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Glass Lantern Slide and Lecture Scripts

Collection Creator:
Garden Club of America  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Restrictions:
Access to original images by appointment only. Researcher must submit request for appointment in writing. Certain items may be restricted and not available to researchers. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Collection Rights:
Archives of American Gardens encourages the use of its archival materials for non-commercial, educational and personal use under the fair use provision of U.S. copyright law. Use or copyright restrictions may exist. It is incumbent upon the researcher to ascertain copyright status and assume responsibility for usage. All requests for duplication and use must be submitted in writing and approved by Archives of American Gardens.
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution, Archives of American Gardens, The Garden Club of America collection.
See more items in:
The Garden Club of America collection
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Gardens
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aag-gca-ref32850
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Wiltshire -- Wilton House and Vicinity

Garden designer:
Caus, Isaac de, 1590-1648  Search this
Architect:
Wyatt, James, 1746-1813  Search this
Collection Creator:
Garden Club of America  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Place:
Wilton House (Wilton, Wiltshire, England)
United Kingdom -- England -- Wiltshire -- Wilton
Scope and Contents:
The folder includes worksheets and photocopies of articles.
General:
Like other great country houses in England Wilton House has been expanded and rebuilt over the centuries, with contributions from some of the most renowned architects working in the Palladian style. The gardens have evolved as well: in 1645 designer Isaac de Caus published etchings of his newly styled French formal Wilton Garden, set within the 21 acres of parkland that comprised the estate gardens. Features included elegant parterres bordered with clipped hedges, balustrades, galleries, statues, fountains, colored gravel walks and other walks under trellised vaults and pavilions. One natural feature left untouched was the River Nadder, and this became identified as in the English style as opposed to the highly ordered great gardens of the Continent. In the next century a footbridge based on Palladio's design for the Rialto in Venice was built over the river. The bridge complements the Palladian style house designed by architects Inigo Jones and his son-in-law John Webb. In the early 19th century architect James Wyatt re-used the provincial baroque carved limestone façade of the grotto at the end of the Great Walk, installing it on a building on the grounds known as the Old Schoolhouse. Wyatt also relocated on the grounds a 16th century porch from the earlier version of the main house, attributed to artist Hans Holbein.
The parterre was demolished and replaced by lawns, and contemporary gardens include a water garden, an Oriental garden area with linked ponds crossed by Chinese style red bridges, and a rose garden. Other public facilities include an adventure playground and a garden center. The current Earl of Pembroke and his family still own Wilton House and reside there. Wilton House was visited by Thomas W. Sears in 1908 and by the Garden Club of America's June 1929 tour to England. A complete copy of the GCA tour itinerary was printed in the Bulletin of the Garden Club of America (Fourth Series, No. 5), September 1929, pp. 6-25.
Persons associated with the garden include First through 17th Earls of Pembroke, Herbert family (owners since circa 1550); Isaac de Caus (1590-1648) (garden designer, 1632-1633); Inigo Jones (1573-1652) and John Webb (1611-1672) (architects, circa 1633-1647) and James Wyatt (1746-1813) (architect, circa 1805).
Related Materials:
Wilton House and Vicinity related holdings consist of 1 folder (14 glass negatives; 4 lantern slides)
See others in:
Thomas Warren Sears photograph collection, 1900-1966.
Collection Restrictions:
Access to original images by appointment only. Researcher must submit request for appointment in writing. Certain items may be restricted and not available to researchers. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Collection Rights:
Archives of American Gardens encourages the use of its archival materials for non-commercial, educational and personal use under the fair use provision of U.S. copyright law. Use or copyright restrictions may exist. It is incumbent upon the researcher to ascertain copyright status and assume responsibility for usage. All requests for duplication and use must be submitted in writing and approved by Archives of American Gardens.
Topic:
Gardens -- England -- Wiltshire -- Wilton  Search this
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution, Archives of American Gardens, The Garden Club of America collection.
Identifier:
AAG.GCA, File ENG057
See more items in:
The Garden Club of America collection
The Garden Club of America collection / Series 2: International Garden Images / United Kingdom -- England
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Gardens
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aag-gca-ref4491

Manchester -- Glebelands

Former owner:
Carver, Benjamin  Search this
Carver, Benjamin, Mrs.  Search this
Prettyman, William Mr. Mrs.  Search this
Powers, William  Search this
Powers, William, Mrs.  Search this
Hardy, George, Mrs.  Search this
Hardy, George  Search this
Hardy, Anton  Search this
Hardy, Anton, Mrs.  Search this
Trustee:
Leiter, Joseph  Search this
Remington, Franklin  Search this
Architect:
Olcott, Richard M.  Search this
Provenance:
Bennington Garden Club  Search this
Collection Creator:
Garden Club of America  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Place:
Glebelands (Manchester, Vermont)
United States of America -- Vermont -- Bennington County -- Manchester
Scope and Contents:
The folder includes a worksheet, narrative description of the garden, and a garden plan.
General:
The term "glebe land," from which this garden takes its name, means land owned by a church, and the owner of this property pays a yearly glebe rent to Zion Episcopal Church. Pockets of glebe land (many of which still exist) throughout the village of Manchester and on nearby Mt. Equinox, when rented out in the 18th and 19th centuries for grazing, provided revenue for the church. A focal point for the property today is a 100-yard long marble dam, which dates from the 1840s when the property was a marble mill. It now provides water for the lower swimming pond. The hillside across the upper pond is all marble chips and displays a host of daffodils in the spring. The shell fountain in the secret garden is fed by the waterfall from the dam. The formal garden was started in the 1930s and is entered through the orchard, which is underplanted with naturalized narcissus. Ornaments of diverse origin are encountered, including marble balls that were the tops of gateposts at "Avalon," the Princeton, New Jersey, home of the theologian and hymn-writer Henry Van Dyck, and which were liberated by the owner's mother when that property was torn down. An Italian marble table and wrought iron gates and grilles came from New Orleans, while a wrought iron arc, originally a fanlight, was salvaged from a demolished bank in New York City. The small pool of Portuguese tile at the end of the peony allee is known as "Polly's bathtub," and is where the owner's mother cooled herself after gardening. Flower beds are edged with bricks removed from a heart-shaped patio once found in front of a large rock. The succulents in the patio were put on the rock and compete with moss for survival. The marble walls which contain the formal beds were built in the 1950s. The caisson housing the bubble fountain is what remained after a marble column had been extracted. The caissons were used as culverts on local roads and here have been cut in half to make garden seats. Richard Olcott, F.A.I.A., designed the reflecting pool in 1995.
Persons associated with the garden include: Mr. and Mrs. Benjamin Carver (former owners, 1892-1913); Mr. and Mrs. William Prettyman (former owners, 1913-1921); Joseph Leiter and Franklin Remington (Carver trustees, 1921-1923); Mr. and Mrs. William Powers (former owners, 1923-1929); Mr. and Mrs. George Hardy (former owners, 1929-1931); Mr. and Mrs. Anton G. Hardy (former owners, 1931-1985); and Richard M. Olcott (architect, 1995).
Related Materials:
Glebelands related holdings consist of 1 folder (19 35 mm. slides)
Collection Restrictions:
Access to original images by appointment only. Researcher must submit request for appointment in writing. Certain items may be restricted and not available to researchers. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Collection Rights:
Archives of American Gardens encourages the use of its archival materials for non-commercial, educational and personal use under the fair use provision of U.S. copyright law. Use or copyright restrictions may exist. It is incumbent upon the researcher to ascertain copyright status and assume responsibility for usage. All requests for duplication and use must be submitted in writing and approved by Archives of American Gardens.
Topic:
Gardens -- Vermont -- Manchester  Search this
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution, Archives of American Gardens, The Garden Club of America collection.
Identifier:
AAG.GCA, File VT007
See more items in:
The Garden Club of America collection
The Garden Club of America collection / Series 1: United States Garden Images / Vermont
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Gardens
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aag-gca-ref11357

Charleston -- William Gibbes Garden

Provenance:
The Palmetto Garden Club of South Carolina  Search this
Collection Creator:
Garden Club of America  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Place:
United States of America -- South Carolina -- Charleston -- Charleston
William Gibbes House (Charleston, South Carolina)
Scope and Contents:
31 digital images (2011, 2018), 1 lantern slide, and 1 35mm slide and 3 file folders. Other documents about the property and garden design plans are included in folder 3.
General:
In 1928 Cornelia Roebling commissioned landscape architect Loutrel Briggs to design formal gardens for her late 18th century Georgian-style home that would incorporate the spirit of the past and utilize local plant and hardscape materials. His design for this one acre property came to be known as the Charleston Garden Style that he replicated successfully many times. The current owner is restoring and enhancing Briggs' design with eleven distinct rooms, all behind screens formed by 19th century high brick walls and tall plants. The rooms are linked by shell flagstone or brick axial walkways with repeated colors, plant materials and shapes creating harmony. Magnolias, cedars, live oaks, crepe myrtles, palms, hollies, cypress, pittosporum, yew, boxwood, camellias, azaleas, liriope, mondo grass and ferns are repeated in many garden rooms, with pink, purple or white flowers predominating. The lawn garden to one side of the main residence is surrounded by shell walkways edged in brick with borders planted with conifers, hydrangeas, azaleas, boxwood, privet, tall hollies, and a large magnolia. The restored old garden that predates Briggs has four boxwood parterres planted with roses with a birdbath in the center. The three-foot pond with ogee corners has a pyramid-shaped boxwood in each corner, seasonal beds inside the wall with boxwood edging, island beds planted with camellias and mondo grass, and a small terrace with a bench off to one side shaded by wisteria. Cedars and crepe myrtles also provide shade in warm weather. A brick, unroofed summer house built in the 19th century by owner John Grimke Drayton has an 18th century marble entablature and is draped with white roses.

