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Carleton Stevens Coon Papers 1925-1980

Coon, Carlton Stevens Jr 1904-1981  Search this
Goodenough, Ward H  Search this
Andrew, T  Search this
Adelman, Frederick  Search this
Agogino, George  Search this
Andrews, Rosemary  Search this
Andrews, E. Wyllys  Search this
Angel, J. Lawrence (John Lawrence)  Search this
Arensberg, Conrad M  Search this
Bank, Theodore T  Search this
Birdsell, Joseph  Search this
Blanc, Alberto  Search this
Bowles, Gordon T  Search this
Boyd, William  Search this
Braidwood, Robert J  Search this
Brew, John Otis  Search this
Briggs, Lloyd Cabot  Search this
Brown, A.R  Search this
Browne, Gordon  Search this
Browne, Eleanor  Search this
Brozek, Josef  Search this
Burns, Nancy Genet  Search this
Burns, William  Search this
Bushong, Peggy  Search this
Cameron, George G  Search this
Canby, Joel  Search this
Canby, Kay  Search this
Canning, Robert Gordon  Search this
Cape, Joanthan  Search this
Carter, George F  Search this
Chapple, Eliot D  Search this
Chard, Chester S  Search this
Childe, Gordon  Search this
Cipriani, Lidio  Search this
Cline, Walter  Search this
Cole, Sonia  Search this
Coon, Bessie  Search this
Coon, John L  Search this
Coon, Janet Wulsin  Search this
Coon, Carlton Stevens Jr 1904-1981  Search this
Crawford, W. Rex  Search this
Crosby, Madeleine  Search this
Crozier, Louise  Search this
Crozier, William  Search this
Debetz, G  Search this
Dee, Sarah  Search this
Dockstader, Frederick J  Search this
Dosker, Caroline  Search this
Downes, Donald  Search this
Dupree, Louis  Search this
Eddy, William A  Search this
Ehrich, Robert W  Search this
El Amin, Mahmud  Search this
Eliot, Mather  Search this
Evans, Clifford Jr  Search this
Farrell, William  Search this
Fejos, Paul  Search this
Field, Henry  Search this
Fisher, Sydney  Search this
Ford, Henry of Knopf publishers  Search this
Furnas, J.C  Search this
Garn, Stanley Marion  Search this
Golomshtok, Eugene A  Search this
Goodale, Jane  Search this
Greulich, William  Search this
Guha, Biraja N  Search this
Gulick, John  Search this
Gundersen, Trygve  Search this
Hammel, Theodore  Search this
Hanna, Paul  Search this
Haring, Douglas  Search this
Hart, David  Search this
Haury, Emil Walter  Search this
Hencken, Hugh O'Neill  Search this
Hooton, Earnest Albert  Search this
Horton, Lee  Search this
Howard, J.C  Search this
Howard, Michael  Search this
Howe, Bruce  Search this
Howell, Clark  Search this
Howells, William W  Search this
Hunt, Edward  Search this
Johnson, Frederick 1904-1994  Search this
Kidd, Philip  Search this
Kidder, Alfred II  Search this
Kluckhohn, Clyde  Search this
Koshland, William  Search this
Krogman, Wilton M  Search this
Lasker, Gabriel  Search this
Lee, Thomas  Search this
Lockard, Derwood W  Search this
Madison, Charles  Search this
Marett, J.R. dela H  Search this
Skerlj, Bozo  Search this
Marshall, Ernest  Search this
Mather, William G  Search this
Mayr, Ernst 1904-2005  Search this
McCown, Theodore  Search this
Medino, Alberto  Search this
Messing, Simon  Search this
Ashley-Montagu, Montague Francis  Search this
Morss, Noel  Search this
Mountford, C.P  Search this
Movius, Hallam L Jr  Search this
Movius, Nancy  Search this
