Ritz Tower Concourse at 465 Park Avenue in 1965).

The Downtown Gallery specialized in contemporary American art. An early gallery brochure states: "The Downtown Gallery has no prejudice for any one school. Its selection is driven by quality--by what is enduring--not by what is in vogue." Some of the artists affiliated with the Downtown Gallery from its early years were Stuart Davis, "Pop" Hart, Yasuo Kuniyoshi, Charles Sheeler, Max Weber, and William and Marguerite Zorach. In its original location, the gallery served as a place where artists (many of whom lived and worked in the neighborhood), collectors, and others interested in American art met in the evenings for coffee, conversation, and sometimes lectures or other formal programs. Holger Cahill (1887-1960) entered into a partnership with Halpert and Goldsmith in 1929 when they founded the American Folk Art Gallery, the first ever of its kind; the American Folk Art Gallery opened on the second floor of the Downtown Gallery in 1931. Folk art was an important feature of the gallery throughout its history, though the name American Folk Art Gallery does not appear to have been used consistently. Because the profit margin was high and Abby Aldrich Rockefeller bought avidly for her growing collection, folk art revenues subsidized contemporary art exhibitions and helped the gallery survive the Depression. The Daylight Gallery, also run by Halpert and Goldsmith, opened in 1930 in a separate structure behind the main gallery, and continued until the Downtown Gallery moved to East 51st Street in 1940. Its purpose was to exhibit painting and sculpture to best advantage in a gallery designed to diffuse light perfectly and to demonstrate how works of art may be used as architectural embellishments in a modern building. Other subsidiary galleries operated by the Downtown Gallery were the John Marin Room, opened in 1950 and run by John Marin, Jr., and the Ground-Floor Room, 1951, "dedicated to the adventurous, less experienced collector willing to gamble on his taste and ours."

From the beginning, Halpert endeavored to hold prices at reasonable levels; she employed aggressive marketing and advertising techniques learned from her career in business and banking, offering extended payment plans without interest to buyers of modest means. She recognized the value of placing representative works by Downtown Gallery artists in important art museums and public collections, even if a price reduction was necessary to achieve this goal.

After purchasing Goldsmith's share of the business in 1935, Halpert, needing to earn a profit, reorganized the gallery as a more overtly commercial venture. The roster of artists was reduced to twelve. Those eliminated tended to be younger artists, most of whom were supported by WPA work. Eventually, the roster expanded; new additions were usually artists not based in New York, whom Halpert learned of through her work as an adviser to the WPA Federal Art Project. Halpert had long courted Alfred Stieglitz's artists, and in the years following his death in 1946 a number of them affiliated with the Downtown Gallery. Another change was that the Downtown Gallery no longer represented only living American artists; the gallery began handling a number of estates, most notably that of Arthur Dove. In 1953, the roster of Downtown Gallery artists shifted dramatically when Halpert entered into an agreement with Charles Alan. Alan had been hired in 1945 with the understanding that he was being trained to run the Downtown Gallery upon Halpert's retirement five years in the future. Eight years later, it became apparent that Halpert was not going to retire; without consulting the artists, she transferred representation of all artists who had joined the Downtown Gallery since 1936 to the newly established Alan Gallery.

Exhibitions at the Downtown Gallery included both solo exhibitions and group shows usually built around a theme; most lasted about a month. Annual exhibitions (sometimes titled anniversary exhibitions) opened the exhibition season each fall and showcased the gallery's artists. The Downtown Gallery's Christmas show, a long-standing event that encouraged purchases of original art for holiday gift giving, was eagerly anticipated as it featured fine artwork at very reasonable prices. Between 1927 and 1935, the Downtown Gallery was the site of the American Print Makers Society annual exhibitions. During its forty-seven years in operation, the Downtown Gallery organized many important, influential exhibitions. American Ancestors (1931) presented American folk art as the precursor to and direct influence on the contemporary art featured by the Downtown Gallery. The title was used for a number of subsequent exhibitions and became a synonym for folk art. American Folk Art Sculpture: Index of American Design, Federal Art Project (1937) featured drawings by WPA artists recording objects that documented America's material culture and artistic heritage. Along with the Index of American Design drawings, the exhibition included a number of the original sculptures from the Downtown Gallery's inventory and borrowed from folk art collector Abby Aldrich Rockefeller.

William Harnett: "Nature-Vivre" (1939) reintroduced the nineteenth-century artist whose trompe l'oeil paintings had been collected by Halpert over a period of years expressly for this purpose. Between 1947 and 1949, a controversy ensued over paintings--some of which had been sold by the Downtown Gallery--with the signature of William Harnett but discovered by San Francisco Chronicle art critic Alfred Frankenstein to be the work of Harnett's student, John Peto. Halpert had purchased the questionable pieces in good faith, completely unaware of the added signatures, and she defended her attributions, despite evidence to the contrary. Frankenstein publicized his discovery widely; while neither Halpert nor the Downtown Gallery were named directly, their identity was apparent to his well-informed readers. The situation was further inflamed when additional articles by Frankenstein failed to include new evidence favorable to Halpert and the Downtown Gallery.

Another major exhibition was American Negro Art, 19th and 20th Centuries (1941-1942), the first show of its kind held at a commercial gallery. Held at the Downtown Gallery, the exhibition was sponsored by a committee of prominent citizens including Mayor Fiorello La Guardia, Archibald MacLeish, A. Philip Randolph, and Eleanor Roosevelt. Among its aims were to raise money for the Negro Art Fund, to promote museum acquisitions of work by black artists, and to encourage galleries to represent the living participants. In addition to providing its facilities, the Downtown Gallery donated all sales commissions to the Negro Art Fund and added Jacob Lawrence to its roster of artists.

Edith Gregor Halpert played important roles in a number of exhibitions and major art projects that were not connected with the Downtown Gallery. She served as organizer and director of the First Municipal Exhibition of American Art, Atlantic City, New Jersey, in 1929. Beginning in 1932, Halpert was extensively involved with Radio City Music Hall arts projects. She conceived, organized, and handled publicity for the First Municipal Art Exhibition (also known as the Forum Exhibition) sponsored by Mayor Fiorello La Guardia and held at Radio City Music Hall in 1934. As an adviser to the WPA Federal Art Project, Halpert spent the summer of 1936 in Washington, D.C., developing its Exhibition and Allocation Program, which registered works of art arriving from regional project centers and selected pieces for traveling exhibitions that circulated throughout the country. In 1937, she formed the Bureau for Architectural Sculpture and Murals, a central clearinghouse from which architects could review and select work by artists and sculptors experienced in working in architectural settings. Halpert served as curator of the art section of the American National Exhibition, sponsored by the United States Information Agency and the U.S. Department of Commerce; she traveled to the Soviet Union with the exhibition, installed the show, and gave daily gallery talks in Russian. In 1952, to promote art history, Halpert established the Edith Gregor Halpert Foundation. Its activities included assisting universities to fund scholarships for the study of contemporary American art and championing the rights of artists to control the sale and reproduction of their work. For her "outstanding contribution to American art," Halpert received the Art in America Award in 1959. She also received a USIA Citation for Distinguished Service in 1960, and the University of Connecticut awarded her its First Annual International Silver Prize for "distinguished contribution to the arts" in 1968.

In addition to being an art dealer, Edith Gregor Halpert was also a collector of contemporary American art and American folk art. For many years, Halpert and the Corcoran Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C., discussed a gift of a substantial number of paintings to form the nucleus of a new wing to be called the Gallery of 20th-Century American Art. After numerous disagreements and misunderstandings by both parties, the plan was abandoned. While negotiations were still in progress, the Edith Gregor Halpert Collection was exhibited in two installments, 1960 and 1962, at the Corcoran Gallery of Art. During the following two years, portions of her collection traveled to Santa Barbara, Honolulu, and San Francisco. Other exhibitions, drawn completely from the Edith Gregor Halpert Collection, include American Modernism: The First Wave, Painting from 1903-1933, presented at Brandeis University Museum of Art, 1963; Six Decades of American Art, shown at Leicester Galleries, London, 1965; Image to Abstraction, held at Amon Carter Museum, 1967; and Edith Halpert and the Downtown Gallery, exhibited at the University of Connecticut, 1968. The Edith Gregor Halpert Collection was eventually sold at auction by Sotheby Parke-Bernet, 1973.

Dr. Dianne's Tepfer's dissertation (1989) on Edith Gregor Halpert was an invaluable resource in arranging and describing the records of Downtown Gallery; her chronology was consulted often in constructing this Historical Note.

1900 -- born Edith Gregoryevna Fivoosiovitch to Gregor and Frances Lucom Fivoosiovitch, Odessa, Russia

1906 -- arrived in New York City with recently widowed mother and older sister; family name changed to Fivisovitch

1916 -- employed as a comptometer operator at Bloomingdale's department store; studied drawing with Leon Kroll and Ivan Olinsky at the National Academy of Design; further shortened name to Fein

1916-1917 -- attended life drawing and anatomy classes taught by George Bridgeman at the Art Students' League; employed in foreign and advertising offices, R. H. Macy department store

1917 -- met artist Samuel Halpert at John Weichsel's People's Art Guild

1917-1918 -- employed as advertising manager, Stern Brothers department store

1918-1919 -- employed as systematizer (efficiency expert), investment firm of Cohen, Goldman

1918 -- married Samuel Halpert

1919-1920 -- employed as systematizer, investment firm of Fishman & Co.; attended writing courses, Columbia University

1921-1925 -- employed as personnel manager, systematizer, and head of correspondence at investment banking firm of S. W. Strauss & Co.; eventually appointed to the board of directors

1924 -- first exposed to folk art at the home of sculptor Elie Nadelman

1925 -- visited Paris with Samuel Halpert (June-September)

1926 -- visited Ogunquit, Maine, with Samuel and was further exposed to antiques and folk art; other summer guests included artists Stefan Hirsch, Bernard Karfiol, Walt Kuhn, Yasuo Kuniyoshi, Robert Laurent, Katherine Schmidt, Niles Spencer, and Marguerite and William Zorach; opened Our Gallery, devoted to modern American art, at 113 West 13th Street with business partner Berthe Kroll Goldsmith

1927 -- separated from Samuel, who moved to Detroit to teach at the Society for Arts and Crafts; changed name of Our Gallery to Downtown Gallery, at the suggestion of William Zorach

1928 -- Abby Aldrich Rockefeller first visited the Downtown Gallery; published George O. "Pop" Hart: 24 Selections from His Work by Holger Cahill, first of a projected series of ten Downtown Gallery monographs

1929 -- initiated divorce proceedings in Detroit; founded the American Folk Art Gallery, the first of its kind, with business; partners Berthe Kroll Goldsmith and Holger Cahill; served as organizer and director of the First Municipal Exhibition of American Art, Atlantic City

1930 -- divorce granted; present at the death of Samuel Halpert; opened the Daylight Gallery in a separate structure behind the Downtown Gallery specially designed to display works of art under optimal conditions; published Max Weber by Holger Cahill, second (and last) of the Downtown Gallery monographs

1931 -- opened the American Folk Art Gallery on second floor of the Downtown Gallery

1932 -- purchased house in Newtown, Connecticut; became extensively involved with Radio City Music Hall arts projects

1934 -- conceived, organized, and handled publicity for the First Municipal Art Exhibition, also called the Forum Exhibition, sponsored by Mayor Fiorello La Guardia and held at Radio City Music Hall

1935 -- bought Goldsmith's share of the business and, as sole owner, reorganized the gallery

1936 -- served as adviser to WPA Federal Art Project, charged with developing the Exhibition and Allocation Program

1937 -- formed Bureau for Architectural Sculpture and Murals

1939 -- organized Nature-Vivre; exhibition of paintings by the rediscovered William Harnett, rekindling interest in trompe l'oeil painting

1940 -- Downtown Gallery moved to 43 East 51st Street; cataloged and installed the Abby Aldrich Rockefeller Collection of American Folk Art at Williamsburg, Virginia

1941 -- American Negro Art, 19th and 20th Centuries

1945 -- Downtown Gallery moved to 32 East 51st Street; hired Charles Alan as assistant director

1946 -- Downtown Gallery began representing former Alfred Stieglitz artists Charles Demuth, Marsden Hartley, John Marin, and Georgia O'Keeffe

1947-1949 -- embroiled in controversy over paintings with the signature of William Harnett but discovered to be the work of Harnett's student John Peto

1950 -- opened the John Marin Room, operated by John Marin, Jr.

1951 -- opened the Ground-Floor Room, for works by new artists

1952 -- established the Edith Gregor Halpert Foundation

1953 -- transferred representation of newer Downtown Gallery artists to the Alan Gallery

1954 -- published The ABCs for Collectors of Contemporary Art by John I. H. Baur

1959 -- traveled to Moscow as curator of the art section, "American National Exhibition," and gave daily gallery talks in Russian; received Art in America Award

1960 -- exhibited selections from the Edith Gregor Halpert Collection at the Corcoran Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.; awarded USIA Citation for Distinguished Service and the Merit Award Emblem

1962 -- second exhibition of the Edith Gregor Halpert Collection at the Corcoran Gallery of Art; began discussions, ultimately abandoned, for the transfer and installation of a large gift of paintings from the Edith Gregor Halpert Collection to a special wing of the Corcoran Gallery of Art

1963 -- American Modernism: The First Wave, Painting from 1903-1933, an exhibition based entirely on the Edith Gregor Halpert Collection, Brandeis University Museum of Art

1965 -- Downtown Gallery moved to smaller quarters, Ritz Tower Concourse, 465 Park Avenue; open by appointment only; Six Decades of American Art, from the Edith Gregor Halpert Collection, Leicester Galleries, London

1967 -- Image to Abstraction, an exhibition based entirely on the Edith Gregor Halpert Collection, Amon Carter Museum, Fort Worth, Texas

1968 -- the Downtown Gallery ceased to be the exclusive representative of Abraham Rattner, Ben Shahn, Georgia O'Keffe, and Max Weber, and the estates of Stuart Davis, and Marguerite and William Zorach were withdrawn from the gallery; Edith Halpert and the Downtown Gallery exhibition at the Museum of Art, the University of Connecticut; awarded the First Annual International Silver Prize medal for "distinguished contribution to the arts," University of Connecticut

1970 -- died, New York City

1970-1973 -- the Downtown Gallery continued limited operation under the direction of niece, Nathaly Baum

1972-1978 -- the Downtown Gallery records donated to the Archives of American Art by Nathaly Baum, executor of the Edith Gregor Halpert estate

1973 -- Sotheby Parke-Bernet auction sale of the Edith Gregor Halpert Collection

1997-1999 -- arrangement, description, and microfilming of Downtown Gallery records and publication of this finding aid funded by a grant from the Henry Luce Foundation, Inc.
Appendix B: Chronological List of Downtown Gallery Exhibitions:
Below is a chronological listing of Downtown Gallery exhibitions, culled from catalogs and checklists, invitations and announcements, press releases, newspaper reviews, advertisements, lists compiled by gallery staff, and The Archives of American Art Collection of Exhibition Catalogs (1979). Exhibition titles indicated on the announcement or used in a published review sometimes differ from the title of the corresponding exhibition catalog or printed checklist. Catalogs or announcements for most shows will be found with the printed matter produced by the Downtown Gallery (Series 7.1), in the publicity notebooks (Series 3.3.), and/or with artist files (Series 2). Microfilm reel and frame number(s) are noted in parentheses for catalogs or exhibition announcements recorded in The Archives of American Art Collection of Exhibition Catalogs that are not among the Downtown Gallery records.

