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Sidney Simon papers

Creator:
Simon, Sidney, 1917-1997  Search this
Names:
Budd (Firm : New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Century Association (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Colby College  Search this
Graham Gallery  Search this
Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts  Search this
Skowhegan School of Painting and Sculpture -- Faculty  Search this
United States. Army. Corps of Engineers  Search this
Emmerich, André  Search this
Gonzalez, Xavier, 1898-1993  Search this
Gotfryd, Bernard  Search this
Hélion, Jacqueline  Search this
Jencks, Penelope  Search this
Kelly, Ellsworth, 1923- -- Photographs  Search this
King, William, 1925-2015  Search this
Meredith, Burgess, 1907-1997  Search this
Motherwell, Robert -- Photographs  Search this
Nevelson, Louise, 1899-1988 -- Photographs  Search this
Pousette-Dart, Richard, 1916-1992  Search this
Watson, Forbes, 1880-1960  Search this
Extent:
8 Linear feet
2.21 Gigabytes
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Gigabytes
Photographs
Sound recordings
Transcripts
Sketchbooks
Sketches
Interviews
Illustrated letters
Diaries
Date:
circa 1917-2002
bulk 1940-1997
Summary:
The papers of sculptor, painter, and educator Sidney Simon measure 8.0 linear feet and 2.21 GB and date from circa 1917-2002, with the bulk of the papers dating from 1940-1997. The collection documents Simon's career through biographical material, correspondence, writings and notes, subject files, sketches, sketchbooks, printed and digital material, and photographs.
Scope and Contents:
The papers of sculptor, painter, and educator Sidney Simon measure 8.0 linear feet and 2.21 GB and date from circa 1917-2002, with the bulk of the papers dating from 1940-1997. The collection documents Simon's career through biographical material, correspondence, writings and notes, subject files, sketches, sketchbooks, printed and digital material, and photographs.

Biographical material chronicles Simon's academic training and professional activities through curriculum vitae, biographical accounts, and awards. Included are letters and memoranda, many from Forbes Watson pertaining to Simon's service as a combat artist in World War II. Also found is a transcript of an interview with Simon recounting his experiences in the Southwest Pacific. Simon's personal correspondence with colleagues, friends, and family includes scattered letters from Jacqueline Helion, Penelope Jencks, William King, Burgess Meredith, among others. Many letters are illustrated by Sidney Simon and others. General correspondence includes letters from artists, galleries, museums, public and religious institutions primarily relating to Simon's exhibitions and commissioned projects. Among the correspondents are Castle Hill, Truro Center for the Arts, Colby College, André Emmerich, Eric Makler Gallery, Xavier Gonzalez, Graham Gallery, and the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts. Interspersed among the files are letters of a personal nature. Other correspondence relates to Simon's faculty positions and his activities in professional organizations, e.g., Century Association, National Academy of the Fine Arts, and the Skowhegan School of Painting and Sculpture.

Writings and notes include Simon's 1943 diary entries recording his activities in the Army Corps of Engineers, draft versions of writings and lectures, and notes. Included are digital audio recordings of Simon's lectures at the Skowhegan School of Painting and Sculpture. Subject files provide documentation on Simon's commissioned projects, select exhibitions and competitions, as well as his faculty positions and memberships in several arts organizations. Printed material consists of clippings, invitations, announcements, newsletters, and programs. Exhibition catalogs are of Simon's solo and group shows at galleries, museums, and art organizations from 1959-1966. Photographs are of Simon by Budd Brothers, Richard Pousette-Dart, and Bernard Gotfryd. There are a number of photographs of the artist in his studio and outdoors as well as of Simon's family and friends, including group photographs with Ellsworth Kelly, André Emmerich, Robert Motherwell, and Louise Nevelson. Also found are three personal and family albums and twenty-one photograph albums of Simon's paintings and sculptures.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged as 9 series.

Series 1: Biographical Material, 1940-1998 (Boxes 1, 9; 0.7 linear feet)

Series 2: Correspondence, 1936-2002 (Boxes 1-2; 1.2 linear feet)

Series 3: Writings and Notes, 1943, circa 1960-1997 (Box 2; 0.4 linear feet, ER01-ER03; 2.21 GB)

Series 4: Subject Files, 1940-1941, 1951-1997 (Boxes 2-4, 9; 1.8 linear feet)

Series 5: Sketches, 1937-1942 (Box 4; 1 folder)

Series 6: Sketchbooks, 1939-1995 (Boxes 4-5, 9; 0.5 linear feet)

Series 7: Printed Material, circa 1933, 1942-1998 (Box 5; 0.3 linear feet)

Series 8: Scrapbooks, 1978-1995 (Box 5; 0.1 linear feet)

Series 9: Photographs, circa 1917-1997 (Boxes 5-11; 3.0 linear feet)
Biographical / Historical:
Sidney Simon (1917-1997) was a sculptor, painter, and educator who worked primarily in New York City and Truro, Massachusetts. Simon was born in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. At the age of 14, he won a place as a special student at the Carnegie Institute of Technology. He received a Bachelor of Fine Arts degree from the University of Pennsylvania in 1934 and from the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts in 1936. Simon also studied at the Barnes Foundation from 1937-1940. Simon received professional recognition early in his career; he was awarded the Prix de Rome Collaborative Prize in 1939 and the Edwin Austin Abbey Fellowship in mural painting in 1945.

In 1941, Simon enlisted in the U.S. Army and served in the Army Corps of Engineers. Assigned to MacArthur's headquarters as an official war artist for the Southwest Pacific Theater, Simon was chosen to paint the signing of the peace treaty between the U.S. and Japan aboard the U.S.S. Missouri. He was discharged from the army with a Bronze Star and five presidential citations. In 1945, along with Bill Cummings and Henry Varnum Poor, Simon co-founded the Skowhegan School of Painting and Sculpture, where he later served as a director and a member of the Board of Governors. By the mid-1950s, Simon's interest shifted from painting to sculpture, creating works in wood, clay, and other media. Over the years, Simon collaborated with architects on a number of public and private commissions, including the doorway for the Downstate Medical Center, the Jewish Chapel at West Point, a playground sculpture for Prospect Park, and the totemic column for the Temple Beth Abraham. In addition to serving on the faculty at Skowhegan School of Painting and Sculpture, Simon also taught at the Art Students League, Brooklyn Museum, and Parsons School of Design. An active champion of artists' rights, Simon established the New York Artists Equity Association. He participated in solo and group shows at the Graham Gallery, Provincetown Art Association and Museum, and the Sculptors Guild, among other venues.

In 1997, Sidney Simon died at the age of 80 in Truro, Massachusetts. Simon was divorced from Joan Crowell in 1964. He is survived by his wife, Renee Adriance Simon and five children from his first and second marriages.
Related Materials:
The Archives has two oral history interviews with Sidney Simon conducted by Paul Cummings in October 17-November 8, 1973 and the Karl E. Fortress taped interviews with artists, [1963-1985].
Separated Materials:
The Archives of American Art also holds materials lent for microfilming (reel D210) including biographical material, correspondence, sketchbooks, scrapbooks, and photographs of Sidney Simon. Lent materials were returned to the lender and are not described in the collection container inventory.
Provenance:
Sidney Simon lent the Archives of American Art material for microfilming in 1965. Rene Simon, Simon's widow, donated the Sidney Simon papers in 2009.
Restrictions:
Use of original material requires an appointment. Use of archival audiovisual recordings with no duplicate access copy requires advance notice.
Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Occupation:
War artists  Search this
Topic:
Art -- Study and teaching  Search this
Sculptors -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
World War, 1939-1945 -- Personal narratives  Search this
World War, 1939-1945 -- Campaigns -- Pacific Area  Search this
World War, 1939-1945 -- Art and the war  Search this
Educators -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Painters -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Function:
Artists' studios -- New York (State)
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Sound recordings
Transcripts
Sketchbooks
Sketches
Interviews
Illustrated letters
Diaries
Citation:
Sidney Simon papers, circa 1917-2002, bulk 1940-1997. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.simosidn
See more items in:
Sidney Simon papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-simosidn

Henry Varnum Poor papers

Creator:
Poor, Henry Varnum, 1887-1970  Search this
Names:
Montross Gallery  Search this
Skowhegan School of Painting and Sculpture  Search this
Benton, William, 1900-1973  Search this
Biddle, George, 1885-1973  Search this
Billing, Jules  Search this
Burchfield, Charles Ephraim, 1893-1967  Search this
Caniff, Milton Arthur, 1907-1988  Search this
Ciardi, John, 1916-  Search this
Czebotar, Theodore  Search this
Deming, MacDonald  Search this
Dickson, Harold E., 1900-  Search this
Dorn, Marion, 1896-1964  Search this
Duchamp, Marcel, 1887-1968  Search this
Esherick, Wharton  Search this
Evergood, Philip, 1901-1973  Search this
Garrett, Alice Warder  Search this
Houseman, John, 1902-1988  Search this
Marston, Muktuk  Search this
Meredith, Burgess, 1907-1997  Search this
Mumford, Lewis, 1895-1990  Search this
Padro, Isabel  Search this
Poor, Anne, 1918-  Search this
Poor, Bessie Breuer  Search this
Poor, Eva  Search this
Poor, Josephine Graham  Search this
Poor, Josephine Lydia  Search this
Poor, Peter  Search this
Sargent, Elizabeth S.  Search this
Smith, David, 1906-1965  Search this
Steinbeck, John, 1902-1968  Search this
Watson, Ernest William, 1884-1969  Search this
Extent:
12.9 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Sketches
Motion pictures (visual works)
Diaries
Prints
Photographs
Illustrations
Drawings
Watercolors
Sketchbooks
Date:
1873-2001
bulk 1904-1970
Summary:
The papers of Henry Varnum Poor measure 12.9 linear feet and date from 1873-2001, with the bulk from the period 1904-1970. Correspondence, writings, artwork, printed material and photographs document Poor's work as a painter, muralist, ceramic artist and potter, architect, designer, writer, war artist, educator and a co-founder of the Skowhegan School of Painting and Sculpture. Also found is extensive information about the design and construction of Crow House, his home in New City, New York, commissions for other architectural projects, and his personal life.
Scope and Content Note:
The papers of Henry Varnum Poor measure 12.9 linear feet and date from 1873-2001, with the bulk from the period 1904-1970. Correspondence, writings, artwork, printed material and photographs document Poor's work as a painter, muralist, ceramic artist and potter, architect, designer, writer, war artist, educator and a co-founder of the Skowhegan School of Painting and Sculpture. Also found is extensive information about the design and construction of Crow House, his home in New City, New York, commissions for other architectural projects, and his personal life.

