Skip to main content Smithsonian Institution

Search Results

Collections Search Center
867 documents - page 1 of 44

American Academy in Rome records, 1855-2012

Creator:
American Academy in Rome  Search this
Subject:
Aldrich, Chester Holmes  Search this
Boring, William  Search this
Breck, George  Search this
Dinsmoor, William B.  Search this
Egbert, J. C. (James Chidester)  Search this
Ely, Theo. N.  Search this
Kendall, William M.  Search this
Hewlett, James Monroe  Search this
Guernsey, Roscoe  Search this
Mead, William Rutherford  Search this
McKim, Charles Follen  Search this
Marquand, Allan  Search this
La Farge, C. Grant (Christopher Grant)  Search this
Platt, Charles A. (Charles Adams)  Search this
Mowbray, H. Siddons (Harry Siddons)  Search this
Faulkner, Barry  Search this
Morey, Charles Rufus  Search this
Millet, Francis Davis  Search this
Stevens, Gorham Phillips  Search this
Smith, James Kellum  Search this
Roberts, Laurance P.  Search this
Pope, John Russell  Search this
Ward, John Quincy Adams  Search this
Vedder, Elihu  Search this
Vitale, Ferrucio  Search this
American Academy in Rome  Search this
American School of Architecture in Rome  Search this
American School of Classical Studies in Rome  Search this
Type:
Photographs
Citation:
American Academy in Rome records, 1855-2012. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Topic:
Architecture -- Study and teaching  Search this
Architecture, Classical -- Study and teaching  Search this
Art -- Study and teaching  Search this
Art schools -- Italy -- Rome  Search this
Theme:
Architecture & Design  Search this
Art organizations  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)6320
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)225063
AAA_collcode_ameracar
Theme:
Architecture & Design
Art organizations
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_225063
Online Media:

[Entrance to building with giant columns. Active no. 21094 : non-stereo photonegative.]

Publisher:
Underwood & Underwood  Search this
Collection Creator:
Underwood & Underwood  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (3-3/4" x 3-1/2".)
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Local Numbers:
RSN 16154
General:
Company catalog card included.
Currently stored in box 3.1.51 [100].
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research but is stored off-site and special arrangements must be made to work with it. The original glass plate is available for inspection if necessary in the Archives Center. A limited number of fragile glass negatives and positives in the collection can be viewed directly in the Archives Center by prior appointment. Contact the Archives Center for information at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Columns  Search this
Architecture, Classical  Search this
Crowds  Search this
Doorways  Search this
Entrances  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- 1900-1910 -- Black-and-white negatives -- Glass
Collection Citation:
Underwood &Underwood Glass Stereograph Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
Underwood & Underwood Glass Stereograph Collection
Underwood & Underwood Glass Stereograph Collection / Series 3: Underwood & Underwood glass plates / 3.1: Underwood and Underwood Negatives / RSN Numbers 16091-16193
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8ec49e96f-8b46-4e0d-aadd-cf9fdb1ba708
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0143-ref12588

[Exterior of building with columns, trees, figures. Active no. 22045 : non-stereo photonegative.]

Publisher:
Underwood & Underwood  Search this
Collection Creator:
Underwood & Underwood  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (3-3/4" x 3-1/2".)
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Local Numbers:
RSN 16272
General:
Currently stored in box 3.1.52 [124].
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research but is stored off-site and special arrangements must be made to work with it. The original glass plate is available for inspection if necessary in the Archives Center. A limited number of fragile glass negatives and positives in the collection can be viewed directly in the Archives Center by prior appointment. Contact the Archives Center for information at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Architecture, Classical  Search this
Buildings  Search this
Trees  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- 1900-1910 -- Black-and-white negatives -- Glass
Collection Citation:
Underwood &Underwood Glass Stereograph Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
Underwood & Underwood Glass Stereograph Collection
Underwood & Underwood Glass Stereograph Collection / Series 3: Underwood & Underwood glass plates / 3.1: Underwood and Underwood Negatives / RSN Numbers 16194-16293
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep827e3fe0e-c426-452f-bef3-9d0ba5e1b805
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0143-ref12706

American Academy in Rome records

Creator:
American Academy in Rome  Search this
Names:
American Academy in Rome  Search this
American School of Architecture in Rome  Search this
American School of Classical Studies in Rome  Search this
Aldrich, Chester Holmes, 1871-1940  Search this
Boring, William, 1859-1937  Search this
Breck, George, 1863-1920  Search this
Dinsmoor, William B.  Search this
Egbert, J. C. (James Chidester), 1859-1948  Search this
Ely, Theo. N.  Search this
Faulkner, Barry, 1881-1966  Search this
Guernsey, Roscoe  Search this
Hewlett, James Monroe  Search this
Kendall, William M.  Search this
La Farge, C. Grant (Christopher Grant), 1862-1938  Search this
Marquand, Allan, 1853-1924  Search this
McKim, Charles Follen, 1847-1909  Search this
Mead, William Rutherford, 1846-1928  Search this
Millet, Francis Davis, 1846-1912  Search this
Morey, Charles Rufus, 1877-1955  Search this
Mowbray, H. Siddons (Harry Siddons), 1858-1928  Search this
Platt, Charles A. (Charles Adams), 1861-1933  Search this
Pope, John Russell, 1874-1937  Search this
Roberts, Laurance P.  Search this
Smith, James Kellum, 1893-1963  Search this
Stevens, Gorham Phillips, 1876-  Search this
Vedder, Elihu, 1836-1923  Search this
Vitale, Ferrucio, 1875-1933  Search this
Ward, John Quincy Adams, 1830-1910  Search this
Extent:
65.9 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Date:
1855-2012
Summary:
The records of the American Academy in Rome measure 65.9 linear feet and date from 1855 to 2012. The collection documents the history of the institution from its inception in 1894 as the American School of Architecture in Rome, through the end of World War II, and chronicles the contributions the academy has made to America's cultural and intellectual development. Nearly one-half of the collection consists of an unprocessed addition received in 2014 containing records that mostly post-date World War II and include correspondence and subject files of officers and executives based in the New York office of American Academy in Rome.
Scope and Content Note:
The records of the American Academy in Rome measure 65.9 linear feet and date from 1855 to 2012. The collection documents the history of the institution from its inception in 1894 as the American School of Architecture in Rome, through the end of World War II, and chronicles the contributions the academy has made to America's cultural and intellectual development. Nearly one-half of the collection consists of an unprocessed addition received in 2014 containing records that mostly post-date World War II and include correspondence and subject files of officers and executives based in the New York office of American Academy in Rome.