Undated -- Jan. 24-Feb. 12: American Landscapes: Paintings and Water Colors Mar. 3-28 [1964?]: Abraham Rattner: New Paintings, 1961-1963 June: Art for 13,000,000 Sept. 17-27: Abraham Rattner: Stained Glass Window Designed for the De Waters Art Center, Flint, Michigan

1926 -- Nov. [6-?}: Opening Exhibition: Small Works by Leading American Contemporary Artists Dec. [4-?]: The Christmas Exhibition, $10-50

1927 -- Jan. 8-Feb. 4: American Marines Jan. 8-Feb. 4: Print Room Selection Nov. 26-Dec. 9: Frank Osborn: Sculpture Lamps Nov. 26-Dec. 9: Stuart Davis May [10-?]: Portfolio Selection, $5-25 Dec. 10-31: American Print Makers Exhibition Nov. 3-23: "Pop" Hart: One-Man Show Oct. 13-Nov. 3: Ogunquit Exhibition: Summer Work by 12 Ogunquit Residents Mar. 1-19: George C. Ault: Water Colors and Drawings Feb. [5-?]: George Overbury "Pop" Hart Apr. [11-?]: Spring Exhibitions: Pictures Suggestive of the Season Mar. 21-Apr. 9: Walt Kuhn Lighographs: `New Trapeze Ladies'

1928 -- Feb. 14-Mar. 4: Walt Kuhn: Recent Works Jan. 24-Feb. 12: 75 Years of American Landscapes Mar. 6-25: Samuel Halpert: Recent Work Dec. 10-31: American Print Makers 2nd Annual Exhibition Jan. 3-22: Joseph Pollett: Recent Paintings and Watercolors Oct. 7-28: Paris by Americans Oct. 29-Nov. 17: Max Weber: New Lithographs, $10-50 Nov. 19-Dec. 8: George C. Ault: Paintings, $30-300 Apr. 23-May 13: May Flowers May 19-June 13: Art for Everybody, $10-50 Mar. 26-Apr. 15: Ernest Fiene: Lithographs Apr. 2-22: Marguerite Zorach: Paintings and Drawings

1929 -- Nov. [19-?]: Glenn Coleman: Temperas June 3-14: Oils, Sculpture, Water Colors, Monotypes, Drawings, Pottery May [14-?]: Joseph Pollet: Watercolors May [14-?]: Lithographs by A. Walkowitz Mar. 26-Apr. 14: José Orozco: Paintings of New York City Apr. 23-May 14: Walt Kuhn: Loan Paintings Feb. 12-Mar. 23: Stefan Hirsch: Paintings Mar. 4-Apr. 14: Duncan Ferguson: Sculpture Jan. 21-Feb. 10: Drawings by 8 American Artists (Hart, Karfiol, Kuhn, Pascin, Walkowitz, Weber, M. Zorach, and W. Zorach) Jan. 2-20: Ann Goldthwaite: Recent Work Dec. 10-31: American Print Makers 3rd Annual Exhibition Oct. 29-Nov. 17: Joseph Pollet: Recent Paintings Oct. 7-28: Americans Abroad (Davis, Fiene, Ganso, Hart, Hirsch, Pascin, and Wilenchick)

1930 -- Oct. [25-?]: Reuben Nakian: Sculpture Nov. 18-Dec. 16: Glenn Coleman: Paintings Sept. 30-Oct. 25: Summer Landscapes, 1930: Paintings by American Contemporary Artists Summer: Important Painting and Sculpture by Leading American Artists in the Daylight Gallery May 26-July 1: Small Painting, Sculpture, and Drawings by Leading American Contemporary Artists, $100 or Less Apr. 19-May 10: Daylight Gallery Opening Exhibition Oct. [25-?]: Julia Kelly: Painting Apr. [8-?]: Ben Shahn: Paintings and Drawings Mar. 11-30: Wood Gaylor: Paintings Feb. [11-?]: Marguerite Zorach: Recent Paintings of New England and New York Jan. 28-Feb. 15: 33 Moderns: The Downtown Gallery Exhibition of Paintings, Sculpture, Watercolors, Drawings, and Prints by 33 American Contemporary Artists [at the Grand Central Galleries] Jan. [25-?]: Stuart Davis: Recent Paintings Dec. 8-31: American Print Makers 4th Annual Exhibition Jan. [2-?]: Abraham Walkowitz: Heads and Flowers May [10-?]: "Pop" Hart: Paintings from Africa and Europe

1931 -- Jan. 3-25: Jules Pascin Memorial Exhibition Jan. [27-?]: William Zorach: New Sculpture Feb. [14-?]: Joseph Pollett: Paintings Feb. 2-16: Isabella Howland: Paintings Dec. 14-31: American Ancestors: Masterpieces by Little Known and Anonymous American Painters, 1790-1890 Mar. 16-30: 7 Masters of Water Color (Demuth, Dickinson, Hart, Marin, Sheeler, Walkowitz, Zorach) Apr. [29-?]: Peggy Bacon: Caricature Portraits Mar. 31-Apr. 9: Stuart Davis: Recent Paintings Nov. [18-?]: Charles Sheeler: Recent Paintings May 12-31: Flowers: Paintings in Oil and Water Color by American Contemporary Artists Oct. 5-25: `Artists' Models,' Figure Paintings by Leading Contemporary American Artists June 2-22: Paintings, Water Colors, Drawings, Sculpture by Leading Contemporary American Artists Oct. 28-Nov. 17: Karl Knaths: Paintings Dec. 7-31: American Print Makers 5th Annual Exhibition

1932 -- May 31-June 30: Paintings and Sculpture by Outstanding American Artists Dec. 28-Jan. 14: William Zorach: Spirit of the Dance in Original Plaster Dec.: Christmas Exhibition: Drawings, Paintings, Sculpture, $10-100 Feb. 20-Mar. 3: Peggy Bacon: Recent Paintings (N433: 515) Jan. 5-18: American Modern Art [arranged by the Downtown Gallery at Knoedler & Co., Inc., Chicago] Oct. 4-22: Prelude to the Season: New Paintings and Sculpture by American Contemporaries Dec. 9-31: Carl Walters: Sculpture and Pottery in Ceramic Jan. 5-24: Alexander Brook: Recent Paintings Jan. [24-?]: Paintings by Contemporary American Painters Feb. 23-Mar. 7: Wood Gaylor: Recent Paintings Oct. 4-22: Bernard Sanders: Graphics Dec. 5-31: American Print Makers 6th Annual Exhibition Feb. [24-?]: Winter in Maine: Recent Watercolors by William Zorach Mar. 22-Apr. 3: Joseph Pollet: Recent Paintings Nov. 18-Dec. 9: Stefan Hirsch: Recent Work--New York and Mexico Apr. 5-17: The Passion of Sacco-Vanzetti: Gouaches by Ben Shahn Apr. 19-May 15: Pictures of New England by a New Englander: Recent Paintings of Dogtown, Cape Ann, Mass., by Marsden Hartley [errata slip stapled to cover of the copy filmed on Br10: 660-663 indicates the dates were changed to Apr. 26-May 15, 1932] May 17-29: 3 Painters: Baum, Botkin, Schultz Oct. 25-Nov. 13: Dorothy Varian: Recent Paintings

1933 -- Jan. 17-Feb. 4: Bernard Karfiol: Paintings and Drawings Mar. 21-Apr. 8: Major Works by Distinguished American Artists Feb. [28-?]: Watercolors by Stuart Davis Feb. 27-Mar. 18: Reuben Nakian: Sculpture Portraits of 10 Artists Feb. 7-25: Yasuo Kuniyoshi: Recent Paintings Oct. 3-14: American Ancestors, 2nd Exhibition: Masterpieces by Little Known and Anonymous American Artists: 1720-1870 May 23-June 30: Paintings and Sculpture: Recent Works by Leading American Contemporaries, at $100 May 2-20: Ben Shahn: The Tom Mooney Case Apr. 11-29: Nicolai Cikovsky: Recent Paintings Nov. 14-Dec. 14: Drawings and Rare Prints by "Pop" Hart Dec. 5-31: American Print Makers 7th Annual Exhibition Oct. 24-Nov. 11: Painting and Sculpture by Leading Contemporaries

1934 -- Jan. 23-Feb. 10: Alexander Brook: Recent Paintings Feb. 13-Mar. 3: Babe Ruth by Reuben Nakian Jan. 3-20: Ernest Fiene: Painter of the American Scene Dec. 13-31: Practical Manifestations in American Art Apr. 3-21: Katherine Schmidt: Paintings Apr. 25-May 12: Stuart Davis: Recent Paintings Dec. [3-?]: Group Show Mar. 13-31: Recent Paintings by Joseph Pollet Oct. 1-14: Hamilton Easter Field Art Foundation Collection of Paintings and Sculpture Oct. 23-Nov. 3: Marguerite Zorach: Paintings and Drawings May 15-June 15: Paintings and Sculpture: Selected Works by Leading American Contemporaries, Extraordinary Values at $100 Dec. 3-29: American Print Makers 8th Annual Exhibition Feb. 20-Mar. 3: Recent Work by Peggy Bacon Nov. 20-Dec. 8: Peggy Bacon: `Off with Their Heads,' Caricature Portraits of 38 Contemporary American Celebrities Nov. 6-17: American Drawings: Recent Work by Charles Sheeler, John Marin, Yasuo Kuniyoshi, Charles Locke, Stuart Davis, Alexander Brook

1935 -- May 1-18: Nakian: The New Deal in Portraiture Apr. 13-28: Reuben Nakian: Portrait Heads of the Present Administration May 21-June 14: Paintings and Sculpture by Leading American Artists Dec.: Carl Walters: Ceramic Sculpture and Pottery Mar. 12-30: Exhibition of 14 Paintings by 14 American Contemporaries Feb. 20-Mar. 9: Nicolai Cikovsky: Recent Paintings Apr. 10-27: Watercolor and Pastels by 14 American Artists Dec. 2-28: American Print Makers 9th Annual Exhibition Nov.: Ernest Fiene: Paintings Nov. [5-?]: American Folk Art: Recently Acquired Paintings and Sculpture Jan. 16-Feb. 2: Charles Burchfield and Charles Sheeler Dec. 11-28: Anne Goldthwaite: Murals of the South Jan. 16-Feb. 9: Bernard Karfiol: Watercolors and Drawings Oct. 22-Nov. 9: Opening Exhibition: Important Recent Painting and Sculpture May 21-June 14: $100 Exhibition: Extraordinary Values for Discriminating Collectors

1936 -- Oct. [28-?]: Tenth Anniversary Exhibition: American Art, 1800-1936 Dec. 13-24: American Print Makers 10th Anniversary Annual Exhibition (N428:304-305) Dec.: Christmas Gift Show Dec.: Ceramics by Carl Walters Feb. [25-?]: Watercolors by William Zorach Mar. 17-Apr. 4: Yasuo Kuniyoshi: Paintings May [5-?]: Joseph Pollet: Paintings May 26-June 12: Paintings and Sculpture: Recent Work by Leading American Contemporaries, Extraordinary Values at $100 Apr. 14-May 2: Portraits by 6 Contemporary and Early American Artists Jan. 30-Feb. 15: American Birds in Sculpture, 1785-1935 Jan. 6-25: Alexander Brooke: Paintings Dec. 2-31: Vital Statistics

1937 -- Dec. 7-31: Christmas Exhibition: Fine Works of Art as Original Gifts through June 25: Paintings and Sculpture, 1800-1937 Oct. 5-23: Paintings by 12 Younger Artists Oct. 19-Nov. 6: Fall Exhibition May 18-June 5: Joseph Steig: Watercolors May 5-29: Major Examples by Major Artists Apr. 13-May 1: Children in American Folk Art, 1725-1865: Children's Art, Their Portraits, and Their Toys Apr. [10-?]: Contemporary Americans Sept. 28-Oct. 9: American Folk Art Sculpture: Index of Design, WPA Federal Art Project Sept.: Drawings by the Index of American Design Oct. 20-Nov. 10: An Exhibition of Contemporary American Art from the Downtown Gallery of New York, Sponsored by the Atlanta Georgian and Sunday American at the High Museum of Art Mar. 9-27: The 1920s: Oils, Sculpture, Watercolors, and Drawings by 18 American Contemporaries Mar. 30-Apr. 10: Younger Artists Nov.: Dorothy Varian: Paintings Feb. 9-27: American Dogs: Recent Portraits in Oil of Champion Dogs by Fenelle and Paintings and Sculpture Portraying Dogs of the Period 1820-1860 from the American Folk Art Gallery Jan. [15-?]: David Fredenthal Feb.: Group Show

1938 -- Oct. 4-22: Americans at Home: 32 Painters and Sculptors Sept. 4-22: Folk Art Apr. [27-?]: David Fredenthal: Paintings May 25-June 17: Art for the Summer House, $15-100 Apr. 5-23: Preston Dickinson, 1891-1930: 13 Pastels Dec. 6-30: Christmas Exhibition Mar. 16-Apr. 2: Paintings by Americans: New Paintings by Karfiol, Kuniyoshi, Sheeler, and Recent Oils by Marin and O'Keeffe Nov. [15-?]: Louis Guglielmi: Paintings Feb. 15-Mar. 5: 50 American Watercolors and Pastels, 1800-1938 Dec. 6-30: Carl Walters: Ceramic Sculpture Jan. 18-Feb. 15: American Genre Paintings, 1785-1887 Nov. 2-20: John Stenvall: Paintings Jan. 5-22: Isabella Howland: 25 Sculpture Heads Jan. 25-Feb. 11: Nicolai Cikovsky: Paintings Nov. 1-12: American Ancestors: Masterpieces in American Folk Art, 1720-1860 Nov. [2-?]: Georgia O'Keeffe: Paintings

1939 -- Oct. 3-14: Paintings on Velvet, 1800-1840 Feb. [14-?]: Nathaniel Kaz: Sculpture Nov. 7-25: Contemporary American Genre: 27 Painters and Sculptors Mar. [7-?]: Katherine Schmidt: Paintings May [8-?]: Group Show Jan. 24-Feb. 11: Yasuo Kuniyoshi: Paintings Dec. 6-30: Carl Walters: Ceramic Sculpture Jan. [24-?]: Jack Levine: Paintings Mar. 28-Apr. 15: William Steig: Sculpture June 7-30: American Art, Past and Present Apr. 18-May 16: William Harnett: `Nature-Vivre' Oct. [17-?]: John Marin: 20 Drawings Jan. 4-21: Important New Paintings by American Artists: Cikovsky, Karfiol, Marin,, O'Keeffe, Sheeler, and Varian Dec. 6-30: Christmas Exhibition: Paintings, Drawings, and Sculpture, $100 or Less May [16-?]: Raymond Breinin: Paintings

1940 -- Jan. [3-?]: Mitchell Siporin: Paintings Jan. [23-?]: Rainey Bennett: Paintings Dec. 2-21: Charles Sheeler: `Power,' 6 Original Paintings Commissioned for Reproduction in the December 1940 Issue of Fortune(N433:550 551) Mar. [25-?]: Yasuo Kuniyoshi: Lithographs Mar. [25-?]: Group Show: Paintings Feb. [20-?]: Julien Levi: Paintings Mar. [18-?]: Gallery Group Dec. [9-?]: Christmas Exhibition Oct. 17-Nov. 16: Opening Exhibition [43 East 51st Street] May 13-24: Artist's Fund Exhibition Apr. 23-May 11: Review of the Season: Paintings by Leading American Artists

1941 -- Dec. 9-Jan. 3, 1942: American Negro Art: 19th and 20th Centuries Sept. 16-Oct. 11: American Folk Sculpture: Weather Vanes in Metal and Wood: 18th and 19th Centuries [?]-June 27: Summer Exhibition and William Harnett May 6-30: What Is Wrong with This Picture? Nov. 13-Dec. 6: Yasuo Kuniyoshi: Recent Paintings (Br10: 699-700) Nov. 11-Dec. 6: Bernard Karfiol Oct. 21-25: American Folk Art Sale Oct. 7-Nov. 1: New Examples by Leading American Artists Apr. 8-26: Spring: New Paintings by Outstanding Americans Feb. 25-Mar. 22: Masterpieces in American Folk Art Jan. 7-Feb. 1: The Painter Looks at Music Feb. 4-21: 13 American Paintings

1942 -- Oct. 13-31: Paintings, Cartoons, Photographs of the St. Louis Post Office Murals by Mitchell Siporin and Edward Millman Dec. 22-Jan. 9, 1943: Inter-American Folk Arts, 1700-1900: Paintings and Sculpture by Little Known and Anonymous Artists of Argentina, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Haiti, Mexico, Peru, U.S.A. Jan. 7-24: Watercolors and Drawings by Leading American Artists Feb. 3-28: Julian Levi Mar. 3-28: Battles & Symbols of the U.S.A.: Exhibition of Paintings and Sculpture by American Folk Artists Apr. 7-May 2: Spring Exhibition: New Paintings and Newly Discovered Paintings by William M. Harnett Apr. 7-May 2: American Folk Art May 5-29: Yasuo Kuniyoshi: Retrospective Loan Exhibition, 1921-1941 (Br10: 703-705) June 10-26: Paintings, Sculpture, Drawings by Leading American Artists Sept. 22-Oct. 10: Opening Exhibition: New Paintings and Sculpture

1943 -- Jan. 12-30: Breinin: Recent Paintings (D55: 77) Mar. 2-27: William Zorach: Selected Sculpture (D57: 632-634) Mar. 31-Apr. 24: Spring Exhibition and American Folk Art June 8-25: Summer Exhibition: American Art Oct. 5-30: 18th Annual Exhibition: American Art Oct. 27-Nov. 20: Recent Paintings in Encaustic by Karl Zerbe Nov. 23-Dec. 11: Demuth, Dickinson, "Pop" Hart, Pascin

1944 -- Nov. 14-Dec. 2: Ben Shahn: Paintings in Tempera (Br10: 707-708) Feb. 1-12: Exhibition of Paintings and Sculpture Apr. 11-May 6: Spring: New Important Paintings & Sculpture by Leading Americans Feb. 15-Mar. 11: Horace Pippin May 31-June 30: Summer Exhibition May 9-27: William Zorach Oct. 3-28: 19th Annual Exhibition: American Art Sept. 13-30: American Folk Art from the Collection of Mrs. Isabel C. Wilde

1945 -- Jan. 3-20: Suba: First One-Man Exhibition of Paintings Mar. 6-31: Julian Levi Feb. 13-Mar. 3: George L. K. Morris: Paintings, 1944 and 1945, and Sculpture, 1934-1945 (Br10: 712-714) May 1-26: 19th Annual Spring Exhibition Apr. 3-28: Yasuo Kuniyoshi: New Paintings and Drawings Oct. 15-Nov. 3: Loan Exhibition Oct. 15-Nov. 3: 20th Anniversary [opening of new quarters on East 51st Street] Dec. 4-29: Christmas Exhibition Nov. 6-Dec. 1: 20th Annual Exhibition: American Art Dec. 4-29: Jacob Lawrence: John Brown, A Series of 22 Paintings in Gouache

