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Quantum Leap: Does "Indian Blood" Still Matter? Part 1

Creator:
Smithsonian Center for Folklife and Cultural Heritage  Search this
Type:
Video recordings
Symposia
Podcast
MIME Type:
video/mp4
Uploaded:
Thu, 06 Oct 2011 15:29:00 GMT
Topic:
Cultural property  Search this
See more episodes:
Smithsonian National Museum of the American Indian Live Events
Data Source:
Smithsonian Center for Folklife and Cultural Heritage
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:podcasts_574b70c3dbd7bc2ea45defac6e1e81d0

Quantum Leap: Does "Indian Blood" Still Matter? Part 2

Creator:
Smithsonian Center for Folklife and Cultural Heritage  Search this
Type:
Video recordings
Symposia
Podcast
MIME Type:
video/mp4
Uploaded:
Thu, 06 Oct 2011 15:29:00 GMT
Topic:
Cultural property  Search this
See more episodes:
Smithsonian National Museum of the American Indian Live Events
Data Source:
Smithsonian Center for Folklife and Cultural Heritage
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:podcasts_c48822247f4f4dcd2610ff350a2320db

MS 2372 Garrick Mallery Collection on Sign Language and Pictography

Creator:
Mallery, Garrick, 1831-1894  Search this
Extent:
41.29 Linear feet (22 boxes, 29 folders, 3 mounted drawings, and 3 rolled items)
Note:
Some materials, especially in series 3, are stored in the NAA artwork collection.
Culture:
Arctic peoples  Search this
Indians of North America  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Pictographs
Place:
Oceania
Date:
1849-1902
bulk 1870-1895
Summary:
Garrick Mallery (1831-1894) was an ethnologist with the Bureau of American Ethnology who focused primarily on Native American sign language and pictography. This collection reflects Mallery's research interests and methods. Much of the collection is comprised of correspondence and notes relating to sign language and pictography and is organized chiefly by either the cultural or geographic region to which the material belongs. Bound volumes of several of his publications are included, along with annotated draft copies from collaborators. In the case of Mallery's work on pictography, the collection includes several oversize items including original works and reproductions.
Scope and Contents:
This collection contains Garrick Mallery's research and writings as a BAE ethnologist and is largely comprised of correspondence and preparatory materials for publications on Native American sign language and pictography. The geographic scope of the material is chiefly the present-day United States and Canada, though other areas of the world are represented less comprehensively. Correspondence and research notes include verbal descriptions of signs, sometimes with illustrations included. Bound volumes of Mallery's publications are included, along with annotations from collaborators. In addition, this collection includes notecards, drawings, illustrations, photographs, articles, and art objects. Art objects (mostly oversize) deal chiefly with Dakota winter counts and other artifacts.

Please note that the contents of the collection and the language and terminology used reflect the context and culture of the time of its creation. As an historical document, its contents may be at odds with contemporary views and terminology and considered offensive today. The information within this collection does not reflect the views of the Smithsonian Institution or National Anthropological Archives, but is available in its original form to facilitate research.
Arrangement:
This collection is arranged into 3 series: 1) Research Notes, undated; 2) Materials on Sign Language, 1843-1849, 1873-1894; 3) Materials on Pictographs and Petroglyphs, 1849-1902, undated
Biographical Note:
Garrick Mallery (1831-1894) was born in Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania and practiced law in Philadelphia from 1853 until the outbreak of the American Civil War. While serving in the army, he became interested in Native American sign language and pictography, perhaps while performing his duties in frontier areas. After retiring from the military in 1879, Mallery was appointed to the newly created Bureau of American Ethnology as one of its first ethnologists. In his work with the Bureau, Mallery pioneered the study of sign language and pictographs, examining them as a universal human phenomenon with a direct link to spoken language.

In his work, Mallery collected and examined sign language vocabulary from Native American groups throughout the U.S. and Canada and regularly solicited contributions from collaborators. He also related his findings to examples from the wider world, comparing the formation of Native American signs to those in other areas by hearing individuals and by the deaf. Mallery completed several publications on the topic throughout the 1880s, notably Introduction to the Study of Sign language Among the North American Indians (1880), A Collection of Gesture- Signs and Signals of the North American Indians (1880), and "Sign-language among North American Indians Compared with that Among other People and Deaf-mutes," which appeared in the BAE 1st Annual Report (1881).

While most widely known for his work with sign language, Mallery also undertook extensive research into Native American pictography. Like his work with sign language, he both conducted original research and solicited assistance from collaborators. He was especially interested in the representational images in Dakota winter counts and petroglyphs in the United States and throughout the world.