Next to the summer house along the brick wall there is a new garden with two formal diamond- shaped beds planted in purple and white and two beds with magnolias. The east-west axial long walk behind the house was broken up by a later 25-foot square swimming pool; it is bordered by brick columns connected by chains draped with yellow roses and a pittosporum hedge clipped like waves. In the pool garden there are Meyer lemon standards, yoshino cherries, and verbenas. The court garden terrace behind the house is bordered by beds with camellias, ferns, liriope, aspidistra, mondo grass and ferns growing in brick walls. Beds alongside the drive and around the parking area feature a mature live oak, azaleas, roses, crepe myrtles and seasonal plantings that complement the pink stucco walls of the guest house. The old brick privy court is used for storage and for growing tomatoes, with a white picket fence atop a low brick wall. A trellis planted with confederate jasmine and a row of Italian cypress mark the transition to the citrus garden on the site of the old drying yard. There are grapefruit, kumquat, orange and lemon trees planted in two rows of octagonal beds, repeating the formal design of the parterre gardens. The property is listed in the National Register of Historic Places.

Persons associated with the garden include: William Gibbes and family (former owners, 1772-1794); Sarah Moore Smith family and descendants (former owners, 1794-circa 1885); J.B.E. Sloan family and descendants (former owners, 1885-circa 1928); Cornelia W. Roebling family and descendants (former owners, 1926-1984); Historic Charleston Foundation (former owner, 1984-1986); Mr. and Mrs. Jefferson Leath (former owners, 1986-1996); Mr. and Mrs. Thomas Trainer (former owners, 1996-circa 2006); Loutrel Winslow Briggs (1893-1977) (landscape architect, 1928); Dr. Eugene Johnson (landscape designer, 2018).
Related Materials:
See also the Eleanor Weller Collection for a 35mm reproduction of SC074001.
Collection Restrictions:
Access to original images by appointment only. Researcher must submit request for appointment in writing. Certain items may be restricted and not available to researchers. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Collection Rights:
Archives of American Gardens encourages the use of its archival materials for non-commercial, educational and personal use under the fair use provision of U.S. copyright law. Use or copyright restrictions may exist. It is incumbent upon the researcher to ascertain copyright status and assume responsibility for usage. All requests for duplication and use must be submitted in writing and approved by Archives of American Gardens.
Topic:
Gardens -- South Carolina -- Charleston  Search this
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution, Archives of American Gardens, The Garden Club of America collection.
Identifier:
AAG.GCA, File SC074
See more items in:
The Garden Club of America collection
The Garden Club of America collection / Series 1: United States Garden Images / South Carolina
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Gardens
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aag-gca-ref12460

Columbia -- Hampton-Preston House and Garden

Former owner:
Hall, Ainsley  Search this
Hampton, Wade General, 1818-1902  Search this
Hampton, Mary Cantey  Search this
Preston, John  Search this
Moses, Emma  Search this
Moses, Franklin J.  Search this
Ursuline Convent (Columbia, South Carolina)  Search this
Chicora College for Women  Search this
Presbyterian Institute for Women (Columbia, South Carolina)  Search this
Westerveldt Children's Academy  Search this
Landscape designer:
Hampton, Mary Cantey  Search this
Landscape architect:
Dargan, Hugh  Search this
Architect:
Yates & Phillips  Search this
Collection Creator:
Garden Club of America  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Place:
Hampton-Preston House and Garden (Columbia, South Carolina)
United States of America -- South Carolina -- Richland County -- Columbia
Scope and Contents:
The folder includes a worksheet, garden designs, narrative histories of the house and garden and its restoration, photocopies of publications featuring the garden, and other information.
General:
Originally built in 1818, the Hampton-Preston House has been restored to reflect the years 1835-1855. Likewise, the gardens have been restored to reflect the ante-bellum period. During the 19th century the garden was described as one of the most extensive and elaborate town gardens in the United States, and included rare plants, shrubs, trees, fountains, and arbors. Plantings included magnolias and cedars. Destroyed in the 1940s, the garden was restored in the 1980s; landscape architect Hugh Dargan spent three years on the project. Plant material known to have been used during the residency of Mary Cantey Hampton in the 19th century dominates the landscape.
Persons and organizations associated with the property include: Ainsley Hall (former owner, 1820-1823); General Wade Hampton (former owner, 1823-1848); Mary Cantey Hampton (former owner and landscape designer, 1823-1848); John Preston (former owner, ca. 1848); Franklin J. and Emma Moses (former owners, ca. 1870); Hugh Dargan (landscape architect, 1980s); Yates & Phillips (architects); the Ursuline Convent (former owners, 1890-1915); the Presbyterian Institute for Women (former owner); Chicora College for Women (former owner); and Westerveldt Children's Academy (former owner).
Related Materials:
Hampton-Preston House and Garden related holdings consist of 1 folder (13 35 mm. slides)
Collection Restrictions:
Access to original images by appointment only. Researcher must submit request for appointment in writing. Certain items may be restricted and not available to researchers. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Collection Rights:
Archives of American Gardens encourages the use of its archival materials for non-commercial, educational and personal use under the fair use provision of U.S. copyright law. Use or copyright restrictions may exist. It is incumbent upon the researcher to ascertain copyright status and assume responsibility for usage. All requests for duplication and use must be submitted in writing and approved by Archives of American Gardens.
Topic:
Gardens -- South Carolina -- Columbia  Search this
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution, Archives of American Gardens, The Garden Club of America collection.
Identifier:
AAG.GCA, File SC032
See more items in:
The Garden Club of America collection
The Garden Club of America collection / Series 1: United States Garden Images / South Carolina
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Gardens
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aag-gca-ref12467

Moncks Corner -- Mulberry Plantation

Landscape architect:
Briggs, Loutrel W.  Search this
Owner:
Chapman, Clarence  Search this
Provenance:
Little Garden Club of Rye  Search this
Creator:
Broughton, Thomas Col  Search this
Collection, John, Sir  Search this
Barker, Theodore G., Major  Search this
Chapman, Clarence  Search this
Collection Creator:
Garden Club of America  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Place:
Mulberry Plantation (Moncks Corner, South Carolina)
United States of America -- South Carolina -- Berkeley County -- Moncks Corner
Mulberry Plantation (Moncks Corner, South Carolina)
United States of America -- South Carolina -- Berkeley County -- Moncks Corner
Scope and Contents:
The folder includes worksheets, site plans, and photocopies of book excerpts and articles.
General:
The brick house at Mulberry Plantation was built on a bluff by the first owner, Thomas Broughton in 1714, the date inscribed in iron on the four weathervanes atop the four pavilions at the corners of the house. Situated along the Cooper River the current property comprises 805 acres and includes gardens on three levels: a formal boxwood parterre garden next to the house, a descending camellia walk, and a formal circle garden, all designed by Loutrel W. Briggs (b.1893-d.1977) circa 1930. Other features include a parterre kitchen garden, a Live oak allée, lagoon, rolling lawns and the oldest mulberry tree in the country. The plantation grew rice at various times in its history, as well as indigo and forest products. Another 19th century commercial project that did not succeed was breeding silk worms to produce domestic silk, with mulberry trees planted to house the worms. By the early 20th century the property was in decline and was sold out of the Broughton family to Mr. and Mrs. Clarence E. Chapman as a winter retreat. The Chapmans restored the house and brought in Briggs, known for developing the Charleston style for the many small gardens he designed in the city and at other Cooper River plantations.
Mulberry Plantation was listed in the National Register of Historic Places in 1966. The style of the house has been described as Jacobean and French, with a mansard roof, rather than a typical low-country wooden structure. The brick house may have been used as a fortress against attacks during the Yamesse War in 1715, between settlers and Native Americans. At one time there were many slave cabins on the property but now only one remains that has been used as a hunting lodge.
Persons associated with the garden include Thomas Broughton and descendents (former owners, 1714-1914); Mr. and Mrs. Clarence Chapman (former owners, 1915-1981); Historic Charleston Foundation (former owners, 1981-1987); Loutrel Winslow Briggs (December 12, 1893-May, 1977) (landscape designer, circa 1930)
Related Materials:
Mulberry Plantation related holdings consist of 2 folders (2 35mm slides (photographs) + 27 digital images)
Mulberry Plantation related holdings consist of 1 slide (photograph) (col., 35mm.)
Collection Restrictions:
Access to original images by appointment only. Researcher must submit request for appointment in writing. Certain items may be restricted and not available to researchers. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Collection Rights:
Archives of American Gardens encourages the use of its archival materials for non-commercial, educational and personal use under the fair use provision of U.S. copyright law. Use or copyright restrictions may exist. It is incumbent upon the researcher to ascertain copyright status and assume responsibility for usage. All requests for duplication and use must be submitted in writing and approved by Archives of American Gardens.
Topic:
Gardens -- South Carolina -- Moncks Corner  Search this
Plantations  Search this
Spring  Search this
Box  Search this
Formal gardens  Search this
Sundials  Search this
Gardens -- South Carolina -- Moncks Corner  Search this
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution, Archives of American Gardens, The Garden Club of America collection.
Identifier:
AAG.GCA, File SC061
See more items in:
The Garden Club of America collection
The Garden Club of America collection / Series 1: United States Garden Images / South Carolina
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Gardens
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aag-gca-ref12489