1946 -- Dec. 3-31: Christmas Exhibition Sept. 4-21: Masterpieces in American Folk Art: Recently Discovered Examples Sept. 24-Oct. 19: 21st Annual Exhibition: New Paintings by Leading American Artists June: New Important Paintings by Leading Americans July 2-Aug. 30: Summer Exhibition: Recent Paintings and Sculpture... Combined with a Selection of Important American Folk Art Mar. 26-Apr. 13: Paul Burlin May 7-25: 6 Artists Out of Uniform: New Post-War Paintings by 6 Important Americans Jan. 29-Feb. 16: Stuart Davis Retrospective Exhibition: Gouaches, Watercolors, Drawings, 1912-1941 (N126: 369-370)

1947 -- Apr. 1-26: Spring 1947 Apr. 29-May 17: Boston/New York: First Exchange Exhibition [Boston portion at Downtown Gallery and New York portion at Boris Mirski Gallery, Boston] Feb. 4-Mar. 1: Important New Drawings Mar. 4-29: William Zorach Jan. 7-25: Arthur Dove Nov. 11-29: Niles Spencer Dec. 2-27: Christmas Exhibition Sept. 23-Oct. 18: 22nd Annual Exhibition Sept. 3-20: 20th-Century American Watercolors Aug. 12-29: Exhibition of American Folk Art: Recent Acquisitions June 10-Aug. 8: American Art, 1800-1947 and American Folk Art May 20-June 7: National Parks: A Fortune Portfolio

1948 -- Sept. 28-Oct. 23: 23rd Annual Exhibition Sept. 8-28: The American Family: Folk Paintings, 1750-1850 Aug. 10-Sept. 2: Marin - New York (N126: 407-408) June 29-Aug. 6: Art for the 8,060,000 May 10-20: Mexican Folk Art Apr. 13-May 1: William Harnett Centennial Exhibition Mar. 22-Apr. 3: American Art: A Multiple Exhibition Arranged by the Association of Dealers in American Art [Downtown Gallery participating] Jan. 20-Feb. 7: Paintings by Stuart Davis, Yasuo Kuniyoshi, Jack Levine, John Marin, Ben Shahn Dec. 7-31: Christmas 1948 Nov. 16-Dec. 14: Jacques Maroger: Recent Paintings (N126: 411-412) undated: American Art... 20th Century Image to Abstraction [Amon Carter Museum; entire exhibition drawn from the collections of Edith Gregor Halpert and the Downtown Gallery] Dec. 7-31: William Zorach

1949 -- Nov. 15-Dec. 3: Reuben Tam Dec. 6-24: Christmas Exhibition May 10-28: Mexican Folk Art July 6-29: Art and/or Money Sept. 7-24: Important Paintings and Sculpture by Little Known and Unknown Artists of the 18th and 19th Century Oct. 3-22: 24th Annual Exhibition Mar. 15-Apr. 2: Paul Burlin Apr. 5-23: The Artist Speaks Apr. 25-10: 26 Teenage Artists Presented by Seventeen Magazine May 3-21: Arthur G. Dove: Watercolors, 1929-1946 (N126: 424) Sept. 7-24: American Folk Art

1950 -- Apr. 25-May 13: In 1950... Jan. 23-28: Creative Art for Commerce Dec. 5-23: Christmas Exhibition Oct. 24-Nov. 11: Jacob Lawrence (D56: 298-300) May 16-June 2: A Museum Collection: American Folk Sculpture Apr. 4-22: Yasuo Kuniyoshi Sept. 26-Oct. 21: 25th Annual Exhibition: New Paintings and Sculpture June: Art for 13,000,000 Jan. 31-Feb. 18: Ralston Crawford Dec. 27-Jan. 27, 1951: John Marin Mar. 14-Apr. 1: In 1940... Feb. 21-Mar. 11: Aquamedia

1951 -- Dec. 11-29: Christmas Exhibition May 1-19: Newcomers: Paintings by Artists from 15 States Nov. 20-Dec. 8: O. Louis Guglielmi Apr. 3-28: Spring 1951 Oct. 2-27: 26th Annual Exhibition: New Paintings and Sculpture by Leading American Artists July 10-Aug. 17: Summer Exhibition: American Art Sept. 5-22: Contemporary American Drawings June 12-29: Masterpieces in American Folk Art Mar. 13-31: Charles Sheeler: Paintings, 1949-1951 Feb. 20-Mar. 1: William Zorach: Sculpture, 1947-1951

1952 -- Oct. 28-Nov. 15: Niles Spencer Oct. 14-Nov. 15: The Ground-Floor Room 2nd Annual Exhibition Dec. 9-27: Stuart Davis and Yasuo Kuniyoshi Mar. 11-29: Ben Shahn: Paintings (D56: 1075-1076) Mar. 4-20: Recent Arrivals Jan. 2-26: John Marin: Oils and Watercolors June 3-27: Art for the 67% May 12-29: Lithographs, Woodcuts, Theorems, Serigraphs, and Other Prints by Leading American Artists Apr. 22-May 10: Arthur G. Dove Apr. 1-19: Spring '52 Oct. 1-25: 27th Annual Exhibition Nov. 18-Dec. 16: Shop for Art Early at the Downtown Gallery Sept. 9-27: American Amateur Art of 100 Years Ago July 1-Aug. 1: Pertaining to Summer: An Exhibition of Painting and Sculpture by Leading American Artists

1953 -- Jan. 7-Feb. 14: Performance: A New Series of Paintings in Tempera by Jacob Lawrence Feb. 17-Mar. 7: Celebrating the Tercentenary of New York, MDCLIII - MCMLIII: Paintings of New York by Leading American Artists Apr. 21-May 9: David Aronson May 12-29: 8 Younger Artists Mar. 10-28: Paul Burlin Mar. 31-Apr. 18: Reuben Tam Nov. 17-Dec. 7: Art in the Office Dec. 8-31: Art Gems for Christmas Sept. 22-Oct. 17: 28th Annual Exhibition: Recent Paintings and Sculpture Oct. 20-Nov. 14: Yasuo Kuniyoshi: Ink Paintings

1954 -- Sept. 14-Oct. 2: Artists of Chicago May 25-June 25: Summer 1954 Nov. 9-20: Skowhegan School of Painting and Sculpture: A Benefit Exhibition by Its Faculty and Visiting Artists for the Scholarship Fund Oct. 5-30: 29th Annual Exhibition: New Paintings and Sculpture Nov. 23-Dec. 24: Christmas Exhibition Apr. 6-May 1: Dove and Demuth: Watercolor Retrospective May 4-22: American Folk Art: Painting and Sculpture Feb. 2-27: International Exhibition: American, Belgian, British, Canadian, French, Italian, Mexican Painters under 40 Mar. 2-31: Stuart Davis: Recent Paintings

1955 -- Mar. 20-Apr. 23: Georgia O'Keeffe May 24-June 11: Gallery Purchases: Contemporary Art Apr. 26-May 21: Spring 1955 Sept. 13-Oct. 1: Painters of Los Angeles June 14-30: Gallery Purchases: American Folk Art Nov. 1-26: Arthur Dove: Collages Oct. 4-29: 30th Annual Exhibition Dec. 28-Jan. 21, 1956: William Zorach: A Selection, 1914-1955

1956 -- May 1-26: Bernard Karfiol: The Figure (N126L529-531) May 29-June 29: Spring 1956 Sept. 5-29: Americans in Europe Oct. 9-Nov. 3: 31st Annual Exhibition Nov. 6-Dec. 1: Stuart Davis: Exhibition of Recent Paintings, 1954-1956 Dec. 4-22: 31st Annual Christmas at the Downtown Gallery Jan. 31-Feb. 25: The Recurrent Image Apr. 3-28: Charles Sheeler: Selections from the Collection of the William H. Lane Foundation Feb. 28-Mar. 24: Arthur Dove: Paintings

1957 -- Dec. 31-Jan. 25, 1958: 32nd Annual Exhibition [?]-May 4: Spring Exhibition Dec. 9-21: Art Our Children Live With: A Loan Exhibition of American Art Jan. 8-Feb. 7: Max Weber Feb. 12-Mar. 2: New Acquisitions: Wm. M. Harnett (1848-1892) Feb. 12-Mar. 2: American Folk Art: Paintings and Sculpture Mar. 2-30: New Mexico as Painted by Stuart Davis, Marsden Hartley, Yasuo Kuniyoshi, John Marin, Georgia O'Keeffe, John Sloan May 7-31: Important Drawings by Leading American Artists June 4-28: Summer 1957 Oct. 7-Nov. 2: Group Show Nov. 5-27: Last Judgments by Abraham Rattner (D203: 76) Nov. 25-Dec. 7: 32nd Annual Christmas at the Downtown Gallery

1958 -- Sept. 30-Oct. 11: Arthur Dove: Watercolors June 9-27: 100 Church Street, `Portrait of a Building' by 10 American Artists May 20-June 7: Charles Demuth Apr. 29-May 10: Spring 1958 Mar. 5-Apr. 19: Charles Sheeler Jan. 28-Feb. 21: C. S. Price Dec. 8-27: 33rd Annual Christmas Exhibition Nov. 11-Dec. 6: Max Weber: The Figure in Retrospect, 1906-1958 Oct. 14-Nov. 8: 33rd Annual Exhibition

1959 -- Dec. 8-24: Ben Shahn: Silk-Screen Prints Dec. 29-Jan. 23, 1960: New Acquisitions Oct. 20-Nov. 14: 34th Annual Exhibition Nov. 17-Dec. 5: 34th Annual Christmas at the Downtown Gallery Sept. 22-Oct. 17: The Dial and the Dial Collection: A Special Loan Exhibition of Paintings, Sculpture & Graphics by 30 American Artists Apr. 29-June 2: Spring 1959 Apr. 7-25: Robert Osborn Mar. 3-28: Ben Shahn Jan. 6-31: New Acquisitions: American Folk Art Painting and Sculpture

1960 -- Feb. 23-Mar. 19: Gallery Group Mar. 22-Apr. 9: Jack Zajac Mar. 11-[?]: Signs & Symbols, U.S.A., 1760-1960 Jan. 21-Feb. 20: 7 Artists in Hawaii Dec. 5-24: Robert Osborn: Paintings and Drawings from `The Vulgarians' Nov. 8-Dec. 3: Abraham Rattner Dec. 5-24: 35th Annual Christmas at the Downtown Gallery through June 30: Summer 1960 Oct. 11-Nov. 5: 35th Annual Exhibition Apr. 19-may 7: Tseng Yu-Ho May 10-June 4: Stuart Davis

1961 -- June 13-30: Selections 1961 May 16-June 9: Spring 1961 Dec. 4-23: 36th Annual Christmas at the Downtown Gallery Sept. 12-Oct. 7: New Acquisitions Feb. 15-Mar. 11: Aquamedia in American Art Jan. 25-Feb. 11: Yasuo Kuniyoshi Apr. 11-May 2: Gallery Group Mar. 15-Apr. 8: Alfred Duca Jan. 9-Feb. 6: New Acquisitions

1962 -- Nov. 3-28: Robert Osborn Dec. 3-22: 37th Annual Christmas at Downtown Gallery May 22-June 15: 36th Annual Spring Exhibition: The Figure Apr. 24-May 19: Stuart Davis Oct. 16-Nov. 10: 37th Anniversary Exhibition Sept. 25-Oct. 13: American Roots: Folk Art in Painting and Sculpture Feb. 27-Mar. 17: Robert Osborn: Clowns and Non-Clowns Jan. 9-27: Tseng Yu-Ho: 18 Dsui Paintings Mar. 27-Apr. 21: Abstract Painting in America, 1903-1923 Mar. 10-31: Max Weber Memorial Exhibition

1963 -- Mar. 12-Apr. 16: Signs & Symbols * U.S.A., 1780-1960 May 7-[?]: Max Weber Dec. 2-21: 38th Annual Christmas at Downtown Gallery June 11-July 3: Summer 1963 Apr. 9-May 3: Spring 1963 Jan. 8-Feb. 2: John Marin Oct. 1-26: 38th Anniversary Exhibition Oct. 29-Nov. 16: Ben Shahn: Retrospective Exhibition, Paintings and Drawings, 1901-1958 Oct. 29-Nov. 16: Homage to e. e. cummings Oct. 29-Nov. 16: Gallery Group Aug. 6-Sept. 15: Loan Exhibition from the Edith Gregor Halpert Collection [Santa Barbara Museum of Art] Nov. 7-Dec. 8: Loan Exhibition from the Edith Gregor Halpert Collection [Honolulu Academy of Arts] Sept. 9-14: Visual Art by Performing Artists Dec. 3-Jan. 7, 1964: American Signs and Symbols

1964 -- Sept. 9-Oct. 3: 20th Century American Drawings Oct. 6-31: 39th Anniversary Exhibition Dec. 1-24: 39th Annual Christmas at the Downtown Gallery Jan. 11-Feb. 9: Loan Exhibition from the Edith Gregor Halpert Collection [California Palace of the Legion of Honor, San Francisco] Jan. 28-Feb. 21: George L. K. Morris Mar. 3-28: Supplement to the Rattner Exhibition May 12-June 5: New York City: Paintings, 1913-1963, by American Artists

1965 -- Jan. 5-23: Charles Sheeler and Yasuo Kuniyoshi Nov. 30-Dec. 18: Warner Brothers Co. Mural by Willard Cummings and Emilio A. Serio Mar. 23-Apr. 17: John Storrs Sept. 8-Oct. 2: A Gallery Survey of American Art [inaugural show, Ritz Tower Concourse, 465 Park Avenue] Nov. 3-20: Edward Stasack Nov. 30-Dec. 18: 40th Annual Christmas at the Downtown Gallery

1966 -- Nov. 5-Dec. 12: Morris Broderson Oct. 18-Nov. 12: 41st Anniversary Exhibition: Contemporary American Art Mar. 1-26: Balthus: New Paintings, 1963-1966 May 3-27: Charles Sheeler Sept. 20-Oct. 8: "Popular Art" in America, 18-19th Century

1967 -- Apr. 18-May 13: John Storrs Mar. 15-Apr. 8: Arthur Dove Nov. 7-25: O. Louis Guglielmi Sept. 26-Oct. 21: 42nd Anniversary Exhibition Feb. 14-Mar. 11: George L. K. Morris Jan. 10-Feb. 14: William Zorach: The Last Decade Dec.: Gallery Group

1968 -- Sept. 10-Oct. 5: 43rd Anniversary Exhibition

1969 -- Mar.: The Performing Arts
Related Material:
Berman, Avis. Pioneers in American Museums: Edith Halpert. Museum News 54, no. 2 (November/December 1975): 34-37, 61-64.

Bragazzi, Olive. The Story Behind the Rediscovery of William Harnett and John Peto by Edith Halpert and Alfred Frankenstein. American Art Journal 15, no. 3 (Spring 1984): 51-65.

Tepfer, Diane. Edith Gregor Halpert and the Downtown Gallery/Downtown, 1926-1940: A Study in American Art Patronage. Ph.D. diss., University of Michigan, 1989.

Edith Gregor Halpert, interview by Harlan Phillips, 1962-1963. Oral History Program, Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.

Edith Gregor Halpert, interview by Harlan Phillips, January 20, 1965. New Deal and the Arts Project, Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.

Edith Gregor Halpert, lecture delivered at the Brooklyn Museum of Art, October 19, 1959, on the 1959 American National Art Exhibition in Moscow. Tape-recorded by the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution, and transcribed by the the Downtown Gallery staff.