Items predating the 1894 founding of the American School of Architecture in Rome are personal papers and memorabilia of individuals associated with the institution.

Series 1: Predecessor Institutions, is composed of the records of the American School of Architecture in Rome, 1894-1898, and the American School of Classical Studies in Rome, 1895-1913. Records of the American School of Architecture in Rome include records of its Managing Committee, correspondence, financial records, and printed matter. Among the Managing Committee's records are notes and correspondence relative to the founding of the institution, minute books and reports; also, legal documents including records concerning its dissolution prior to being reorganized as the American Academy in Rome. Correspondence is mostly that of Vice President Charles F. McKim who handled administrative matters. Financial records include capital stock certificates, invoices and receipts. Printed matter consists of scholarship competition announcements.

Records of the American School of Classical Studies in Rome include records of its Managing Committee, Committee on Fellowships, publications, printed matter, and treasurers' records. The Managing Committee's records consist of the proposed resolution concerning its merger with the American Academy in Rome. Committee on Fellowship records are comprised of correspondence, reports, and fellowship applications. Publications records include correspondence and invoices. Printed matter includes general information, annual reports of the Managing Committee and Director, annual reports of the Committee on Medieval and Renaissance Studies, fellowship applications and examination questions, and the proposed consolidation agreement. Treasurers' records include the files of Alex. Bell and Willard V. King. Bell's sparse records consist of a budget, receipts for salary payments, an invoice, canceled checks, and correspondence. King's files, while more substantial than those that survive from Bell's tenure, are quite incomplete. They include correspondence, banking records, budgets and financial statements, investment records, invoices, and receipts for salaries and expenses.

Series 2: Board of Trustees Records, is comprised of legal documents, minutes, and reports; records of Trustee committees; records of officers; and records of individual Trustees. Legal documents, 1897-1926 and undated, consist of by-laws and amendments, certificate of incorporation, and constitution and amendments. Minutes and reports of the Board of Trustees, 1897-1947 and 1957, including those of its annual meetings, are carbon copies rather than the official minute books, and are incomplete. Reports of officers are incomplete, as well. Also included are reports of Officers'/Trustees' visits to Rome, and reports of the Director and Secretary in Rome submitted to the Board of Trustees.

Records of Trustee committees, 1905-1946 and undated, consist of reports and/or minutes arranged alphabetically by committee; these, too are incomplete, with many committees represented by a single report. Committees represented are: Building Committee, Carter Memorial Committee, Endowment Committee, Executive Committee, Finance Committee, Library Committee, McKim Memorial Committee, Nominating Committee, Committee on Publications. Committee on the School of Classical Studies records consist of its own minutes and reports, reports of its Advisory Council and the Jury on Classical Fellowships. Committee on the School of Classical Studies also include reports of officers and staff of the School of Classical Studies to the Committee on the School of Classical Studies as follows: Director, Professor in Charge, Annual Professor, Director of the Summer Session, Professor of Archaeology, Curator of the Museum, Editor, Librarian, and Committee on the Welfare of Women Students. Committee on the School of Fine Arts records consist of its own minutes and reports, reports of its Special Committee on the Plan and Expense of a Department of Music in the School of Fine Arts, and report of Fine Arts Program, Triptych Project with the Citizens Committee for the Army and Navy, Inc.; also, reports of officers and staff of the School of Fine Arts to the Committee on the School of Fine Arts as follows: Director, Professor in Charge, Associate in Charge, Annual Professor, Professor in Charge of the Department of Musical Composition. In addition, there are minutes and/or reports of the Committee of Twelve and Subcommittee of Five and the Special Committee on Villa Aurelia.

Records of Officers. 1898-1957 and undated, consist mainly of correspondence files and reports, with large numbers of transcriptions and carbon copies. Included are records of: Presidents Charles F. McKim, William R. Mead, Charles A. Platt, John Russell Pope, and James Kellum Smith; Vice Presidents Theodore N. Ely, George B. McClellan, and Henry James; Secretaries H. Siddons Mowbray (Secretary/Treasurer), Frank D. Millet, C. Grant La Farge, William B. Dinsmoor, and H. Richardson Pratt; and Treasurers William R. Mead, William A. Boring, Leon Fraser, and Lindsay Bradford Office files of President Mead, Secretaries Millet and La Farge, and Treasurer Boring are the most complete; files of other individuals, the Vice Presidents in particular, are often quite sparse.

Records of individual Trustees, 1902-1946 and undated, consist of material relating to official Academy business that was created or maintained by each in his capacity as trustee. (Note: many of these individuals also served as officers or staff of the Academy, and their records documenting those functions will be found in the appropriate series.) Included in this subseries are the records of: Chester H. Aldrich, Gilmore D. Clarke, James C. Egbert, Barry Faulkner, Allan C. Johnson, William M. Kendall, C. Grant La Farge, Edward P. Mellon, Charles Dyer Norton, Charles A. Platt, John Russell Pope, Edward K. Rand, John C. Rolfe, James Kellum Smith, S. Breck Trowbridge, Ferruccio Vitale, John Quincy Adams Ward, Andrew F. West, and William L. Westerman. These records tend to be sparse; files maintained by James C. Egbert, Barry Faulkner, Allan C. Johnson, and Ferruccio Vitale are notable exceptions.