Houston -- Christ Church Cathedral

Landscape designer:
Gunn, Ralph Ellis  Search this
Catlow, A. Gregory  Search this
Landscape architect:
Thompson, Lance  Search this
Thompson & Hanson  Search this
Architect:
Tempest, J. Arthur  Search this
Merriman, William H.  Search this
Harper, Richard  Search this
Ray Bailey Architects, Inc.  Search this
Collection Creator:
Garden Club of America  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Place:
Christ Church Cathedral (Houston, Texas)
United States of America -- Texas -- Houston
Scope and Contents:
The folder includes worksheets, two site plans with plant names, and brochures and other documents relating to Christ Church Cathedral and the dedication of the Cleveland Courtyard.
General:
The oldest church in Houston, Christ Church Cathedral includes extensive garden space in its Bishop's Garden and Cleveland courtyards. Although the church has been in existence since the 19th century, the current gardens have been developed only since 1970, with new additions being completed in 1990. Although there is an underlying structure of hardscaping, trees, and shrubs, other plantings are changed with the seasons and vary from year to year.
Persons and firms associated with the garden include: Ralph Ellis Gunn (landscape designer, 1969-1975); A. Gregory Catlow (landscape designer, 1975-1984); Lance Thompson (landscape architect, 1990-1992); J. Arthur Tempest (architect, 1893); William H. Merriman (architect, 1990); Richard Harper (architect, 1990); Ray Bailey Architects, Inc. (architects, 1990); and Thompson & Hanson (landscape architects, 1990-1992).
Related Materials:
Christ Church Cathedral related holdings consist of 1 folder (28 35 mm. slides)
Collection Restrictions:
Access to original images by appointment only. Researcher must submit request for appointment in writing. Certain items may be restricted and not available to researchers. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Collection Rights:
Archives of American Gardens encourages the use of its archival materials for non-commercial, educational and personal use under the fair use provision of U.S. copyright law. Use or copyright restrictions may exist. It is incumbent upon the researcher to ascertain copyright status and assume responsibility for usage. All requests for duplication and use must be submitted in writing and approved by Archives of American Gardens.
Topic:
Gardens -- Texas -- Houston  Search this
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution, Archives of American Gardens, The Garden Club of America collection.
Identifier:
AAG.GCA, File TX028
See more items in:
The Garden Club of America collection
The Garden Club of America collection / Series 1: United States Garden Images / Texas
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Gardens
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aag-gca-ref13503

Middletown -- Belle Grove Plantation

Former owner:
Hite, Isaac, Jr  Search this
Hunnewell, F. W. (Francis Welles)  Search this
Brumback family  Search this
Restoration landscape architect:
Favretti, Rudy J.  Search this
Owner:
National Trust for Historic Preservation in the United States  Search this
Creator:
Garden Club of Virginia  Search this
Collection Creator:
Garden Club of America  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Place:
Belle Grove (Middletown, Virginia)
United States of America -- Virginia -- Frederick County -- Middletown
Scope and Contents:
The folder includes worksheets and photocopies of articles about the property.
General:
Major Isaac Hite Jr., who fought with the Continental Army during the Revolutionary War, and his first wife Eleanor (Nelly) Conway Madison, a sister of President James Madison, built the Federal style house beginning in 1794, using limestone quarried on the 483 acre property. The landscape plan included groves of trees for shade and was influenced by the less formal 18th century English gardens that complement rather than contrast with the natural setting. The fields would have been planted in grain for livestock, including cattle and Merino sheep. During Hite's lifetime the property was expanded to 7,500 acres and included a distillery and several mills. The house has a south façade of dressed limestone, and is in the pavilion style favored by Thomas Jefferson. There are several outbuildings. The only records of the garden show light foundation plantings around the house and a latticework fence.
During the Civil War, Belle Grove Plantation was the setting of the Battle of Cedar Creek on October 19, 1864, in which Union General Philip Sheridan defeated Confederate General Jubal Early.
The Brumback family owned the property from 1907 to 1929. Francis Welles Hunnewell purchased the property in 1929 and bequeathed it to the National Trust for Historic Preservation in 1964.
In 1983, the Garden Club of Virginia voted to restore the gardens at Belle Grove Plantation, using funds raised in their annual garden walks. The gardens were restored to the style of circa 1820. University of Connecticut Professor Emeritus Rudy J. Favretti (Fellow in the American Society of Landscape Architects) designed the restoration. Restoration included pruning the trees to restore light to the house and open the view of the Blue Ridge and Allegheny Mountains and replacing the large foundation plantings including diseased boxwoods with low-growing plants. In addition, an overgrown herb garden was converted to a demonstration garden comprised of plants used in cooking, medicine and commerce in the 19th century, with restored latticework fencing on three sides and post and rail fencing on the fourth side.
Belle Grove Plantation, now 283 acres, is operated by the National Trust for Historic Preservation and open to the public. Sites on the grounds include the ice house, old hall, dairy, smokehouse, blacksmiths shop, demonstration garden, slave cemetery, and agricultural fields. There is also a library of local, architectural, crafts and agricultural history, and an artifacts collection.
Persons associated with the property include Major Isaac Hite (former owner, 1794-1836) and descendents of the Hite family, the Brumback family (former owner, 1907-1929), Francis Welles Hunnewell (former owner, 1929), Rudy J. Favretti (1983, restoration landscape architect) and the National Trust for Historic Preservation (owner, 1964-present)
Related Materials:
Belle Grove Plantation related holdings consist of 2 folders (1 3 x 4 in. lantern slide and 3 35mm slides)
See also the National Trust for Historic Preservation.
See others in:
Hollerith Collection, ca. 1970?
Collection Restrictions:
Access to original images by appointment only. Researcher must submit request for appointment in writing. Certain items may be restricted and not available to researchers. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Collection Rights:
Archives of American Gardens encourages the use of its archival materials for non-commercial, educational and personal use under the fair use provision of U.S. copyright law. Use or copyright restrictions may exist. It is incumbent upon the researcher to ascertain copyright status and assume responsibility for usage. All requests for duplication and use must be submitted in writing and approved by Archives of American Gardens.
Topic:
Gardens -- Virginia -- Middletown  Search this
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution, Archives of American Gardens, The Garden Club of America collection.
Identifier:
AAG.GCA, File VA094
See more items in:
The Garden Club of America collection
The Garden Club of America collection / Series 1: United States Garden Images / Virginia
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Gardens
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aag-gca-ref18856

Charles City County -- Upper Weyanoke

Provenance:
Tuckahoe Garden Club of Westhampton  Search this
Former owner:
Minge family  Search this
Orgain, Martha A.  Search this
Douthat, Fielding Louis  Search this
Douthat, Mary Willis Marshall  Search this
Garnett, Alexander Yelverton Peyton  Search this
Bahnsen, Henry Lawrence  Search this
Moon, Louise  Search this
Moon, John  Search this
Gray, Sarah Moon  Search this
Owner:
Gray, Lawrence Lewis  Search this
Gardener:
Edwards, Norman  Search this
Edwards, Wesley  Search this
Landscape architect:
Callaway, Chip  Search this
Landscape designer:
Wharton, Abbie  Search this
Thompson, Sue  Search this
Tosh, Terry  Search this
Arborist:
Girardi, Peter  Search this
Landscaping:
Carter, Ike  Search this
Collection Creator:
Garden Club of America  Search this
Extent:
39 Digital images (color, JPEG file.)
1 Slides (photographs) (color, slide., 35 mm.)
Type:
Archival materials
Digital images
Slides (photographs)
Place:
United States of America -- Virginia -- Charles City County -- Charles City
Upper Weyanoke (Charles City, Virginia)
Scope and Contents:
2 folders, 39 digital images (2019), and 1 35mm slide (reproduction of a 1931 plan).
Varying Form:
Weyanoke
General:
That the 360-foot long garden path was cultivated in the mid-19th century when the two-story Greek Revival brick house was built is undisputed. Less certain is whether there was an earlier version of the garden in colonial times when Upper Weyanoke was settled as a James River plantation. Transport to this location during the colonial period would have been via the river and the owners would have provided a gracious entry. Moreover, there are trees along the garden path that predate 1850, even a live oak not usually grown in this climate. Axial lines and symmetry were features of colonial gardens, and the walk leads directly from the living quarters to the river. The 19th century Colonial Revival garden path may well have been on the site of the original 17th and garden path overlooking terraces. There was a 17th century brick garrison built on the property to defend against native attacks; the second existing house, a 1-1/2 story brick cottage with later additions cited in official documents, was originally built in the first quarter of the 19th century.