Sources Consulted

Fletcher, Robert. "Garrick Mallery, President of the Philosophical Society of Washington, in 1888." In Brief Memoirs of Colonel Garrick Mallery, U.S.A., Who Died October 24, 1894, 3-8. Washington: Judd & Detweiler, 1895.

Fletcher, Robert. "Colonel Garrick Mallery, U.S.A." American Anthropologist 8, no. 2 (1895): 79-80.

Chronology

1831 -- Born in Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania, on April 25

1850 -- Graduates Yale College

1853 -- Earns LL. B. from the University of Pennsylvania Admitted to the Pennsylvania bar

1853-1861 -- Practices law in Philadelphia

1861 -- Enters the volunteer army of the United States

1862 -- Severely wounded in the battle of Peach Orchard, Virginia Captured and held prisoner at Libby prison in Richmond, Virginia

1866 -- Completes service with volunteer army of the United States Accepts commission in regular army of the United States

1870 -- Marries Helen W. Wyckoff

1879 -- Retires from the United States army due to disability Appointed to the Bureau of American Ethnology

1880 -- Publishes Introduction to the Study of Sign-Language Among the North American Indians as Illustrating the Gesture-Speech of Mankind and A Collection of Gesture-Signs and Signals of the North American Indians With Some Comparisons

1881 -- Publishes "Sign Language Among North American Indians, Compared with that Among Other Peoples and Deaf-Mutes"

1894 -- Dies after a short illness in Washington, D.C., on October 24
Related Materials:
See MS 2322 A collection of gesture-signs and signals of the North American Indians for more of Garrick Mallery's work on sign language.
Provenance:
MS 2372 was transferred from the Bureau of Ethnology Archives to the Smithsonian Office of Anthropology Archives with the merger of the BAE and the Department of Anthropology of the National Museum of Natural History in 1965. The Smithsonian Office of Anthropology Archives was renamed the National Anthropological Archives in 1968.
Restrictions:
Manuscript 2372 is open for research.

Access to Manuscript 2372 requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Language and languages -- Documentation  Search this
Sign language  Search this
Picture-writing  Search this
Ethnology  Search this
Anthropology  Search this
Genre/Form:
Pictographs
Citation:
Manuscript 2372, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.MS2372
See more items in:
MS 2372 Garrick Mallery Collection on Sign Language and Pictography
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw367638eb8-dce6-4d4e-bea5-2204e49134ef
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-ms2372
Online Media:

Jesse Walter Fewkes photographs of excavations in Mesa Verde National Park

Creator:
Fewkes, Jesse Walter, 1850-1930  Search this
Publisher:
Denver and Rio Grande Western Railroad Company  Search this
Photographer:
Beam, George L. (George Lytle), 1868-1935  Search this
Extent:
45 Prints (silver gelatin and photostat)
3 sketches on graph paper
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Prints
Photographs
Maps
Drawings
Place:
Mesa Verde National Park (Colo.)
Colorado -- Antiquities
Date:
circa 1919-1921
Scope and Contents note:
Photographs, drawings, and maps relating to Jesse Walter Fewkes' excavations in Mesa Verde National Park in Colorado. Photographs depict the ruins and paths through the park before and after excavation and repair. There are also original photographs by George L. Beam made for the Denver and Rio Grande Railroad. Some of the drawings are original illustrations for Fewkes' publications.
Biographical/Historical note:
Jesse Walter Fewkes (1850‐1930) was a naturalist, anthropologist, and archeologist who served as chief of the Bureau of American Ethnology from 1918 to 1928. Fewkes received a Ph.D. in marine zoology from Harvard in 1877, and was curator of lower invertebrates at the Museum of Comparative Zoology until 1887. Some of his research focuses on the culture and history of the Pueblo Indians, an interest he developed while on a collecting trip in the western United States. In 1891, Fewkes became director of the Hemenway Southwestern Archeological Expedition and editor of the Journal of American Archeology and Ethnology. Embarking on various archeological explorations for the Bureau of American Ethnology in 1895, he conducted excavations in the Southwest, the West Indies, and Florida. During the summers of 1908‐1909, 1915‐1916, and 1918-1922, Fewkes worked almost exclusively on excavations and repairs of ruins in Mesa Verde National Park.
Local Call Number(s):
NAA Photo Lot 30
Location of Other Archival Materials:
Additional Fewkes photographs held in National Anthropological Archives Photo Lot 4321, Photo Lot 1, and Photo Lot 86 (negatives).
The National Anthropological Archives also holds Fewkesʹs field notes and papers (MS 4408).
Correspondence from Fewkes held in the National Anthropological Archives in the George L. Beam papers (MS 4517), the Henry Bascom Collins, Jr. papers, the Anthropological Society of Washington records (MS 4821), the Herbert William Krieger papers, the J.C. Pilling papers, the Walter Hough Papers (in the records of the Department of Anthropology), and the records of the Bureau of American Ethnology.
See others in:
Jesse Walter Fewkes photographs of excavations in Mesa Verde National Park, circa 1919-1921
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.