Henry Varnum Poor's correspondence documents his personal, family, and professional life. Correspondents include family and friends, among them George Biddle, Charles Burchfield, John Ciardi, Marion V. Dorn (who became his second wife), Philip Evergood, Lewis Mumford, John Steinbeck, David Smith, and Mrs. John Work (Alice) Garrett. Among other correspondents are galleries, museums, schools, organizations, fans, former students, and acquaintances from his military service and travels. Family correspondence consists of Henry's letters to his parents, letters to his parents written by his wife, and letters among other family members.

Among the writings by Henry Varnum Poor are manuscripts of his two published books, An Artist Sees Alaska and A Book of Pottery: From Mud to Immortality. as well as the text of "Painting is Being Talked to Death," published in the first issue of Reality: A Journal of Artists' Opinions, April 1953, and manuscripts of other articles. There are also film scripts, two journals, notes and notebooks, lists, speeches, and writings by others, including M. R. ("Muktuk") Marston's account of Poor rescuing an Eskimo, and Bessie Breuer Poor's recollections of The Montross Gallery.

Subject files include those on the Advisory Committee on Art, American Designers' Gallery, Inc., William Benton, Harold Dickson, Reality: A Journal of Artists' Opinions Sales, and War Posters. There are numerous administrative files for the Skowhegan School of Painting and Sculpture.

Artwork by Henry Varnum Poor consists mainly of loose drawings and sketches and 45 sketchbooks of studies for paintings, murals, and pottery. There is work done in France, 1918-1919, and while working as a war correspondent in Alaska in 1943. There are commissioned illustrations and some intended for his monograph, A Book of Pottery: From Mud to Immortality. Also found are a small number of watercolors and prints. Work by other artists consist of Anne Poor's drawings of her father's hands used for the Lincoln figure in The Land Grant Frescoes and interior views of Crow House by Ernest Watson.

Documentation of Poor's architectural projects consists of drawings and prints relating to houses designed and built for Jules Billing, MacDonald Deming, John Houseman, Burgess Meredith, Isabel Padro, and Elizabeth S. Sargent. Also found is similar material for the new studio Poor built in 1957 on the grounds of Crow House.

Miscellaneous records include family memorabilia and two motion picture films, Painting a True Fresco, and The Land Grant Murals at Pennsylvania State College.

Printed material includes articles about or mentioning Poor, some of his pottery reference books, family history, a catalog of kilns, and the program of a 1949 Pennsylvania State College theater production titled Poor Mr. Varnum. Exhibition catalogs and announcements survive for some of Poor's shows; catalogs of other artists' shows include one for Theodore Czebotar containing an introductory statement by Henry Varnum Poor. Also found is a copy of The Army at War: A Graphic Record by American Artists, for which Poor served as an advisor. There are reproductions of illustrations for An Artist Sees Alaska and Ethan Frome, and two Associated American Artists greeting cards reproducing work by Poor.

Photographs are of Henry Varnum Poor's architectural work, artwork, people, places, and miscellaneous subjects. This series also contains negatives, slides, and transparencies. Images of architectural work include exterior and interior views of many projects; Poor's home, Crow House, predominates. Photographs of artwork by Poor are of drawings, fresco and ceramic tile murals, paintings, pottery and ceramic art. People appearing in photographs include Henry Varnum Poor, family members, friends, clients, juries, students, and various groups. Among the individuals portrayed are Milton Caniff, Marcel Duchamp, Wharton Esherick, M. R. ("Muktuk") Marston, and Burgess Meredith. Among the family members are Bessie Breuer Poor, Marion Dorn Poor, Anne Poor, Eva Poor, Josephine Graham Poor, Josephine Lydia Poor, Peter Poor, and unidentified relatives. Photographs of places include many illustrating village life in Alaska that were taken by Poor during World War II. Other places recorded are French and California landscapes, and family homes in Kansas. Miscellaneous subjects are exhibition installation views, scenes of Kentucky farms, and a photograph of Poor's notes on glazes.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged as 9 series:

Series 1: Biographical Materials, 1919-1987 (0.2 linear feet; Box 1, OV 18)

Series 2: Correspondence, 1873-1985 (1.5 linear feet; Boxes 1-2)

Series 3: Writings and Notes, circa 1944-1974 (0.6 linear feet; Boxes 2-3)

Series 4: Subject Files, 1928-1975 (0.8 linear feet; Box 3, OV 23)

Series 5: Artwork, circa 1890s-circa 1961 (3.5 linear feet; Boxes 4-6, 9-10, OV 19-22)

Series 6: Architectural Projects, circa 1940-1966 (0.7 linear feet; Box 6, OV 24-26, RD 14-17)

Series 7: Miscellaneous Records, 1882-1967 (Boxes 6, 11, FC 30-31; 0.5 linear ft.)

Series 8: Printed Material, 1881-2001 (1.2 linear feet; Boxes 6-7, 11, OV 27-29)

Series 9: Photographs, 1893-1984 (2.3 linear feet; Boxes 7-8, 12-13)
Biographical Note:
Henry Varnum Poor (1888-1970), best known as a potter, ceramic artist, and a co-founder of the Skowhegan School of Painting and Sculpture, was also an architect, painter, muralist, designer, educator, and writer who lived and worked in New City, New York.

A native of Chapman, Kansas, Henry Varnum Poor moved with his family to Kansas City when his grain merchant father became a member of the Kansas Board of Trade. From a young age he showed artistic talent and spent as much time as possible - including school hours - drawing. When a school supervisor suggested that Henry leave school to study at the Art Institute of Chicago, the family disagreed. Instead, he enrolled in the Kansas City Manual Training High School where he delighted in learning skills such as carpentry, forge work, and mechanical drawing. In 1905, he moved with his older brother and sister to Palo Alto, California and completed high school there. Because Poor was expected to join the family business, he enrolled at Stanford University as an economics major, but much to his father's disappointment and displeasure, soon left the economics department and became an art major.

Immediately after graduation in 1910, Poor and his major professor at Stanford, Arthur B. Clark, took a summer bicycling tour to look at art in London, France, Italy, and Holland. As Poor had saved enough money to remain in London after the summer was over, he enrolled in the Slade School of Art and also studied under Walter Sickert at the London County Council Night School. After seeing an exhibition of Post-Impressionism at the Grafton Galleries in London, Poor was so impressed that he went to Paris and enrolled in the Académie Julian. While in Paris, Poor met Clifford Addams, a former apprentice of Whistler; soon he was working in Addams' studio learning Whistler's palette and techniques.

In the fall of 1911, Poor returned to Stanford University's art department on a one-year teaching assignment. During that academic year, his first one-man show was held at the university's Old Studio gallery. He married Lena Wiltz and moved back to Kansas to manage the family farm and prepare for another exhibition. Their daughter, Josephine Lydia Poor, was born the following year. Poor returned to Stanford in September 1913 as assistant professor of graphic arts, remaining until the department closed three years later. During this period, Poor began to exhibit more frequently in group shows in other areas of the country, and had his first solo exhibition at a commercial gallery (Helgesen Gallery, San Francisco). In 1916, Poor joined the faculty of the San Francisco Art Association. He and his wife separated in 1917 and were divorced the following year. Poor began sharing his San Francisco studio with Marion Dorn.

During World War I, Poor was drafted into the U. S. Army, and in 1918 went to France with the 115th Regiment of Engineers. He spent his spare time drawing; soon officers were commissioning portraits, and Poor was appointed the regimental artist. He also served as an interpreter for his company. Discharged from the Army in early 1919, Poor spent the spring painting in Paris. He then returned to San Francisco and married Marion Dorn.