In addition, the Archives of American Art has among its collections personal papers and oral history interviews of artists and collectors associated with the Downtown Gallery. Researchers are advised to conduct a name search in the Smithsonian Institution Research Information System (SIRIS).
Separated Materials:
The Archives of American Art also holds microfilm of material lent for microfilming (ND-1- ND-71), the mojority of which was subsequently donated. Loaned materials not donated at a later date remain with the lender and are not described in the container listing of this finding aid.
Provenance:
Between 1957 and 1967, the Downtown Gallery loaned portions of its records to the Archives of American Art for microfilming. Because the microfilming was done in increments, the material was not always filmed in logical sequence, and overlapping and duplication of records occurred. Since files loaned for microfilming were, for the most part, still working records used to conduct ongoing gallery business, their contents changed and shifted over time. After Edith Halpert's death in 1970, the records of the Downtown Gallery were received by the Archives of American Art, 1972-1978, as a gift from her niece and executor, Nathaly Baum. In addition to the previously microfilmed material, the gift includes correspondence, inventories and sales records, financial records, photographs, and printed matter, as well as artifacts.One additional document received 2016 by Karen Freeman, daughter of Arthur H. Freeman, who did business at L.D. Landau and Co. Freeman represented halpert as an insurance agent.
Restrictions:
The microfilm of this collection has been digitized and is available online via the Archives of American Art website.
Rights:
The Downtown Gallery records are owned by the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Rights as possessed by the donor have been dedicated to public use for research, study, and scholarship. The collection is subject to all copyright laws. Prior to publishing information regarding sales transactions, researchers are responsible for obtaining written permission from both artist and purchaser involved. If it cannot be established after a reasonable search whether an artist or purchaser is living, it can be assumed that the information may be published sixty years after the date of sale.
Topic:
Art dealers -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Fraktur art  Search this
Art -- Collectors and collecting -- United States  Search this
Art galleries, Commercial -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Art, Modern -- 20th century -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Printmakers -- United States  Search this
Sculptors -- United States  Search this
Art, Modern -- 20th century -- United States  Search this
Painters -- United States  Search this
Artists -- United States  Search this
Weather vanes  Search this
Chalkware  Search this
Figureheads of ships  Search this
Folk art -- United States  Search this
Folk artists  Search this
Genre/Form:
Video recordings
Photographs
Motion pictures (visual works)
Citation:
Downtown Gallery records, 1824-1974, bulk 1926-1969. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.downgall
See more items in:
Downtown Gallery records
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-downgall
Online Media:

Milch Gallery records

Creator:
Milch Gallery  Search this
Names:
E. & A. Milch, Inc.  Search this
Milch Galleries  Search this
Vonnoh, Robert William, 1858-1933  Search this
Acheson, Alice  Search this
Adams, Charles L., 19th cent  Search this
Adams, Wayman, 1883-1959  Search this
Aiken, Charles Avery, 1872-1965  Search this
Albee, Grace  Search this
Anderson, Karl, 1874-1956  Search this
Appel, Marianne, 1913-1988  Search this
Archipenko, Alexander, 1887-1964  Search this
Arms, John Taylor, 1887-1953  Search this
Ascher, Mary G. (Mary Goldman), b. 1900  Search this
Azzaretti, Faust  Search this
Bacon, Peggy, 1895-1987  Search this
Baer, Martin, 1895-1961  Search this
Ballin, Hugo, 1879-1956  Search this
Barlow, Myron, 1873-1937  Search this
Barmore, Charles  Search this
Barr, Charles H.  Search this
Barr, Norman, 1908-  Search this
Barrymore, Lionel, 1878-1954  Search this
Baumann, Gustave, 1881-1971  Search this
Beal, Reynolds, 1866-1951  Search this
Bellows, George, 1882-1925  Search this
Benson, Frank Weston, 1862-1951  Search this
Biddle, George, 1885-1973  Search this
Blackburn, Morris, 1902-1979  Search this
Blakelock, Ralph Albert, 1847-1919  Search this
Blanch, Arnold, 1896-1968  Search this
Blanch, Lucile, 1895-1981  Search this
Bluemner, Oscar, 1867-1938  Search this
Blumenschein, Ernest Leonard, 1874-1960  Search this
Bohm, Max, 1868-1923  Search this
Bohrod, Aaron  Search this
Bosa, Louis, 1905-  Search this
Breckenridge, Hugh H. (Hugh Henry), 1870-1937  Search this
Bridgman, Frederick Arthur, 1847-1928  Search this
Browne, George Elmer, 1871-1946  Search this
Bruce, Edward, 1879-1943  Search this
Brush, George de Forest, 1855-1941  Search this
Buck, Claude, 1890-1974  Search this
Burlin, Paul, 1886-1969  Search this
Burr, George Elbert, 1859-1939  Search this
Butler, Howard Russell, 1856-1934  Search this
Calder, Alexander Stirling, 1870-1945  Search this
Carroll, John, 1892-1959  Search this
Chamberlain, Samuel, 1895-1975  Search this
Cheffetz, Asa, 1896-1965  Search this
Christy, Howard Chandler, 1873-1952  Search this
Cole, Alphaeus Philemon, 1876-1988  Search this
Congdon, William, 1912-  Search this
Crane, Bruce, 1857-1937  Search this
Curran, Charles C. (Charles Courtney), 1861-1942  Search this
Daingerfield, Elliott, 1859-1932  Search this
Davey, Randall, 1887-1964  Search this
De Groot, Adelaide Milton, b. 1876  Search this
DeCamp, Joseph, 1858-1923  Search this
Dehn, Adolf, 1895-1968  Search this
Dessar, Louis Paul, 1867-1952  Search this
Dewing, Thomas Wilmer, 1851-1938  Search this
Diederich, William Hunt, 1884-1953  Search this
Dike, Phil, 1906-1990  Search this
Donoho, Gaines Ruger, 1857-1916  Search this
Duncan, Charles, b. 1892  Search this
Eakins, Susan Macdowell  Search this
Etnier, Stephen, 1903-1984  Search this
Farnsworth, Jerry, 1895-1982  Search this
Fechin, Nikolai Ivanovich, 1881-1955  Search this
Fenton, Beatrice, 1887-1983  Search this
Fitzgerald, James, 1899-1971  Search this
Flagg, James Montgomery, 1877-1960  Search this
Fredenthal, David, 1914-1958  Search this
French, Daniel Chester, 1850-1931  Search this
Fuchs, Emil, 1866-1929  Search this
Gallagher, Sears, 1869-1955  Search this
Ganso, Emil, 1895-1941  Search this
Gaspard, Leon, 1882-1964  Search this
Genth, Lillian Mathilde, 1876-1953  Search this
Gonzalez, Xavier, 1898-1993  Search this
Greenwood, Marion, 1909-1970  Search this
Gregory, John, 1879-1958  Search this
Gregory, Waylande, 1905-1971  Search this
Grosz, George, 1893-1959  Search this
Halpert, Samuel, 1884-1930  Search this
Hart, George Overbury, 1868-1933  Search this
Hartmann, Sadakichi, 1867-1944  Search this
Haskell, Ernest, 1876-1925  Search this
Hassam, Childe, 1859-1935  Search this
Heerman, Norbert Leo, b. 1891  Search this
Heinz, Charles, 1885-1955  Search this
Hennings, E. Martin, 1886-1956  Search this
Henri, Robert, 1865-1929  Search this
Hopkinson, Charles, 1869-1962  Search this
Ireland, Leroy, 1889-1970  Search this
Judson, Alice, d. 1948  Search this
Kalish, Max, 1891-1945  Search this
Katz, A. Raymond (Alexander Raymond), 1895-1974  Search this
Kingman, Dong, 1911-  Search this
Kroll, Leon, 1884-1974  Search this
Kronberg, Louis, 1872-1965  Search this
Kupferman, Lawrence Edward, 1909-1982  Search this
Laufman, Sidney, 1891-  Search this
Lawson, Ernest, 1873-1939  Search this
Lever, Hayley, 1876-1958  Search this
Lie, Jonas, 1880-1940  Search this
Linde, Ossip L.  Search this
Low, Will Hicok, 1853-1932  Search this
Lucioni, Luigi, 1900-  Search this
Lutz, Dan, 1906-  Search this
MacRae, Emma Fordyce, 1887-1974  Search this
Manship, Paul, 1885-1966  Search this
Melchers, Gari, 1860-1932  Search this
Metcalf, Willard Leroy, 1858-1925  Search this
Meyerowitz, William, 1887-1981  Search this
Milch, Albert, 1881-1951  Search this
Milch, Edward, 1865-1954  Search this
Moffett, Ross  Search this
Mora, F. Luis (Francis Luis), 1874-1940  Search this
Moran, Thomas, 1837-1926  Search this
Murphy, Hermann Dudley, 1867-1945  Search this
Murphy, John Francis, 1853-1921  Search this
Myers, Jerome, 1867-1940  Search this
Nagler, Edith Kroger, 1890-1986  Search this
Oberteuffer, Karl A. (Karl Amiard), 1908-1958  Search this
Ochtman, Leonard, 1854-1934  Search this
Parshall, DeWitt, 1864-1956  Search this
Pearson, Ralph M., 1883-1958  Search this
Perrine, Van Dearing, 1868 or 9-1955  Search this
Pittman, Hobson Lafayette, 1899 or 1900-1972  Search this
Pleissner, Ogden M.  Search this
Pollet, Joseph C., 1897-1979  Search this
Pousette-Dart, Nathaniel, 1886-1965  Search this
Pugh, Mabel, b. 1891  Search this
Pène Du Bois, Guy , 1884-1958  Search this
Redfield, Edward Willis, 1869-1965  Search this
Ritschel, William, 1864-1949  Search this
Romano, Umberto, 1906-  Search this
Rungius, Carl, 1869-1959  Search this
Ryder, Chauncey F., 1868-1949  Search this
Ryerson, Margery  Search this
Sample, Paul, 1896-1974  Search this
Sawyer, Wells, 1863-1960  Search this
Schofield, Walter Elmer, 1867-1944  Search this
Shapiro, David, 1916-  Search this
Sharp, Joseph Henry, 1859-1953  Search this
Sheets, Millard, 1907-1989  Search this
Shuster, Will  Search this
Speicher, Eugene Edward, 1883-1962  Search this
Speight, Francis, 1896-1989  Search this
Sterne, Maurice, 1878-1957  Search this
Sterner, Albert, 1863-1946  Search this
Tanner, Henry Ossawa, 1859-1937  Search this
Thayer, Abbott Handerson, 1849-1921  Search this
Trebilcock, Paul, 1902-1981  Search this
Tryon, Dwight William, 1849-1925  Search this
Twachtman, John Henry, 1853-1902  Search this
Ufer, Walter, 1876-1936  Search this
Varian, Dorothy, 1895-1985  Search this
Warneke, Heinz (Heinrich), 1895-1983  Search this
Watkins, Franklin Chenault, 1894-1972  Search this
Waugh, Frederick Judd, 1861-1940  Search this
Weir, John F. (John Ferguson), 1841-1926  Search this
Weir, Julian Alden, 1852-1919  Search this
White, Henry Cooke, 1861-1952  Search this
Wickey, Harry  Search this
Wiggins, Carleton, 1848-1932  Search this
Wiles, Irving Ramsay, 1861-1948  Search this
Woodward, Robert Strong, 1885-1957  Search this
Woodward, Stanley Wingate, 1890-1970  Search this
Wyeth, Andrew, 1917-2009  Search this
Zucker, Jacques, 1900-  Search this
Extent:
42.2 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Gallery records
Photographs
Date:
1911-1995
Summary:
The records of Milch Gallery measure 42.5 linear feet and date from 1911-1995. Edward Milch (1865-1953) opened the Edward Milch Gallery in New York City. In 1916, he formed a partnership with his brother Albert Milch (1881-1951), a gilder and framer, creating E. & A. Milch, Inc., a gallery specializing in American art. Harold C. Milch (1904-1981), Albert's son, was appointed a partner in 1944 and continued the business until his death. Business records of Milch Gallery, 1911-1968, include correspondence, sales records, inventories, financial records, printed matter, photographs, and legal documents. Later additions to the records date from 1922-1995 and include correspondence; artists' files; financial, sales, and stock records; printed material; and photographs.
Scope and Content Note:
The records of Milch Gallery document the business transactions of the corporation and the professional and personal relationships of the Milch brothers with the artists they represented, as well as with the larger community of artists and art dealers between 1911 and 1995. Unfortunately, early correspondence is sparse. In a letter responding to a 1951 request for historical information, Milch replied: "Several years ago [1947] we had to give up our gallery at 108 West 57th Street, and move to smaller quarters here. Since we had no room for old records, we had to destroy most of them."

Alphabetical files are comprised mainly of incoming correspondence from 1911 to 1962. Correspondence concerns arrangements for exhibitions, sales and consignments, advice to collectors and executors of estates, and routine business matters. A number of the artists represented in these files were friends of the Milch brothers and some of their letters mention their personal lives as well as their formal business with the Gallery. Collectors who routinely dealt with Milch Galleries included John Gellatly, Mary Blair, Hersey Egginton, Carlton Palmer, and Edward Coykendell; a three volume manuscript catalogue of Coykendell's collection is included. Among the estates handled by Milch were Willard Metcalf, John Twachtman, Abbott H. Thayer, Maurice Fromkes, and Thomas Moran.

Also found are sales records and other financial records such as general ledgers, sales and purchase records, and tax information.

Printed matter consists of gallery exhibition catalogs, checklists, invitations, announcements, publications, and scrapbooks. Many catalogs and checklists are annotated with prices and other information. A complete run of Milch Galleries Art Notes, issued intermittently from 1918-1928/29 is preserved with the gallery records. as is a scrapbook relating to early exhibitions held at the Edward Milch Galleries and E. & A. Milch, Inc., and artists represented by them.

Photographs included with the records are less voluminous than might be expected, and pictures of works of art predominate. There are also a very small number of exterior and interior photographs of Milch Gallery, photographs of people including artists, Edward and Albert Milch, and photographs of groups such as Ten American Artists and the Associated Dealers in American Paintings.

The 1995 and 2014 additions measure 3 linear feet and date from 1922-1995. Milch Gallery activities are documented through correspondence; artists' files; financial, sales, and stock records; printed material; and photographs.

See Appendix for a list of Milch Gallery exhibitions and checklists
Arrangement:
Records of the Milch Gallery are organized into seven series. With the exception of the alphabetical files, records are arranged by record type and then chronologically. Photographs are categorized by subject, with pictures of individuals arranged alphabetically by name, and works of art arranged alphabetically by artist.

Series 1: Alphabetical Files, 1911-1962

Series 2: Sales Records and Inventories, 1911-1969, undated

Series 3: Financial Records, 1914-1980, undated

Series 4: Printed Matter, 1996, 1910-1967, undated

Series 5: Photographs, 1903-circa 1944, undated

Series 6: Miscellaneous, 1916-1970, undated

Series 7: Addition to the Milch Gallery Records, 1922-1995 (Boxes 60-65, 3 linear feet)
Historical Note:
Between 1911 and 1916, prior to the establishment of the Milch Galleries, Austrian immigrant Edward Milch (1865-1953) operated the Edward Milch Galleries at 939 Madison Avenue 1911, mainly handling prints and providing framing services.

Albert Milch (1881-1951) was employed by a gilder and later a picture framer before becoming the business partner of his older brother. In 1916 they incorporated as E. & A. Milch (with Edward as President and Albert as Secretary of the corporation) and opened the Milch Galleries at 108 West 57th Street, New York City. During their partnership, Edward served as President and Albert as Secretary of the corporation. According to Joseph Gotlieb, a long-time employee, during this period Montross Gallery became inclined toward modern French art and the American artists associated with them began searching for galleries more sympathetic to their interests. "As Albert Milch was a framemaker to several of them, and as he was opening a new gallery in 1916 to specialize in American Art, some artists decided to let the Milch Galleries, and others, handle their work. It turned out to be a good arrangement for both sides, and a successful one" (letter from Joseph S. Gotleib to Susan Hobbs [National Museum of American Art], December 30, 1977).

From the beginning, Milch Galleries dealt in American art almost exclusively, representing living artists, handling the estates of recently deceased artists; in addition they acquired nineteenth century works for resale and accepted pieces on commission. Although framing and restoration services continued to be offered to customers, this aspect of the business soon diminished in importance.

Harold C. Milch (1904-1981), Albert's son, was affiliated with the business, and upon his father's retirement was appointed partner; after Albert died in 1951, Harold was sole proprietor, serving as both President and Secretary.

Milch Galleries moved to smaller quarters at 55 East 57th Street in 1947, and ten years later to 21 East 67th Street. In 1967, the name was changed to Milch Gallery and the business relocated to 1014 Madison Avenue. The gallery dissolved upon the death of Harold Milch. A third brother, David C. Milch, was also an art dealer, but was not associated with Milch Gallery.

1911 -- Edward Milch Galleries opens at 939 Madison Ave.

1912 -- First exhibition at Edward Milch Galleries

1916 -- Incorporation of E. & A. Milch; Edward Milch, President, and Albert Milch, Secretary; change of name to Milch Galleries and relocation to 108 West 57th St.

1918 -- Milch Galleries Art Notes begins publication

1944 -- Edward Milch retires; Albert Milch President, and Harold C. Milch [son of Albert], Secretary

1947 -- Milch Galleries moves to 55 East 57th St.

1951 -- Death of Albert Milch (1881-1951); Harold C. Milch, President and Secretary

1953 -- Death of Edward Milch (1865-1953)

1957 -- Milch Galleries moves to 21 East 67th St.

1966 -- Archives of American Art begins acquiring records of the Milch Galleries (gifts and loans from Milch Galleries)

1967 -- Relocation to 1014 Madison Ave., and name change to Milch Gallery

1981 -- Death of Harold C. Milch (1904-1981)

1986 -- Archives of American Art receives the bulk of Milch Gallery records (gift of Salander-O'Reilly Galleries)
Appendix: List of Milch Gallery Exhibitions and Checklists:
Items marked with an asterisk (*) are contained in the scrapbook rather than with the Milch Gallery exhibition catalogs.

Nov. 16-Dec. 7, 1912* -- Exhibition of 300 Original Sketches in Oil by 100 Well Known American Artists

Feb. 15-March 8, 1913* -- Glimpses of Nature We Love to See, Feast, and Dwell On

April 28-May 7, 1913* -- Portraits of Children and Grown-Ups by Miss Susan Ricker Knox

Oct. 18-Nov. 1, 1913* -- Small Paintings and Bronzes

Oct. 18-Nov. 1, 1913* -- Exhibition of Paintings and Sculptures by Noted American Artists

Feb. 9-21, 1914* -- Paintings by W. Herbert Dunton of The Old West

Oct. 17-31, 1914* -- Portraits in Oil, Miniatures, and Sculpture

Feb. 20-March 7, 1915* -- Paintings and Etchings by Gordon Mallet McCouch

April 26-May 8, 1915* -- Paintings by Frew W. Kost, N.A.

Nov. 7-19, 1915 -- Paintings and Sculpture by Matilda Browne

Nov. 15-30, 1915* -- Views of the Panama California Exposition and Landscapes of Southern California

Jan. 31-Feb. 12, 1916 -- Paintings by Garber, Pearson, Lathrop, and Spencer

Feb. 14-26, 1916* -- Landscapes by Walter Clark, N.A.