Access to the collection requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Excavations (Archaeology)  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Maps
Drawings
Citation:
Photo lot 30, Jesse Walter Fewkes photographs of excavations in Mesa Verde National Park, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.PhotoLot.30
See more items in:
Jesse Walter Fewkes photographs of excavations in Mesa Verde National Park
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw39c68ccb1-ab10-4b5e-8613-3ffb70a55ee9
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-photolot-30
Online Media:

Ruth Landes papers

Correspondent:
Mead, Margaret, 1901-1978  Search this
Boas, Franz, 1858-1942  Search this
Wallis, Ruth Sawtell, 1895-1978  Search this
Wagley, Charles, 1913-1991  Search this
Lopez, Salvador  Search this
Little, Kenneth  Search this
Wilson, Maggie  Search this
Whitecloud, Thomas St. Germain  Search this
Henry, Jules, 1904-1969  Search this
Hellman, Ellen  Search this
Haugen, Einar  Search this
Gough, Kathleen  Search this
Lewis, Oscar  Search this
Kaberry, Phyllis Mary, 1910-  Search this
Imes, Elmer Samuel, 1883-1941  Search this
Strong, William Duncan, 1899-1962  Search this
Steyn, Anna F.  Search this
Spier, Leslie, 1893-1961  Search this
Stefansson, Vilhjalmur, 1879-1962  Search this
Solecki, Ralph S.  Search this
Sparta, Francisco  Search this
Rubin, Joan  Search this
Rubin, Vera  Search this
Rodnick, David  Search this
Rogers, Edward S.  Search this
Ritzenthaler, Robert E. (Robert Eugene), 1911-1980  Search this
Roberts, Robert W.  Search this
Ramo, Arthur  Search this
Richards, Audrey  Search this
Preston, Richard J.  Search this
Verger, Pierre  Search this
Vennum, Thomas  Search this
Topash, Mary  Search this
Topash, Joe  Search this
Teskey, Lynn  Search this
Taylor, Beryl  Search this
Tanner, Helen Hornbeck  Search this
Densmore, Frances, 1867-1957  Search this
Quain, Buell H. (Buell Halvor), 1912-1939  Search this
Dunning, William  Search this
Douglas, William A.  Search this
Eggan, Fred, 1906-1991  Search this
Edmondson, Munro S.  Search this
Black, Mary B.  Search this
Benedict, Ruth, 1887-1948  Search this
Domengeaux, James  Search this
Feldman, Albert G.  Search this
Feder, Norman  Search this
Gacs, Ute  Search this
Franklin, John Hope  Search this
Ewers, John C. (John Canfield), 1909-1997  Search this
Erickson, Vincent O.  Search this
Falk, Minna R.  Search this
Faitlovitch, V.  Search this
Alberto Torres, Heloisa  Search this
Buck, Pearl  Search this
Bruce, Harold E.  Search this
Borri, Rina  Search this
Boggs, Stephen Taylor  Search this
Arensberg, Conrad M. (Conrad Maynadier), 1910-1997  Search this
Baldus, Herbert  Search this
Barnouw, Victor  Search this
Bateson, Mary Catherine  Search this
Lurie, Nancy Oestreich  Search this
Malherbe, E.G.  Search this
Marks, Eli S.  Search this
Masha, Louise  Search this
Maslow, Will  Search this
Masquat, Joseph M.  Search this
Mayer, Kurt B.  Search this
McWilliams, Carey  Search this
Bunche, Ralph J.  Search this
Carneiro, Edison  Search this
Chilver, E. M.  Search this
Chilver, Richard  Search this
Clifton, James A.  Search this
Colson, Elizabeth F.  Search this
Daveron, Alexander  Search this
Lowenfeld, Margaret, 1890-1973  Search this
Officer, James E.  Search this
Odum, Howard W.  Search this
Park, Alice  Search this
Paredes, Anthony  Search this
Paton, Alan, 1903-1988  Search this
Park, George  Search this
Prado, Idabel do  Search this
Peschel, Keewaydinoquay M.  Search this
Merwe, Hendrik W. van der  Search this
Murphy, Robert Francis  Search this
Messing, Simon D.  Search this
Neumann, Anita  Search this
Nef, Evelyn Stefansson  Search this
Nocktonick, Louise  Search this
Neumann, Walter  Search this
Creator:
Landes, Ruth, 1908-1991  Search this
Names:
Columbia University Research in Contemporary Cultures  Search this
Committee on Fair Employment Practices  Search this
Fisk University  Search this
Johnson, Charles S.  Search this
Landes, Ruth, 1908-1991  Search this
Park, Robert E.  Search this
Extent:
26.5 Linear feet ((63 document boxes and 1 oversized box))
Culture:
Anishinaabe (Chippewa/Ojibwa)  Search this
African American  Search this
Dakota (Eastern Sioux)  Search this
African  Search this
Acadians  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Plains  Search this
Indians of North America -- Northeast  Search this
Jews -- American  Search this
Latinos -- California  Search this
Brazilians  Search this
Basques  Search this
American Indians  Search this
Afro-Brazilians  Search this
Africans  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Place:
Quebec -- Bilingualism
United Kingdom -- colored immigration
South Africa
Date:
1928-1992
Summary:
Most of Ruth Landes's papers relate directly or indirectly to Landes's American Indian research, her work in Brazil, and her study of bilingualism. There is also a considerable amount of material that relates to her experiences (sometimes fictionalized) at Fisk University. There is only small amount of material related to her other interests. Her collection also has material of and relating to the Brazilian folklorist and journalist Edison Carneiro. There is also noteworthy material concerning Herbert Baldus, Ruth Benedict, Elmer C. Imes, Charles S. Johnson, and Robert E. Park. There is a large amount of printed and processed materials in the collection, mainly in the form of newspaper clippings and a collection of scholarly papers.
Scope and Contents:
This collection is mainly comprised of the professional papers of Ruth Schlossberg Landes. Included are correspondence, journals, published and unpublished manuscripts of writings, research materials including field notes and reading notes, photographs, drawings, scholarly papers and publications by other scholars, and clippings from newspapers and periodicals.