Once Poor realized that earning a living as a painter would be extremely difficult in California, he and his new wife moved to New York in the autumn of 1919. They were looking for a place to live when influential book and art dealer Mary Mowbray-Clarke of the Sunwise Turn Bookshop in Manhattan suggested New City in Rockland County, New York as good place for artists. In January of 1920, the Poors purchased property on South Mountain Road in New City. The skills he acquired at the Kansas City Manual Training High School were of immediate use as Poor designed and constructed "Crow House" with the assistance of a local teenager. Influenced by the farmhouses he had seen in France, it was made of local sandstone and featured steep gables, rough plaster, chestnut beams and floors, and incorporated many hand-crafted details. Poor designed and built most of their furniture, too. Before the end of the year, he and Marion were able to move into the house, though it remained a work in progress for many years. Additions were constructed. Over time, gardens were designed and planted, and outbuildings - a kiln and pottery, work room, garage, and new studio - appeared on the property.

In 1925, two years after his divorce from Marion Dorn, Poor married Bessie Freedman Breuer (1893-1975), an editor, short story writer, and novelist. Soon after, he adopted her young daughter, Anne (1918-2002), an artist who served as his assistant on many important mural commissions. Their son, Peter (b. 1926) became a television producer. Crow House remained in the family until its sale in 2006. In order to prevent its demolition, Crow House was then purchased by the neighboring town of Ramapo, New York in 2007.

Between 1935 and 1966 Poor designed and oversaw construction of a number of houses, several of them situated not far from Crow House on South Mountain Road. Poor's designs, noted for their simplicity, featured modern materials and incorporated his ceramic tiles. Among his important commissions were houses for Maxwell Anderson, Jules Billig, Milton Caniff, MacDonald Deming, and John Houseman.

Poor's first exhibition of paintings in New York City was at Kevorkian Galleries in 1920, and sales were so disappointing that he turned his attention to ceramics. His first pottery show, held at Bel Maison Gallery in Wanamaker's department store in 1921, was very successful. He quickly developed a wide reputation, participated in shows throughout the country, and won awards. He was a founder of the short-lived American Designers' Gallery, and the tile bathroom he showed at the group's first exposition was critically acclaimed. Poor was represented by Montross Gallery as both a painter and potter. When Montross Gallery closed upon its owner's death in 1932, Poor moved to the Frank K. M. Rehn Gallery.

Even though Poor's pottery and ceramic work was in the forefront, he continued to paint. His work was acquired by a number of museums, and the Limited Editions Club commissioned him to illustrate their republications of Ethan Frome, The Scarlet Letter, and The Call of the Wild.

Poor's first work in true fresco was shown in a 1932 mural exhibition at the Museum of Modern Art. Between 1935 and 1949 he was commissioned to produce several murals in fresco for Section of Fine Arts projects at the Department of Justice and the Department of the Interior, The Land Grant Frescoes at Pennsylvania State College, and a mural for the Louisville Courier-Journal. Ceramic tile mural commissions included: the Klingenstein Pavilion, Mt. Sinai Hospital, New York City; Travelers Insurance Co., Boston; the Fresno Post Office, California; and Hillson Memorial Gallery, Deerfield Academy, Deerfield, Mass.

As a member of the War Artists' Unit, Poor was a "war correspondent" with the rank of major in World War II, and for several months in 1943 was stationed in Alaska. An Artist Sees Alaska, drawing on Poor's observations and experiences, was published in 1945. A Book of Pottery: From Mud to Immortality, his second book, was published in 1958. It remains a standard text on the subject. While on the faculty of Columbia University in the 1950s, Poor and other artists opposed to the growing influence of Abstract Expressionism formed the Reality Group with Poor the head of its editorial committee. Their magazine, Reality: A Journal of Artists' Opinions, first appeared in 1953 featuring "Painting is Being Talked to Death" by Poor as its lead article. Two more issues were published in 1954 and 1955.

Along with Willard Cummings, Sidney Simon, and Charles Cuttler, in 1946 Henry Varnum Poor helped to establish the Skowhegan School of Painting and Sculpture in Skowhegan, Maine. He served as its first president. Poor and his daughter, Anne, were active members of the Board of Trustees and were instructors for many years. The summer of 1961 was Henry Varnum Poor's last as a full-time teacher, though he continued to spend summers at Skowhegan.

Henry Varnum Poor exhibited widely and received many awards, among them prizes at the Carnegie Institute, Syracuse Museum of Fine Arts, Virginia Museum of Fine Arts, Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, and the Architectural League of New York. Poor was appointed to the United States Commission of Fine Arts by President Roosevelt in 1941 and served a five year term. He was elected a member of the National Institute of Arts and Letters in 1943. The National Academy of Design named him an Associate Artist in 1954 and an Academician in 1963. He became a trustee of the American Craftsman's Council in 1956. The work of Henry Vernum Poor is represented in the permanent collections of many American museums including the Cleveland Museum of Art, Metropolitan Museum of Art, Brooklyn Museum, Addison Gallery of American Art, and Syracuse Museum of Fine Arts.

Henry Varnum Poor died at home in New City, New York, December 8, 1970.
Related Material:
An oral history interview with Henry Varnum Poor was conducted by Harlan Phillips for the Archives of American Art in 1964.
Provenance:
Gift of Henry Varnum Poor's son, Peter V. Poor, in 2007. A smaller portion was loaned to the Archives in 1973 by Anne Poor for microfilming and returned to the lender; this material was included in the 2007 gift.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C. Research Center. Contact Reference Services for more information. Use of audiovisual recordings with no duplicate access copy requires advance notice.
Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Occupation:
War artists  Search this
Topic:
Architects -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
World War, 1914-1918  Search this
Authors -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
War posters  Search this
Educators -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Pottery -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Designers -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Ceramicists -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Artists' studios  Search this
Art -- Study and teaching  Search this
Painters -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Muralists -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Genre/Form:
Sketches
Motion pictures (visual works)
Diaries
Prints
Photographs
Illustrations
Drawings
Watercolors
Sketchbooks
Citation:
Henry Varnum Poor papers, 1873-2001, bulk 1904-1970. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.poorhenr
See more items in:
Henry Varnum Poor papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-poorhenr
Online Media:

Rudolf Arnheim papers

Creator:
Arnheim, Rudolf  Search this
Names:
Harvard University  Search this
Museum of Modern Art (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
New School for Social Research (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Sarah Lawrence College  Search this
University of Michigan  Search this
Albers, Josef  Search this
Kepes, Gyorgy, 1906-2001  Search this
Sheldon, Alice Bradley, 1915-1987  Search this
Extent:
9.6 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Sound recordings
Interviews
Diaries
Date:
1919-1998
Summary:
The papers of art historian, educator, writer and psychologist Rudolf Arnheim measure 9.6 linear feet and date from 1919 to 1998. The papers document his career in New York, Michigan, and abroad through biographical material, correspondence, writings, lectures, diaries, printed material, and sound recordings.
Scope and Contents:
The papers of art historian, educator, writer and psychologist Rudolf Arnheim measure 9.6 linear feet and date from 1919 to 1998. The papers documents his career in New York, Michigan, and abroad through biographical material, correspondence, writings, lectures, diaries, printed material, and sound recordings.

Biographical material includes a bibliography, biographical sketches, contracts and agreements, sound cassettes of interviews, and other miscellaneous material.

Correspondence is with colleagues, editors, publishers, and universities on various subjects. The bulk of the correspondence is arranged by subject such as architects, art historians, dance, and film. There is correspondence with Harvard University, University of Michigan, Museum of Modern Art, and New School of Social Research, as well as various individuals such as Josef Albers, Gyorgy Kepes, and Alice Sheldon.

Writings and lectures include book reviews, articles, lecture drafts and notes, sound recordings of lectures, manuscripts, and copies of published articles.

Arnheim's diaries date from 1919 to 1987 and discuss his early life as a student in Germany and career as an educator and lecturer. Some diaries include draft writings.

Printed material includes lecture announcements, reviews, clippings, programs, brochures, assorted material from Sarah Lawrence College, and two instructional sound cassettes.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged as 5 series.

Series 1: Biographical Material, 1939-1991 (Box 1; 0.3 linear feet)

Series 2: Correspondence, 1940-1998 (Boxes 1-5; 4.4 linear feet)

Series 3: Writings and Lectures, 1930-1989 (Boxes 5-8; 2.7 linear feet)

Series 4: Diaries, 1919-1987 (Boxes 8-9; 1.0 linear feet)

Series 5: Printed Material, 1928-circa 1990 (Boxes 9-11; 1.2 linear feet)
Biographical / Historical:
Rudolf Arnheim (1904-2007) was a writer, educator, art historian and psychologist who was born in Germany and immigrated to the United States where he primarily worked in New York and Massachusetts.

Rudolf Arnheim was born in Berlin, Germany on July 15, 1904. He received his doctorate in psychology from the University of Berlin in 1928. Arnheim worked as a film critic and editor for several magazines and journals after graduation. During this time, he gathered information which would be compiled in his book Film as Art (1932). When the Nazis came into power in 1933, Arnheim moved to Rome where he worked at the Institute for the Educational Film for six years, then moved to London in 1939 and worked as a translator for the British Broadcasting Company.

Arnheim immigrated to the United States in 1940. In 1943, he became a psychology professor at Sarah Lawrence College where he continued to teach until 1968. He also taught at the New School for Social Research during this time. From 1959 to 1960, he was a Fulbright lecturer at Ochanomizu University in Tokyo, Japan. After Sarah Lawrence College, Arnheim became a Professor of Psychology of Art at Harvard University, where he stayed until 1974 when he moved to Ann Arbor, Michigan with his wife Mary. He was a visiting professor at the University of Michigan from 1974 to roughly 1984.