Since 2010 the current owners have devoted eight years to restoring and replanting the garden path, a linear grass walkway bordered on each side by southern and saucer magnolia, fig, boxwood, crape myrtle, camellia, vitex, spirea and huge sweet olive that have grown beyond their usual dimensions. After clearing dead vegetation and weeds from the borders they planted 1500 heirloom narcissus, dug a new well and installed a sprinkler system. In 2011 Hurricane Irene toppled 30 trees in this garden and stalled the restoration. With more sunshine reaching the borders previously hidden perennials started blooming again, including peonies, iris, red spider lilies and narcissus. Hundreds of bulbs, shrubs and trees were added to the garden path, especially native varieties favored by pollinators. Weather conditions include strong winds off the James River so non-symmetrical drifts of certain plants have been more successful than trying to sustain matching borders.

The 53-acre property has been inhabited nearly continuously since the 1600's and the word Weyanoke translates to Land of Sassafras in the native language. The sassafras growing at the river end of the garden path is more than 60 feet tall, now at cliff's end due to erosion. The plantation was commandeered by Union troops under Generals Grant and Sheridan during the Civil War; ornamental gardens including terraces would have been trampled. Also, author Mary Johnston used Upper Weyanoke as the setting for To Have and To Hold written in 1900. The property was listed in the Virginia Landmarks Register and the National Register of Historic Places in 1980.

Persons associated with the garden include: the Minge family (former owners, mid-1700's-1840's); Martha A. Orgain (former owner, c. 1842-1854); Fielding Lewis Douthat and Mary Willis Marshall Douthat and family (former owners, 1854-1930's); Dr. and Mrs. Alexander Yelverton Peyton Garnett (former owners, 1930's-1942); Mr. and Mrs. Henry Lawrence Bahnsen (former owners, 1942-1974); Mrs. Louise Moon (former owner, 1974-1997); Mr. and Mrs. John Moon and Sarah Moon Gray (former owners, 1997-2010); Mr. and Mrs. Lawrence Lewis Gray (owners, 2010- ); Norman Edwards and Wesley Edwards (gardeners, 2010- ); Chip Callaway (landscape architect, 2010-2014); Abbie Wharton, Sue Thompson and Terry Tosh (landscape designers, 2011- ); Peter Girardi (arborist, 2010- ); Ike Carter (landscaping, 2010- ).
Additional images of Garden Path before and during restoration and after Hurricane Irene (2011); historic images from the Arthur A. and Sidney Shurcliff collections.
Related Materials:
See the Archives of American Gardens' Eleanor Weller Reade Collection and the Hollerith Family Slide Collection for additional images. Measured drawing (1931) by Arthur Shurcliff located at the Colonial Wiliamsburg Foundation Library.

Related materials found at the Francis Loeb Library, Harvard Graduate School of Design, Cambridge, Massachusetts; Special Collections, John D. Rockefeller, Jr. Library, The Colonial Williamsburg Foundation, Williamsburg, Virginia state.
Collection Restrictions:
Access to original images by appointment only. Researcher must submit request for appointment in writing. Certain items may be restricted and not available to researchers. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Collection Rights:
Archives of American Gardens encourages the use of its archival materials for non-commercial, educational and personal use under the fair use provision of U.S. copyright law. Use or copyright restrictions may exist. It is incumbent upon the researcher to ascertain copyright status and assume responsibility for usage. All requests for duplication and use must be submitted in writing and approved by Archives of American Gardens.
Topic:
Gardens -- Virginia -- Charles City  Search this
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution, Archives of American Gardens, The Garden Club of America collection.
Identifier:
AAG.GCA, File VA234
See more items in:
The Garden Club of America collection
The Garden Club of America collection / Series 1: United States Garden Images / Virginia
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Gardens
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aag-gca-ref32528

Haverford -- Thomas Country Garden

Former owner:
Thayer, Russell  Search this
Thayer, Shelby  Search this
MacCoy, Margureite Wood  Search this
Architect:
Durham, Walter K. (Walter Kremer), 1896-1978  Search this
Landscape architect:
DeVuono, Julie Wood  Search this
Landscape designer:
Wood, Sally  Search this
Provenance:
The Garden Club of Philadelphia  Search this
Collection Creator:
Garden Club of America  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Place:
Thomas Country Garden (Haverford, Pennsylvania)
United States of America -- Pennsylvania -- Montgomery -- Haverford
Scope and Contents:
The folder includes worksheets and photocopies of articles.
General:
Built in 1950 by Philadelphia architect Walter K. Durham the cottage style stucco house with dormer windows and multiple roof lines blends in very well with the romantic, profusely flowering and fragrant garden rooms created by the current owners beginning in 1987. Large window pane trellises on the house support climbing hydrangea, schizopraghma, clematis and roses. White picket fences, stone walls and arbors on the slightly more than one acre property are loaded with more roses, with more than one type of vine that will bloom in succession climbing up or over some of the supports. Perennials, especially those that bloom more than once and those with variegated leaves that add light to the garden are planted strategically to disguise any spent foliage or sparse vines. There is no spraying in this garden, and the rose varieties that are grown including hybrid musk and old-fashioned thrive where hybrid tea rose varieties would not. The eight garden rooms are planted primarily with shrubs and also perennials, spring bulbs and ornamental grasses. Mature trees from the earlier 19th century estate, Cheswold, still grow around the perimeter.
Other than the trees there were no surviving gardens so the current owners started with a blank slate that had some hidden surprises: ruins from the earlier mansion that on occasion interfered with their plants. The stone walls on the property re-used these buried materials salvaged from underground. The secluded entrance terrace was the first garden room that was designed on the steep slope that descends to the house. The back terrace needed to be stabilized and slips of hydrangea petiolaris planted along the walls have grown into a living wall. As the property continues to slope downward grass and stone steps to the flatland were added, which led to creating another garden room at the rear of the property, with a trellis for climbing vines and a bench for sitting and looking up at the house, tall trees and sky. A swimming pool was built on the previous service area off to one side and surrounded by upper and lower gardens with tulips, roses, clematis, hydrangeas, grasses, perennials, evergreens, dawn redwoods and katsuras. Various hedges have been planted and re-planted either because they grew too tall or succumbed to weather. Currently there are hedges of holly, lilac, Annabelle hydrangea and germander.
Persons associated with the garden include: Russell and Shelby Thayer (former owners, 1950-1956); Marguerite Wood MacCoy (former owner, 1956-1985); Walter K. Durham (1896-1978) (architect, 1950); Sally Ann Wood (ASLD)(landscape designer, 1987, 1990); Julie Wood DeVuono (ASLD) (landscape architect, 2007).
Related Materials:
Thomas Country Garden related holdings consist of 1 folder (41 digital images)
Collection Restrictions:
Access to original images by appointment only. Researcher must submit request for appointment in writing. Certain items may be restricted and not available to researchers. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Collection Rights:
Archives of American Gardens encourages the use of its archival materials for non-commercial, educational and personal use under the fair use provision of U.S. copyright law. Use or copyright restrictions may exist. It is incumbent upon the researcher to ascertain copyright status and assume responsibility for usage. All requests for duplication and use must be submitted in writing and approved by Archives of American Gardens.
Topic:
Gardens -- Pennsylvania -- Haverford  Search this
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution, Archives of American Gardens, The Garden Club of America collection.
Identifier:
AAG.GCA, File PA755
See more items in:
The Garden Club of America collection
The Garden Club of America collection / Series 1: United States Garden Images / Pennsylvania
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Gardens
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aag-gca-ref16475

