Images are of the following tribes: Assiniboine, Beaver (Tsattine), Blackfoot (Piegan), Bungi (Older Ojibwa), Chippewa (Older Ojibwa), Cree (Bush, Prairie, Wood, Woodland), Eskimo, Eskimo (Copper River), Kainah (Blood), Loucheux (Gwich'in), Zuni, Slavey (Dene Thá), Yellowknife (Ahtena).
Donald A. Cadzow worked on expeditions and archeological excavations for George Gustav Heye and the Museum of the American Indian from 1916 until 1927. Between 1917 and 1919, Cadzow, collected artifacts and archaeological materials from the Copper and Kogmollok Eskimo, the Loucheux, Slavey, and Woodland Cree of Alberta, Canada. In 1919, Cadzow assisted Alanson Skinner on an archeological excavation in Cayuga County, New York. Cadzow next worked with Mark Harrington: excavating a site on Staten Island, New York in 1920; on the Hawikku expedition to study Zuni Indian culture in McKinley County, New Mexico in 1921; and to Arkansas and Missouri in 1922. In 1924 and 1925 he conducted an expedition to a prehistoric Algonkian burial site on Frontenac Island, Cayuga Lake, in New York; traveled to the Bungi tribe in Portage la Prairie, Manitoba, and the Prairie Cree in Saskatchewan, Canada. He continued this work in 1926 again visiting the Prairie Cree and also the Bush Cree in Saskatchewan, the Assiniboin in Saskatchewan and Alberta; the Iroquois and the Northern Piegan (Blackfoot) in Alberta. In 1927, the last year that Cadzow worked for Heye, he assisted George P. Putnam on an expedition to Baffin Island and the Hudson Bay district to visit the Sikosuilarmiut, Akuliarmiut, and Quaumauangmiut Eskimos.Donald A. Cadzow, the son of Hugh and Nellie Cadzow, was born in Auburn, New York in 1894. In 1911, at the age of 17, he traveled to the far Canadian Northwest to live with his uncle Daniel Cadzow at the Rampart House, a Hudson Bay Company trading post on the Alaska-Yukon boundary line. After five years there, Cadzow returned to the United States. He began working for George Gustav Heye in the fall of 1916, but enlisted as seaman in the U.S.N.R.F. on January 20, 1918, only to be released from service on December 22 that same year. He returned to work for Heye at the Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation on January 1, 1919, and worked there until 1928. In May of 1928 he took a job in the Bond Department of Lage & Co., a brokerage company in New York City. He was state archeologist for the Pennsylvania Historical Commission from circa 1929-39; and executive secretary from 1939-45. He was also treasurer of the Eastern States Archeological Federation from 1940-42. In 1945 he was named executive director of the Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission and held the position until 1956. He died on February 9, 1960, in Pennsylvania. During his career Cadzow gave a number of lectures and radio talk programs, and published extensively in Indian Notes (Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation, New York), for the Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission, in a variety of publications, and several books.
Access restricted. Researchers should contact the staff of the NMAI Archives for an appointment to access the collection.
The majority of the images are individual and group portraits of Southwestern tribes, photographed between 1900-1902, including Laguna Pueblo, Hopi Pueblo, Zuni Pueblo, Taos Pueblo, San Juan Pueblo, White Mountain Apache, Ute, San Carlos Apache, and Navajo Indians.
Scope and Contents:
The Orchard collection consists overwhelmingly of informal single and group portraits made by Orchard in 1900 and 1902 of Diné (Navajo), Hopi Pueblo, Laguna Pueblo, A:shiwi (Zuni), and White Mountain Apache men and women. Among these are photographs of Native children standing before agency schools. In addition, there are informal single and group portraits of Jemez Pueblo, Isleta Pueblo, Ute, Uintah, San Carlos Apache, and Ohkey Owingeh (San Juan Pueblo) men and women; photographs of Walpi, Zuni, Toas, and Acoma villages; and a few landscape views made in the Rio Grande and Little Colorado River canyons. There are a few portraits of Mohawk men and Sac and Fox women. A few photographs date from 1926 and are of Seminole women performing household duties. There are also a few excavations photographs, including those taken of an 1918 excavation along Spuyten Duyvil Creek in New York. Orchard made the later photographs on behalf of the Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation. Some of the negatives are glass plate negatives and others are copy negatives made of the photographs.