Murdock, George Peter 1897-1985  Search this
Naby, M  Search this
Nahon, Ralph  Search this
Narroll, Raoul  Search this
Nesbitt, Paul  Search this
Neumann, Georg K (Georg Karl) 1907-1971  Search this
Newman, Marshall Thornton 1911-1994  Search this
O'Bryan, Deric  Search this
Oakley, Kenneth Page 1911-  Search this
Oliver, Douglas L  Search this
Oppenheimer, H.L  Search this
Orr, Kenneth G  Search this
Oschinsky, Lawrence 1921-1965  Search this
Penrose, Stephen B.L  Search this
Perkins, Dexter  Search this
Pettinos, Emily  Search this
Pitman, Theodore B  Search this
Purcell, John  Search this
Putnam, Patrick  Search this
Putnam, Carleton  Search this
Putnam, Ann  Search this
Rahul, R.N  Search this
Ranov, V.A  Search this
Reed, Charles  Search this
Richardson, Frederick L.W  Search this
Ripley, S. Dillon (Sidney Dillon) 1913-2001  Search this
Robbins, Henry  Search this
Schorger, Anne  Search this
Schorger, William Davison  Search this
Schumacher, Paul J. F  Search this
Senyurek, Muzaffer Suleyman 1915-1961 Turkish  Search this
Setzer, Henry  Search this
Shepardson, Whitney  Search this
Shihadeh, Gloria  Search this
Silverthorne, Henry  Search this
Simon, J.A  Search this
Singer, Ronald  Search this
Smith, Myron Bement 1897-1970  Search this
Solecki, Ralph S  Search this
Solecki, Rose L  Search this
Solheim, Wilhelm G II  Search this
Springs, L. Pittman  Search this
Stewart, T. D (Thomas Dale) 1901-1997  Search this
Stirling, Matthew Williams 1896-1975  Search this
Stone, Marshall  Search this
Stoudt, Howard  Search this
Straus, William  Search this
Strauss, Harold  Search this
Svirsky, Leon  Search this
Swift, Gloria  Search this
Tax, Sol 1907-  Search this
Thieme, Frederick  Search this
Trotter, Mildred  Search this
Vidal, Frederico Schmidt  Search this
Wadsworth, Charles  Search this
Waechter, John  Search this
Ward, Lauriston  Search this
Washburn, Sherwood Larned  Search this
Wetmore, Alexander 1886-1978  Search this
Wheeler, Richard M  Search this
Willey, Gordon Randolph  Search this
Wulsin, Frederick R  Search this
Syman, Leland C  Search this
Yaknov, V.P  Search this
Laughlin, William Sceva  Search this
Chapple, Eliot D  Search this
Coon, Carlton Stevens Jr 1904-1981  Search this
Dobzhansky, Theodosius controversy over Coon's Origin of Races  Search this
Coon, John Lewis  Search this
Physical description:
101 feet
Syrians  Search this
Yapese (Micronesian people)  Search this
Australian Aborigines  Search this
Lapp Siberian  Search this
Pygmies  Search this
Europeans  Search this
Ainu  Search this
Tiwi  Search this
Negritos  Search this
Ilongot (Philippine people)  Search this
Lapp  Search this
Albanians  Search this
Arab  Search this
Baluchi  Search this
Ethiopians  Search this
Riffians  Search this
Collection descriptions
Physical anthropology forms
Maldive Islands
New Britain
Bering Sea
Central America
Andaman Islands (India)
New Zealand
Anthropometry  Search this
Race  Search this
Tertiary  Search this
Stone Age  Search this
Mesolithic  Search this
Neolithic  Search this
Bronze age  Search this
Iron Age  Search this
Physical anthropology  Search this
Safi pottery  Search this
Language and languages--Documentation  Search this
Lapp  Search this
Data Source:
National Anthropological Archives