Feb. 14-26, 1916* -- Paintings by Guy Wiggins

Nov. 4-18, 1916* -- Opening Exhibition

Nov. 25-Dec. 9, 1916* -- Works by the Late Louis Loeb

Jan. 15-27, 1917* -- Paintings by Helen M. Turner

Jan. 30-Feb. 10, 1917* -- Paintings by Leonard Ochtman, N.A.

Feb. 14-24, 1917* -- Recent Paintings by William V. Schevill

March 6-24, 1917 -- Ten American Painters

March 13-24, 1917* -- George Bellows

March 14-24, 1917* -- Paintings by Frederick J. Waugh

March 26-April 7, 1917* -- Paintings by Howard Russell Butler, N.A.

April 10-21, 1917 -- Paintings by Harry F. Waltman and Howard Giles, and Sculptures by Willard D. Paddock

April 15-27, 1917* -- Paintings by Valentino Molina

April 24-May 5, 1917* -- Paintings by Thalia Millet

Oct. 27-Nov. 17, 1917* -- William Jean Beauley

Jan. 15-Feb. 15, 1918* -- Etchings, Dry-Point and Lithographs by Ernest Haskell

Jan. 28-Feb. 4, 1918 -- Sketches and Paintings by the "Nova Scotia Group"

Feb. 25-March 16, 1918* -- Paintings by Robert Henri

March 13-24, 1918 -- George Bellows

March 22-April 4, 1918* -- Paintings by H. Gabrielle Levey

April 8-, 1918* -- Etchings by Allen Lewis

Nov. 25-Dec. 16, 1918* -- Paintings by Edward H. Potthast, N.A.

Dec. 18-Jan. 16, 1918 -- Annual Holiday Exhibition of Selected Paintings of Limited Size by American Artists

Dec. 23-Jan. 10, 1919* -- Etchings and Dry-Points by Ernest Haskell

Jan. 13-25, 1919* -- Paintings by Mary Prindeville

Jan. 27-Feb. 13, 1919* -- With the A.E.F., Paintings and Drawings Made at the Front by S. J. Woolf

Feb. 14-26 [1919?]* -- Paintings by Arthur C. Goodwin

Feb. 18-March 1, 1919* -- Paintings by Jerome Myers

March 3-16, 1919* -- Recent Paintings of California by William Ritschel, N.A.

March 17-29, 1919 -- Recent Paintings by Lillian Genth, A.N.A.

March 28-April 9, 1919* -- Drawings of New York City by Peter Marcus

April 8-30*, 1919 -- Paintings by Leading American Artists

April 19-May 1*, 1919 -- Paintings by Valentino Molina

May 3-22, 1919 -- Recent American Sculpture

May 5-17*, 1919 -- Recent American Sculpture in Bronze, Wood, and Terra Cotta for the Town and Country House, the Grounds, and Garden

May 20-, 1919 -- Flag Pictures and Street Scenes by Childe Hassam

Nov. 16-Dec. 6, 1919 -- Childe Hassam

Nov. 17-Dec. 6, 1919 -- Exhibition of Works in the Various Mediums by Childe Hassam

Dec. 18-Jan. 16, 1920 -- Annual Holiday Exhibition of Selected Paintings of Limited Size by American Artists

Dec. 29-Jan. 15, 1920* -- Portraits and Other Paintings by Royston Nave

Feb. 2-14, 1920 -- George Biddle

Feb. 2-14, 1920* -- Oil Paintings, Water Colors, Pastels, Monotypes, Silver-Points and Etchings by George Biddle

Feb. 16-28, 1920* -- Paintings by Ossip L. Linde

March 1-12, 1920 -- Bruce Crane

March 1-13, 1920 -- Bruce Crane, A.N.A.

March 15-April 3, 1920 -- Willard L. Metcalf

April 5-20, 1920 -- Paintings

April 8-30 [1920] -- Exhibition of Paintings by Leading American Artists

April 15-May 1, 1920 -- Valentino Molina

Oct. 18-30 [1920?]* -- Paintings of New England and Drawings of the Devastated Towns of Flanders by George Wharton Edwards

Nov. 1-13, 1920 -- Six American Painters [Clark, Potthast, Snell, Nichols, Olinsky, and Volkert

Nov. 1-15, 1920 -- Paintings by Theresa F. Bernstein

Nov. 15-27, 1920 -- Childe Hassam

Nov. 21-Dec. 3, 1920* -- Sculpture by Gleb Derujinsky

Dec., 1920* -- Exhibition by George Biddle

Dec. 1-21, 1920 -- Etchings and Color Etchings by William Meyerowitz

Dec. 27-Jan. 28, 1921 -- Albert Delbert Smith

circa 1920 -- Ossip L. Linde

circa 1920 -- William Meyrowitz

circa 1920 -- Exhibition

Jan. 10-29, 1921 -- Exhibition of Paintings by Brush, Crane, Dewing, Metcalf, Hassam, and Murphy

Jan. 31-Feb. 12, 1921 -- American Art

Feb. 14-26, 1921 -- Guy Wiggins

Feb. 14-26, 1921 -- Arthur G. Goodwin

Feb. 28-March 12, 1921 -- Paintings by Robert Henri

March 14-April 9, 1921 -- Paintings by Gari Melchers

March 28-April 9, 1921 -- Peter Marcus

April 11-23, 1921* -- Portraits and Figure Paintings by Edith Catlin Phelps

April 11-30, 1921 -- Paintings by Willard Metcalf

May 2-30, 1921 -- American Sculpture for the Town and Country House, the Garden, and the Grounds

Oct. 18-30 [1921?]* -- Paintings and Drawings by George Wharton Edwards

Oct. 24-Nov. 5, 1921 -- Portraits and Paintings of Old New Orleans by Wayman Adams

Nov. 7-19, 1921 -- Flower Paintings and Sculpture by Mathilde Browne

Nov. 7-19, 1921 -- Paintings in Oil and Water Color by George H. Clements

Nov. 19-Dec. 3, 1921 -- Sculpture-Gleb Derujinsky

Dec. 5-31, 1921 -- Works by Abbott H. Thayer, Including Important Paintings, Water Colors, and Drawings

circa 1921 -- Exhibition

Jan. 9-21, 1922 -- Paintings by Katherine Langhorne Adams

Jan. 9-21, 1922 -- Paintings of California by Douglass Ewell Parshall

Feb. 13-March 4, 1922 -- Paintings of Cape Ann by Harry A. Vincent, A.N.A.

March 6-25, 1922* -- Pastels of the Cascapedia River, Canada, by Arthur C. Goodwin

March 6-25, 1922 -- Connecticut Landscape Paintings by Wilson Irvine

March 27-April 15, 1922* -- Moonlight Motifs: Garden of the Gods, Colorado and Other Paintings by Robert Reid, N.A.

Dec. 26-Jan. 13, 1923 -- Paintings and Pastels by Henry C. White

Jan. 15-27, 1923* -- Paintings of Spain by William J. Potter

Jan. 29-Feb. 10, 1923 -- Water Colors of the South Sea Islands by William Ritschel, N.A.

Feb. 12-March 3, 1923 -- Paintings by Willard L. Metcalf

March 5-31, 1923 -- Paintings of the Far East by Leon Gaspard

March 19-31, 1923* -- Landscape Paintings by Guy Wiggins, A.N.A.

April 2-21, 1923* -- Portrait Drawings by Ercole Cartotto

April 19-May 6, 1923 -- Paintings by Leading American Artists

Oct. 1-20, 1923 -- Paintings by Sidney E. Dickinson, A.N.A.

Oct. 22- Nov. 3, 1923 -- Paintings and Sculpture by Mathilda Brown (Mrs. Frederick Van Wyck)

Nov. 5-17, 1923 -- Memorial Exhibition of Paintings by William Gedney Bunce

Dec. 11-23, 1923* -- Water Colors by James Montgomery Flagg

Jan. 14-26, 1924 -- Exhibition of Nudes, Portraits, Landscapes and Genre by Eugene Paul Ullman

Feb. 18-March 8, 1924 -- Paintings by Willard L. Metcalf

March 27-April 5, 1924 -- Connecticut Landscapes by Guy Wiggins, A.N.A.

Dec. 1-27, 1924 -- Maurice Fromkes

Jan. 5-17, 1925 -- Paintings of the Pacific Coast by Armin Hansen

Jan. 19-31, 1925 -- Martha Walter

Feb. 16-March 7, 1925 -- Willard L. Metcalf

March 9-21, 1925 -- John Noble

March 23-April 11, 1925 -- Bruce Crane

May 4-16, 1925 -- Brynjulf Strandenaes Exhibition of Portraits

May 18-30, 1925 -- Paintings by Robert Brackman

Dec. 7-31, 1925 -- Paintings by the Late Willard Metcalf

Dec. 7-21, 1925 -- Sketches by Dorothea A. Dreier,

Jan. 11-23, 1926 -- Recent Landscape Paintings by Frank V. Du Mond

Jan. 25-Feb. 13, 1926 -- Smaller Paintings by Max Bohm

Feb. 15-March 6, 1926 -- Paintings of the Sea by William Ritschel

April 13-May 2, 1926 -- Jonas Lie

April 26-May 15, 1926 -- Landscapes and Street Scenes by William Jean Beauley

Nov. 15-27, 1926 -- California Marine Paintings and Water Colors by Armin Hansen

Nov. 29-Dec. 18, 1926 -- Water Colors by Frank W. Benson

Nov. 29-Dec. 18, 1926 -- Silver-Point Drawings by Ercole Cartotto

Jan. 10-22, 1927 -- Portraits by Millie Bruhl Frederick (Mrs. Leopold Fredrick)

Jan. 24-Feb. 12, 1927 -- Paintings of Cornwall and Devonshire by W. Elmer Schofield

Jan. 24-Feb. 12, 1927 -- Etchings by Teresa Cerutti Simmons, Watercolors by Will Simmons

Feb. 14-March 5, 1927 -- Sculpture by Heinz Warneke

March 28-April 16, 1927 -- Paintings by Henry Golden Dearth

April 18-30, 1927 -- Decorative Flower Paintings by Olin Howland

April 18-30, 1927 -- Recent Water Colors by John Whorf of Boston

Oct. 10-28, 1927 -- Decorative Embroideries by Georgiana Brown Harbeson

Nov. 14-26, 1927 -- Pastels and Etchings of Cambodia and China by Lucille Douglass

Nov. 28-Dec. 24, 1927 -- Works by Gari Melchers

Nov. 28-Dec. 24, 1927 -- Sculpture by Max Kalish

Dec. 26-Jan. 14, 1928 -- Water Color Exhibition of West African Native Types by Erick Berry; Also a Group of West African Pottery and Brass Figures Made by the Natives of Nigeria

Dec. 29-Jan. 14, 1928 -- Paintings by Joacb Dooyewaard

Jan. 14-26, 1928 -- Decorative Paintings by Jane Peterson

Feb. 7-April 29, 1928 -- Alfred Hutty

Feb. 13-25, 1928 -- Water Colors by Alice Judson

March 12-24, 1928 -- Etchings of Ancient Dances by Teresa Cerutti-Simmons and Wild Life by Will Simmons

March 12-24, 1928 -- An Important Exhibition of Paintings and Pastels by John H. Twachtman

March 12-24, 1928 -- Sculpture by Heinz Warnecke

March 26-April 14, 1928 -- Water Colors by John Whorf

April, 1928 -- Water Colors by William Ritschel, N.A.

April 15-May 5, 1928 -- Portrait Drawings in Pastel by Jessie Voss Lewis

Oct. 22-Nov. 3, 1928 -- Water Colors of France and Italy, and Etchings by Louis Wolchonok

Oct. 22-Nov. 3, 1928 -- Poetic Landscapes with Figures by Henry M. Rosenberg of Nova Scotia

Nov. 19-Dec. 1, 1928 -- Water Colors by Frank W. Benson

Nov. 19-Dec. 1, 1928 -- Water Colors of Architectural Subjects in France, Also Landscape and Figures by William de Leftwick Dodge

Dec. 1-28, 1928 -- Alfred Hutty

Dec. 3-24, 1928 -- Important Exhibition of Early and Recent Works by Childe Hassam of the American Academy of Arts and Letters

Dec. 3-24, 1928 -- Still Life Paintings by Ruth Payne Burgess

Dec. 20-Jan. 8, 1929 -- Drawings by Frank di Gioia

Dec. 20-Jan. 8, 1929 -- Memorial Exhibition, Water Color Sketches by Thomas Moran, N.A.

Dec. 27-Jan. 14, 1929 -- Erick Berry

Dec. 27-Jan. 14, 1929 -- Helen K. McCarthy Memorial Exhibition

Dec. 29-Jan. 14, 1929 -- Paintings by Jacob Dooyewaard

circa 1928 -- Indian and Animal Pictures and Bronzes by Edwin Willard Deming

Jan. 28-Feb. 9, 1929 -- Painitings of Western Life by F. Tenney Johnson

Jan. 28-Feb. 9, 1929 -- Paintings and Water Colors by Alice Judson

Feb. 11-23, 1929 -- Paintings and Drawings by Max Bohm

Feb. 11-23, 1929 -- Landscapes and Marines by Jay Connaway

Feb. 25-March 9, 1929 -- Water-Colors by Harold Putnam Browne

Feb. 25-March 9, 1929 -- Paintings by Truman Fassett

March 11-23, 1929 -- Recent Water Colors by C.E. Polowetski

March 11-23, 1929 -- Louis Ritman

March 25-April 6, 1929 -- Landscapes by Frank Vincent Du Mond

March 25-April 6, 1929 -- Water Colors by Armin Hansen of California

March 25-April 6, 1929 -- Sculptures by Roy Sheldon

April 8-20, 1929 -- Water Colors by John Whorf, Distinguished Young Boston Artist

Oct. 21-Nov. 2, 1929 -- Corners in Spain, An Exhibition of Paintings by Wells M. Sawyer

Nov. 4-17, 1929 -- Recent Sculpture by Heinz Warnecke

Nov. 4-16, 1929 -- Paintings of Ireland and Other Scenes by Power O'Malley

Nov. 18-30, 1929 -- Group of Recent Paintings by Hayley Lever

Nov. 18-30, 1929 -- Recent Water Colors and Etchings by Louis Wolchonok

Dec. 2-21, 1929 -- Paintings by Maurice Fromkes

Jan. 30-Feb. 11 [192?] -- Water Colors of Greek Temples in Sicily by Wm. De Leftwich Dodge

Feb. 2-15 [192?] -- Figure Paintings by Murray Bewley

March 15-April 3 [192?] -- Paintings by Willard L. Metcalf

March 28-April 16 [192?] -- Paintings by Henry Golden Dearth

April 2-21 [192?] -- Landscape Paintings by Bruce Crane, N.A

Oct. 17-29 [192?] -- Water Colors of the Rivera by Ferris Connah

Oct. 18-30 -- Paintings and Drawings by George Wharton Edwards

Oct. 25-Nov. 13 [192?] -- Recent Landscapes by John F. Carlson, N.A.

Oct. 25-Nov. 13 [192?] -- John F. Carlson

[192?] -- Indian and Animal Pictures and Bronzes by Edwin Willard Deming

Nov. 19-Dec. 1 [192?] -- Water Colors of Architectural Subjects in France, also Landscape and Figures by William De Leftwich Dodge

Jan. 20-Feb 1, 1930 -- West African Water Colors by Erick Berry

Jan. 20-Feb. 1, 1930 -- Paintings by Nelson C. White

Feb., 1930 -- Thelma Wood

Feb. 3-15, 1930 -- Paintings by Horace Brown

Feb. 17-March 1, 1930 -- Paintings by Francis Speight

Feb. 17-March 1, 1930 -- Paintings by Ruth Payne Burgess

March 3-15, 1930 -- Paintings by John Noble

March 17-29, 1930 -- Russian Paintings by Irwin D. Hoffman, Also a Group of Recent Watercolors

March 17-29, 1930 -- Alexander Warshawsky

March 31-April 12, 1930 -- Memorial Exhibition, Paintings and Watercolors of Sigurd Skou

March 31-April 12, 1930 -- Emmanuel Andrew Cavacos

April 14-26, 1930 -- Water Colors by John Whorf

Oct. 20-Nov. 1, 1930 -- Recent Paintings of Lake Como by Charles Warren Eaton

Nov. 3-15, 1930 -- Pastels and Etchings of Angkor and the Far East by Lucille Douglass

Nov. 17-29, 1930 -- Joseph Szekely

Nov. 17-29, 1930 -- Important Exhibiton of Paintings by a "Group of Americans"

Dec. 1-13, 1930 -- Diana Thorne and Canine Portraiture

Dec. 1-13, 1930 -- Recent Paintings of Ireland by Power O'Malley

Dec. 1-13, 1930 -- Paintings by Charles M. Cox of Boston

Jan. 19-31, 1931 -- Portraits by Jere R. Wickwire

Jan. 20-Feb. 1, 1931 -- Nelson C. White

Jan. 24-Feb. 7, 1931 -- Pastels and Etchings of Angkor and the Far East by Lucille Douglass

Feb. 2-24, 1931 -- Recent Paintings by Lillian Gentle

Feb. 2-24, 1931 -- Impressions of India and Palestine by Ruth Coleman

Feb. 16-28, 1931 -- Watercolors of Vermont Scenes and Other Views by Ruth Payne Burgess

Feb. 16-28, 1931 -- Martha Walter Recent Work in Oil and Watercolor

March 2-14, 1931 -- Recent Paintings by Alice Judson

March 2-28, 1931 -- Paintings & Drawings by Gari Melchers

March 16-28, 1931 -- Recent Watercolors by Harold Putnam Brown

March 30-April 11, 1931 -- Paintings by Louis Kronberg

March 30-April 11, 1931 -- Watercolors by John Whorf

April 13-25, 1931 -- Americans by American Artists, Exhibition of Portraits

April 13-25, 1931 -- Louis Kronberg

April 13-25, 1931 -- Portraits and Crayon Heads by Ferris Connah

April 13-May 2, 1931 -- Abbott H. Thayer

Sept. 22-Oct. 6, 1931 -- Water Colors by Gladys Brannigan, Alice Judson, Margery Ryerson

Oct. 19-30, 1931 -- Portraits by William Steene

Nov. 2-7, 1931 -- Portraits and Sketches by Maria Kammerer under the Patronage of Countess Laszlo Szechenyi

Nov. 9-21, 1931 -- Paintings by Bessie Lasky

Nov. 23-Dec. 5, 1931 -- Recent Oils, Water Colors and Etchings by Joseph Margulies

Dec. 7-21, 1931 -- Recent Paintings by George Wharton Edwards

Dec. 7-19, 1931 -- Paintings and Etchings of African and American Big Game by Major A. Radclyffe Dugmore

Dec. 7-19, 1931 -- Watercolors of Yucatan, "Land of the Mayas" by William de Leftwich Dodge

Dec. 20-Jan. 8, 1932 -- Water Colors of the Yellowstone and Mexican Series by Thomas Moran, N.A.