Landes's field research on Candomblé in Brazil is well-represented in this collection, consisting of her field journals, writings, and photographs. Also present are Maggie Wilson's stories that were the basis for Landes's The Ojibwa Woman. Unfortunately, Landes was unable to locate her journals for her early research with the Ojibwa/Chippewa, Potawatomi, and Dakota. There are, however, field photographs of the Ojibwa/Chippewa and Potawatomi in the collection. There is also a great deal of her research on groups, especially minorities, in multilingual states with particular focus on the French of Quebec, Basques of Spain and the United States, Boers and Blacks of South Africa, the several socio-linguistic groups of Switzerland, and Acadians (Cajuns) of Louisiana. In the collection are several drafts of her unpublished manuscript on bilingualism, "Tongues that Defy the State." There is also a small amount of material about Black Jews of New York and considerable material about Landes's experience among African Americans when she taught briefly at Fisk University, including her unpublished manuscript "Now, at Athens," containing fictional and autobiographical accounts of her time at Fisk.

Reflections of other facets of Landes's professional activities are also included. Some materials concern her teaching activities, and there is also documentation of her work with the Fair Employment Practices Commission (a federal government agency during the administration of Franklin D. Roosevelt) and a similar private organization which immediately succeeded the FEPA; Gunnar Myrdal's research into the plight of African Americans ("The Negro in America"); the Research in Contemporary Cultures project at Columbia University; and the American Jewish Congress.

Among Landes's correspondents are Ruth Benedict, Franz Boas, Margaret Mead, Ralph Bunche, Herbert Baldus, Edison Carneiro, Sally Chilver, Frances Densmore, Sol Tax, Elmer S. Imes, Charles S. Johnson, Robert E. Park, and Hendrik W. van der Merwe.
Arrangement:
The collection is organized into 6 series: (1) Correspondence, 1931-1991; (2) Research Materials, circa 1930s-1990; (3) Writings, circa 1930s-1990; (4) Teaching Materials, 1935-1975, undated; (5) Biographical and Personal Files, 1928-1988; (6) Graphic Materials, 1933-1978, undated
Biographical Note:
Ruth Schlossberg Landes was born on October 8, 1908 in New York City. Her father was Joseph Schlossberg, an activist in the Yiddish labor socialist community and one of the founders of the Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America. She studied sociology at New York University (B.A. 1928) and social work at the New York School of Social Work, Columbia University (M.S.W. 1929). While in graduate school, Landes studied Black Jews in Harlem for her master's thesis, a topic that developed her interests in anthropology.