Series 3: New York Office Records, consists of records of staff, rosters, printed matter, photographs, personal papers, Association of Alumni of the American Academy in Rome, and miscellaneous records.

Records of staff, 1919-1950 and undated, include the office files of Executive Secretaries Roscoe Guersney, Meriwether Stuart, and Mary T. Williams; Librarian George K. Boyce; and Endowment Fund Campaign Secretaries Phillilps B. Robinson and Edgar I. Williams.

The rosters, 1895-1939 and undated, are printed forms completed by fellows and students, with occasional attachments (usually correspondence or photographs). Included are the rosters of the School of Fine Arts, School of Classical Studies, and School of Classical Studies Summer Sessions.

Printed matter, 1905-[1981?] and undated, has been classified as Academy produced and produced by others. Items produced by the Academy, 1905-[1981?], include general information including act of incorporation and by-laws, fundraising brochure, constitution, Directory of Fellows and Residents, histories of the institution, newsletter of the Director, and printed items relating to special events. Printed matter specifically relating to the School of Classical Studies includes annual announcements, the consolidation agreement, a directory, fellowship announcements and applications, lecture announcements, newsletters, and brochures about summer sessions. School of Fine Arts printed matter includes annual announcements, concert programs, exhibition checklists and catalogs, fellowship announcements and application forms, history, and newsletters.

Printed matter produced by others, 1905-1940 and undated, consists of three scrapbooks of news clippings and photographs compiled by the American Academy in Rome, extensive clipping files, and articles from miscellaneous publications. All of these items are about the American Academy in Rome, or by or about individuals associated with the institution. Also included is a poster for Leave Courses offered at the Academy for U. S. servicemen.

Photographs, 1891-1941 and undated, are organized into the categories of works of art, people, buildings, places, events, and miscellaneous. Works of art are by visiting students and fellows, Frank D. Millet, collaborative problems, Rome Prize Competitions in Architecture, Rome Prize Competitions in Landscape Architecture, and Prix de Rome Competition exhibitions. Photographs of people are both of individuals and groups; among the groups are summer school students and fellowship winners.

Buildings depicted are American Academy properties. Among them are the "New Building," including interior and exterior construction views; studios; and Villas Aurelia, Mirafiore, and Richardson. Also included is a group of photographs of Academy architecture students measuring buildings in Rome and Florence. Places pictured are views of the Academy property and surrounding areas.

Photographs of events include cricket games, Thanksgiving and Fourth of July dinners, Architectural League exhibition, and inauguration of the Manship Fountain. Miscellaneous photographs are of an architectural drawing for a proposed building.

Personal Papers, Memorabilia, and Ephemera, 1855-1923 an undated, were donated to the American Academy in Rome or otherwise left on its premises. None are official records generated by the institution. Included are: Ernest Lewis' photograph album/scrapbook; Allan Marquand's papers; Charles F. McKim's memorabilia, photographs, printed matter, and artifacts; Charles R. Morey's correspondence; and Elihu Vedder's Bible.

Records of the Association of the Alumni of the American Academy in Rome, 1913-1945 and undated), consist of a small number of scattered records including correspondence, fellows' war/government service information (compiled by Sidney Waugh), membership lists, and a newsletter.

Miscellaneous records, 1899-1926 and undated, are writings and architectural records. Writings consist of published and unpublished manuscript material about the American Academy in Rome and its history, and article by H. Siddons Mowbray advising on ornamentation, and text and illustrations for the Art and Archaeology issue on the Academy. Also included are fragments of unidentified letters. Architectural records [oversize] include property and floor plans of Villas Aurora, Chiaraviglio, Ferrari, and Ludovisi.

Series 4: Rome Office Records, consist of records of staff and personal papers. Records of staff, 1903-1947 and undated, include the office files of Directors H. Siddons Mowbray, George Breck, Jesse Benedict Carter, Gorham Phillips Stevens, James Monroe Hewlett, Chester H. Aldrich, Amey Aldrich [Acting Director, very briefly, perhaps unofficially], Charles R. Morey, and Laurance P. Roberts; and records of two members of the School of Fine Arts faculty, Frank P. Fairbanks, Professor of Fine Arts, and Felix Lamond, Professor of Music. Records of Carter, Stevens, Hewlett, and Aldrich appear to be fairly complete; records of early directors are sparse; those of Morey and Roberts appear to be missing significant portions; and those of Professors Fairbanks and Lamond consist of a few scattered items.

Also surviving are the personal papers of Director Gorham Phillips Stevens, 1912-1931 and undated), consisting of correspondence, financial records, and documentation of professional and charitable activities.

Series 5: Unprocessed Addition to the American Academy in Rome Records was received in 2014 and consists of 31.6 linear feet of the New York office's records for officers, directors, and executives.
Arrangement:
It was obvious that before they came to the Archives of American Art the records had been rearranged more than once, and in such a way that materials from many different departments had been intermingled. In keeping with archival theory and practice, the records were organized to reflect the structure and operation of the institution that created the records, making them more understandable and accessible to a wide variety of researchers.

In general, the records of each officer and staff member are arranged alphabetically, with general correspondence preceding the alphabetical sequence; arrangement within each file is chronological, unless noted otherwise.

Records of the American Academy in Rome are organized into five major series. Each series, except series 5, is divided into several subseries, with the arrangement described in detail in the series descriptions.