Jan. 11-23, 1932 -- Paintings, Watercolors and Etchings of Animals by Sybilla Mittell Weber

Jan. 25-Feb. 6, 1932 -- Paintings by George Oberteuffer, Member of the Salon d'Automne, Paris

Feb. 8-March 5, 1932 -- Important 19th and 20th Century American Painters

March 7-19, 1932 -- Paintings by Mrs. B. King Couper

March 7-19, 1932 -- Drawings by Maurice Sterne, Ernest Fiene, Alexander Brook, yasuo Kuniyoski, Bernard Karfiol, Peggy Bacon, and Leon Kroll

March 28-April 9, 1932 -- Watercolors by John Whorf

April 11-30, 1932 -- Forty Years of American Art

Oct. 3-15, 1932 -- New Paintings by American Artists

Oct. 19-Nov. 5, 1932 -- Paintings by Stephen Etnier

Nov. 7-30, 1932 -- Paintings by Edward Bruce

circa 1932 -- Recent Paintings by Stephen Etnier

Jan.30-Feb. 25, 1933 -- Important Exhibition of Paintings by Thomas Eakins

March 6-25, 1933 -- 19th and 20th Century Watercolors

March 27-April 14, 1933 -- Paintings by Francis Speight

April 17-May 6, 1933 -- Water Colors by John Whorf

May 15-31, 1933 -- 19th Century American Landscape Artists

Nov. 27-Dec., 1933 -- Water Colors by Emil Holzhaur

Feb. 26-March 17, 1934 -- Paintings by Stephen Etnier

March 19-April 7, 1934 -- Water Colors by John Whorf

April 16-May 5, 1934 -- Bali Studies by Maurice Sterne

June-Aug., 1934 -- Paintings by American Artists

Sept., 1934 -- Paintings by American Artists

Oct. 15-Nov. 3, 1934 -- New and Recent Paintings by American Artists

Nov. 5-21, 1934 -- Paintings by Sidney Laufman

Nov. 26-Dec., 1934 -- Recent Vermont Landscapes by Edward Bruce

circa 1934 -- American Figure Paintings of the 19th and 20th Century

Jan. 7-26, 1935 -- Paintings and Watercolors from the Samuel Halpert Estate

Feb. 4-28, 1935 -- Small Paintings by 19th and 20th Century American Artists

March 4-22, 1935 -- Recent Paintings by Stephen Etneir

March 25-April 13, 1935 -- Water Colors by John Whorf

April 22-May 11, 1935 -- Figure and Landscape Studies by Leon Kroll

May 20-June, 1935 -- Group Exibhition of Paintings

Summer, 1935 -- Paintings by American Artists

Oct. 1-26, 1935 -- Paintings by Childe Hassam

Oct. 28-Nov. 16, 1935 -- Watercolors by Millard Sheets

through Dec., 1935 -- Paintings by Americans

Jan. 1936 -- Paintings by Americans

Feb. 3-29, 1936 -- Important Exhibition of 19th and 20th Century American Painters

March 2-21, 1936 -- Stephen Etnier

March 30-April 19, 1936 -- Watercolors by John Whorf

May 18-June, 1936 -- Paintings by American Artists

Summer, 1936 -- Paintings by American Artists

September, 1936 -- Paintings by American Artists

Oct. 12-31, 1936 -- Contemportary Viewpoint

through Nov. 30, 1936 -- 19th and 20th Century American Figure Paintings

circa 1936 -- Landscapes--Contemporary Viewpoint

Jan. 11-30, 1937 -- Selected Landscapes

Feb., 1937 -- Contemporary American Sculpture

March 15-April 3, 1937 -- Watercolors by Millard Sheets

April 12-30, 1937 -- John Whorf

April 27-May 16, 1937 -- Maurice Sterne

May, 1937 -- Paintings by American Artists

Summer, 1937 -- Paintings

Oct. 1-15, 1937 -- Recent Watercolors

Oct. 18-Nov. 6, 1937 -- Paintings by Lucille Blanche

Nov. 8-30, 1937 -- Paintings by American Artists

Dec. 6-24, 1937 -- Watercolors by Lester Field

Jan. 3-22, 1938 -- Recent Paintings by Stephen Etnier

Jan. 24-Feb. 5, 1938 -- Paintings by Margaret Cooper

Feb. 7-26, 1938 -- Colonial Portraits

March 7-26, 1938 -- Recent Oils and Watercolors by Millard Sheet

April 4-23, 1938 -- Recent Watercolors by John Whorf

Summer, 1938 -- Paintings by American Artists

through Oct., 1938 -- Paintings by American Artists

Oct. 24-Nov. 12, 1938 -- Recent Watercolors by Karl Oberteuffer

Nov. 21-Dec. 17, 1938 -- Paintings for the Home by American Artists

Jan. 16-Feb. 4, 1939 -- Recent Paintings by Floyd Clymer

Feb. 6-25, 1939 -- Harry Hering

March 6-31, 1939 -- Figure Paintings by American Artists

April 3-22, 1939 -- Recent Watercolors by John Whorf

May 15-June 3, 1939 -- Recent Watercolors by Millard Sheets

Summer, 1939 -- Selected Group of Paintings by American Artists

Sept., 1939 -- Paintings and Watercolors by American Artists

through Oct. 13, 1939 -- Recent Paintings by a Group of American Artists

Oct. 16-Nov. 4, 1939 -- Recent Paintings by Saul Schary

Nov. 13-Dec. 2, 1939 -- Toreros and Dancers of Spain and Mexico by Carlos Ruano Llopis

Dec., 1939 -- Paintings for the Home

Nov. 5-17 [193?] -- Table Portraits by Eulabee Dix

[193?] -- Paintings by American Artists

Jan. 2-27, 1940 -- Stephen Etnier

Feb. 12-March 2, 1940 -- Recent Watercolors by Robert Carson

March 11-30, 1940 -- Daniel Serra Paintings

April 8-27, 1940 -- Recent Watercolors by John Whorf

April 28-May 18, 1940 -- Rubin Recent Paintings

through June 29, 1940 -- Paintings by a Selected Group of American Artists

through Sept. 28, 1940 -- Summer Exhibition of Paintings by a Selected Group of Early and Contemporary American Artists

Oct. 1-19, 1940 -- Recent Paintings by a Selected Group of American Artists

Oct. 21-Nov. 9, 1940 -- Recent Watercolors by Allen Ingles Palmer

Nov. 18-Dec. 7, 1940 -- Helen Sawyer

Dec., 1940 -- Selected Paintings for the Home, and A Group of Original Studies in Color by Maurice Sterne

Jan. 13-Feb. 8, 1941 -- Watercolors by American Artists

Feb. 17-March 15, 1941 -- Paintings by Stephen Etnier, Sidney Laufman, and Francis Speight

April 7-26, 1941 -- Recent Watercolors by John Whorf

April 28-May 17, 1941 -- Remembrances of South America and British West Indies by Manicol

May 19-June 30, 1941 -- Group of Paintings by Selected Contemporary American Artists

Summer, 1941 -- Exhibition of Selected Paintings by American Artists

Sept., 1941 -- A Selected Group of Paintings by Americna Artists

Oct. 6-25, 1941 -- Recent Paintings by a Selected Group of American Artists

Oct. 27-Nov. 15, 1941 -- Eliot O'Hara Watercolors

Nov. 17-Dec. 5, 1941 -- Recent Paintings by Jay Connaway

Nov. 17-Dec. 6, 1941 -- Recent Watercolors by Richard A. Kimball

Dec. 8-27, 1941 -- Edith Blum Paintings

Jan. 5-24, 1942 -- Recent Paintings by Stephen Etnier

through Feb. 28, 1942 -- Selected Paintings by a Group of Contemporary American Artists

March 9-28, 1942 -- New Talents Presented by the Gloucester Society of Artists

April 6-25, 1942 -- Recent Watercolors by John Whorf

May, 1942 -- Selected Paintings by Contemporary American Artists

June 2-13, 1942 -- Yun Gee

Summer, 1942 -- Selected Paintings by Early and Contemporary American Artists

Summer, 1942 -- Paintings by Selected American Artists

Oct. 5-31, 1942 -- Recent Paintings by a Selected Group of American Artists

Nov. 9-30, 1942 -- Watercolors by American Artists

Jan. 18-Feb. 6, 1943 -- Paintings by Yovan Radenkovitch

April 4-24, 1943 -- Recent Watercolors by John Whorf

April 26-May 15, 1943 -- Paintings and Watercolors by Childe Hassam

May 25-June 5, 1943 -- Exhibition by Gladys Irene Cook

June, 1943 -- Selected Paintings by American Artists

Summer, 1943 -- Exhibition of Paintings by American Artists

Sept., 1943 -- Paintings by a Selected Group of American Artists

Oct. 4-23, 1943 -- Paintings by Yun Gee

Nov., 1943 -- Recent Paintings by a Selected Group of American Artists

Jan. 24-Feb. 12, 1944 -- Recent Watercolors by James Fitzgerald

Feb. 14-March 4, 1944 -- Paintings by Sidney Laufman

March 6-25, 1944 -- Paintings by Jessie Ansbacher

April 3-22, 1944 -- Recent Watercolors by John Whorf

May, 1944 -- Paintings by Important American Artists

Summer, 1944 -- Exhibition of Paintings by a Selected Group of American Artists

Summer, 1944 -- Exhibition of Selected Paintings by a Group of American Artists

Oct. 2-21, 1944 -- Recent Paintings by Jay Connaway

Oct. 23-Nov. 11, 1944 -- Harry Hering

Nov. 13-Dec. 2, 1944 -- Paintings by Hobson Pittman

Dec., 1944 -- Paintings for the Home by American Artists

Jan. 3-13, 1945 -- Paintings by Therese Steinhardt

Jan. 22-Feb. 10, 1945 -- Louis Ritman

Feb. 18-, 1945 -- Memorial Exhibition, Paintings and Pastels by William Henry Singer, Jr., N.A.

Feb. 19-March 10, 1945 -- Recent Watercolors by Eliot O'Hara, A.N.A. (Elect)

March, 1945 -- Paintings by a Selected Group of Contemporary Artists

April 9-28, 1945 -- Recent Watercolors by John Whorf

May, 1945 -- Paintings by American Artists, Late 19th and Early 20th Century

Summer, 1945 -- Paintings by a Selected Group of Contemporary American Artists

Oct., 1945 -- Paintings by a Group of Selected American Artists

Oct. 22-Nov. 10, 1945 -- Helen Sawyer

Nov. 19-Dec. 1, 1945 -- Recent Paintings by Stephen Etnier

Nov. 19-Dec. 8, 1945 -- Hilde Kayn

Dec., 1945 -- Paintings for the Home by American Artists

Dec. 31-Jan. 19, 1946 -- Paintings by Stpehen Etnier

Jan. 28-Feb. 16, 1946 -- Paintings by Alexandra Pregel

Feb. 18-March 9, 1946 -- W.H. Singer

March 11-30, 1946 -- Paintings by American Artists

April 8-27, 1946 -- Recent Watercolors by John Whorf

Summer, 1946 -- Paintings by 19th and 20th Century Americans

Oct. 7-26, 1946 -- Recent Watercolors by Allen Ingles Palmer

Oct. 28-Nov. 16, 1946 -- Paintings by Ferdinand Warren

Nov. 18-Dec. 7, 1946 -- Louis Di Valentin

Dec. 9-29, 1946 -- Recent Watercolors by Wm. F.C. Ewing and Richard A. Kimball

Jan., 1947 -- Paintings by Selected American Artists

Jan. 13-Feb. 1, 1947 -- Gerrit V. Sinclair Paintings

Feb. 3-21, 1947 -- Recent Watercolors by Jerri Ricci

Feb. 24-March 15, 1947 -- Childe Hassam Paintings

March 31-April 19, 1947 -- Recent Watercolors by John Whorf

April 21-May 10, 1947 -- Pastels of Charleston by Hobson Pittman

June 2-13, 1947 -- Yun Gee

Oct. 6-25, 1947 -- Special Exhibition of American Paintings Honoring the Great Artists Who Have Been Shown in Our Galleries

Oct. 27-Nov. 15, 1947 -- New Paintings, Oil Studies, and Drawings by Leon Kroll

Nov. 17-Dec. 6, 1947 -- F. Douglas Greenbowe Watercolors

Jan. 19-Feb. 7, 1948 -- Paintings by Alexandria Pregel

March 22-April 3, 1948 -- American Art

March 22-April 3, 1948 -- Paintings by Artists Equity Association Members

May, 1948 -- Paintings by a Group of Selected American Artists

May 24-June 5, 1948 -- Paintings by New York Artists, 16th Exhibition of the Arthur Schwieder Group

Oct. 5-23, 1948 -- Impressions of New York

Oct. 25-Nov. 13, 1948 -- Paintings by Ernest Lawson

Nov. 15-27, 1948 -- Sculpture by Eleanor M. Mellon

Dec. 20-Jan. 8, 1949 -- Drawings by Frank di Gioia

Jan. 10-29, 1949 -- Six Watercolorists [Greenbowie, Knauth, Newman, Palmer, Ricci and Whorf]

Jan. 31-Feb. 19, 1949 -- New Paintings by Ferdinand Warren

Feb. 21-March 12, 1949 -- Paintings by Louis Di Vanentin

April 4-23, 1949 -- Recent Watercolors by John Whorf

April 25-May 7, 1949 -- Paintings by Mildred Hayward

May 9-21, 1949 -- Paintings by New York Artists, 17th Exhibition of the Arthur Schwieder Group

June 17-July 5, 1949 -- Paintings by Guy Pene DuBois

Oct. 4-29, 1949 -- Opening Exhibition of Paintings and Watercolors by 19th and 20th Century American Artists

Oct. 24-Nov. 12, 1949 -- Recent Watercolors by Henry Edmiston

Nov. 14-Dec. 3, 1949 -- Paintings by John H. Twachtman

Dec. 5-24, 1949 -- F. Douglas Greenbowe Watercolors

[194?] -- Paintings for the Home by American Artists

June [194?] -- 2-13Yun Gee

Jan. 9-28, 1950 -- Paintings by Gordon Samstag

Jan. 30-Feb. 18, 1950 -- George C. Ault Memorial Exhibition

Feb. 20-March 11, 1950 -- Recent Paintings by David Burr Moreing

March 13-April 1, 1950 -- Paintings by Frank di Gioia

April 3-22, 1950 -- Recent Watercolors by John Whorf

April 24-May 13, 1950 -- Paintings by Contemporary American Artists

May 15-27, 1950 -- Paintings by New York Artists, 18th Exhibition of the Arthur Schwieder Group

Oct. 2-21, 1950 -- Recent Paintings by Benjamin Kopman

Nov. 13-Dec. 2, 1950 -- Paintings by Stephen Etnier

Dec. 4-30, 1950 -- Special Exhibition of American Paintings in Honor of the Philadelphia Museum of Art Diamond Jubilee

through Dec. 23, 1950 -- Watercolors and Drawings by Frank di Gioia

Jan. 8-27, 1951 -- New Gouaches of the Circus and Theatre by Walter Philipp

Jan. 29-Feb. 17, 1951 -- Louis Ritman Paintings

Feb. 19-March 10, 1951 -- Recent Watercolors by Jerri Ricci

March 12-31, 1951 -- Paintings, Panels, Figures of Africa, Belgian Congo, Bechuanaland, and Rhodesia by Jay Robinson

April 2-21, 1951 -- Recent Watercolors by John Whorf

April 24-May 12, 1951 -- Sculpture and Drawings of Nicolaus Koni

May 21-June 1, 1951 -- Paintings by New York Artists, 19th Exhibition of the Arthur Schwieder Group

Oct. 22-Nov. 10, 1951 -- Recent Paintings by Thomas Blagden

Nov. 12-Dec. 1, 1951 -- Recent Paintings by David Burr Moreing

Dec., 1951 -- Group Exhibition

Jan. 7-26, 1952 -- Paintings of Italy and "Little Italy" by Frank di Gioia

Jan. 28-Feb. 16, 1952 -- London to Algiers, Recent Watercolors by Eliot O'Hara, N.A.