Thomas Dale Stewart Papers

Stewart, T. D. (Thomas Dale), 1901-1997  Search this
American Association of Physical Anthropologists  Search this
Department of Anthropology, National Museum of Natural History  Search this
National Academy of Sciences (U.S.)  Search this
National Geographic Society (U.S.)  Search this
Angel, J. Lawrence (John Lawrence)  Search this
Collins, Henry B. (Henry Bascom), 1899-1987  Search this
Hrdlička, Aleš, 1869-1943  Search this
McKern, T. W.  Search this
65 Linear feet
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Shanidar Cave (Iraq)
Chaco Canyon (N.M.) -- Archeology
1875-1991, bulk 1931-1991
bulk 1927-1991
Thomas Dale Stewart was a physical and forensic anthropologist and worked at the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History from 1931 until his death in 1997. He worked under Ales Hrdlicka until 1943, became the head curator in 1960, director of the museum in 1962, and retired in 1971. Stewart's research interests included physical and forensic anthropology and archaeology, mostly in North and South America. He also worked with the F.B.I. frequently to aid in homicide investigations, and worked extensively with the U.S. Army to identify skeletal remains from the Korean War in Operation Glory. The Thomas Dale Stewart Papers primarily deal with his life and career at the Smithsonian, particularly his research projects and publications between 1931 and 1991. Materials consist mainly of correspondence, photographic material, dossiers based on writings and research projects, and administrative files.
Scope and Contents:
The Thomas Dale Stewart Papers document his research and professional activities from 1931 to 1991 and primarily deal with his anthropological and archaeological research in North and South America. There is also significant material related to ancient human skeletal remains found in Egypt and the Middle East, Stewart's work identifying skeletal remains for the U.S. Army (Operation Glory), and the history of physical and forensic anthropology. Material documenting Stewart's work with Ales Hrdlicka and other colleagues are also represented in this collection. The collection consists of correspondence, writings and research files, project data, skeletal data punch cards, photographic and illustration materials, and administrative and financial papers.

Please note that the contents of the collection and the language and terminology used reflect the context and culture of the time of its creation. As an historical document, its contents may be at odds with contemporary views and terminology and considered offensive today. The information within this collection does not reflect the views of the Smithsonian Institution or National Anthropological Archives, but is available in its original form to facilitate research.
This collection is arranged in 9 series: Series 1. Biographical and Background, 1937-1983; Series 2. Correspondence, 1931-1990; Series 3. Writings and Research, 1875, 1902-1990; Series 4. Operation Glory, 1954-1957; Series 5. Professional Organizations, 1930-1990; Series 6. Trip Files, 1945-1985; Series 7. Teaching and Lectures, 1950-1970; Series 8. Exhibit Material, 1961-1969; Series 9. Photographs, 1928-1979.
Biographical note:
Thomas Dale Stewart was a curator of physical anthropology at the Smithsonian specializing in anthropometry, early man, and forensic anthropology. He worked in the Department of Anthropology for over seventy years. Born in Delta, Pennsylvania in 1901, Stewart moved to Washington, D.C. to pursue a degree at George Washington University. While attending school, he also began working at the Smithsonian in 1924 as a temporary substitute for John Baer, a family friend from Delta. After Baer died during conducting research in Panama, Stewart was invited to stay on as assistant to Ales Hrdlicka, curator of physical anthropology. Hrdlicka was impressed by Stewart's abilities and quickly took him on as a student. Promised that he would succeed Hrdlicka one day if he obtained an M.D., Stewart enrolled at The Johns Hopkins University and graduated in 1931. After graduating, Stewart was rehired by the Smithsonian as an assistant curator.

Stewart rose through the ranks of the Department of Anthropology quickly, being promoted to associate curator in 1939 and curator in 1943 after the death of his mentor Hrdlicka. Stewart was appointed head curator of the department in 1960 and director of the Natural History Museum in 1962. He continued to work at the Smithsonian well after he retired in 1971, conducting research and producing a stream of publications well into his 90s. He died in 1997 at the age of 96. Many of Stewart's early research interests matched those of his mentor: a focus on dental caries, separate neural arch and spondylolisthesis, ossuary excavation, cranial deformations, and other examinations of archaeological remains throughout North America. While Hrdlicka was alive, Stewart provided support for many of his research projects and publications. After Hrdlicka died, Stewart expanded his interests to include forensic topics and analysis of other archaeological remains.