Missing Title

Series 1: Predecessor Institutions, 1894-1913 (box 1; 0.88 linear ft.; Reels 5749-5750)

Series 2: Board of Trustees Records, 1897-1957, undated (boxes 1-17, 35, 37; 15.25 linear ft.; Reels 5750-5777)

Series 3: New York Office, 1855-circa 1981, undated (boxes 17-32, 36; 15 linear ft.; 5777-5795)

Series 4: Rome Office, 1903-1943, undated (boxes 32-34; 3 linear ft.; 5795-5800)

Series 5: Unprocessed Addition to the American Academy in Rome Records, 1933-2002 (boxes 35-103; 31.6 linear ft.)
Historical Note:
While in Chicago to advise and work on the fine arts section of the 1893 World's Columbian Exposition, architects Charles F. McKim, Daniel Burnham, and Richard Howland Hunt, painters John La Farge and Frank Millet, and sculptors Augustus Saint-Gaudens, and Daniel Chester French, among others, met regularly. From their collaborative experience and discussions came the idea for an American school for artists in Europe. Charles F. McKim was especially enthusiastic. He strongly believed that collaborative experience should be available to future American artists, and perceived a real need for an American school in Europe--preferably in Rome, the very best place to study art, in his opinion.

By March of the following year, McKim was busy devising plans for the school and persuading like-minded architects and artists to assist. He proposed to finance the school by convincing institutions with traveling scholarships in the arts to send those students to Rome. Columbia University, University of Pennsylvania, and the Rotch Scholarship fund readily agreed to the scheme, and in ensuing years many others followed suit. In October, 1894, the American School of Architecture in Rome opened temporary quarters in the Palazzo Torlonia. The school consisted of its Director, Austin Lord, three fellows, and a visiting student; its "library" contained but one volume.

A move to the larger, more suitable Villa Aurora occurred in July 1895. Rent from two subtenants (the newly established American School of Classical Studies in Rome and the British and American Archaeological Society Library in Rome), along with a personal contribution from McKim, made this financially feasible.

The American School of Architecture in Rome was incorporated in the State of New York, 1895, and 10 shares of capital stock were issued. Despite substantial fundraising efforts in Chicago, New York, and Boston, severe financial problems continued. The American School of Classical Studies in Rome vacated the Villa Aurora in 1896--and with it went a sizeable portion of the School of Architecture's income. McKim frequently made up the deficit from his own pocket.

Eventually, it was decided that the American School of Architecture in Rome must be reorganized along the lines of the French Academy and that national sponsorship needed to be obtained through an act of Congress. In June of 1897, the American School of Architecture in Rome voted to dissolve itself and create the American Academy in Rome. The new institution would assume all assets and obligations, fellowships in painting and architecture were to be added to the program, and its Board of Trustees would include architects and artists. The Academy is not a school. Its fellows and visiting students, already professionally trained, go to Rome for further development and for collaboration and association with others. In the words of Director Gorham Phillips Stevens: "The object of the American Academy in Rome is not to afford opportunities for a few individuals to perfect themselves for the practice of their chosen professions. The ideal is to create an atmosphere in which a limited number of carefully selected artists and scholars may develop that synthesis of intellectual culture which will make them worthy to preserve and continue the great traditions of the past in order that the standard of art and literature may be handed on from year to year, constantly strengthened and improved."

Beginning in 1901, bills to make the American Academy in Rome a "national institution" were introduced in Congress on several occasions. A hearing was finally scheduled in 1905, and a revised bill that prohibited government funding and specified that U.S. officials may not be Trustees was signed into law. Serious efforts to create an Endowment Fund and secure better quarters were associated with the movement to obtain status as a national institution. The Academy was successful in meeting all of these objectives. In 1904, the Academy moved to the Villa Mirafiore (also known as Villa Mirafiori), which it soon purchased and renovated. The Endowment Fund raised well over a million dollars. Donors of $100,000 to the Endowment Fund, designated "Founders" of the American Academy in Rome, were: The Carnegie Foundation, Henry C. Frick, Harvard College, Charles F. McKim, J. P. Morgan, Sr., J. P. Morgan, Jr., The Rockefeller Foundation, John D. Rockefeller, Jr., William K. Vanderbilt, and Henry Walters. Other categories of donors were "Incorporators" (a new Act of Incorporation was required at the time the American Academy in Rome was chartered as a national institution) and "Life Members."

The American School of Classical Studies in Rome, which had been established by the Archaeological Society in 1895 and during its first year shared the Villa Aurora with the American School of Architecture in Rome, entered into a consolidation agreement with the American Academy in Rome in 1911. Their merger went into effect on the last day of 1912, and ever since, the American Academy in Rome has consisted of the School of Fine Arts and the School of Classical Studies, administered by a common director. The School of Classical Studies is composed of fellows and visiting scholars who are graduate students, secondary teachers, or professors engaged in research in the areas of archaeology, ancient art, philology, and humanistic studies. Women were a part of the School of Classical Studies from its beginning, but were not permitted to participate in the School of Fine Arts until well after World War II. Beginning in 1923, the School of Classical Studies instituted Summer Sessions which appealed to secondary teachers, and attracted an enrollment that was largely female.

Originally, the School of Fine Arts offered fellowships in architecture, painting, and sculpture. Fellowships in landscape architecture were added in 1915; in 1920, a Department of Music was established, and along with it fellowships in musical composition. Fellowships in art history were established in 1947. Unmarried men under age 30 were eligible to compete for the fine arts fellowships awarded annually (except for landscape architecture, awarded every third year); the duration of fellowships ranged from one to three years at various points in the institution's history. In residence along with fellows of the American Academy in Rome, might be holders of various traveling scholarships: the McKim Fellowship, the Columbia Traveling Scholarship, the Perkins Scholarship, the Robinson Traveling Scholarship (Harvard), the Rotch Scholarship, the Julia Appleton Scholarship, the Traveling Scholarship and Stewardson Memorial Scholarship (University of Pennsylvania), the Cresson Scholarship (Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts), the Drexel Institute Traveling Scholarship, the Lazarus Scholarship (Metropolitan Museum of Art), the Lowell Scholarship (Massachusetts Institute of Technology), and the Rinehart Scholarship (Peabody Institute, Baltimore). Visiting students, who remained for a much briefer period than fellows or recipients of various traveling scholarships, were admitted to all lectures and granted use the library, but resided elsewhere. The Academy opened an Atelier in downtown Rome for visiting students in 1927, which operated until financial considerations forced its discontinuation seven years later.