After graduating in 1929, she worked as a social worker in Harlem and married Victor Landes, a medical student and son of family friends. Their marriage ended after two years when she enrolled in the doctoral program in anthropology at Columbia against her husband's wishes. She kept his surname due to the stigma of being a divorced woman.

At Columbia, Landes studied under Franz Boas and Ruth Benedict, her main advisor. Under the guidance of Benedict, Landes moved away from further study of African Americans to focus on Native American communities. Upon Benedict's suggestion, Landes studied the social organization of the Ojibwa in Manitou Rapids in Ontario from 1932 to 1936 for her Ph.D. fieldwork. Her dissertation, Ojibwa Sociology, was published in 1937. Landes also contributed "The Ojibwa of Canada" in Cooperation and Competition among Primitive Peoples (1937), a volume edited by Margaret Mead. In 1938, Landes published Ojibwa Women (1938), a book written in collaboration with Maggie Wilson, an Ojibwa interpreter and informant.

In addition to studying the Ojibwa in Ontario, Landes also conducted fieldwork with the Chippewa of Red Lake, Minnesota in 1933, working closely with shaman or midé Will Rogers. Her book, Ojibwa Religion and the Midéwiwin (1968) was based largely on her research with Rogers and Maggie Wilson. In 1935 and 1936, she undertook fieldwork with the Santee Dakota in Minnesota and the Potawatomi in Kansas. Like Ojibwa Religion and the Midéwiwin, her books on the Santee Dakota and Potawatomi were not published until several years later—The Mystic Lake Sioux: Sociology of the Mdewakantonwan Sioux was published in 1968 while The Prairie Potawatomi was published in 1970. In between her field research in the 1930s and the publication of The Prairie Potawatomi, Landes returned to Kansas to study the Potawatomi in the 1950s and 1960s.

Landes's plan to continue her studies with the Potawatomi in 1937 changed when Benedict invited her to join a team of researchers from Columbia University in Brazil. Landes was to conduct research on Afro-Brazilians in Bahia, Brazil, while Walter Lipkind, Buell Quain, and Charles Wagley studied indigenous people in the Amazons. To prepare for her research, Landes was at Fisk University in Nashville, Tennessee in 1937 and 1938 to consult with Robert Park and Donald Pierson and to use the university's library collections of African and African American materials. During that time, Landes also held a teaching position at Fisk and lived in the non-segregated women's residence on campus. Landes later wrote "Now, at Athens," an unpublished memoir containing fictional and true accounts of her experiences at Fisk.

From 1938 to 1939, Landes conducted fieldwork on the role of Afro-Brazilian women and homosexuals in the Candomblé religion in Bahia, Brazil. Unable to move freely by herself in Brazil as a single woman, Landes was accompanied by Edison Carneiro, a Bahian journalist and folklorist. With Carneiro as her companion, Landes was allowed access to rituals and people that would have been closed off to her otherwise. Due to her association with Carneiro, a member of the Brazilian Communist Party, Landes was suspected of being a communist and was forced to leave Bahia early. Publications from her research in Brazil include "A Cult Matriarchate and Male Homosexuality" (1940) and City of Women (1947). She returned to Brazil in 1966 to study the effects of urban development in Rio de Janeiro. In 1967, a Portuguese translation of City of Women was published, a project that Carneiro had commissioned as the first director of the Ministry of Education and Culture's Special National Agency for the Protection of Folklore.

Landes returned to New York in 1939, working briefly as a researcher for Gunnar Myrdal's study of African Americans. Unable to obtain a permanent position at a university, she worked in several other short term positions throughout most of her career. During World War II, Landes was a research director for the Office of the Coordinator for Inter-American Affairs (1941) and consultant for President Franklin D. Roosevelt's Fair Employment Practices Committee on African American and Mexican American cases (1941-44). In 1945, Landes directed a program created by Pearl S. Buck and a group of interdenominational clergy to analyze pending New York anti-discrimination legislation. She moved to California the following year to work for the Los Angeles Metropolitan Welfare Council on a study of race and youth gangs. After her contract ended, she moved back to New York and was hired as a contract researcher for the American Jewish Congress (1948-50). She also participated in Columbia University's Research in Contemporary Cultures (1949-51), studying Jewish families. She coauthored with Mark Zborowski, "Hypothesis concerning the Eastern European Jewish Family." From 1951 to 1952, Landes spent a year in London, funded by a Fulbright fellowship to study colored colonial immigrants and race relations in Great Britain.