Prints Arranged by print number (P01319, P01678-P01679, P02767-P03191, P03217-P03319, P03217-P03319, P04165, P08369-P08373, P12703-P12706, P28311)
Lantern slides Arranged by image number (L00353-L00354, L00356-L00363, L00367-L00369, L00371-L00376, L00379-L00384, L00386, L00388, L00390-L00392, L00397, L00401-L00402, L00404-L00406, L00408-L00409)
Negatives Arranged by negative number (N03368-N03373, N03762, N11617, N13457-N13460, N13481, N14935, N14939, N14941, N21574, N21600, N35151-N35158, N35162, N37725, N37879)
Born in England in the early 1860s, William C. Orchard moved to the United States around 1885. Before working privately for George G. Heye, he briefly held a position at the American Museum of Natural History in New York. After the Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation was established in 1916, Orchard became a museum preparator. In this position, he used his considerable artistic gifts to repair and restore specimens and to create models and dioramas for the Museum's exhibits. Orchard also published several books on porcupine-quill and beading techniques. He died in 1948.
Access is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment.
Copyright: National Museum of the American Indian
William C. Orchard collection of photographs, lantern slides and negatives, circa 1899-1937, National Museum of the American Indian Archives, Smithsonian Institution (negative, slide or catalog number).
Photographic negatives and prints shot by and collected Kenneth C. Miller between 1926 and 1943. Miller served as a field assistant to Donald Cadzow on a 1926 trip to Northwestern, Canada and was later hired as an MAI staff member between 1935 and 1943.
Scope and Contents:
This collection includes photographic prints and negatives shot by Kenneth C. Miller as well as photographs and postcards collected and donated to the museum by Miller dating between 1926 and 1943.
The majority of the photographic negatives in this collection are from a 1926 collecting trip with Donald Cadzow to the Canadian Northwest where Miller served as a field assistant. Cadzow was collecting on behalf of the MAI and had taken previous trips to the same area in 1924 and 1925. Cadzow and Miller visited various locations in Saskatchewan and Alberta, Canada collecting among the Plains Cree (Prairie Cree), Assiniboine (Stoney), and Apatohsipipiikani (Northern Piegan) among other communities. These photographs include images of Native community members posing for photographs as well as images of the expedition members, such as Donald Cadzow. Some of these photographs are restricted due to cultural sensitivity. (N13144 - N13150, N23001 - N23047, P11460-P11462, P15351, P16103).
Photographs shot by Miller while he was an MAI staff member include: Negatives (N21568 - N21573) of a mahogany canoe found in an old mill near Brooklyn, NY in 1938; Negatives of Joseph Keppler in Rochester, New York in 1937 with a group of Seneca at an event in Ellison Park (N23115 - N23123); and photographic prints of MAI staff from 1938 (P13057-P13059).
Additional non-MAI photographs include: excavation photographs from the Seip Mound in Ohio in 1931 which was not an MAI sponsored excavation (P11944-P11948); 16 postcards donated by Miller in 1940 which are mostly images of objects from an Exhibition of Modern Art, held at the Museum of Modern Art (P15107 - P15120, P15174, P15205); other miscellaneous postcards and photographic prints from Florida, Michigan, Montana, Rhode Island, California (P13439-P13440, P15310 - P15317, P15323 - P15326, P15934-P15935, P16103, P16566, P21175).
Arranged by catalog number.
Biographical / Historical:
Kenneth C. Miller (1901-1974) was born in New York in 1901. Miller joined the New York State National Guard in 1922 and eventually became a Major with the Seventh Regiment. In 1926, Miller accompanied Donald Cadzow as a field assistant on a collecting trip to Northwestern, Canada between May and September in 1926 sponsored by the Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation (MAI). Cadzow and Miller visited 23 reserves in Saskatchewan and Alberta. In 1935 Miller was hired as a general staff member of the MAI from where he assisted with field collecting and photography until 1943. Miller later became the superintendent of the Washington's Headquarters Historical site in Newburgh, NY in 1956 and served as Vice President of the Historical Society of Newburgh Bay and Highlands. He also sat on the committee of the Hudson River Historical Museum.
For more photograph from Miller's 1926 trip to Canada see the Donald Cadzow photograph collection (NMAI.AC.001.004).
The photographs in this collection were gifted by Kenneth C. Miller to the MAI in various donations between 1927 and 1943.
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Thursday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: email@example.com). Some photographs restricted due to cultural sensitivity.
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to firstname.lastname@example.org. For personal or classroom use, users are invited users to download, print, photocopy, and distribute the images that are available online without prior written permission, provided that the files are not changed, the Smithsonian Institution copyright notice (where applicable) is included, and the source of the image is identified as the National Museum of the American Indian.