As the merger was being planned, J. P. Morgan, Sr., who was interested in both the American Academy in Rome and the American School of Classical Studies in Rome, began buying properties on the Janiculum, adjacent to Villa Aureilia. Villa Aurelia, built on the summit of the Janiculum in 1650, had been bequeathed to the American Academy in Rome in 1909 by Clara Jessup Heyland. Complications surrounding the gift of Villa Aurelia--including the will being contested by Mrs. Heyland's brother, and problems with unsettled tax assessments--were overcome in the interest of acquiring the outstanding building and its extensive grounds. Not long before his death in 1913, Morgan donated his neighboring land, and the American Academy in Rome continued to expand its Janiculum holdings through purchases and gifts from others. Morgan also agreed to provide a loan for construction of a new building. This building, designed by McKim, Mead, and White and known as the Main Building or Academy Building, opened in 1915; it served as the fellows' residence and work area, and included room for the library, offices, and space for exhibitions and other public events.

During World War I, the American Academy in Rome managed to remain open, although no new fellows arrived during the war years and the number of resident fellows and staff dwindled considerably. Most who remained were involved in some type of civilian war work, often with the Red Cross. In fact, Villa Aurelia was rented by the Red Cross in Italy for office space, and the Main Building was offered as a convalescent hospital, but the war ended before it could be put to that use.

After Italy declared war on the United States in 1941, the American Academy in Rome closed for the remainder of World War II. Those who had been awarded fellowships in classics just prior to the Academy's closing were given the option of using their stipends for study at home or waiting until conditions permitted travel to Rome. A very reduced staff stayed to care for the property and continue library cataloguing, coping with often severe wartime shortages of food and fuel. In addition, there were financial hardships. When bank accounts of enemy aliens were frozen and it was no longer possible to transfer funds from the United States, the Swiss Legation and Vatican arranged for loans to keep the Academy and its staff afloat. Funds that would have been awarded to new fellows during this period were put to use in other ways. In 1943, the American Academy in Rome made a grant to the Citizen's Committee for the Army and Navy, Inc. for competitions to award commissions to artists and art students throughout the country, funding more than 100 triptychs for chapels, as well as murals, medals, and sculpture. Seniors in American colleges and universities were eligible to compete for several scholarships for graduate work in classical studies awarded by the American Academy in Rome.

In 1945, the Academy was the site of Leave Courses on various aspects of Italian culture offered to servicemen. From the end of the war until the Academy reopened at the start of the 1946/47 academic year, G.I. Fellowships were offered to discharged soldiers wishing to study at the Academy, making the institution eligible to receive surplus equipment and rations. During this time intensive planning was underway for administrative changes and new programs.

test

1893 -- While in Chicago to collaborate on the fine arts section for the World's Columbian Exposition, architects Charles F. McKim, Daniel Burnham, Richard Howland Hunt, painters John La Farge, and Sculptors Augustus Saint-Gaudens, and Daniel Chester French, among others, met regularly and from their collaborative experience and discussions came the idea for an American school in Europe.

1894 -- American School of Architecture in Rome opened in temporary quarters at the Palazzo Torlonia with Austin Lord, Director, three fellows, and a visiting student.

1895 -- Villa Aurora leased with 2 subtenants, the American School of Classical Studies and the British and American Archaeological Society Library in Rome American School of Architecture incorporated and 10 shares of capital stock issued (2 each to McKim and Hunt, and 1 to Burnham, Kendall, Schermerhorn, Boring, Garland, and Dill) McKim visits Rome.

1896 -- Metropolitan Museum of Art, administrator of Jacob H. Lazarus Scholarship for the study of mural painting, agrees to send the winner to Rome American School of Classical Studies in Rome vacates Villa Aurora.

1897 -- American School of Architecture in Rome dissolved and reorganized as the American Academy in Rome; the assets (including the lease on Villa Aurora) of the American School of Architecture in Rome were transferred and its program expanded to include fellowships in painting and sculpture Samuel A. B. Abbott appointed first Director Rome Prize discontinued (for 9 years) due to lack of funds.

1898 -- Incorporated in New York State; trustees begin to focus on raising an endowment.

1904 -- Move to Villa Mirafiore (also known as Villa Mirafiori); occupied until 1914.

1905 -- Chartered by the Congress of the United States; a bill signed by President Roosevelt made the American Academy in Rome a national institution (receiving no government funding and barring U.S. officials from acting as Trustees).

1906 -- Purchase of Villa Mirafiore finalized; renovations begun.

1909 -- Villa Aurelia bequeathed to the Academy by Clara Jessup Heyland (used until 1932); there were protracted problems surrounding the acquisition of the property including a brother who contested the will and unsettled taxes.

1911 -- School of Classical Studies in Rome (established by the Archaeological Institute of America in 1895) and the American Academy in Rome announce their consolidation [the merger became effective on the final day of 1912].

1912 -- Lands on the Janiculum adjacent to Villa Aurelia, recently acquired by J. Pierpont Morgan, Sr., transferred to the American Academy in Rome.

1913 -- American Academy in Rome now consists of the School of Fine Arts and the School of Classical Studies. New York office moves to the Architect's Building, 101 Park Ave., remaining at this location until 1973. By this date, largely through the generosity of J. Pierpont Morgan, Sr., nearly all of the land bounded by Via Angelo Masina, Via Giacomo Medici, Via Pietro Riselli, and the Aurelian Wall on the Janiculum had been purchased and many improvements made to the properties near the Villa Aurelia. Construction begins on the new Academy building designed by McKim, Mead, and White and situated on the grounds of Villa Aurelia; financed through a loan from J. Pierpont Morgan, Sr. (after Morgan Sr.'s death, his son offered to cancel the loan at an amount equal to funds raised by the Academy for the purpose).