Anthropometry was prominent in a great deal of his work. He was the first to describe Tepexpan Man from Mexico and Midland Man from Texas. He also studied the remains of Neanderthal specimens that Ralph S. Solecki, of the Bureau of American Ethnology, had uncovered at Shanidar Cave in Iraq. In forensic work, as Hrdlicka's heir, Stewart assumed work for the Federal Bureau of Investigation and other law enforcement officials. Moreover, Stewart devised new methods and published books and articles concerning forensic analysis, including his Essentials of Forensic Anthropology. In closely related work during 1954-1955, the United States Army engaged Stewart to go to Japan to examine skeletal remains repatriated after the Korean War in a project called "Operation Glory."

In terms of his areal specialization, Stewart was essentially an Americanist. In North America, he worked in Alaska with Henry B. Collins in 1927, and in subsequent years he excavated several ossuaries and other sites in the Washington, D.C., vicinity. These included a site on Potomac Creek in Virginia, Piscataway sites in Maryland, and the Townsend site in Delaware. He also carried out laboratory studies and prepared reports on skeletal remains uncovered by Smithsonian colleagues. In the 1940s and 1950s, Stewart conducted field work at archaeological sites in Mexico, Guatemala, and Peru.

He was awarded the Viking Medal in Physical Anthropology in 1953, the Joseph Henry Medal of the Smithsonian Institution in 1967, and an award from the physical anthropology section of the American Academy of Forensic Sciences in 1981.

Sources: Ubelaker, Douglas H. "Thomas Dale Stewart, A Biographer Memoir," National Academy of Sciences, 2006.

Pace, Eric. "T. Dale Stewart Dies at 96; Anthropologist at Smithsonian," The New York Times, 1997.


1901 -- Born in Delta, Pennsylvania.

1922-1927 -- Moved to Washington, D.C. and attended George Washington University.

1924 -- Began working at the Smithsonian Institution.

1927 -- Sent by Ales Hrdlicka to Alaska to collect skeletal remains with Henry Collins.

1931 -- Graduated from The Johns Hopkins University with an M.D.

1931 -- Appointed assistant curator at the Smithsonian under Hrdlicka.

1939 -- Promoted to associate curator.

1939 -- Field work in Mexico.

1941 -- Field work in Peru.

1943 -- Taught at the Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis.

1943 -- Promoted to curator after Hrdlicka dies.

1943 -- Began working on forensic cases for the F.B.I.

1945 -- Field work in Mexico.

1949 -- Field work in Peru.

1947, 1949 -- Field work in Guatemala.

1954-1955 -- Traveled to Japan to assist in the identification of skeletal remains from the Korean War (Operation Glory).

1957-1967 -- Taught at the George Washington University School of Medicine.

1960-1962 -- Served as head curator of the Department of Anthropology.

1962-1965 -- Served as the director of the National Museum of Natural History.

1964 -- Assisted in the production of Smithsonian exhibits on physical anthropology.

1966 -- Retired from administrative duties and appointed senior scientist.

1971 -- Retired from the Smithsonian.

1997 -- Died in Bethesda, Maryland.
Related Materials:
The following manuscripts related to Stewart and his work can be found at the NAA:

NAA MS 1615- Excavations in Mancos Canyon, Colorado September 1943.

NAA MS 4669- The Townsend Site Near Lewes, Delaware 1962 by Henri Omwake.

NAA MS 4843- Report by T. Dale Stewart on Human Skeletal Material Excavated by W.M. Walker at Cedar Grove Cave, Arkansas and Natchitoches, Louisiana.

NAA MS 7025- A Tentative Closing Report on the Willin Site, Eldorado, Maryland September 1, 1952.

NAA MS 7121- "Memories from Half a Century at the Smithsonian January 11, 1978" recording.

NAA MS 7223- The Townsend Site January 1950.