Among his many publications are Art and Visual Perception, Toward a Psychology of Art, Visual Thinking, Entropy and Art, Picasso's Guernica, and The Power of Center. Arnheim died in Ann Arbor in 2007.
Related Materials:
Also found in the Archives of American Art is an oral history interview with Rudolf Arnheim conducted by Robert F. Brown, May 16, 1972. Additional papers on Rudolf Arnheim related to psychology are available at the Archives of the History of Psychology in Akron, Ohio.
Separated Materials:
The Archives of American Art also holds microfilm of material lent for microfilming (reel 3767) including correspondence with German publishers and editors, 1959-1982; Dumont Buchverlag, 1963-1980; Carl Hanser Varlag, 1974-1981; Helmut Diederich, 1974-1981; Franz Rudolf Knubel, 1971-1981; Werner Korbs, 1976-1982; Jurgen Weber, 1972-1981; and others. The originals were returned to Rudolf Arnheim after microfilming and subsequently donated to the Schiller-Nationalmuseum Deutsches Literaturarchiv, Germany. This material is not described in the collection container inventory or the finding aid.
Provenance:
The Rudolf Arnheim papers were donated to the Archives of American Art in several installments between 1974 to 1998 by Rudolf Arnheim. Arnheim also loaned material for microfilming in 1986.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C., Research Center. Use of archival audiovisual recordings and electronic records with no duplicate access copies requires advance notice.
Occupation:
Art historians -- Massachusetts  Search this
Art historians -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Topic:
Art -- Study and teaching -- United States  Search this
Art--Study and teaching--Germany  Search this
Authors -- Massachusetts  Search this
Authors -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Educators -- Massachusetts  Search this
Educators -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Genre/Form:
Sound recordings
Interviews
Diaries
Citation:
Rudolf Arnheim papers, 1919-1998. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.arnhrudo
See more items in:
Rudolf Arnheim papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-arnhrudo

Ralph Fabri papers

Creator:
Fabri, Ralph, 1894-1975  Search this
Names:
American Watercolor Society  Search this
Artists for Victory, Inc.  Search this
Society of American Etchers  Search this
Today's art  Search this
Extent:
26 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Christmas cards
Scrapbooks
Video recordings
Drawings
Diaries
Watercolors
Sketches
Sketchbooks
Illustrated letters
Date:
circa 1870s-1975
bulk 1918-1975
Summary:
The Ralph Fabri papers measure 26.0 linear feet and are dated circa 1870s-1975, with the bulk of the material dated 1918-1975. Biographical information, correspondence, subject files, writings, art work, financial records, miscellaneous records, scrapbooks, printed material, a videotape of Fabri in his studio, and photographs document the professional career and personal life of the painter, printmaker, commercial artist, writer, and teacher.
Scope and Content Note:
The Ralph Fabri papers measure 26.0 linear feet and are dated circa 1870s-1975, with the bulk of the material dated 1918-1975. Biographical information, correspondence, subject files, writings, art work, financial records, miscellaneous records, scrapbooks, printed material, and photographs document the professional career and personal life of the painter, printmaker, commercial artist, writer, and teacher.

Biographical information includes awards and certificates, educational records, passports and travel documents.

Almost one-half of the collection consists of Fabri's correspondence. There is correspondence with friends and relatives, as well as professional correspondence. Much of the early correspondence with friends and family is written in Hungarian and also include small watercolors by Fabri that he used as postcards to send messages to family members. A number of later letters are illustrated with drawings by Fabri and other artists. Extensive correspondence - often daily missives - records romantic liaisons with Mabel Farrar, Mina Kocherthaler, Elly von Marczell, and Mavis Elizabeth Peat, as well as the travels and careers of Hungarian opera singer Maria Samson and composer and impresario Laszlo Schawrtz. In addition, there are large numbers of Christmas cards, many with original artwork, from artist friends and former students. Professional correspondence concerns teaching, writing and publishing, commercial work, exhibitions and sales.

Subject files relate mainly to organizations and institutions in which Fabri was active, and include his correspondence and some official records (minutes, reports, financial records), and printed material. Among the organizations and institutions are: Allied Artists of America, Inc., Artists for Victory, Inc., Audubon Artists of America, Inc., National Academy of Design, and Society of American Etchers. Other subject files concern the schools where Fabri taught and publications with which he was associated.

Among the writings by Fabri are drafts and completed manuscripts of articles, books (including two unpublished titles), music and lyrics, and a few poems. Diaries (75 vols.) covering the period 1918-1975, contain almost daily entries that record in varying degrees of detail his professional and personal activities, special and mundane events, and opinions. Prior to 1939, the diaries are in Hungarian or partially in Hungarian. Heavily illustrated notes from his studies at the Royal Academy of Fine Arts survive, along with other miscellaneous notes and 7 notebooks containing lists of concerts, operas, and plays attended by Fabri between 1912 and 1974.

Writings by other authors include the manuscript of Pastel Painting published by Stephen Csoka, said to have been written by Fabri.

Art work by Fabri includes student work, early commercial work, drawings and sketches, a few early watercolor paintings, and two sketchbooks. Work by other artists consists of a watercolor by his uncle Miklos Fabri, a pencil drawing by Laszlo Schwartz, a gouache painting by Paul Mommer, and an ink drawing by Marantz.

Financial records mainly concern banking transactions and taxes. In addition there are receipts for personal and business expenses and packages sent to family in Hungary.

Included among the miscellaneous records and artifacts are art sales and donations, six medals awarded to Fabri, and guest books. A videotape (SONY Helical Scan recording) of Fabri in his studio, made by Jerome Bona and Rick Brown that aired on NYC public access television station Channel C in 1973, is also included.

Scrapbooks (10 vols.) contain reproductions of Fabri's early commercial work, clippings, printed material, and a few photographs documenting his career.

Printed material by Fabri includes articles, books, commercial designs, reproductions, and works translated by Fabri for publication in Hungarian. Also included are issues of Today's Art containing signed and unsigned articles and editorials by Fabri, and some pieces he wrote using pseudonyms. Exhibition related items include catalogs, announcements, and invitations for Fabri's group and solo exhibitions and exhibitions of other artists. Also included are posters, and prospectuses.

Photographs are of art work, people, places, and miscellaneous subjects. People pictured are Ralph Fabri, his family (including a few ancestors), friends, and unidentified individuals and groups. Places documented include exterior views of Pension Villa-Fabri in Hungary (the family's restaurant and hotel), as well as photographs of foreign lands visited by Fabri or sent to him by friends. An item of note filed with miscellaneous subjects is a parade float titled "Give a Thought to Music," designed and constructed by Fabri. Included in ten photograph albums are views of paintings and commercial work by Fabri, various friends, his studio, the Dreiser estate in Mt. Kisco, N.Y., and group portraits of City College of New York faculty.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into 10 series::

Series 1: Biographical Information, 1919-1973, undated (Box 1, OV 31; 0.2 linear ft.)

Series 2: Correspondence, 1904-1975, undated (Boxes 1-12; 11.0 linear ft.)

Series 3: Subject Files, 1941-1975, undated (Boxes 12-14, 25; 2.1 linear ft.)

Series 4: Writings, 1911-1975, undated (Boxes 14-17; 3.8 linear ft.)

Series 5: Art Work, circa 1903-1970s, undated (Boxes 17, 26; 0.4 linear ft.)

Series 6: Financial Records, 1923-1973, undated (Box 18; 0.6 linear ft.)

Series 7: Miscellaneous Records and Artifacts, 1931-1975, undated (Box 18; 0.4 linear ft.)

Series 8: Scrapbooks, 1911-1971 (Boxes 27-30; 1.3 linear ft.)

Series 9: Printed Material, 1910s-1973, undated (Boxes 19-23, OV 32; 4.8 linear ft.)

Series 10: Photographs, circa 1870s-1973, undated (Boxes 23-25; 1.4 linear ft.)
Biographical Note:
Painter and printmaker, commercial artist, writer, and teacher Ralph Fabri was born Fabri Reszo in Hungary in 1894. He was educated in Budapest, first studying architecture at the Royal Institute of Technology from 1912 to 1914. He then enrolled in the Royal Academy of Fine Arts, from which he graduated in 1918 with a Professor's Diploma (M.A.) "for teaching drawing, painting and geometry - including descriptive and projective geometry - in schools of higher education."

Fabri arrived in New York City in 1921 and soon adopted the anglicized version of his name, Ralph Fabri. He began doing commercial design work and during the academic year of 1923/24 was enrolled as an evening student at the National Academy of Design. After becoming an American citizen in 1927, he traveled extensively in Europe. Upon returning to New York that same year, Fabri decided his financial situation was stable enough to allow him to focus his attention on fine art.

During the Great Depression, Fabri's already inadequate portrait commissions and art sales further declined and he returned to commercial work. He established a workshop known as the Ralph Fabri Studios, that designed theatrical and movie sets, window displays, and retail interiors. But Fabri found the workshop dirty and distasteful, and eventually was able to concentrate on advertising work which could be done from home. The largest clients for his pen and ink drawings were The Stamp and Album Co. of America, Inc. (for which he designed covers for stamp albums and produced illustrations for envelopes housing sets of stamps sold to collectors), Geographica Map Co., and Joseph H. Cohen & Sons (for whom he designed and illustrated mail order catalogs). Another source of income during this period was the design and construction of an addition to "Iroki," Theodore Dreiser's estate in Mt. Kisco, N.Y., for which Fabri acted as architect and contractor.