1915 -- First Fellowship in Landscape Architecture established; opening of new Academy building housing the fellows' residential quarters, work areas, library, offices, and spaces for public programs.

1917 -- Villa Aurelia rented to the Red Cross for office space, and the new Main building was slated to become a convalescent hospital, but the war ended before it could be put to use.

1919 -- New York office reorganized by Roscoe Guernsey, executive secretary; sale of Villa Mirafiore; Academic Council established in Rome.

1920 -- Department of Music and Fellowship in Musical Composition established.

1923 -- School of Classical Studies establishes summer sessions, largely attended by teachers.

1926 -- Second Fellowship in Landscape Architecture funded by Garden Club of America (later permanently endowed).

1927 -- Academy opens an Atelier in downtown Rome, providing studios for visiting students (operated until 1934).

1929 -- First Thomas Spencer Jerome lecturer appointed.

1941 -- Academy closes for duration of World War II; a skeletal staff remain behind to care for the property and continue library cataloguing; Italy declares war on the United States.

1942 -- After transfer of funds from the U.S. proved impossible and enemy aliens were prohibited from withdrawing their own funds from Italian banks, the Swiss Legation and Vatican offered assistance to the Academy by providing loans.

1943 -- Academy grant to Citizen's Committee for the Army and Navy, Inc., funded hundreds of triptychs; murals, medals, and sculptures also commissioned Academy awards scholarships in classical studies at American colleges and universities.

1945 -- "Leave courses," held at the Academy, consisting mainly of lectures by distinguished scholars still in Rome, instituted for U.S. servicemen.

1946 -- Regular program resumes at the start of the academic year.

1947 -- Fellowship in the History of Art established.

1965 -- Loan of printed matter for microfilming by the Archives of American Art (reels ITRO 2-3 and 11-13).

1973 -- New York office moves to American Federation of Arts building, 41 East 65th St. (until 1993).

1982 -- Gift of New York office records to the Archives of American Art.

1990 -- Gift of Rome office records to the Archives of American Art.

1993 -- New York office moves to Metropolitan Club, 7 East 60th St.
Related Material:
Papers of a number of former fellows, trustees, and other individuals associated with the American Academy in Rome are among the holdings of the Archives of American Art.

Chaloner Prize Foundation records, 1915-1974 (microfilm reels 5664-5669) were received with the American Academy in Rome records. They have been arranged and described as a separate collection.

Valentine, Lucia and Alan Valentine. The American Academy in Rome, 1894-1969. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1973.
Separated Material:
The Archives of American Art also holds microfilm of material lent for microfilming (reels ITRO 2-3, and ITRO 11-13) including annual reports, exhibition catalogues, a history of the American Academy in Rome, the American Academy in Rome at the World's Fair, and the Golden Gate Exposition and newsletter. Loaned materials were returned to the lender and can be found at the American Academy in Rome, Italy. This material is not described in the collection container inventory.
Provenance:
The material on reels ITRO 2-3 and ITRO 11-13 were lent to the Archives of American Art for microfilming by the American Academy in Rome in 1965. Records of predecessor institutions, the Board of Trustees, and the New York office, including photographs and personal papers, were donated in 1982 by the Academy president, Calvin G. Rand. In 1990, Rand also gifted the Rome office records and the personal documents of Gorham Phillips Stevens. An addition of New York office records was donated in 2014 by the Academy director, Adele Chatfield-Taylor.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C. research center. Contact Reference Services for more information.
Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Topic:
Architecture -- Study and teaching  Search this
Architecture, Classical -- Study and teaching  Search this
Art -- Study and teaching  Search this
Art schools -- Italy -- Rome  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Citation:
American Academy in Rome records, 1855-2012. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.ameracar
See more items in:
American Academy in Rome records
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/mw9eb425e5a-26de-478b-8ecc-8a9006e9dc52
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-ameracar
Online Media:

[Trade catalogs from Gotham Lighting Corp.]

Company Name:
Gotham Lighting Corp.  Search this
Notes content:
Track lighting; recessed lighting ; architectural lighting ; downlighting ; Early Gotham installations include architectural classics such as the Seagram's Building, Lever House, McGraw Hill, and CBS building in New York City ; see detailed history of company at: http://www.gothamlighting.com/aboutgotham/GothamStory.asp
Includes:
Trade catalog
Black and white images
Color images
Physical description:
2 pieces; 1 box
Language:
English
Type of material:
Trade catalogs
Trade literature
Place:
Long Island City, New York, United States
Date:
1900s
Topic (Romaine term):
Lighting (electric; gas; candle; oil; etc.)  Search this
Topic:
Candles  Search this
Lamps  Search this
Lighting  Search this
Record ID:
SILNMAHTL_18302
Location:
Trade Literature at the American History Museum Library
Collection:
Smithsonian Libraries Trade Literature Collections
Data source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:SILNMAHTL_18302

The Parthenon, East Facade

Artist:
Henry Bacon, born Haverhill, MA 1839-died Cairo, Egypt 1912  Search this
Medium:
watercolor
Dimensions:
sight 18 1/4 x 25 3/4 in. (46.4 x 65.4 cm)
Type:
Painting
Date:
n.d.
Topic:
Architecture\classical\Acropolis  Search this
Architecture\classical\Parthenon  Search this
Architecture\classical\temple  Search this
Landscape\Greece\Athens  Search this
Architecture Exterior\ruins  Search this
Credit Line:
Smithsonian American Art Museum, Given in memory of the artist by his wife Louisa Lee Bacon
Object number:
1927.5.2
Restrictions & Rights:
CC0
See more items in:
Smithsonian American Art Museum Collection
Department:
Graphic Arts
Data Source:
Smithsonian American Art Museum
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/vk7bb34cfd2-3eb0-42a4-b73f-6ddfa06fca86
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:saam_1927.5.2