Philadelphia -- Boxly

Former owner:
Penn, William  Search this
Pastorius, Francis Daniel  Search this
Du Barry, Joseph  Search this
Sheridan, Owen  Search this
Taylor, Frederick Winslow, 1856-1915  Search this
Taylor, Frederick Winslow, Mrs.  Search this
Peck, Frederick W. G.  Search this
Peck, Frederick W. G. Mrs.  Search this
Architect:
Fielding, Mantle, 1865-1941  Search this
Landscape architect:
Gallagher, Percival  Search this
Peck, Frederick W. G.  Search this
Olmsted Brothers  Search this
Civil engineer:
Vandu Zee, Harold (civil engineer)  Search this
Gardener:
Bender, Robert  Search this
Provenance:
The Garden Club of Philadelphia  Search this
The Garden Club of Philadelphia  Search this
Collection Creator:
Garden Club of America  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Place:
Boxly (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania)
United States of America -- Pennsylvania -- Philadelphia County -- Philadelphia
Scope and Contents:
The folders include worksheets, photocopies of newspaper and other printed references about the garden, and photocopies of photographs of the garden when it was owned by Mr. and Mrs. Frederick Winslow Taylor (before 1951).
General:
"Boxly" was originally established by Joseph Du Barry (a friend of Joseph Bonaparte) as "Mulberry Farm." The property was the center of an unsuccessful silk industry in the early 19th century. It was later purchased by the famous efficiency engineer Frederick Winslow Taylor, who built the first undulating putting green (for golf) in America at the property. He renamed it "Boxly" because of its then 100-year-old boxwood bushes. The property was redesigned in the 1950s and 1960s.
Persons associated with the property include: William Penn (former owner, 1681-1683); Francis Daniel Pastorius (former owner, 1683-?); Joseph Du Barry (former owner, 1803-?); Owen Sheridan (former owner, 1833-?); Mr. and Mrs. Frederick Winslow Taylor (former owners, 1901-1951); Mr. and Mrs. Frederick W. G. Peck (former owners and landscape architect, 1951-1998); Mantle Fielding (architect, 1901-1905); the Olmsted Brothers (landscape architects, 1901-1910); Percival Gallagher (landscape architect, 1901-1910); Harold Vandu Zee (civil engineer, 1901-1915); and Robert Bender (gardener, 1902-?).
Related Materials:
Boxly related holdings consist of 3 folders (4 glass lantern slides; 63 35 mm. slides; 17 photonegatives)
Records related to this site can be found at the Frederick Law Olmsted National Historic Site, Olmsted Job Number 00168, F. W. Taylor (Clark, J.S.).
See others in:
Maida Babson Adams American Garden Collection, ca. 1960-1994.
Collection Restrictions:
Access to original images by appointment only. Researcher must submit request for appointment in writing. Certain items may be restricted and not available to researchers. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Collection Rights:
Archives of American Gardens encourages the use of its archival materials for non-commercial, educational and personal use under the fair use provision of U.S. copyright law. Use or copyright restrictions may exist. It is incumbent upon the researcher to ascertain copyright status and assume responsibility for usage. All requests for duplication and use must be submitted in writing and approved by Archives of American Gardens.
Topic:
Gardens -- Pennsylvania -- Philadelphia  Search this
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution, Archives of American Gardens, The Garden Club of America collection.
Identifier:
AAG.GCA, File PA009
See more items in:
The Garden Club of America collection
The Garden Club of America collection / Series 1: United States Garden Images / Pennsylvania
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Gardens
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aag-gca-ref16501

Natchez -- Longwood Plantation

Architect:
Sloan, Samuel  Search this
Owner:
Pilgrimage Garden Club  Search this
Nutt, Haller  Search this
Collection Collector:
Marchand, Richard  Search this
Extent:
1 Slides (photographs)
Type:
Archival materials
Slides (photographs)
Postcards
Place:
United States of America -- Mississippi -- Adams County -- Natchez
Longwood Plantation (Natchez, Mississippi)
General:
Longwood Plantation was located on eighty-six acres south of Natchez, Mississippi. The property was purchased in 1850 by Haller Nutt (1816-1864), who earned his fortune farming sugar and cotton in Louisiana and Mississippi. The purchase of Longwood was inspired by his wife Julia, who had always been fond of Natchez. From 1860 to 1873, Longwood was the site of geometrically-patterned gardens, trees and allées following the drive, and vast rose gardens. The gardens once covered fifteen acres of the land surrounding the house, with a full ten of the acres planted in roses. Anecdotes state that the gardens were so large that Julia Nutt had to take a horse and carriage out whenever she wanted to pick flowers. The grounds also included a small bowling alley for the family's amusement and large peach and pear tree orchards and vegetable gardens, which Julia used to feed her family when they had fallen on hard times. Surviving records suggest that Mark Kyle, a Philadelphia gardener and landscape architect had a hand in the creation of the gardens at Longwood. When the home was designed, it included four verandas overlooking the gardens and shaded by the ancient oak trees that grew on the plantation.

The house on Longwood Plantation, also known as the Octagon House or Nutt's Folly, was designed by the Philadelphia architect Samuel Sloan beginning in 1859. The octagonal house design was popular during the 1850's throughout the United States, and the form was praised for its utility and cheapness. Longwood is the largest and grandest of the octagon houses built in the United States. The Oriental Revival style residence uniquely combines both Moslem and Italianate architecture with the eclecticism and exotic romanticism, which flourished in mid-nineteenth-century American architecture. Constructed from 1860 to 1862, the palatial structure is an eight-sided, two and one-half story, brick house over a full basement and topped with a large onion-shaped "Moorish" dome. The scale of the house is immense, spanning 30,000 feet, and including thirty-two rooms, eight verandas, four porches, 115 doors, twenty-six fireplaces, twenty-four closets, twenty-six coal-burning fireplaces, and a rotunda that opens to the cupola. Construction was halted in 1861 when the Civil War broke out, with only the exterior and nine rooms on the basement level completed. In 1862, Nutt finished the basement level, and the family moved into this completed section of the mansion. The estate also included several planned outbuildings, many of which were never used for their intended purpose. These structures, still standing today, include the kitchen, necessary (privy), slave's quarters, carriage house, and stables. The Nutt family's cemetery was also kept on the grounds at a considerable distance to the southwest of the mansion.

From the first floor up through the third, the house remained an incomplete, empty shell due to the severe financial losses caused by the Civil War. By the time of his death in 1864, Nutt was deeply in debt and his unfinished home came to be known as Nutt's Folly, a symbol of his financial fall. Haller Nutt died in the home in 1864, and his wife, Julia, remained in residence until her death in 1897. The property remained in the possession of the Nutt family until 1968, when it was purchased by Mr. and Mrs. Kelly McAdams, who in turn sold it to the Pilgrimage Garden Club of Natchez. In 1969, Longwood was added to the National Register of Historic Places as a National Historic Landmark. Sadly, during this time the once spacious and well-tended gardens fell into a state of disrepair, with only the path of the driveway remaining from the original garden plan. When the Pilgrimage Garden Club began restorations there were no visible surface signs of the former gardens of Longwood Plantation. The Pilgrimage Garden Club still owns Longwood today and operates it as a historic house museum and offers tours. Despite the fact that Longwood was never completed on the interior above the basement level, the exterior detailing has survived in an amazing state of preservation. The vast upper stories remain just as the workmen left them in 1861, which provides an opportunity to see a mid-19th-century house under construction. Together with the papers of the owner, Haller Nutt, and the architect, Samuel Sloan, Longwood offers a comprehensive view of the creative process and architectural theory of the period.

Persons associated include: Haller Nutt (former owner), Samuel Sloan (architect), Mark Kyle (possibly landscape architect), Mr. and Mrs. Kelly McAdams (former owner), and the Pilgrimage Garden Club (owner).
Postcard circa 1915-1950.
Varying Form:
Also known as Nutt's Folly and the Octagon House.
Collection Restrictions:
Access to original images by appointment only. Researcher must submit request for appointment in writing. Certain items may be restricted and not available to researchers. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Collection Rights:
Archives of American Gardens encourages the use of its archival materials for non-commercial, educational and personal use under the fair use provision of U.S. copyright law. Use or copyright restrictions may exist. It is incumbent upon the researcher to ascertain copyright status and assume responsibility for usage. All requests for duplication and use must be submitted in writing and approved by Archives of American Gardens.
Topic:
Gardens -- Mississippi -- Natchez  Search this
Mansions  Search this
Spanish moss  Search this
Formal gardens  Search this
Rose gardens  Search this
Architecture, Moorish Revival  Search this
Domes  Search this
Plantations  Search this
Live oak  Search this
Porches  Search this
Genre/Form:
Postcards
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution, Archives of American Gardens, Richard Marchand historical postcard collection.
Identifier:
AAG.MAR, File MS030
See more items in:
Richard Marchand historical postcard collection (35mm slides)
Richard Marchand historical postcard collection (35mm slides) / Mississippi
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Gardens
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aag-mar-ref1455

Montgomery C. Meigs Papers

Creator:
Meigs, Montgomery C., 1816-1892  Search this
Photographer:
Russell, Andrew J., 1829-1902  Search this
Names:
Pension Building  Search this
Post Office Building (Washington, D.C.)  Search this
United States Capitol (Washington, D.C.)  Search this
Extent:
12.5 Cubic feet (27 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Drawings
Albums
Clippings
Photographs
Scrapbooks
Place:
Georgia
West Point (N.Y.)
Washington (D.C.)
Date:
1870 - 1890
Summary:
The collection documents Mongomery C. Meigs, an Army officer, engineer, architect, and scientist. Meigs's papers include scrapbooks and photographs relating primarily to his work on the Pension Building and the Washington Aqueduct in Washington, D.C. but also his interest in politics, military affairs, construction, Native Americans, inventions, real estate, and financial matters.
Scope and Contents:
The collection documents, Mongomery C. Meigs, an Army officer, engineer, architect, and scientist. Meigs's papers include scrapbooks and photographs relating primarily to his work on the Pension Building in Washington, D.C., an extension to the Post Office Building, the Washington Aqueduct, Cabin John Bridge, and the dome of the United States Capitol. The scrapbooks reflect Meigs's interests in politics, military affairs, construction, Native Americans, inventions and technology, real estate, and financial matters.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into two series.