Soon after arriving in the United States, Fabri began writing art reviews and articles on art and other topics for publication in Hungarian newspapers, and began submitting similar pieces to American newspapers and periodicals. Between 1949 and 1951 Pictures on Exhibit published a series of twenty articles by Fabri on materials and techniques, and from 1952 through 1961 he was a critic for that publication. Fabri contributed many articles on a variety of topics to Today's Art, starting in 1953, the year the magazine was established. In 1961, Fabri became associate editor of that monthly periodical and was named its editor in 1970, a position he held for the remainder of his life. During his tenure, every issue of Today's Art included signed and unsigned articles and editorials by Fabri, as well as some pieces written under pseudonyms. He also worked as a book reviewer for American Artist and art editor of Funk & Wagnall's New Encyclopedia.

Fabri may be best known for his books in the how-to-do-it vein, some of which were distributed through art supply stores. Among his many books are: Learn to Draw (1945), Oil Painting: How-to-Do-It! (1953), A Guide to Polymer Painting (1966), Sculpture in Paper (1966), Color: A Complete Guide for Artists (1967), Complete Guide to Flower Painting (1968), The First Hundred Years: History of the American Watercolor Society (1969), Painting Outdoors (1969), Painting Cityscapes (1970), and Artist's Guide to Composition (1971).

For nearly three decades, Fabri taught art in New York City. He was an instructor in the life and still life classes at the Parson's School of Design from 1947 through 1949. In 1951, Fabri was appointed associate professor at City College of New York, where he taught painting and art history until retiring in 1967. In addition, he was on the faculty of School of the National Academy of Design, teaching painting, drawing, and graphics from 1964 until his death.

Fabri was an active member of many artists' organizations. He was president of the National Society of Painters in Casein, Inc., an organization founded by Fabri in 1953 (it later became the National Society of Painters in Casein and Acrylic, Inc.); he also served as president of the Audubon Artists and the Allied Artists of America, Inc. As historian of The American Watercolor Society, Fabri wrote a book length history of that organization published on the occasion of its centennial. He was the secretary and treasurer of the National Academy of Design, as well as serving on many of its committees.

Paintings and prints by Ralph Fabri have been exhibited widely in solo and group exhibitions throughout the United States and, to a lesser extent, in Europe. A frequent lecturer, his painting demonstrations were quite popular. Fabri received numerous honors and awards, and his work is included in the permanent collections of the Metropolitan Museum of Art, the Library of Congress, the New York Public Library, the National Academy of Design, the Norfolk Museum of Art and Science, Smithsonian Institution, the Museum of Fine Arts, the National Gallery in Budapest, and many other public and private collections.

Ralph Fabri died in New York City in February 1975.
Related Material:
Ralph Fabri donated his correspondence with Theodore and Helen Dreiser, 1929-1955, to the University of Pennsylvania, where it is now part of the Theodore Dreiser papers.
Provenance:
The Ralph Fabri papers were donated by Ralph Fabri, 1971-1974. Additional papers were the gift of his estate, 1975-1976.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research. Use requires an appointment.
Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Occupation:
Art critics -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Topic:
Painters -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Art -- Study and teaching -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Sculptors -- New York (State) -- New York -- Interviews  Search this
Educators -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Art criticism -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Painting, American -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Function:
Arts organizations -- New York (State)
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Christmas cards
Scrapbooks
Video recordings
Drawings
Diaries
Watercolors
Sketches
Sketchbooks
Illustrated letters -- Local
Citation:
Ralph Fabri papers, circa 1870s-1975, bulk 1918-1975. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.fabrralp
See more items in:
Ralph Fabri papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-fabrralp

Oral history interview with Arthur Cort Holden, 1971 Jan. 20

Interviewee:
Holden, Arthur Cort, 1890-1993  Search this
Holden, Arthur Cort, 1890-1993  Search this
Interviewer:
Cummings, Paul, 1933-1997  Search this
Subject:
Sweeney, James Johnson  Search this
Wright, Frank Lloyd  Search this
Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum  Search this
Type:
Sound recordings
Interviews
Topic:
Museum architecture -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Architects -- New York (State) -- New York -- Interviews  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)13003
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)212416
AAA_collcode_holden71
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_oh_212416

Oral history interview with Edgar Tafel, 1990 May 16-July 24

Interviewee:
Tafel, Edgar A., 1912-2011  Search this
Tafel, Edgar A., 1912-2011  Search this
Interviewer:
Rifkind, Carole  Search this
Subject:
Wright, Frank Lloyd  Search this
Wolfe, Tom  Search this
Van Alen, William  Search this
Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum  Search this
Type:
Interviews
Sound recordings
Topic:
Architecture, Modern -- 20th century -- United States  Search this
Architects -- New York (State) -- New York -- Interviews  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)12307
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)214635
AAA_collcode_tafel90
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_oh_214635

Oral history interview with Dennis Oppenheim, 1995 July-Aug

Interviewee:
Oppenheim, Dennis, 1938-2011  Search this
Oppenheim, Dennis, 1938-2011  Search this
Interviewer:
Boettger, Suzaan  Search this
Type:
Sound recordings
Interviews
Topic:
Sculptors -- New York (State) -- New York -- Interviews  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)12924
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)215885
AAA_collcode_oppenh95
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_oh_215885
Online Media:

Oral history interview with William Underhill, 2002 June 8

Interviewee:
Underhill, William, 1933-  Search this
Underhill, William, 1933-  Search this
Interviewer:
Carney, Margaret, 1949-  Search this
Subject:
Voulkos, Peter  Search this
Alfred University  Search this
Lee Nordness Galleries  Search this
Nanette L. Laitman Documentation Project for Craft and Decorative Arts in America  Search this
Type:
Sound recordings
Interviews
Topic:
Art metal-work -- Study and teaching  Search this
Art metal-work -- Technique  Search this
Art -- Economic aspects  Search this
Bronze founding -- Technique  Search this
Decorative arts  Search this
Theme:
Craft  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)12395
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)237765
AAA_collcode_underh02
Theme:
Craft
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_oh_237765
Online Media:

Oral history interview with Richard Haas, 2009 Jan. 13 and Mar. 16

Interviewee:
Haas, Richard, 1936-  Search this
Haas, Richard, 1936-  Search this
Interviewer:
Berman, Avis, 1949-  Search this
Subject:
United States. General Services Administration. Design Excellence and the Arts Oral History Project  Search this
Type:
Sound recordings
Interviews
Topic:
Muralists -- New York (State) -- New York -- Interviews  Search this
Trompe l'oeil painting  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)15677
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)282736
AAA_collcode_haas09
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_oh_282736
Online Media:

Oral history interview with Massimo Vignelli, 2011 June 6-7

Interviewee:
Vignelli, Massimo, 1931-2014  Search this
Vignelli, Massimo, 1931-2014  Search this
Interviewer:
Riedel, Mija, 1958-  Search this
Subject:
De Carlo, Giancarlo  Search this
Domus  Search this
Eames, Charles  Search this
Eames, Ray  Search this
Eckerstrom, Ralph E. (Ralph Eugene)  Search this
Eco, Umberto  Search this
Frau, Poltrona  Search this
Gardella, Ignazio  Search this
Graves, Michael  Search this
Kacik, Walter  Search this
Kahn, Louis I.  Search this
Le Corbusier  Search this
Loos, Adolf  Search this
Mies van der Rohe, Ludwig  Search this
Pagano, Giuseppe  Search this
Pomodoro, Arnaldo  Search this
Ponti, Gio  Search this
Rams, Dieter  Search this
Scarpa, Carlo  Search this
Terragni, Giuseppe  Search this
Toscani, Oliviero  Search this
Venturi, Robert  Search this
Vignelli, Lella  Search this
Zevi, Bruno  Search this
Benetton (Firm)  Search this
Container Corporation of America  Search this
Herman Miller, Inc.  Search this
Knoll Associates, inc.  Search this
Metron Orts- und Regionalplanung  Search this
Nanette L. Laitman Documentation Project for Craft and Decorative Arts in America  Search this
New York City Transit Authority  Search this
New York Herald. (New York.)  Search this
Rochester Institute of Technology  Search this
Sansoni (Firm)  Search this
Steelcase, Inc.  Search this
United States. National Park Service  Search this
United States Postal Service  Search this
Venini International  Search this
Vignelli Associates  Search this
Type:
Interviews
Sound recordings
Topic:
Architectural design  Search this
Architecture, American  Search this
Architecture -- Europe  Search this
Architecture, Italian  Search this
Architecture -- Italy  Search this
Architecture, Japanese  Search this
Architecture -- United States  Search this
Art -- Study and teaching  Search this
Costume design  Search this
Design  Search this
Designers -- New York (State) -- New York -- Interviews  Search this
Furniture design  Search this
Postmodernism  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)15958
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)302171
AAA_collcode_vignel11
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_oh_302171
Online Media:

Oral history interview with Hanford Yang, 2016 October 28-December 14

Interviewee:
Yang, Hanford, 1929-  Search this
Yang, Hanford, 1929-  Search this
Interviewer:
Stein, Judith, 1943-  Search this
Subject:
Art Collectors: A Project in Partnership with the Center for the History of Collecting in America at The Frick Collection  Search this
Type:
Sound recordings
Interviews
Topic:
Architects -- New Jersey -- Interviews  Search this
Art -- Collectors and collecting -- New Jersey  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)17518
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)391019
AAA_collcode_yang16
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_oh_391019
Online Media:

Oral history interview with Anthony Candido, 1970 October 7

Interviewee:
Candido, Anthony, 1924-  Search this
Candido, Anthony, 1924-  Search this
Interviewer:
Cummings, Paul, 1933-1997  Search this
Type:
Sound recordings
Interviews
Topic:
Architecture, American  Search this
Art, American  Search this
Architects -- New York (State) -- New York -- Interviews  Search this
Painters -- New York (State) -- Interviews  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)13097
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)212576
AAA_collcode_candid70
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_oh_212576

Oral history interview with Irena Brynner, 2001 April 26-27

Interviewee:
Brynner, Irena F., 1917-2003  Search this
Brynner, Irena F., 1917-2003  Search this
Interviewer:
Fisch, Arline M., 1931-  Search this
Subject:
Bergman, Franz  Search this
Campbell, David Robert  Search this
Daniels, Grete  Search this
Faber, Aaron  Search this
Jensen, Georg Arthur  Search this
Jeremias, Trudy  Search this
Rosene, Caroline Gleick  Search this
Resnikoff, Florence Lisa Herman  Search this
Stackpole, Ralph  Search this
Winston, Robert  Search this
Renk, Merry  Search this
De Patta, Margaret  Search this
Craft Students League  Search this
Metal Arts Guild  Search this
Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Society of North American Goldsmiths  Search this
Renwick Gallery  Search this
Nanette L. Laitman Documentation Project for Craft and Decorative Arts in America  Search this
Type:
Sound recordings
Interviews
Topic:
Women artists  Search this
Sculptors -- New York (State) -- New York -- Interviews  Search this
Jewelers -- New York (State) -- New York -- Interviews  Search this
Decorative arts  Search this
Theme:
Craft  Search this
Women  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)12026
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)226926
AAA_collcode_brynne01
Theme:
Craft
Women
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_oh_226926
Online Media:

Oral history interview with Vito Acconci, 2008 June 21-28

Interviewee:
Acconci, Vito Hannibal, 1940-  Search this
Acconci, Vito Hannibal, 1940-  Search this
Interviewer:
Richards, Judith Olch, 1947-  Search this
Type:
Sound recordings
Interviews
Topic:
Sculptors -- New York (State) -- New York -- Interviews  Search this
Architects -- New York (State) -- New York -- Interviews  Search this
Designers -- New York (State) -- New York -- Interviews  Search this
Installations (Art)  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)15850
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)292693
AAA_collcode_acconc08
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_oh_292693
Online Media:

Carl Rungius papers, 1896-1995

Creator:
Rungius, Carl Clemens Moritz, 1869-1959  Search this
Rungius, Carl Clemens Moritz, 1869-1959  Search this
Type:
Scrapbooks
Photographs
Postcards
Topic:
Animal painters -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Artists' studios -- Photographs  Search this
Illustrators -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Painters -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)15935
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)300225
AAA_collcode_rungcarl
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_300225
Online Media:

Henry Varnum Poor papers, 1873-2001, bulk 1904-1970

Creator:
Poor, Henry Varnum, 1887-1970  Search this
Poor, Henry Varnum, 1887-1970  Search this
Subject:
Burchfield, Charles Ephraim  Search this
Benton, William  Search this
Biddle, George  Search this
Ciardi, John  Search this
Caniff, Milton Arthur  Search this
Duchamp, Marcel  Search this
Dickson, Harold E.  Search this
Evergood, Philip  Search this
Esherick, Wharton  Search this
Marston, Muktuk  Search this
Garrett, Alice Warder  Search this
Meredith, Burgess  Search this
Czebotar, Theodore  Search this
Poor, Peter  Search this
Houseman, John  Search this
Watson, Ernest William  Search this
Padro, Isabel  Search this
Billing, Jules  Search this
Deming, MacDonald  Search this
Poor, Anne  Search this
Poor, Bessie Breuer  Search this
Poor, Eva  Search this
Poor, Josephine Graham  Search this
Sargent, Elizabeth S.  Search this
Poor, Josephine Lydia  Search this
Dorn, Marion  Search this
Steinbeck, John  Search this
Smith, David  Search this
Mumford, Lewis  Search this
Montross Gallery  Search this
Skowhegan School of Painting and Sculpture  Search this
Type:
Sketches
Motion pictures (visual works)
Diaries
Prints
Photographs
Illustrations
Drawings
Watercolors
Sketchbooks
Topic:
Architects -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
World War, 1914-1918  Search this
Authors -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
War posters  Search this
Educators -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Pottery -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Designers -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Ceramicists -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Artists' studios  Search this
Art -- Study and teaching  Search this
Painters -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Muralists -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Theme:
Lives of American Artists  Search this
Craft  Search this
Diaries  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)13442
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)210589
AAA_collcode_poorhenr
Theme:
Lives of American Artists
Craft
Diaries
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_210589
Online Media:

Patricia Johanson papers, 1964-1998

Creator:
Johanson, Patricia, 1940-  Search this
Johanson, Patricia, 1940-  Search this
Type:
Articles
Interviews
Photographs
Transcripts
Topic:
Women artists -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Sculpture, Modern -- 20th century  Search this
Sculptors -- New York (State)  Search this
Theme:
Women  Search this
Lives of American Artists  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)6794
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)208921
AAA_collcode_johapatr
Theme:
Women
Lives of American Artists
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_208921
Online Media:

Lillian and Frederick Kiesler papers, circa 1910s-2003, bulk 1958-2000

Creator:
Kiesler, Lillian Olinsey, 1911-2001  Search this
Kiesler, Frederick, 1890-1965  Search this
Kiesler, Lillian Olinsey, 1911-2001  Search this
Subject:
Zogbaum, Wilfrid  Search this
Takaezu, Toshiko  Search this
Tawney, Lenore  Search this
Mondrian, Piet  Search this
Montgomery, Chandler  Search this
Owen, Jane Blaffer  Search this
Purdy, James  Search this
MacIver, Loren  Search this
Kiesler, Frederick  Search this
Miller, Henry  Search this
Milius, Tom  Search this
Meredith, Burgess  Search this
Hofmann, Hans  Search this
Hodges, Alice  Search this
Hawkins, Erick  Search this
Kamler, Richard  Search this
Howe, George  Search this
Holtzman, Harry  Search this
Dlugoszewski, Lucia  Search this
Dorazio, Piero  Search this
Copley, Alfred L.  Search this
Diller, Burgoyne  Search this
Dubuffet, Jean  Search this
Duchamp, Marcel  Search this
Dorazio, Virginia Dortch  Search this
Dreier, Katherine Sophie  Search this
Arnaud, Leopold  Search this
Adnan, Etel  Search this
Andres, Jo  Search this
Buscemi, Steve  Search this
Castelli, Leo  Search this
Bartos, Armand P.  Search this
Bultman, Fritz  Search this
Whitney Museum of American Art  Search this
University of Iowa, Museum of Art  Search this
Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Hans Hofmann School of Fine Arts  Search this
John Simon Guggenheim Memorial Foundation  Search this
Anthology Film Archives  Search this
Type:
Scrapbooks
Sound recordings
Diaries
Interviews
Scripts (documents)
Motion pictures (visual works)
Topic:
Sculptors -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Set Designers -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Women artists  Search this
Painters -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Educators -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Exhibition designers  Search this
Authors -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Art patrons -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Architects -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Actors -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Theme:
Women  Search this
Art Movements and Schools  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)6310
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)223516
AAA_collcode_kieslill
Theme:
Women
Art Movements and Schools
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_223516
Online Media:

Allyn Cox papers, 1856-1982

Creator:
Cox, Allyn, 1896-1982  Search this
Cox, Allyn, 1896-1982  Search this
Subject:
Bishop, Warner  Search this
Bayley, John Barrington  Search this
Conrad, Arthur  Search this
Cassio, Fabrizio  Search this
Cox, Louise Howland King  Search this
Cox, Kenyon  Search this
Frost, Stuart  Search this
DeWitt, Roscoe  Search this
Shutze, Philip Trammell  Search this
Schwengel, Fred  Search this
Lay, Charles Downing  Search this
Laning, Edward  Search this
Harbeson, John F. ((John Frederick))  Search this
Keller, Deane  Search this
Keally, Francis  Search this
Lamb, Adrian  Search this
Young, Clifford  Search this
MacDonald, Pirie  Search this
Cox, Ethel  Search this
National Society of Mural Painters (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Park Club of Kalamazoo  Search this
Smithsonian Institution  Search this
United States Capitol Historical Society  Search this
American Battle Monuments Commission  Search this
Art Students League (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Art Commission of the City of New York  Search this
Century Association (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Cosmos Club (Washington, D.C.)  Search this
Dumbarton Oaks  Search this
George Washington Masonic National Memorial (Alexandria, Va.)  Search this
Type:
Interviews
Diaries
Photographs
Sketchbooks
Sketches
Place:
General Grant National Memorial (New York, N.Y.)
Topic:
Painters -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Muralists -- Washington (D.C.)  Search this
Muralists -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Theme:
Diaries  Search this
Lives of American Artists  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)9398
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)211595
AAA_collcode_coxally
Theme:
Diaries
Lives of American Artists
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_211595
Online Media:

National Academy of Design records

Creator:
National Academy of Design (U.S.)  Search this
Names:
American Federation of Arts  Search this
Abbey, Edwin Austin, 1852-1911  Search this
Durand, Asher Brown, 1796-1886  Search this
Lanyon, Ellen  Search this
Ranger, Henry Ward, 1858-1916  Search this
Extent:
92.7 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Drawings
Scrapbooks
Interviews
Date:
1817-2012
Summary:
The records of New York City's National Academy of Design measure 92.7 linear feet and date from 1817-2012. The records pertain to all three constituents of the tripartite organization consisting of the Academy, a membership body of artists founded in 1825; the school, founded at the same time to promote arts education; and the exhibition program, inaugurated in 1826. Extensive administrative records include minutes, committee files, director files, annual reports, constitutions, and correspondence and subject files of council officers. Exhibition records, also substantive, date to the Academy's first annual exhibition and include gallery and special exhibitions, as well as exhibitions at the Academy's museum, established in 1979. The collection also includes gifts and funding files, especially relating to endowments and prizes; membership records; National Academy Association records; Ranger Fund assignments; extensive files pertaining to the school's administration, courses of instruction, registrations, and attendance; twenty scrapbooks containing clippings and ephemera; Society of American Artists records; correspondence and ephemera from other organizations; transcripts from oral histories with Academy members; extensive photographic material documenting artists, members, the school, exhibitions, buildings, and artwork created by Academy members; artist files containing correspondence, writings, and sketches from those associated with the Academy; and assorted printed material and ephemera.
Scope and Contents:
The records of New York City's National Academy of Design measure 92.7 linear feet and date from 1817-2012. The records pertain to all three constituents of the tripartite organization consisting of the Academy, a membership body of artists founded in 1825; the school, founded at the same time to promote arts education; and the exhibition program, inaugurated in 1826. Extensive administrative records include minutes, committee files, director files, annual reports, constitutions, and correspondence and subject files of council officers. Exhibition records, also substantive, date to the Academy's first annual exhibition and include gallery and special exhibitions, as well as exhibitions at the Academy's museum, established in 1979. The collection also includes gifts and funding files, especially relating to endowments and prizes; membership records; National Academy Association records; Ranger Fund assignments; extensive files pertaining to the school's administration, courses of instruction, registrations, and attendance; twenty scrapbooks containing clippings and ephemera; Society of American Artists records; correspondence and ephemera from other organizations; transcripts from oral histories with Academy members; extensive photographic material documenting artists, members, the school, exhibitions, buildings, and artwork created by Academy members; artist files containing correspondence, writings, and sketches from those associated with the Academy; and assorted printed material and ephemera.

The Academy minutes and committee files consist of official, original, and transcribed proceedings for the council, annual, business, and some committee meetings, as well as related correspondence, reports, financial documents, notes, drafts, and ballots pertaining to the Academy's administration and activities from its 1825 founding until 2006. As an organization actively engaged in the development of art and art education in the United States, the Academy minutes and committee files are a valuable resource on subjects and topics in the Academy's history; in particular, its founding, administration, school, and exhibition program.

Director files date from 1942-1990 and document the activities of four of the Academy's chief administrators, including Vernon Porter (1950-1966), Earl Tyler (1966-1967), Alice Melrose (1967-1977), and John H. Dobkin (1978-1990). Items include correspondence, memoranda, minutes, and printed material.

Annual reports, dating from 1828-2003, summarize the activities of the Academy over the course of a year, and may include presidents' reports, treasurers' reports, audits of financial operations by public accountants, and printed annual reports containing summaries from multiple council officers. Information pertains to the year's activities including finances, exhibitions, membership, the school, committee activities, awards, and other business.

Academy constitutions date from 1826-2012 and include the printed constitutions and by-laws as well as constitutional proposals. Constitutions and by-laws name the current council officials, professors, academicians, associates, and honorary members, and state the mission and guidelines for operation in regards to membership, officers, annual meetings, elections, school, exhibitions, and how the constitution can be amended or altered. Constitutional proposals contain amendment drafts, alterations, and related correspondence.

Council officer files, dating from 1848-1980, contain the correspondence and subjects files of Academy officers—presidents, vice presidents, corresponding secretaries, and treasurers—concerning all matters of Academy business and operations including membership, gifts and funds, the federal charter, exhibitions, juries, the school, scholarships, committee affairs, anniversaries, publicity, administrative matters, resignations, and relationships with other organizations.

General administrative files date from 1825-1982 and include ledgers, certificates, correspondence, and legal documents pertaining to the Academy's founding, building, financial accounts, art collection, and other administrative matters.

Exhibition files, dating from 1826-2003, document the Academy's long exhibition history and includes annual, gallery, special, and museum exhibitions. Files may include exhibition catalogs, photographs, press clippings, sales records, and correspondence related to jury selection, awards and prizes, and logistical planning. Files pertaining to the Academy's annual exhibitions comprise a bulk of the series. Held since 1826, the Annuals were organized and curated by Academy members, and considered to be an important and sweeping survey of contemporary American art.

Gifts and funding files date from 1860-2009 and include financial documents, ledgers, legal material, and correspondence concerning the bequests, endowments, donations, and other gifts that financed the operations of the Academy and school. A significant number of records pertain to the Abbey Trust Fund and the Archer M. Hunting Fund.

Membership files, 1826-2012, document Academy members, honorary members, fellows, and the nominations and elections whereby members were voted into the Academy. Materials include registers, certificates, nomination ledgers and proposals, candidate biographies, and ballots.

The National Academy Association files date from 1911-1959 and contain a constitution, plan, and agreement, as well as correspondence, meeting minutes, and reports for the Association, incorporated in 1912 with the aim to erect a building shared by several New York art societies. At the time of incorporation, the Association consisted of members from the National Academy of Design, American Water Color Society, American Institute of Architects, Architectural League of New York, New York Water Color Club, National Sculpture Society, Municipal Art Society, Society of Beaux-Arts Architects, Mural Painters, Society of Illustrators, and a number of city representatives and citizens.

The Ranger Fund assignment files, 1919-2008, document the distribution of artworks by living American artists to institutions throughout the United States, in accordance with the will of Henry Ward Ranger. The Ranger Fund was initiated to stimulate public interest in the work of contemporary American painters in 1919, when the Academy received a bequest from Henry Ward Ranger, totaling $400,000. Ranger stated in his will that the capital should be invested and the income used as a purchase fund to facilitate gifts of paintings by living American artists to arts institutions throughout the United States. Files document the assignment of particular works of art to institutions through the official agreement, related correspondence, and in some instances, photographs of the artwork.

Extensive school records, dating from 1826-2008, contain administrative files, enrollment records, course files, student affairs files, and printed material documenting all aspects of the school's activities aligned with the Academy's mission to educate aspiring professional artists. A bulk of this series consists of student course registrations, documented in registers, then on index cards beginning in the 1930s. While information collected varied over the decades, registrations document student names and the year, and may additionally include course name, instructor, and cost.

Twenty Academy scrapbooks document the organization's activities from 1828-1939 and include clippings and ephemera. Three of the scrapbooks are devoted to specific topics, including one for the Society of American Artists, one for both the Society of American Artists and the Society of American Fakirs, and one for the Academy's centennial exhibition.

The Society of American Artists files, 1878-1906, document the formation of the Society as a departure from the Academy in 1877, its independent operations and activities, and its eventual consolidation with the Academy in 1906. The Society's members have included Edwin Abbey, James Carroll Beckwith, Mary Cassatt, William Merritt Chase, Thomas Eakins, George Inness Jr., John La Farge, Albert Pinkham Ryder, among many others.

Files from other organizations date from 1817-1997 and may include correspondence, ledgers, and printed material. Many of these organizations had business with the Academy, and records pertain to events, meetings, and exhibitions. Notable organizations include the American Academy of Fine Arts, American Federation of Arts, American Watercolor Society, Art Students League, Fine Arts Federation of New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York Etching Club, Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts, and Salmagundi Club.

Oral history transcripts date from 2002-2007. Eight comprehensive interviews, conducted by Avis Berman for the Academy, are with Academy members and cover all aspects of the artists' lives, including family, early life, beginning career, mentors, contemporaries, influences, patrons, awards, residencies, as well as the artists' relationship with the Academy. The interview transcripts provide first-hand accounts of the organization, particularly from circa 1940 up to the time of the interview. Artists interviewed include Will Barnet, Hyman Bloom, Richard Haas, Ellen Lanyon, Jules Olitski, Bernard Olshan, Paul Resika, and Dorothea Rockburne.

Photographic material, dating from 1845-2010, includes a wide variety of formats and processes including 19th and 20th photographic prints, glass plate negatives, copy prints, contact sheets, slides, and 35mm negatives. Subjects include artists and others associated with the Academy, the school, exhibitions and events, Academy buildings, artwork, and reference photographs. Many 19th century photographs contain descriptive annotations. Supplementary inventories and guides prepared by Academy archivists are scattered throughout the series.