Feb. 18-March 8, 1952 -- Recent Paintings by Jacques Zucker

April 7-26, 1952 -- Recent Watercolors by John Whorf

April 28-May. 10, 1952 -- Paintings by Alexandra Pregel

May 12-24, 1952 -- Paintings by New York Artists, 20th Exhibition of the Arthur Schwieder Group

Oct. 28-Nov. 15, 1952 -- Paintings by John Sharp

Nov. 17-Dec. 6, 1952 -- Stephen Etnier: Recent Paintings

Dec. 8-27, 1952 -- Childe Hassam Watercolors

Jan. 5-24, 1953 -- Jay Robinson

Jan. 26-Feb. 14, 1953 -- Iver Rose

Feb. 16-March 7, 1953 -- Recent Watercolors by Jerri Ricci

April 6-25, 1953 -- Recent Watercolors by John Whorf

May 18-29, 1953 -- Richard Whorf

May 18-29, 1953 -- Paintings by New York Artists, 21st Exhibition of the Arthur Schwieder Group

June, 1953 -- Paintings and Watercolors by 19th and 20th Century American Artists

Oct., 1953 -- Paintings and Watercolors by American Artists

Oct. 26-Nov. 14, 1953 -- Recent Paintings by David Burr Moreing

Nov. 17-Dec. 5, 1953 -- Ogden W. Pleissner Recent Paintings

Dec. 7-30, 1953 -- Recent Landscapes by Sidney Laufman

Jan. 4-23, 1954 -- Paintings of New York's "Little Italy" by Frank di Gioia

Jan. 25-Feb. 13, 1954 -- Round the World by Watercolor with Eliot O'Hara, N.A.

Feb. 15-March 6, 1954 -- Hobson Pittman

March 8-27, 1954 -- Jay Robinson: Kentucky, Part II

April 5-24, 1954 -- John Whorf Watercolors

May 17-28, 1954 -- Paintings by New York Artists, 22nd Exhibition of the Arthur Schwieder Group

Oct. 25-Nov. 13, 1954 -- Recent Watercolors by James Vance

Nov. 15-Dec. 4, 1954 -- Stephen Etnier Recent Paintings

Dec. 6-24, 1954 -- Recent Paintings by Thomas Blagden

Jan. 3-22, 1955 -- Recent Paintings by Jacques Zucker

Jan. 24-Feb. 12, 1955 -- Recent Watercolors by Jerri Ricci

Feb. 14-March 5, 1955 -- Paintings of Spain and Her People by Maurice Fromkes

April 25-May 14, 1955 -- Gluckmann Recent Paintings

May 16-27, 1955 -- Paintings by New York Artists, 23rd Exhibition of the Arthur Schwieder Group

Oct. 24-Nov. 12, 1955 -- Paintings and Gouaches by John Taylor

Nov. 14-Dec. 3, 1955 -- Paintings and Panels by Jay Robinson of West and Central Africa

Dec. 5-30, 1955 -- Childe Hassam and American Impressionism

Jan., 1956 -- Recent Paintings by a Group of American Artists

Feb. 6-25, 1956 -- F. Douglas Greenbowe Watercolors

March, 1956 -- Group Exhibition

April 9-28, 1956 -- John Whorf Watercolors

May, 1956 -- Paintings by a Group of 18 American Artists

May 7-19, 1956 -- Paintings by New York Artists, 24th Exhibition of the Arthur Schwieder Group

Nov. 5-24, 1956 -- Stephen Etnier Recent Paintings

Nov. 27-Dec. 15, 1956 -- Ogden M. Pleissner Recent Paintings

Dec. 1-Jan. 19, 1957 -- Jay Robinson Paintings in Fired Enamel on Copper

Feb. 11-March 2, 1957 -- Recent Paintings by Thomas Blagden

March 4-23, 1957 -- Adolph Dehn

April 15-May 4, 1957 -- John Whorf Watercolors

Oct. 28-Nov. 16, 1957 -- Recent Still Life Paintings by Aaron Bohrod

Jan. 13-Feb. 8, 1958 -- Recent Paintings by a Group of Contemporary Americans

Feb. 10-March 8, 1958 -- Long Island Paintings by Childe Hassam

March 10-29, 1958 -- Paintings by Louis Di Valentin

March 31-April 19, 1958 -- Recent Paintings by Sidney Laufman

April 21-May 10, 1958 -- John Whorf Watercolors

May, 1958 -- Americans: 1865-1925

June, 1958 -- Exhibit to Benefit Friends of the Whitney Museum

June 3-27, 1958 -- American Paintings and Sculpture

Oct. 6-25, 1958 -- Recent Paintings by David Shapiro

Oct. 27-Nov. 15, 1958 -- Stephen Etnier Recent Paintings

Nov. 17-Dec. 6, 1958 -- Paul Sample Recent Paintings

Dec. 8-24, 1958 -- Recent Drawings and Watercolors of France, Italy, Spain, and North Africa by Frank di Gioia

Jan. 19-Feb. 7, 1959 -- Marion Greenwood Paintings

March 2-21, 1959 -- Leon Kroll Paintings and Drawings

March 23-April 18, 1959 -- Elmer L. Mac Rae Forgotten Artist of the 1913 Armory Show

May 4-23, 1959 -- Philip Visson

Oct., 1959 -- Paintings by American Artists

Oct. 26-Nov. 14, 1959 -- Recent Painting by Aaron Bohrod

Nov. 17-Dec. 5, 1959 -- Ogden M. Pleissner Recent Paintings

Dec. 7-30, 1959 -- Recent Oils and Watercolors by Thomas Blagden

Jan. 18-Feb. 6, 1960 -- Elmer L. Mac Rae, Re-Discovered Artist of the 1913 Armory Show and a Founder of "The Pastellists"

through Jan. 15, 1960 -- Paintings by American Artists

March 14-April 2, 1960 -- Xavier Gonzalez Recent Paintings

April 4-23, 1960 -- Paintings by Louis Bosa

April 25-May 14, 1960 -- Grigory Gluckmann

May-June, 1960 -- Group of Contemporary Armerican Artists

Oct. 10-29, 1960 -- Adolf Dehn Caseins and Watercolors

Oct. 31-Nov. 19, 1960 -- Stephen Etnier

Dec., 1960 -- Paintings for the Home

Jan., 1961 -- Group Exhibition, 19th and 20th Century Americans

Jan. 30-Feb. 18, 1961 -- Recent Watercolors by Jerri Ricci

Feb. 20-March 11, 1961 -- Frank di Gioia Recent Paintings

March 20-April 8, 1961 -- David Fredenthal Memorial Exhibition

April 10-29, 1961 -- Allen Tucker

May, 1961 -- Contemporary American Artists

June-July, 1961 -- 19th & 20th Century American Artists

Oct. 10-28, 1961 -- David Shapiro Recent Paintings

Oct. 31-Nov. 18, 1961 -- Aaron Bohrod

Nov. 21-Dec. 9, 1961 -- Thomas Fransioli

Feb. 6-24, 1962 -- Retrospective Exhibition, Maurice Sterne

March 6-24, 1962 -- Three Watercolorists: Childe Hassam, John Whorf, and David Fredenthal

April 3-21, 1962 -- Thomas Blagden

April 24-May 12, 1962 -- Grigory Gluckmann

Summer, 1962 -- Gallery Group of Contemporary Americans

Sept., 1962 -- 19th & 20th Century American Artists

Oct., 1962 -- Gallery Group of Contemporary Americans

Oct. 30-Nov. 17, 1962 -- Stephen Etnier

Nov. 21-Dec. 8, 1962 -- Pleissner Recent Paintings

Dec., 1962 -- Group Exhibition

Jan. 22-Feb. 9, 1963 -- Paul Sample Recent Paintings

Feb. 11-March 2, 1963 -- Group of Contemporary Americans

March 5-23, 1963 -- Gouaches by John Taylor

March 26-April 13, 1963 -- Fletcher Martin Recent Paintings

April-May, 1963 -- Gallery Group-Contemporary Americans

Oct. 8-26, 1963 -- David Shapiro Recent Work

Oct. 30-Nov. 16, 1963 -- Xavier Gonzalez Recent Watercolors

Nov. 19-Dec. 7, 1963 -- New Paintings by Aaron Bohrod

April, 1964 -- Watercolors and Pastels

April 21-May 9, 1964 -- Grigory Gluckmann

May 13-29, 1964 -- Frank di Gioia Recent Paintings

Oct., 1964 -- Group Exhibition

Nov. 3-21, 1964 -- Stephen Etnier

Nov. 24-Dec. 12, 1964 -- Thomas Blagden

Jan., 1965 -- Comtemporary American Artists

Feb. 2-14, 1965 -- Figure Paintings by Murray Bewley

Feb. 2-14, 1965 -- Exhibition by George Biddle

Feb. 11-23, 1965 -- Paintings and Drawings by Max Bohm

Feb. 14-26, 1965 -- Paintings by Arthur C. Goodwin

Feb. 16-28, 1965 -- Water Colors by Matilda Browne

Feb. 16-March 6, 1965 -- Water Colors by Adolf Dehn

March, 1965 -- 19th and 20th Century American Artists

March 1-13, 1965 -- Bruce Crane, N.A.

March 6-25, 1965 -- Pastels of the Cascapedia River, Canada, by Arthur C. Goodwin

March 26-April 7, 1965 -- Paintings by Howard Russell Butler, N.A.

March 23-April 10, 1965 -- Paintings by Dan Lutz

March 28-April 16, 1965 -- Paintings by Henry Golden Dearth

April 2-21, 1965 -- Landscape Paintings by Bruce Crane, N.A.

April 13-May 1, 1965 -- Paintings by Louis Bosa

April 16-28, 1965 -- Water Colors and Etchings by Adolphe W. Blondheim

May, 1965 -- Gallery Contemporaries

Oct. 25-Nov. 13, 1965 -- Recent Landscapes by John F. Carlson, N.A.

Oct. 26-Nov. 13, 1965 -- Twenty-Four New Paintings by Aaron Bohrod, Artist in Residence, University of Wisconsin

Nov. 2-14, 1965 -- Paintings by Ann Crane

Nov. 5-17, 1965 -- Memorial Exhibition of Paintings of Venice by Wm. Gedney Bunce, N.A.

Nov. 7-19, 1965 -- Paintings and Sculpture by Matilda Browne

Nov. 16-Dec. 4, 1965 -- Electra Bostwick

Dec. 7-30, 1965 -- Recent Drawings and Watercolors of European Countries and North Africa by Frank di Gioia

Jan. 11-29, 1966 -- Georges Schreiber Watercolors: 1963-1965

Jan.-Feb., 1966 -- 19th and 20th Century American Artists

Feb.-March, 1966 -- Group Exhibition

June, 1966 -- Group Exhibition

Oct. 11-29, 1966 -- Thomas Blagden

Nov. 1-19, 1966 -- Stephen Etnier

Nov. 22-Dec. 10, 1966 -- Pleissner

Jan. 24-Feb. 11, 1967 -- Xavier Gonzalez

April, 1967 -- Group Exhibition

April 18-May 6, 1967 -- Grigory Gluckmann

July, 1967 -- Group Exhibition

undated -- Etchings and Color-Etchings

undated -- Etchings of China and Cambodia by Lucille Douglass

undated -- Thomas Jefferson Bust in Bronze by Robert Aitken, N.A.

undated -- Paintings by Ossip L. Linde

undated -- Etchings by William Meyerowitz

undated -- Recent Screens and Panels by Roy Mac Nicol

undated -- Summer Exhibition of Paintings and Watercolors by 19th and 20th Century American Artists

undated -- Paintings by Clement

undated -- Important Works in Paintings and Sculpture by Leading American Artists

Jan. 3-14, undated -- Armin Hansen

Jan. 8-27, undated* -- Recent Etchings by William Meyerowitz

Jan. 8-31, undated -- Group of American Figure Paintings, 19th and 20th Century

Jan. 9-21, undated -- Paintings by Katherine Langhorne Adams

Jan. 16-28, undated -- Paintings by Dewitt Parshall, N.A., and Douglass Parshall, N.A.

Jan. 23-Feb. 11, undated -- Paintings by Bruce Crane, Elliott Daingerfield, Granville Smith, and F. Ballard Williams

Jan. 27-Feb. 11, undated -- Willam de Leftwick Dodge

Jan. 28-Feb. 16, undated -- Paintings by Gari Melchers

Jan. 29-Feb. 10, undated -- Paintings of the California Coast by Armin Hansen

Jan. 30-Feb. 11, undated -- Sigrud Skou

Feb. 13-25, undated -- Water Colors by Alice Judson

Feb. 13-25, undated -- Paintings by Guy Wiggins, N.A.

Feb. 13-March 11, undated -- Paintings by H.T. Keasbey

Feb. 15-March 5, undated -- Frederic James

Feb. 17-March 1, undated -- Silver Point Drawings by Thelma E. Wood

Feb. 18-March 6, undated -- Landcapes, Nature Moods Expressed in Terms of Light by Julie Mathilde Morrow

Feb. 18-March 8, undated -- Paintings of Venice, Rome and French Landscape, also Pastel Drawings of the Battle Sectors of the 26th Division, A.E.F. by J. Alden Twachtman

Feb. 27-March 10, undated -- Portrait Busts and Drawings by Alexander Portnoff

March 5-17, undated* -- Pastels of the Hudson River by Arthur C. Goodwin

March 7-16, undated -- Paintings of Africa and Spain by Lillian Genth

March 7-26, undated -- Sigurd Skou

March 8-20, undated -- Paintings by Sigurd Skou

March 10-22, undated -- MacDowell Club of New York City Annual Exhibition of Paintings

March 22-April 10, undated -- Paintings of the Cathedrals of France by Pieter Van Veen

March 26-April 12, undated -- Paintings by E. Martin Hennings

March 26-April 14, undated -- Recent Etchings by Elias M. Grossman

March 28-April 16, undated -- Martha Walter Water Colors of Spain and North Africa

April 5-17, undated -- Paintings by Ernest L. Blumenschein, Victor Huggins, Walter Ufer

April 7-19, undated -- Figure Paintings by Louis Ritman

April 12-23, undated -- Portraits and Figure Paintings by Edith Catlin Phelps

April 12-24, undated -- Paintings of American Gardens by Abbott Graves

April 16-28, undated -- Portrait Drawings in Pastel by Jessie Voss Lewis (Mrs. H.L. Daingerfield Lewis)

April 19-May 1, undated -- Paintings by Valentino Molina

April 21-May 3, undated -- Paintings of Tahiti and California by William Ritschel, N.A.

April 21-May 3, undated -- Leonard Lopp, Glacier Park Artist

April 22-May 15, undated -- Sculpture for House, Garden & Grounds by Leading American Artists, and Pottery by Clara L. Poillon

April 24-May 5, undated -- Paintings by Thalia Millett

April 26-May 15, undated -- Dan Lutz, Mighican Summer and Mexican Sojourn

April 26-May 15, undated -- William H. Singer

April 27-May 16, undated -- Recent Paintings by Gluckmann

May 3-28, undated -- Exhibition of Sculpture for Garden and Grounds by Leading Sculptors

May 5-17, undated -- Recent American Sculpture in Bronze, Wood and Terra Cotta for the Town and Country House, Grounds and Garden

Oct. 11-23, undated -- Paintings by Anna Heyward Taylor

Oct. 25-Nov. 13, undated -- Water Colors by Alice Judson

Oct. 27-Nov. 15, undated -- Paintings and Etchings by William Auerbach-Levy

Oct. 30-Nov. 11, undated* -- Connecticut Landscape Paintings by Robert Nisbet, A.N.A.

Oct. 31-Nov. 12, undated -- Paintings of China and Tibet by Alice Job

Oct. 31-Nov. 14, undated -- Drawings by James Wilkie

Nov. 5-17, undated -- Paintings of Venice

Nov. 15-27, undated* -- Water Colors by Childe Hassam

Nov. 16-Dec. 5, undated -- Recent Etchings by Alfred Hutty

Nov. 16-Dec. 5, undated -- Paintings by W. Elmer Schofield

Nov. 17-29, undated -- Paintings and Etchings by Power O'Malley

Nov. 18-30, undated -- Recent Work in Water Color and Etching by Louis Wolchonok

Nov. 19-Dec. 1, undated -- Winter Landscapes in Water Color by Walter Launt Palmer, N.A.