Series 1, Scrapbooks, 1870-1890

Series 2, Photographs, 1850-1885
Biographical / Historical:
1816, May 3, Born, Augusta, Georgia

1832, Entered United States Military Academy, West Point, New York

1837, Second lieutenant, Corps of Engineers. Surveyed Upper Mississippi River

1838, Survey engineering work, Delaware River

1839, Duty at army headquarters, Washington, D.C.

1841, Married Louisa Rodgers (died 1879)

1843-1852, Stationed in Detroit, Michigan, until return to permanent duty in Washington, D.C.

1852, Supervised construction of the Washington aqueduct for Great Falls, Virginia and various United States Capitol improvements, including a new and larger dome

1861, June Appointed Quartermaster General, United States Army

1865, April 15, Present at the death of Abraham Lincoln

1867, Postwar illness and trip to Europe

1882, Retired from the United States Army. Began engineering work on the Pension Office Building, Washington, D.C.

1892, January 2, Died, Washington, D.C.

*Biographical Chronology courtesy the Library of Congress, Montgomery C. Meigs Papers, 1799-1892 (bulk 1849-1892)
Related Materials:
Materials at the Archives Center, National Museum of American History

William R. Hutton Papers (AC0987)

Materials at the National Museum of American History

Several curatorial divisions hold material culture related to Montgomery C. Meigs and include

Division of Culture and the Arts (now Division of Cultural and Community Life)

Armed Forces History (Division of Political and Military History)

Division of Home and Community Life (now Division of Cultural and Community Life)

Division of Medicine and Science

Division of Work and Industry

Materials at Other Organizations

Library of Congress, Manuscript Division

Montgomery C. Meigs Papers, 1799-1892 (bulk 1849-1892)

Army officer, engineer, architect, and scientist. Correspondence, diaries and journals, notebooks, family papers, military papers, drawings and plans, scrapbooks, and other papers relating primarily to Meigs's work in the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, his service as Quartermaster General during the Civil War, and family matters.
Provenance:
Parts of the collection were donated by Dr. Paul L. Smith on January 8, 1971 and Mr. and Mrs. Mayo S. Stuntz on March 8, 1974. Other sources are unknown.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Bridges -- Washington (D.C.)  Search this
Architecture -- Washington (D.C.)  Search this
Civil engineers  Search this
Civil engineering  Search this
Architects  Search this
Tunnels  Search this
Reservoirs -- Washington (D.C.)  Search this
Water-supply  Search this
Washington Aqueduct  Search this
Engineering  Search this
Architecture  Search this
Hydraulic structures  Search this
Engineers  Search this
Genre/Form:
Drawings -- 19th century
Albums
Clippings -- 1850-1900
Photographs -- 19th century
Scrapbooks
Citation:
Montgomery C. Meigs Papers, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0984
See more items in:
Montgomery C. Meigs Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0984
Online Media:

Pullman Palace Car Company Collection

Creator:
Pullman Palace Car Co.  Search this
Pullman, George M., 1831-1897  Search this
Names:
Lincoln, Robert Todd  Search this
Extent:
8 Cubic feet (11 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Correspondence
Drawings
Date:
1867-1982
bulk 1900-1930
Summary:
Records of the Pullman Company, manufacturers and operators of railroad sleeping cars. Pullman also manufactured hospital and dining cars at its Chicago facilities. Dating from 1867 to 1982 (bulk 1900-1930s), the collection includes background materials, correspondence, financial, personnel and operating records, drawings and photographs.
Scope and Contents:
The collection consists of materials from 1867-1982 (bulk 1900-1930s), and includes background materials, correspondence, financial records, operating records, personnel records, drawings, and photographs. Of note is the documentation of hospital cars and instructions for porters. The collection is not a complete record of the Pullman Palace Car Company's activities.

Series 1, Historical Background, 1867-1982, contains newspaper clippings and articles about the Pullman Palace Car Company and George Pullman. Also included is a 318-page typescript titledThe History of the Sleeping Car 1923, by Charles S. Sweet; documentation on how Pullman cars were named; and other histories of the Pullman Company including its hospital cars and maquetry design.

Series 2, Correspondence, 1912-1960, consists primarily of documentation about the sale of cars and equipment by Pullman Palace Car Company to specific railroad companies. The correspondence details the cost per car and in some instances, leasing costs, operating costs, and other relevant statistical and financial information about the transactions. There is some consolidated data on cars sold to the railroads as well as summary data on the type of car sold, name of car, selling price, purchasers, and the date the sale was approved. The correspondence is organized chronologically within Pullman Company correspondence wrappers which were used to maintain the correspondence in a uniform manner and in consecutive date order.

Correspondence about hospital cars contains information on the rental of Pullman cars to the United States government as well as letters discussing specifications for building hospital unit cars for the United States Army. There is one folder of miscellaneous correspondence with individuals seeking copies of photographs from the company and/or offering their historical writings about the company.

Series 3, Financial Records, 1875-1930, consists primarily of details of cost documentation created by the Pullman Company's Manufacturing Department. The cost sheets are arranged chronologically and represent an itemized financial breakdown of costs by material, labor, extra equipment, sundries, and recapitulation for a variety of Pullman cars. The cover sheet for work orders notes the lot number, plan number, type of Pullman car (e.g. baggage, parlor, private) being manufactured or serviced/repaired, to whom the order belongs, and associated dates. For example, one private, steel car for Mr. D. J. Reid or general service parlor car for Southern Railway.

Series 4, Operating Records, 1875-1972, consists of records used by the company for daily operations, particularly instructions for porters as well as repair logbooks, volumes detailing car building completion, published supplements noting specific changes to cars, correspondence, reports, newspaper clippings, and lists of cars built by Pullman and cars withdrawn from service. Also included is the Illustrations Accompanying the Report of the Engineer-in-chief, H.C. Mais, on Observations on Railways Made During His Tour in 1883. Henry Coathupe Mais (1827-1916) was an English born civil engineer who spent most of his career in Australia. Mais toured railways and other works in Europe and America. His lengthy report with many detailed illustrations was printed in 1884 as a parliamentary paper. Some report pages were moldy and have been separated. These pages include: the index, pages 1-7; page 58; and pages 98-111.

The reports found in the "general file" include Sleeping, Parlor and Lounge Equipment (1945) and Pullman Passenger Survey A Continuing Study--Part II, (1955). The latter report by McFarland, Aveyard and Company studied attitudes and opinions of Pullman passengers. There is a typescript of a presentation made by George W. Bohannan of the Pullman Company to the American Association of Passenger Traffic Officers (1964).

The records documenting the completion of cars are bound volumes arranged chronologically. The volumes detail lot number, plan numbers, date of order, type of car, account name, date of delivery, destination route, estimate price, cost price, and contract price. In some instances, new information was glued or taped into the volume. The repair books capture the date, name of car, yard, name of porter, and date shipped.

Series 5, Personnel Records, 1873-1979, includes a payroll list for the General Ticket Department, 1876; instructions for passengers with cholera, 1873; reward notices for an 1878 robbery; instructional manuals for Pullman porters; photographs of Pullman Company employees working, and general correspondence, 1896-1979; ancedotes about Pullman porters; an obituary for George Arthur Kelly, an executive vice president for the Pullman Company; articles and newspaper clippings about porters and conductors, particularly the Society for the Prevention of Calling Pullman Car Porters "George." Started in 1916, the Society for the Prevention of Calling Pullman Car Porters "George" was founded by George W. Dulany, Jr., an Iowa lumber merchant. Dulany organized the society for fun after hearing passengers call every porter George. The society became a hobby and there were no meetings, dues, or activities associated with his work. Dulany's campaign was solely to have passengers use a porter's correct name or simply call them "porter."

Series 6, Drawings, 1907-1939 and undated, contains bound volumes arranged chronologically of records of tracings of drawings for Pullman cars. The volumes detail the negative number, date, type of car, job number, and remarks.