The Parthenon, West Facade

Artist:
Henry Bacon, born Haverhill, MA 1839-died Cairo, Egypt 1912  Search this
Medium:
watercolor
Dimensions:
sight 18 1/8 x 25 1/4 in. (46.0 x 64.1 cm)
Type:
Painting
Date:
n.d.
Topic:
Architecture\classical\Acropolis  Search this
Architecture\classical\Parthenon  Search this
Architecture\classical\temple  Search this
Landscape\Greece\Athens  Search this
Architecture Exterior\ruins  Search this
Credit Line:
Smithsonian American Art Museum, Given in memory of the artist by his wife Louisa Lee Bacon
Object number:
1927.5.3
Restrictions & Rights:
CC0
See more items in:
Smithsonian American Art Museum Collection
Department:
Graphic Arts
Data Source:
Smithsonian American Art Museum
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/vk7f4e68539-30da-4830-bf8a-406a397c5b60
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:saam_1927.5.3

Theatre of Dionysus

Artist:
Henry Bacon, born Haverhill, MA 1839-died Cairo, Egypt 1912  Search this
Medium:
watercolor
Dimensions:
sight 18 1/8 x 25 3/4 in. (46.0 x 65.4 cm)
Type:
Painting
Date:
1839-1912
Topic:
Figure male  Search this
Landscape\Greece  Search this
Architecture\classical\amphitheater  Search this
Credit Line:
Smithsonian American Art Museum, Given in memory of the artist by his wife Louisa Lee Bacon
Object number:
1927.5.7
Restrictions & Rights:
CC0
See more items in:
Smithsonian American Art Museum Collection
Department:
Graphic Arts
Data Source:
Smithsonian American Art Museum
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/vk7835a846a-3ea6-4603-af2e-4af0150763f3
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:saam_1927.5.7

Temple of Nike Apteros

Artist:
Henry Bacon, born Haverhill, MA 1839-died Cairo, Egypt 1912  Search this
Medium:
watercolor
Dimensions:
sight 25 1/2 x 18 1/2 in. (64.8 x 47.0 cm)
Type:
Painting
Date:
n.d.
Topic:
Figure  Search this
Architecture\classical\Acropolis  Search this
Architecture\classical\temple  Search this
Landscape\Greece\Athens  Search this
Credit Line:
Smithsonian American Art Museum, Given in memory of the artist by his wife Louisa Lee Bacon
Object number:
1927.5.8
Restrictions & Rights:
CC0
See more items in:
Smithsonian American Art Museum Collection
Department:
Graphic Arts
Data Source:
Smithsonian American Art Museum
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/vk7e570d8bb-3bf8-4dad-8960-7bb1407aad4d
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:saam_1927.5.8

The Banquet of Cleopatra

Artist:
Sebastiano Mazzoni, Italian, born Florence, Italy ca.1611-died Venice, Italy ca.1678  Search this
Sitter:
Cleopatra  Search this
Medium:
oil on canvas
Dimensions:
41 3/4 x 130 7/8 in. (106.0 x 332.4 cm.)
Type:
Painting
Date:
1660
Topic:
Figure group  Search this
Recreation\leisure\eating and drinking  Search this
Architecture\classical  Search this
History\ancient\Rome  Search this
Portrait female  Search this
Credit Line:
Smithsonian American Art Museum, Gift of John Gellatly
Object number:
1929.6.89
Restrictions & Rights:
CC0
See more items in:
Smithsonian American Art Museum Collection
Department:
Painting and Sculpture
Data Source:
Smithsonian American Art Museum
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/vk7b29bdc5d-274e-4608-842f-30cef805ad67
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:saam_1929.6.89

Porte St. Denis

Artist:
Frank Edwin Scott, born Buffalo, NY 1863-died Paris, France 1929  Search this
Medium:
oil on canvas
Dimensions:
35 7/8 x 32 5/8 in. (91.1 x 82.9 cm.)
Type:
Painting
Date:
n.d.
Topic:
Figure group  Search this
Architecture\domestic  Search this
Cityscape\France\Paris  Search this
Architecture\classical\triumphal arch  Search this
Monument\arch\Porte St. Denis  Search this
Credit Line:
Smithsonian American Art Museum, Gift of Laura Dreyfus Barney and Natalie Clifford Barney in memory of their mother, Alice Pike Barney
Object number:
1952.13.128
Restrictions & Rights:
CC0
See more items in:
Smithsonian American Art Museum Collection
Department:
Painting and Sculpture
Data Source:
Smithsonian American Art Museum
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/vk7d41c8f23-8e43-4659-8e5a-117736eeb8ef
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:saam_1952.13.128

Amphitheatre Corner Overlooking Fog

Artist:
Lester E. Varian, born Denver, CO 1881-died Denver, CO 1967  Search this
Medium:
lithograph on paper
Type:
Graphic Arts-Print
Date:
n.d.
Topic:
Landscape\tree  Search this
Architecture\classical\amphitheater  Search this
Landscape\weather\fog  Search this
New Deal  Search this
Credit Line:
Smithsonian American Art Museum, Transfer from the U. S. Department of Labor
Object number:
1964.1.212
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
See more items in:
Smithsonian American Art Museum Collection
Department:
Graphic Arts
Data Source:
Smithsonian American Art Museum
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/vk7e2417dc0-1dff-442b-802c-669154da1831
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:saam_1964.1.212