Nov. 19-Dec. 1, undated -- Painter Friends, Robert H. Nisbet, Guy C, Wiggins, Edward C. Volkert, Wilson Irvine, George M. Bruestle, and Carl J. Nordell

Nov. 23-, undated -- Landscapes by Ault, Brook, Coleman, Karfiol, Ritman, Speight, Sterne, and Weber

Nov. 23-Dec. 6, undated -- Portraits of America's Most Distinguished Women by Leon Gordon

Nov. 24-Dec. 3, undated -- Sculpture by Gleb Derujinsky

Nov. 26-Dec., undated -- Exhibition of Recent Vermont Landscapes by Edward Bruce

Nov. 26-Dec. 5, undated -- Alfred Hutty

Nov. 27-Dec. 9, undated -- Paintings by Sigure Schou

Dec. 1-27, undated -- Works Painted in Spain by Maurice Fromkes

Dec. 1-25, undated -- Annual Holiday Exhibition of Selected Paintings of Limited Size

Dec. 3-29, undated -- Recent Paintings, Water Colors, and Etchings by Hilde Hassam, N.A., of the American Academy of Arts and Letters

Dec. 6-30, undated -- Selected Paintings for the Home by American Artists

Dec. 14-Jan. 2, undated -- Recent Paintings by George Shillard

Dec. 20-Jan. 8, undated -- Selected Small Paintings for the Home

Dec. 27-Jan. 12, undated -- Helen K. McCarthy Memorial Exhibition

Dec. 30-Jan. 18, undated -- Paintings by Stewart McDermot

Dec. 31-Jan. 12, undated -- Second Annual Exhibition in Pure Water Color by The Aquarellists
Provenance:
Milch Gallery gave the Archives of American Art a small selection of correspondence, photographs, and printed matter, and loaned a few other items in 1966-1967; these records were microfilmed on reels D285, N730, and NM1-NM2. Records of the Milch Gallery were purchased from the estate of Harold C. Milch by Elliott Galleries of New York City, and subsequently acquired by Salander-O'Reilly Galleries, which donated them to the Archives in 1986. With the exception of the scrapbook about Thomas Moran (reel N730; present location of the original is unknown), prior loans and gifts from Milch Gallery were incorporated and refilmed with the 1986 gift.

Stuart Feld of Hirschl & Adler Galleries donated an additional .8 linear feet of records in 1995. Zachary Ross of Hirschl & Adler Galleries donated 2.2 linear feet in 2014.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research. Patrons must use microfilm copy.
Rights:
The Milch Gallery records are owned by the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Literary rights as possessed by the donor have been dedicated to public use for research, study, and scholarship. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
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Gallery owners  Search this
Art -- Collectors and collecting  Search this
Art, American  Search this
Art galleries, Commercial -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Art dealers -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Genre/Form:
Gallery records
Photographs
Citation:
Milch Gallery records, 1911-1995. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.milcgall
See more items in:
Milch Gallery records
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-milcgall

Henri Vever Papers

Creator:
Vever, Henri, 1854-1942  Search this
Names:
Vever, Henri, 1854-1942  Search this
Extent:
2.5 Linear feet (circa 35 items)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Diaries
Place:
Le Havre (France)
Paris (France)
Date:
1867-1932
Summary:
The papers of Parisian jeweler and art collector Henri Vever (1854-1942) include six diaries; a ledger of his art acquisitions; original oil paintings by Vever; and photographs. The materials document Vever's circle of friends, patrons, and other art collectors in turn-of-the-century Paris.
Scope and Content Note:
The Henri Vever Papers measure 2.5 linear feet (35 items) and span the years 1875 --1932. The collection contains six diaries, an account ledger, 20 photographs, one guest list, one ceremonial pommel, and six original oil paintings by Henri Vever.
Arrangement note:
This collection is organized into five series:

Series 1: Diaries, 1878-1901

Series 2: Account Ledger, 1894, 1907-1917

Series 3: Photographs, 1867-1932, n.d

— Subseries 3.1: Henri Vever and Family

— Subseries 3.2: Vever Family Estate in Noyers, France

Series 4: Art Works, 1914-1915

— Subseries 4.1: Pommel

— Subseries 4.2: Le Havre, France

— Subseries 4.3: Château de Noyers
Biographical Information:
Henri Vever Chronology

1854 -- Vever born in Metz, France.

1870 -- Following the German annexation of Metz during the Franco-Prussian War, the Vever family leaves Metz for Luxembourg.

1871 -- Jean-Jacques Ernest Vever (father of Henri) buys a jewelry studio in Paris. Vever begins apprenticeship at Loguet and at Hallet and attends night classes at the Ecole des Art Décoratif in Paris.

1873 -- Vever enters the Ecole des Beaux-Arts and the studios of M.A. Millet and J.L. Gérôme.

1881 -- Jean-Jacques Ernest Vever retires and Vever and his brother Paul assume control of the jewelry shop (Maison Vever). Henri Vever marries Jeanne Monthiers.

1882 -- Jeanne Vever gives birth to Marguerite Vever, the couple's only child.

1885 -- Vever buys first painting.

1891 -- Vever travels to Russia where the Maison Vever takes part in a jewelry exhibition in Moscow.

1892 -- Vever becomes a regular participant of the dîners japonisants organized by art dealer Siegfried Bing.

1893 -- Vever appointed commissioner for jewelry to the World's Columbian Exposition, in Chicago. Maison Vever exhibits jewelry at the Exposition.

1894 -- Vever donates forty Japanese prints to the Louvre.

1900 -- Vever joins the Société Franco-Japonasie and is elected the mayor of Noyers, France.

1906-1908 -- Vever publishes, Bijouterie Française au XIXe Siècle.

1913 -- With Georges Marteau, Vever authors, Miniatures Persanesa catalogue of the 1912 Exposition des Arts Musulmans.

1915 -- Paul Vever dies.

1919 -- Maison Vever commissioned to make sword of honor offered to Marshall Ferdinand Foch by the city of Paris to celebrate the end of World War I.

1921 -- Vever retires.

1939 -- Marguerite Vever dies.

1942 -- Henri Vever dies.

1982 -- Maison Vever closes.

Jeweler, art collector, and author Henri Vever was born in Metz, France in 1854. Together with his older brother Paul, Henri Vever managed the family jewelry firm, Maison Vever, from 1881 until Paul's death in 1915 and Henri's retirement in 1921. As an art collector, Vever amassed a large collection of European, Asian, and Islamic art. Through his work as a jeweler, art collector, and author, Henri Vever played an important role in the twentieth-century art world.

To equip him with the proper skills to run Maison Vever, Henri Vever apprenticed in the studios of Louguet and of Hallet and attended the Ecole des Arts Décoratifs in 1871. Two years later, the Ecole des Beaux-Arts accepted Henri and he entered the studios of artists M.A. Millet and J.L. Gérôme. Jean-Jacque Ernest Vever retired from Maison Vever in 1881 and his two sons, Henri and Paul, assumed control.

The youngest son of Jean-Jacques Ernest Vever, Henri Vever was born into a family of jewelers. His grandfather, Pierre-Paul Vever, launched a successful jewelry shop in Metz in 1854. Upon retirement, Pierre-Paul Vever's son, Henri's father, assumed control of the shop. With the German annexation of Metz during the Franco-Prussian War in 1870, Jean-Jacque Ernest Vever took his family to Luxembourg and one year later acquired a jewelry shop at 19 Rue de la Paix in Paris and named the new shop Maison Vever.

That same year Henri married Jeanne Monthiers and she gave birth to the couple's only child, Margeurite, in 1882. Henri, Jeanne, and Margeurite Vever lived at 19 Rue de la Paix in the same building that housed Maison Vever. In 1892 Jeanne Vever inherited her family's estate in Noyers, France.

The Vever brothers ran a very successful jewelry studio. Not only did Maison Vever's clientele base expand during their tenure, but its designs were often prizewinners at various expositions around the world. The 1900 Exposition Universalle in Paris offers an example. The Maison Vever submission won a Grand Prix at this exposition in which the art movement Art Nouveau played a major role.

Henri Vever was a proponent of the Art Nouveau movement, a turn-of-the-century art movement whose adherents sought to forge a new, modern style, one that would, "reunite art and craft." According to curator Glenn Lowry, Vever's interest in Art Nouveau affected the Maison Vever's designs. "…during the 1880s many of the Maison Vever's designs were highly traditional, by the beginning of the 1890s the firm was at the vanguard of the art nouveau movement.

In addition to his work at Maison Vever, Vever amassed an enormous and influential collection of European, Asian, and Islamic art. Initially a collector of European art, by the late 1880s Vever's collecting interests expanded to include Asian and then Islamic art works. According to Lowry, Vever's interest in Islamic art was sparked in 1891 when he traveled to Moscow to participate in a jewelry exhibition. In approximately 1892 Vever joined Les Amis de l'Art Japonais, a group whose members met for dinners at which they discussed Japanese art. Claude Monet was also a member of this group.

From 1906 to 1908, Vever published a three-volume series, Bijouterie Française au XIXe Siècle . This set became the, "standard text on nineteenth-century jewelry". Through his art collections, writings, and profession, Henri Vever played an important role in the twentieth-century art world. He acquired a large art collection and often loaned pieces out for exhibition to various galleries and museums throughout the world. Henri Vever retired from Maison Vever in 1921 and the sons of Paul Vever, André and Pierre, took over the reigns. Henri Vever died in 1942 at the country estate in Noyers. Maison Vever continued operation until 1982 when it permanently shut its doors.
General note:
For a more detailed look at the life of Henri Vever, please see the following publication from which much of this biographical information originates: Lowry, G.D. with Nemazee, S. (1988). -- A jeweler's eye: Islamic arts of the book from the Vever Collection -- . Washington D.C.: Arthur M. Sackler Gallery, Smithsonian Insitution with Seattle: University of Washington Press.

Biographical Overview

1854 -- Vever born in Metz, France.

1870 -- Following the German annexation of Metz during the Franco-Prussian War, the Vever family leaves Metz for Luxembourg.

1871 -- Jean-Jacques Ernest Vever (father of Henri) buys a jewelry studio in Paris. Vever begins apprenticeship at Loguet and at Hallet and attends night classes at the Ecole des Art Décoratif in Paris.

1873 -- Vever enters the Ecole des Beaux-Arts and the studios of M.A. Millet and J.L. Gérôme.

1881 -- Jean-Jacques Ernest Vever retires and Vever and his brother Paul assume control of the jewelry shop (Maison Vever). Henri Vever marries Jeanne Monthiers.

1882 -- Jeanne Vever gives birth to Marguerite Vever, the couple's only child.

1885 -- Vever buys first painting.

1891 -- Vever travels to Russia where the Maison Vever takes part in a jewelry exhibition in Moscow.

1892 -- Vever becomes a regular participant of the dîners japonisants organized by art dealer Siegfried Bing.

1893 -- Vever appointed commissioner for jewelry to the World's Columbian Exposition, in Chicago. Maison Vever exhibits jewelry at the Exposition.

1894 -- Vever donates forty Japanese prints to the Louvre.

1900 -- Vever joins the Société Franco-Japonasie and is elected the mayor of Noyers, France.

1906-1908 -- Vever publishes, Bijouterie Française au XIXe Siècle.

1913 -- With Georges Marteau, Vever authors, Miniatures Persanes a catalogue of the 1912 Exposition des Arts Musulmans.

1915 -- Paul Vever dies.

1919 -- Maison Vever commissioned to make sword of honor offered to Marshall Ferdinand Foch by the city of Paris to celebrate the end of World War I.

1921 -- Vever retires.

1939 -- Marguerite Vever dies.

1942 -- Henri Vever dies.

1982 -- Maison Vever closes.
Related Archival Materials note:
The Arthur M. Sackler Gallery holds the, Vever Collection of Islamic Manuscripts. Additionally, the Archives holds, the Vever Family Photograph Album which contains photographs depicting the Vever family from 1881-1930 and the family estate in Noyers, France.
Provenance:
The Henri Vever Papers were donated to the Archives by the grandson of Henri Vever, François Mautin, in 1988. Additionally, Mr. Mautin donated six original oil paintings by Henri Vever to the Arthur M. Sackler Gallery in 1988. These paintings were transferred to the Archives in 1993.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
No restrictions on use.
Topic:
Art nouveau  Search this
Art dealers -- France -- Paris  Search this
Works of art  Search this
Art, Asian  Search this
Jewelry -- History -- Twentieth century -- France  Search this
Art, Islamic  Search this
Art, European  Search this
Art -- Collectors and collecting -- France -- Paris  Search this
Jewelry -- History -- Nineteenth century -- France  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Diaries
Citation:
Henri Vever Papers. Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives. Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.

Gift of François Mautin, 1988
Henri Vever Papers. Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives. Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. Gift of François Mautin, 1988
Identifier:
FSA.A1988.04
See more items in:
Henri Vever Papers
Archival Repository:
Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-fsa-a1988-04
Online Media:

Dinner List: "Dîner des amis de l'art Japonais" Guest list and addresses for a dinner, guests include Claude Monet.

Creator:
Vever, Henri, 1854-1942  Search this
Names:
Clemenceau, Georges, 1841-1929  Search this
James McNeill Whistler, 1834-1903  Search this
Monet, Claude, 1840-1926  Search this
Vever, Henri, 1854-1942  Search this
Zorn, Anders.  Search this
Collection Creator:
Vever, Henri, 1854-1942  Search this
Extent:
4 Items (handwritten pages)
Container:
Box 1, Folder 7
Type:
Archival materials
Place:
Paris (France)
France -- Ile-de-France -- Paris
Date:
1893
Scope and Contents:
Handwritten list of guests to a dinner by Société des amis de l'art japonais (Society of Friends of Japanese Art), likely held in Paris in 1893. Guests included an array of notable artists, politicians, collectors, dealers and publishers.
Guest list of Les Amis de Art Japonaise Diner
Biographical / Historical:
Jeweler, art collector, and author Henri Vever was born in Metz, France in 1854. Together with his older brother Paul, Henri Vever managed the family jewelry firm, Maison Vever, from 1881 until Paul's death in 1915 and Henri's retirement in 1921. As an art collector, Vever amassed a large collection of European, Asian, and Islamic art. Through his work as a jeweler, art collector, and author, Henri Vever played an important role in the twentieth-century art world.
The Société des amis de l'art japonais (Society of Friends of Japanese Art) was first organized in 1892 by the Paris Asian art dealer Sigfried Bing. Vever was a founding member. The group held dinners multiple times each year to discuss their interest primarily in Japanese prints.
Local Numbers:
FSA A1988.04 4.1
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
No restrictions on use.
Occupation:
Art dealers -- France -- Paris  Search this
Topic:
Art -- Collectors and collecting -- France -- Paris  Search this
Art, Asian  Search this
Art, Japanese  Search this
Collection Citation:
Henri Vever Papers. Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives. Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.

Gift of François Mautin, 1988
Henri Vever Papers. Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives. Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. Gift of François Mautin, 1988
Identifier:
FSA.A1988.04, Item FSA A1988.04 4.1
See more items in:
Henri Vever Papers
Henri Vever Papers / Series 1: Diaries
Archival Repository:
Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-fsa-a1988-04-ref106
Online Media:

Account Ledger

Creator:
Vever, Henri, 1854-1942  Search this
Names:
Vever, Henri, 1854-1942  Search this
Yamanaka, Sadajiro  Search this
Collection Creator:
Vever, Henri, 1854-1942  Search this
Extent:
175 Items (pages of handwriting)
Type:
Archival materials
Works of art
Photographs
Place:
Paris (France)
France -- Ile-de-France -- Paris
Date:
1907-1917
Scope and Contents:
Handwritten ledger of Henri Vever's purchases of art from dealers between January 1907 and July 1917. Dealers include Yamanaka Sadajiro, Marcel Bing and George Joseph Demotte.
Arrangement:
This collection is in a box with a smaller, unbound purchase ledger dated 1894.
Biographical / Historical:
Jeweler, art collector, and author Henri Vever was born in Metz, France in 1854. Together with his older brother Paul, Henri Vever managed the family jewelry firm, Maison Vever, from 1881 until Paul's death in 1915 and Henri's retirement in 1921. As an art collector, Vever amassed a large collection of European, Asian, and Islamic art. Through his work as a jeweler, art collector, and author, Henri Vever played an important role in the twentieth-century art world.
Local Numbers:
FSA A1988.04 2.2
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
No restrictions on use.
Occupation:
Art dealers -- France -- Paris  Search this
Topic:
Art -- Collectors and collecting -- France -- Paris  Search this
Art, Asian  Search this
Art, European  Search this
Art, Islamic  Search this
Genre/Form:
Works of art
Photographs
Collection Citation:
Henri Vever Papers. Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives. Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.

Gift of François Mautin, 1988
Henri Vever Papers. Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives. Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. Gift of François Mautin, 1988
Identifier:
FSA.A1988.04, Item FSA A1988.04 2.2
See more items in:
Henri Vever Papers
Henri Vever Papers / Series 2: Account Ledger / Account Ledger
Archival Repository:
Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-fsa-a1988-04-ref609

Charles D. Clark papers

Creator:
Clark, Charles D., 1917-1990  Search this
Extent:
7 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Date:
1960-1980
Scope and Contents:
Files on artists, American and European galleries, museums, universities, individuals, and other institutions; biographical sketches, photographs, exhibition catalogs; and printed material.
Exhibition catalogs; lists of galleries specializing in prints, print workshops and publishers, books on prints, art periodicals, auction houses, and print collections; and a poster.
Files on artists, including correspondence with Garo Antreasian, Mort Baranoff, James W. Boynton, Joseph Cain, William Crutchfield, Harriette Frances, Robert Motherwell, Harold Paris, Annabelle Shelly, Gwen Stone, and others. Also included are biographical sketches, photographs, exhibition and auction catalogs, receipts, clippings, and other printed material.
Biographical / Historical:
Charles D. Clark (1917-1990) was a print collector from McAllen, Texas.
Provenance:
Material on reels 1822-1827 and 1916-1918 lent for microfilming 1979-1980; and material on reel 2249 donated 1979 all by Charles D. Clark.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C., Research Center. Contact Reference Services for more information.
Topic:
Art -- Collectors and collecting  Search this
Prints -- Collectors and collecting  Search this
Identifier:
AAA.clarchar
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-clarchar

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