Artist files date from 1826-2004 and include the correspondence, writings, manuscripts, diaries, exhibition catalogs, and clippings of many notable artists involved with the Academy, including Asher B. Durand and Rembrandt Peale. Of particular note are two notebooks Durand gifted to the Academy, both containing notes and sketches from anatomy lectures.

While printed material is scattered throughout, the final series collects a small number of additional announcements, brochures, clippings, illustrations, and other ephemera not filed in other series.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged as nineteen series.

Series 1: Minutes and Committee Files, 1825-2006 (11.5 linear feet; Boxes 1-11, BV 100-106)

Series 2: Director Files, 1942-1990 (0.5 linear feet; Box 11)

Series 3: Annual Reports, 1828-2003, circa 2010 (2.1 linear feet; Boxes 11-13, OV 139-142)

Series 4: Constitutions, 1826-2012 (1.1 linear feet; Boxes 13-14)

Series 5: Council Officers, 1848-1980 (4 linear feet; Boxes 14-18)

Series 6: General Administration, 1825-1982 (0.6 linear feet; Boxes 18, 126)

Series 7: Exhibitions, 1826-2003, 2008 (14.4 linear feet; Boxes 18-33)

Series 8: Gifts and Funding, 1860-2009 (4.1 linear feet; Boxes 33-37)

Series 9: Membership, 1826-2012 (3.4 linear feet; Boxes 37-39, 127-131)

Series 10: National Academy Association, 1911-1959 (0.4 linear feet; Box 39)

Series 11: Ranger Fund Assignments, 1919-2008 (4.3 linear feet; Boxes 39-44)

Series 12: School, 1826-2008 (28.5 linear feet; Boxes 44-56, 68-99)

Series 13: Scrapbooks, 1828-1939 (4 linear feet; Box 56, BV 107-125)

Series 14: Society of American Artists, 1878-1906 (0.8 linear feet; Boxes 56-57)

Series 15: Other Organizations, 1817-1997 (1.8 linear feet; Boxes 57-59, 131)

Series 16: Oral History Transcripts, 2002-2007 (0.7 linear feet; Box 59)

Series 17: Photographic Material, 1845-2010 (6.1 linear feet; Boxes 60-63, 131-138, OV 143-144)

Series 18: Artist Files, 1826-2004 (3.5 linear feet; Boxes 63-66)

Series 19: Printed Material, 1839-1954 (0.4 linear feet; Boxes 67, 131, OV 145)
Biographical / Historical:
The National Academy of Design (1825- ) based in New York City, is a tripartite organization consisting of a membership body of artists, a school, and an exhibition program. The Academy was founded in 1825 by a group of professional artists with the mission to promote the fine arts in America through exhibition and education. Originally named the New York Drawing Association, the Academy was the first organization in the United States established and managed by professional artists. Samuel F.B. Morse, the Academy's first president, was influenced by the organization of the Royal Academy in London, which was comprised of professional artist members and elected government council, an art school, and a venue for exhibitions. After unsuccessful negotiations to unite with the American Academy of Fine Arts, the New York Drawing Association reformed as the National Academy of The Arts of Design on January 19, 1826. Among the founders were mostly young artists who became prominent figures in American art, including Frederick S. Agate, Thomas Cole, Thomas S. Cummings, Asher B. Durand, John Frazee, Charles C. Ingham, Henry Inman, Gerlando Marsiglia, Samuel F. B. Morse, Samuel L. Waldo, and Charles Cushing Wright.

The first Academy members were elected in January 1826, and levels of membership were established shortly thereafter. Originally there were four levels of Academy membership: associates, academicians, artists, and honorary corresponding members. The category of artists was eliminated in 1829, and the honorary member category, established to recognize American artists living outside New York, distinguished foreign artists, and patrons and friends of the Academy, was eliminated in 1862 (the constitution was not amended with this change until 1896). Since 1869, the residency requirement for election to active membership was eliminated and membership was opened to all American artists. In 1920, the classification of honorary corresponding member was re-introduced to recognize representatives of other national academies. With the 1997 constitution, the honorary corresponding member classification was again eliminated, and in 1994 the associate category was eliminated.

Artists are proposed for membership by academicians through the membership committee and are elected for life by a sixty percent majority, based on recognized excellence and significant contributions to the field. Procedures and rules for nominating and choosing new academicians changed over the years, as detailed in the constitutions. Associates were at one time required to present a portrait of themselves upon election and academicians were required to provide an additional representative work upon election. With the elimination of the category of associate in 1994, only one representative work is currently required. These works of art become part of the Academy's permanent collection.

The original classes of professional artists were painting, sculpture, architecture, and engraving. These professional classes were modified over the years. In 1936 the engraving class was made more comprehensive, including all of the graphic arts. Watercolor was added as a class in 1943 and was codified in the 1945 constitution. However, the division into five distinct classes started to create difficulties in how specific works of art were to be categorized. In 1981 the council eased the rules regarding separate media classification so that members could submit a work in any medium to the annual exhibitions regardless of the class to which they had been elected. The constitution of 1994 restated four professional classes—painting, sculpture, graphics, and architecture—which were further reduced in the 2011 constitution to two: visual arts and architecture.

Until 2009, the governing body of the Academy was the council. The seven officers of the council were president, vice-president, treasurer, assistant treasurer, corresponding secretary, assistant corresponding secretary and recording secretary, all of whom were required to be academicians. In 2009, a new constitution provided for a board of governors, replacing the council. The five officers of the board of governors are chair, vice-chair, president, vice-president, and treasurer. Only the offices of president and vice-president are required to be held by academicians.

Central to the Academy's mission, the school began with an anatomy lecture for the New York Drawing Association, delivered by Dr. Frederick G. King in November 1825. The first drawing session took place in November 1826 in the Old Alms House at City Hall Park with two academicians and twenty students. In the school's early years, professional artists met with students to draw from plaster casts of antique sculpture in the academic tradition. Both lectures and studio training were central the school's early curricula. Life classes, the practice of drawing from live models, were introduced in 1837, but only to advanced male students. A life class for women was not instituted until 1857, even though women were allowed membership to the Academy since its beginning. Due to financial difficulties at the Academy, the school was forced to move locations and shut down its operations for extended periods. Mounting dissatisfaction and frustration led several students and Lemuel E. Wilmarth, one of the school's leaders and first full-time professional instructor, to leave the Academy in 1875 and form a new school, the Art Students League. While charging tuition was unpopular, the Academy realized that it was necessary to ensure the school's sustainability, and implemented fee structures with varying success over the second half of the 19th century and first half of the 20th. Eventually, tuition was established by 1951, when the school was reopened at a new location, 5th Avenue and 89th Street.

Exhibitions have always been an important activity for the Academy, even prior to the opening of the National Academy Museum in 1979. Since 1826, the Academy has held annual exhibitions intended to reflect contemporary art currents in America. Any American artist was eligible to submit work to be reviewed by a jury of selection, comprised of academicians. Throughout the 19th century, the annual exhibitions at the Academy were one of the most significant and influential in the country. The selection process for these exhibitions was a critical topic, at times actively discussed in the press, and continually undergoing modification and change. In addition to the Annuals, the galleries of the Academy were often rented or loaned to outside organizations such as the American Watercolor Society, Audubon Artists, and the National Association of Women Artists. The galleries also mounted special exhibitions curated by its members and hosted a certain number of travelling exhibitions organized by other museums or art organizations. The museum, opened in 1979, hosted and presented major exhibitions, many focusing on historic European subjects.

Official Names of the Academy 1825-2017

1825 -- The New York Drawing Association

1826 -- The National Academy of The Arts of Design

1828 -- The National Academy of Design

1997 -- The National Academy Museum and School of Fine Art

2017 -- The National Academy of Design

National Academy of Design Meeting, Exhibition, and School Locations

1826 -- Old Alms House at City Hall Park in lower Manhattan

1827-1830 -- Chambers Street over the Arcade Baths

1831-1840 -- Corner of Nassau and Beckman Streets, the Mercantile Library on the third floor of Clinton Hall

1841 to 1849 -- 346 Broadway (at Leonard Street), the third and fourth floors of the New York Society Library

1850-1854 -- 663 Broadway, where the Academy erected a suite of six galleries

1855-1856 -- 548 Broadway (over Dr. Chapin's Church)

1857 -- 663 Broadway

1858-1861 -- 10th Street and 4th Avenue, the upper floor of a building

1861-1863 -- 625 Broadway, the Institute of Art

1865-1899 -- 23rd Street and Fourth Avenue (now Park Avenue South)

1899-1940 -- 109th Street and Amsterdam Avenue; exhibition galleries at 215 West 57th Street

1940-2017 -- 1083 Fifth Avenue at East 89th Street
Provenance:
The bulk of the collection was donated by the National Academy of Design in 2018. The trustees' ledger book in series 6 was donated in 1979 by Warder Cadbury of the Adirondack Museum; it is unclear how Cadbury acquired the ledger. Microfilm reels 798-799 containing transcriptions of minutes were given to the Archives by Lois Fink in 1974.
Restrictions:
This bulk of this collection is open for research. Access to original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C. Research Center.
Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Function:
Arts organizations -- New York (State)
Art Schools -- New York (State)
Genre/Form:
Drawings
Scrapbooks
Interviews
Citation:
National Academy of Design records, 1817-2012. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.natiacad
See more items in:
National Academy of Design records
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-natiacad
Online Media:

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