The Temple

Artist:
Hilda Katz, born New York City 1909-died 1997  Search this
Medium:
color linoleum cut
Dimensions:
12 x 9 in. (30.5 x 22.9 cm)
Type:
Graphic Arts-Print
Date:
1957
Topic:
Figure group  Search this
Abstract  Search this
Architecture\classical\temple  Search this
Credit Line:
Smithsonian American Art Museum, Gift of the artist in memory of her parents, Max and Lina Katz
Object number:
1966.93.7
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
See more items in:
Smithsonian American Art Museum Collection
Department:
Graphic Arts
Data Source:
Smithsonian American Art Museum
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/vk7e619f366-49e2-4fb7-8c04-70a0c6a6f6fe
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:saam_1966.93.7

Grand Temple de Denderah

Artist:
Maxime Du Camp, French, born Paris, France 1822-died Baden-Baden, Germany 1894  Search this
Medium:
photograph
Dimensions:
image: 6 3/8 x 8 1/8 in. (16.3 x 20.7 cm.)
Type:
Photography-Photoprint
Date:
n.d.
Topic:
Architecture\classical\temple  Search this
Architecture\religious\temple  Search this
History\ancient\Egypt  Search this
Landscape\Egypt\Denderah  Search this
Credit Line:
Smithsonian American Art Museum, Gift of Mrs. Nigel Cholmeley-Jones
Object number:
1967.14.39C
Restrictions & Rights:
CC0
See more items in:
Smithsonian American Art Museum Collection
Department:
Graphic Arts
Data Source:
Smithsonian American Art Museum
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/vk74bed9628-88a2-4c38-a97b-33c70a7e70bd
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:saam_1967.14.39C

Three Cats and the Roman Empire

Artist:
Prentiss Taylor, born Washington, DC 1907-died Washington, DC 1991  Search this
Type:
Graphic Arts-Print
Topic:
Animal\cat  Search this
History\ancient\Rome  Search this
Architecture\detail\column  Search this
Architecture\classical\Coliseum  Search this
Fantasy\animal\cat  Search this
Credit Line:
Smithsonian American Art Museum, Gift of Irina A. Reed
Object number:
1974.44.1
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
See more items in:
Smithsonian American Art Museum Collection
Department:
Graphic Arts
Data Source:
Smithsonian American Art Museum
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/vk75e5eb051-c0b1-4eb8-b738-7cb7b985d740
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:saam_1974.44.1

Avanzi di Pesto

Artist:
Francesco Wenzel, Italian, active 19th century  Search this
Medium:
lithograph
Type:
Graphic Arts-Print
Topic:
Figure group\male  Search this
Architecture\ruins  Search this
Recreation\sport and play\hunting  Search this
Animal\dog  Search this
Architecture\classical\temple  Search this
Landscape\Italy\Paestum  Search this
Credit Line:
Smithsonian American Art Museum, Gift of William Page Howell
Object number:
1979.135.20
Restrictions & Rights:
CC0
See more items in:
Smithsonian American Art Museum Collection
Department:
Graphic Arts
Data Source:
Smithsonian American Art Museum
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/vk70494d934-7e45-4065-a905-069e99bd3d5c
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:saam_1979.135.20

Porta di Pompei

Artist:
Francesco Wenzel, Italian, active 19th century  Search this
Medium:
lithograph
Type:
Graphic Arts-Print
Topic:
Figure group  Search this
Architecture\ruins  Search this
Architecture\classical  Search this
Landscape\Italy\Pompeii  Search this
Credit Line:
Smithsonian American Art Museum, Gift of William Page Howell
Object number:
1979.135.22
Restrictions & Rights:
CC0
See more items in:
Smithsonian American Art Museum Collection
Department:
Graphic Arts
Data Source:
Smithsonian American Art Museum
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/vk7ea348493-2df0-4266-b98e-8400a3b87b6b
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:saam_1979.135.22

Constantine's Arch

Artist:
James Fittler, English, born London, England 1758-died Turnham, England 1835  Search this
Copy after:
Claude Lorrain, French, born Chamagne, France 1604/5-died Rome, Italy 1682  Search this
Medium:
engraving
Type:
Graphic Arts-Print
Topic:
Architecture\classical\triumphal arch  Search this
Credit Line:
Smithsonian American Art Museum, Gift of William Page Howell
Object number:
1979.135.29
Restrictions & Rights:
CC0
See more items in:
Smithsonian American Art Museum Collection
Department:
Graphic Arts
Data Source:
Smithsonian American Art Museum
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/vk73886ee12-7c7d-453c-be0d-0ef357dcb566
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:saam_1979.135.29

The Aqueduct

Artist:
Winold Reiss, born Karlsruhe, Germany 1886-died New York City 1953  Search this
Medium:
linoleum cut on paper
Type:
Graphic Arts-Print
Topic:
Architecture\classical\aqueduct  Search this
Object number:
1982.95.2
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
See more items in:
Smithsonian American Art Museum Collection
Department:
Graphic Arts
Data Source:
Smithsonian American Art Museum
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/vk78d400fba-731f-4a51-8f51-afd94758ce92
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:saam_1982.95.2

Untitled

Artist:
Franklin C. Watkins, born New York City 1894-died Bologna, Italy 1972  Search this
Medium:
oil on canvas mounted on paperboard
Dimensions:
16 1/4 x 25 3/4 in. (41.2 x 65.4 cm.)
Type:
Painting
Date:
1929
Topic:
Architecture\ruins  Search this
Architecture\classical  Search this
Landscape\imaginary  Search this
Figure\torso  Search this
Credit Line:
Smithsonian American Art Museum, Gift of Mr. and Mrs. Arnold Lehman in memory of Richard Gimbel
Object number:
1984.114.1
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
See more items in:
Smithsonian American Art Museum Collection
Department:
Painting and Sculpture
Data Source:
Smithsonian American Art Museum
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/vk7de5c075d-6ab1-4fdf-8239-ced8d18f73a1
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:saam_1984.114.1

Modify Your Search







or


Narrow By