Series 7, Photographs, 1932-1950s and undated, consists primarily of black-and-white copy prints (8" x 10") documenting employees, especially porters, passengers, and hospital cars. Many of the hospital cars depict both the exterior and interior, but none with patients. The passenger photographs are almost exclusively interior images of persons dining, sleeping, playing cards, and in general seating areas. The Southern Pacific dining car photographs are original prints and bear the Pullman Car Company embossed stamp and unique number. This range of photographs is (Pullman photograph #32867 to #32873) and the images depict exterior and interior views of the dining cars. There is one album of ninety-nine photographs taken by Ricardo Villalba (active 1860-1880) in Peru. The album was made for W.W. Evans, Esquire in 1875. The images depict landscapes, bridges, train tracks, railroad cars, railroad engines, and buildings, such as the Pano Cathedral.
Arrangement:
The collection is divided into seven series:

Series 1, Historical Background, 1867-1982

Series 2, Correspondence, 1912-1960

Series 3, Financial Records, 1875-1930

Series 4, Operating Records, 1875-1972

Series 5, Personnel Records, 1873-1979

Series 6, Drawings, 1907-1939 and undated

Series 7, Photographs, 1932-1950s and undated
Biographical / Historical:
George M. Pullman (1831-1897) developed the railroad passenger sleeping car service into a major 19th century industry. He created the Pullman Palace Car Company in 1867. George Pullman was succeeded as president of the company by Robert Todd Lincoln, President Abraham Lincoln's son, who served until 1911. In 1900, after buying competing companies, the firm was reorganized as the Pullman Company.

The idea for specially designed sleeping cars came to Pullman while traveling from Buffalo to Westfield, New York in 1854. He altered existing railroad cars in September, 1858, for service on the Chicago and Alton Railroad. They first sleeping car built to Pullman's specifications was the "pioneer," which carried part of the Lincoln funeral party from Chicago to Springfield, Illinois in 1865. In 1867 "hotel cars" were introduced. These sleeping cars, equipped with kitchen and dining facilities, eliminating the need for trains to stop at stations for passengers to buy food. In 1868, Pullman built the "Delmonica," devoted to restaurant purposes. The Pullman firm also built streetcars and trolleys.

In 1880 George Pullman built the town of Pullman, just south of the city of Chicago along the Illinois Central Railroad line, as the site for his manufacturing plant. Intended as a model manufacturing town, it had 12,000 residents in 1893. It suffered from the usual company town problems and was annexed to Chicago in 1889. In the wake of the depression of 1893 Pullman reduced wages for its workers by 25% or more. The American Railway Union, lead by Eugene V. Debs, sought to bring wage issues to arbitration but Pullman refused. In June, 1894 some 4,000 employees struck the company gaining support from thousands of railroad workers who refused to handle trains with Pullman cars. President Grover Cleveland sent federal troops to Chicago in July and after a period of sporadic violence the strike was over by the end of the summer.

In later years the Pullman company introduced several innovations. It built lighter, articulated cars of alloy steel beginning in 1936. The following year, it introduced the roomette car with eighteen enclosed private rooms. In 1956 Pullman introduced the dome sleeper car with an upper deck observation level. The United States anti-trust suit against Pullman Manufacturing and Operating Company resulted in a 1944 decision requiring a separation of car building and car operation activities. Pullman sold its sleeping car service, transferring its operating unit to a group of fifty-nine railway firms in 1947.

George Pullman introduced two notable practices. First, rather than operating railroads, his firm leased sleeping cars to the railroads and provided the complete services on them, including supplying porters, conductors, dining staff, and food and linens. Second, Pullman named each of his sleeping and dining cars rather than assigning them numbers. This was intended to enhance the company's image by creating a personality for the car. Different categories of names signified different categories of cars and geographical names also helped to promote travel to the areas in which they operated.

Arthur Detmers Dubin assembled these Pullman Company materials. Dubin was born in 1923 in Chicago, Illinois. He began his architectural education at the University of Michigan in 1941 but was interrupted by World War II, and he served with distinction in the United States Army until 1946. After completing his studies in 1949, Dubin joined his father's and uncle's architectural firm, Dubin and Dubin, as a second--eneration architect. The leadership of the firm soon passed to Arthur and his brother, Martin David, and in 1965 they were joined by John Black and in 1966 by John Moutoussamy. Arthur's life--ong interest in trains and transportation and their implications for architecture is evident in transit stations commissions and service on transportation--elated advisory boards (Dubin was a member of the Illinois Railroad Commission), as well as in his writings and personal collections. Dubin was an avid train enthusiast and collector.

References

Art Institute of Chicago, Chicago Area Architects Oral History Project
Related Materials:
Materials in the Archives Center

Pullman Palace Car Company Photographs (NMAH.AC.1175), contains photographs of Pullman cars: freight, passenger, private and street railway/rapid transit cars. The bulk of the collection contains approximately 13,500 original glass plate negatives, film negatives, and copy prints.

Industry on Parade (NMAH.AC.0507) contains Reel #99, Servicing Sleepers, 1952. The Pullman Coach Company, Chicago, Illinois.

Materials In Other Organizations

Art Institute of Chicago

Bombardier Corporation

California State Railroad Museum

Chicago Historical Society

Arthur Dubin Collection at Lakeforest College

Illinois Railway Museum

Newberry Library, Pullman Company Archives

The Pullman Company archives consists of 2,500 cubic feet of records from the Pullman Company and Pullman heirs. The collection is comprised of business archives of the Pullman Palace Car Company from 1867 and include records of the entire firm up to the 1924 split into operating (sleeping car operation, service, and repair) and manufacturiung companies. From 1924 to 1981 the records chronicle the activities of the operating company only.

Pennsylvania State Archives

Pullman State Historic Site

Pullman Technology (Harvey, Illinois)

Smithsonian Institution Archives, Arthur D. Dubin Papers (83-015; 83-076; 83-101)

South Suburban Genealogical & Historical Society (South Holland, illinois)
Provenance:
Collection materials were donated by Arthur D. Dubin in 1980 and on January 30, 1986. Additional materials were donated by Lorrain Douglass, Kiara S. Winans and Kristin Peterson on April 3, 2012.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Hospital cars  Search this
Hotel car  Search this
Roomette car  Search this
Dining cars  Search this
Labor relations  Search this
Railroads -- Dining-car service  Search this
Sleeping car  Search this
Strikes and lockouts  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- Black-and-white photoprints -- Silver gelatin -- 1930-1940
Correspondence -- 1930-1960
Drawings
Citation:
Pullman Palace Car Company Collection, 1867-1982, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0181
See more items in:
Pullman Palace Car Company Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0181
Online Media:

Bar Harbor -- Kenarden

Former owner:
Dorrance, Ethel Mallincknot  Search this
Collet, Ethel Dorrance  Search this
Kennedy, John Stewart  Search this
Provenance:
Garden Club of Mount Desert  Search this
Garden designer:
Bracale, Dennis  Search this
Landscape architect:
Farrand, Beatrix, 1872-1959  Search this
Sculptor:
Soderholtz, Eric E.  Search this
Architect:
Rowe & Baker  Search this
Carroll, Grisdale & Van Alen  Search this
Collection Creator:
McFarland, J. Horace (John Horace), 1859-1948  Search this
American Rose Society  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Place:
United States of America -- Maine -- Hancock County -- Bar Harbor
Kenarden (Bar Harbor, Maine)
Date:
1930
Scope and Contents note:
The folders includes worksheets, historical information about the property, and a garden tour description.
General note:
The original gardens at Kenarden were designed by landscape architect Beatrix Jones Farrand (1872-1959) early in the last century and have been restored and replanted by the current owners. The gardens include a formal rose garden with boxwood edging that has a contemporary Lunaform urn at its center. The fomal sunken Italianate garden's balustrade and pergola were replicated by garden designer Dennis Bracale, and the flower beds were replanted. Urns created by Eric Ellis Soderholtz in the early 20th century are in situ in the Italianate garden as well as around the residence. Large cutting and vegetable gardens were installed in the same location as the historic gardens, alongside greenhouses. Many of the original outhouses remain on the property as well as mature specimens including a Japanese umbrella pine, a very large hawthorn tree, a mature gingko, and very mature pieris, kalmia and rhododendron. An iron fence surrounding the property was added with new perimeter plantings. The drive from the main entrance cuts through native woods that are maintained as a decorative feature.
Kenarden Lodge was one of the original summer properties built at the end of the 19th century in Mount Desert, Maine. The turreted mansion with its own electrical plant designed by New York architects Rowe and Baker in 1892 was torn down in the 1960s and another house was built in its place circa 1970 by the architectural firm Carroll, Grisdale & Van Alen. The first owner of the property was financier John Stewart Kennedy; the estate was sold in the 1930s to Ethel Mallinckrot Dorrance, widow of Dr. John Thompson Dorrance, a chemist at Campbell who invented condensed canned soups.
Encouraged by Beatrix Farrand, Eric Ellis Soderholtz switched from photography to manufacturing garden urns and other ornaments, some of which remain at Kenarden.
Persons associated with the garden include John Stewart Kennedy and members of the Kennedy family (former owners, 1892-1933); Ethel Mallinckrot Dorrance (former owner 1933-1958); Ethel Dorrance Colket (former owner 1958-1966); Rowe and Baker (architects of original house, 1892); Beatrix Jones Farrand (landscape architect, circa 1915); Carroll, Grisdale & Van Alen (architects of current house, 1970-1972; firm in business 1946-1973 ); AB & JR Hodgkins, Inc. (builders of current house, 1970-1972); Dennis Bracale, Gardens by Design (landscape designer).
See others in:
Garden Club of America Collection, ca. 1920-[ongoing].
Holdings:
Kenarden related holdings consist of 3 folders (36 35 mm. slides; 15 digital images.; 4 photographic prints; 3 glass lantern slides)
Collection Restrictions:
Access to original images by appointment only. Researcher must submit request for appointment in writing. Certain items may be restricted and not available to researchers. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Collection Rights:
For information or study purposes only. Use or copyright restrictions may exist. All requests for duplication and use must be submitted in writing and approved by Archives of American Gardens.
Topic:
Gardens -- Maine -- Bar Harbor  Search this
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution, Archives of American Gardens, J. Horace McFarland Company Collection.
Identifier:
AAG.MCF, File ME044
See more items in:
J. Horace McFarland Company collection
J. Horace McFarland Company collection / Series 1: Garden Images / United States / Maine
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Gardens
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aag-mcf-ref8387