NAA MS 7264- Documents Concerning Preserved Paleolithic Human Remains Found in the Vicinity of Cueva, Spain 1969-1972.

NAA MS 7357- Material Relating to Dermatoglyphics of Mayan Groups ca. 1947-1949.

NAA MS 7358- Personal Identification in Mass Disasters December 9-11 1968.

NAA MS 7359- T. Dale Stewart on the Identification of Human Remains April 6, 1970.

NAA MS 7474- Sketches of Burials at Ossuary 2, Juhle Site ca. 1971-1972.

Additional material T. Dale Stewart created while assisting Ales Hrdlicka is located at the National Anthropological Archives, The Papers of Ales Hrdlicka, ca. 1887-1943.

Many objects and artifact materials collected by T. Dale Stewart throughout his career are also held by the Smithsonian Department of Anthropology. These include skeletal remains and other materials from the Shanidar Cave in Iraq, forensic anthropological material including bone casts from Operation Glory, archaelogical materials from excavations in Maryland and Virginia including the Nanjemoy and Potomac Creek sites, and skeletal remains and other related materials from Stewart's 1927 expedition to Alaska with Henry Collins. Contact Anthropological Collections for more information.
Materials were transferred from T. Dale Stewart to the National Anthropological Archives in multiple accretions between 1975 and 2000 under accessions 1981-52, 1981-59, 1986-04, 1988-15, 1988-33, 1995-04, 1998-61, and 2000-46.The bulk of materials in this collection were transferred to the NAA from the Department of Anthropology in 1994 (1995-04).
The Thomas Dale Stewart papers are open for research.
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Physical anthropology  Search this
Operation Glory  Search this
anthropometry  Search this
Anthropology, physical -- Eskimo  Search this
Anthropology, physical -- American Indian  Search this
Americans  Search this
Aging  Search this
Anthropology -- Exhibits  Search this
Fossil hominids  Search this
Early man -- Neanderthal  Search this
George Washington University  Search this
Forensic anthropology  Search this
Anthropology, history of  Search this
Archaeology  Search this
Physical anthropology -- Early man  Search this
Primates  Search this
Thomas Dale Stewart Papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Thomas Dale Stewart Papers
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives

MS 1308 The varieties of the American Race in North America

Boas, Franz, 1858-1942  Search this
26 pages
American Indians -- anthropometry  Search this
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Scope and Contents:
Largely anthropometric.
Local Numbers:
NAA MS 1308
Anthropology, physical -- American Indian  Search this
Manuscript 1308, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives

Written in Bone: Difficult Lives

Clark, Chip  Search this
National Museum of Natural History (U.S.)  Search this
National Museum of Natural History (U.S.) Department of Anthropology  Search this
Written in Bone: Forensic Files of the 17th-Century Chesapeake (Exhibition) (2009-2014: Washington, D.C.)  Search this
Born digital
November 8, 2007
Forensic anthropology  Search this
Physical anthropology  Search this
Local number:
SIA Acc. 16-150 [SIA16-150_D00035]
Restrictions & Rights:
No restrictions. All requests for duplication and use must be submitted in writing and approved by the Smithsonian Institution Archives. Contact SIA Reference Staff for further information (email
Personal/Educational Use
Data Source:
Smithsonian Institution Archives

Written in Bone: Bone Basics

Marques, Diana  Search this
National Museum of Natural History (U.S.)  Search this
National Museum of Natural History (U.S.) Department of Anthropology  Search this
Written in Bone: Forensic Files of the 17th-Century Chesapeake (Exhibition) (2009-2014: Washington, D.C.)  Search this
Born digital
June 7, 2008
Forensic anthropology  Search this
Physical anthropology  Search this
Local number:
SIA Acc. 16-150 [SIA16-150_D00108]
Restrictions & Rights:
No restrictions. All requests for duplication and use must be submitted in writing and approved by the Smithsonian Institution Archives. Contact SIA Reference Staff for further information (email
Personal/Educational Use
Data Source:
Smithsonian Institution Archives

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