Middletown -- Belle Grove Plantation

Former owner:
Hite, Isaac, Jr  Search this
Hunnewell, F. W. (Francis Welles)  Search this
Brumback family  Search this
Restoration landscape architect:
Favretti, Rudy J.  Search this
Owner:
National Trust for Historic Preservation in the United States  Search this
Collection Creator:
Hollerith family  Search this
Hollerith, Herman, 1860-1929  Search this
Garden Club of America  Search this
Georgetown Garden Club  Search this
Collection Photographer:
Hollerith, Lucia Beverly, 1891-1982  Search this
Hollerith, Nannie Talcott, 1898-1985  Search this
Hollerith, Virginia  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Place:
Belle Grove (Middletown, Virginia)
United States of America -- Virginia -- Frederick County -- Middletown
Scope and Contents:
The folder includes worksheets and photocopies of articles about the property.
General:
Major Isaac Hite Jr., who fought with the Continental Army during the Revolutionary War, and his first wife Eleanor (Nelly) Conway Madison, a sister of President James Madison, built the Federal style house beginning in 1794, using limestone quarried on the 483 acre property. The landscape plan included groves of trees for shade and was influenced by the less formal 18th century English gardens that complement rather than contrast with the natural setting. The fields would have been planted in grain for livestock, including cattle and Merino sheep. During Hite's lifetime the property was expanded to 7,500 acres and included a distillery and several mills. The house has a south façade of dressed limestone, and is in the pavilion style favored by Thomas Jefferson. There are several outbuildings. The only records of the garden show light foundation plantings around the house and a latticework fence.
During the Civil War, Belle Grove Plantation was the setting of the Battle of Cedar Creek on October 19, 1864, in which Union General Philip Sheridan defeated Confederate General Jubal Early.
The Brumback family owned the property from 1907 to 1929. Francis Welles Hunnewell purchased the property in 1929 and bequeathed it to the National Trust for Historic Preservation in 1964.
In 1983, the Garden Club of Virginia voted to restore the gardens at Belle Grove Plantation, using funds raised in their annual garden walks. The gardens were restored to the style of circa 1820. University of Connecticut Professor Emeritus Rudy J. Favretti (Fellow in the American Society of Landscape Architects) designed the restoration. Restoration included pruning the trees to restore light to the house and open the view of the Blue Ridge and Allegheny Mountains and replacing the large foundation plantings including diseased boxwoods with low-growing plants. In addition, an overgrown herb garden was converted to a demonstration garden comprised of plants used in cooking, medicine and commerce in the 19th century, with restored latticework fencing on three sides and post and rail fencing on the fourth side.
Belle Grove Plantation, now 283 acres, is operated by the National Trust for Historic Preservation and open to the public. Sites on the grounds include the ice house, old hall, dairy, smokehouse, blacksmiths shop, demonstration garden, slave cemetery, and agricultural fields. There is also a library of local, architectural, crafts and agricultural history, and an artifacts collection.
Persons associated with the property include Major Isaac Hite (former owner, 1794-1836) and descendents of the Hite family, the Brumback family (former owner, 1907-1929), Francis Welles Hunnewell (former owner, 1929), Rudy J. Favretti (1983, restoration landscape architect) and the National Trust for Historic Preservation (owner, 1964-present),
Related Materials:
Belle Grove Plantation related holdings consist of 2 folders (1 3 x 4 in. lantern slide and 3 35mm slides)
See also the National Trust for Historic Preservation.
See others in:
Garden Club of America Collection, ca. 1920-[ongoing].
Collection Restrictions:
Access to original images by appointment only. Researcher must submit request for appointment in writing. Certain items may be restricted and not available to researchers. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Collection Rights:
Archives of American Gardens encourages the use of its archival materials for non-commercial, educational and personal use under the fair use provision of U.S. copyright law. Use or copyright restrictions may exist. It is incumbent upon the researcher to ascertain copyright status and assume responsibility for usage. All requests for duplication and use must be submitted in writing and approved by Archives of American Gardens.
Topic:
Gardens -- Virginia -- Middletown  Search this
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution, Archives of American Gardens, Hollerith Family Slide Collection.
Identifier:
AAG.HOL, File VA094
See more items in:
Hollerith Family slide collection
Hollerith Family slide collection / Gardens and Sites / Virginia
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Gardens
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aag-hol-ref657

Five of America's Most Invincible Hotels

Creator:
Smithsonian Magazine  Search this
Type:
Blog posts
Smithsonian staff publications
Blog posts
Published Date:
Fri, 11 Jun 2021 17:04:43 +0000
Topic:
Custom RSS  Search this
See more posts:
Smithsonian Article Database
Data Source:
Smithsonian Magazine
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:posts_f90f1d179cf97cc8c2bab198bf554a1a

The 15 Best Small Towns to Visit in 2021

Creator:
Smithsonian Magazine  Search this
Type:
Blog posts
Smithsonian staff publications
Conversations and talks
Blog posts
Published Date:
Mon, 07 Jun 2021 12:00:00 +0000
Topic:
Custom RSS  Search this
See more posts:
Smithsonian Article Database
Data Source:
Smithsonian Magazine
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:posts_69e80a771929fa706d2573f6b5165c28

Jacques Seligmann & Co. records, 1904-1978, bulk 1913-1974

Creator:
Jacques Seligmann & Co.  Search this
Jacques Seligmann & Co.  Search this
Subject:
Hauke, Cesar M. de (Cesar Mange)  Search this
Glaenzer, Eugene  Search this
Haardt, Georges  Search this
Seligman, Germain  Search this
Seligmann, Arnold  Search this
Parker, Theresa D.  Search this
Waegen, Rolf Hans  Search this
Trevor, Clyfford  Search this
Seligmann, René  Search this
Seligmann, Jacques  Search this
De Hauke & Co., Inc.  Search this
Jacques Seligmann & Co  Search this
Eugene Glaenzer & Co.  Search this
Germain Seligmann & Co.  Search this
Gersel  Search this
Type:
Gallery records
Topic:
Mackay, Clarence Hungerford, 1874-1938 -- Art collections  Search this
Schiff, Mortimer L. -- Art collections  Search this
Arenberg, duc d' -- Art collections  Search this
Liechtenstein, House of -- Art collections  Search this
Art -- Collectors and collecting -- France -- Paris  Search this
Art -- Collectors and collecting  Search this
World War, 1939-1945 -- Art and the war  Search this
La Fresnaye, Roger de, 1885-1925  Search this
Art, Renaissance  Search this
Decorative arts  Search this
Art treasures in war  Search this
Art, European  Search this
Theme:
Art Market  Search this
Art Gallery Records  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)9936
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)212486
AAA_collcode_jacqself
Theme:
Art Market
Art Gallery Records
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_212486
3 Page(s) matching your search term, top most relevant are shown: View entire project in transcription center
  • View Jacques Seligmann & Co. records, 1904-1978, bulk 1913-1974 digital asset number 1
  • View Jacques Seligmann & Co. records, 1904-1978, bulk 1913-1974 digital asset number 2
  • View Jacques Seligmann & Co. records, 1904-1978, bulk 1913-1974 digital asset number 3
Online Media:

Design for a Surtout de Table (Centerpiece)

Architect:
Giuseppe Barberi, Italian, 1746–1809  Search this
Medium:
black chalk on paper
Dimensions:
25.2 x 42.2 cm (9 15/16 x 16 5/8 in.)
Mat: 55.9 × 71.1 cm (22 × 28 in.)
Type:
metalwork
Drawing
Object Name:
Drawing
Made in:
Italy
Date:
early 19th century
Credit Line:
Museum purchase through gift of various donors and from Eleanor G. Hewitt Fund
Accession Number:
1938-88-1427
Restrictions & Rights:
CC0
See more items in:
Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum Collection
Drawings, Prints, and Graphic Design Department
Data Source:
Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/kq433e71126-5664-4033-a473-5393b8fe9cf4
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:chndm_1938-88-1427

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