After her fellowship ended, Landes returned to the United States and held short term appointments at several universities. She taught at the William Alanson White Psychiatric Institution in New York (1953-54), the New School for Social Research in New York (1953-55), University of Kansas (1957, 1964), University of Southern California (1957-62), Columbia University (1963), Los Angeles State College (1963), and Tulane University (1964). At Claremont Graduate School, Landes helped to develop and direct the Claremont Anthropology and Education Program (1959-62).

It was not until 1965 that Landes obtained a permanent faculty position at McMaster University in Hamilton, Ontario; she was recruited for the position by Richard Slobodin. Due to Ontario's age retirement law, Landes was forced to retire in 1973 at the age of 65. She continued to teach part-time until 1977, when she became professor emerita.

Landes passed away at the age of 82 on February 11, 1991.

Sources Consulted

Cole, Sally. 2003. Ruth Landes: A Life in Anthropology. Lincoln, Nebraska: University of Nebraska Press.

Chronology

1908 October 8 -- Born Ruth Schlossberg in New York City

1928 -- B.A. in sociology, New York University

1929 -- M.S.W., New York School of Social Work, Columbia University

1929-1931 -- Social worker in Harlem Married to Victor Landes

1929-1934 -- Studied Black Jews in Harlem

1931 -- Began graduate work in anthropology at Columbia University

1932-1936 -- Studied the Ojibwa in Ontario and Minnesota (in field periodically)

1933-1940 -- Research Fellow, Columbia University

1935 Summer-Fall -- Studied the Santee Sioux (Dakota) in Minnesota

1935-1936 -- Studied the Potawatomi in Kansas

1935 -- Ph.D., Columbia University

1937 -- Instructor, Brooklyn College

1937-1938 -- Instructor, Fisk University

1938-1939 -- Studied Afro-Brazilians and Candomblé in Brazil, especially at Bahia

1939 -- Researcher on Gunnar Myrdal's study, "The Negro in America"

1941 -- Research Director, Office of Inter American Affairs, Washington, D.C.

1941-1945 -- Representative for Negro and Mexican American Affairs, Fair Employment Practices Committee (FEPC), President Franklin D. Roosevelt Administration

1944 -- Interim Director, Committee Against Racial Discrimination, New York

1946-1947 -- Researcher, study of Mexican American youth, gangs, and families, Los Angeles Metropolitan Council

1948-1951 -- Researcher, American Jewish Congress, New York

1949-1951 -- Research consultant, study on Jewish families in New York for Research in Contemporary Cultures Project, Columbia University

1951-1952 -- Fulbright Scholar, to study colored colonial immigration into Great Britain

1953-1954 -- Lecturer, William Alanson White Psychiatric Institution, New York

1953-1955 -- Lecturer, New School for Social Research, New York

1956-1957 -- Married to Ignacio Lutero Lopez

1957 Summer -- Visiting Professor, University of Kansas

1957-1958 -- Visiting Professor, University of Southern California

1957-1965 -- Consultant, California agencies (Department of Social Work, Bureau of Mental Hygiene, Department of Education, Public Health Department) and San Francisco Police Department

1958-1959 -- Director, Geriatrics Program, Los Angeles City Health Department

1959-1962 -- Visiting Professor and Director of Anthropology and Education Program, Claremont Graduate School

1962 -- Extension Lecturer, University of California, Los Angeles and University of California, Berkeley

1963 -- Extension Lecturer, Columbia University Extension Lecturer, Los Angeles State College

1963-1965 -- Consultant, International Business Machines (IBM)

1964 January-June -- Visiting Professor, Tulane University

1964 Summer -- Field work with Potawatomi in Kansas Professor, University of Kansas

1965-1975 -- Professor at McMaster University

1966 -- Studied urban development in Rio de Janeiro

1968-1975 -- Studied bilingualism and biculturalism in Spain, Switzerland, South Africa, United States, and Canada (in Spain and the United States concentrated on Basques)

1975 -- Became part-time faculty member at McMaster University

1977 -- Professor Emerita, McMaster University

1978 -- Award of Merit from the University of Wisconsin, Green Bay

1991 February 11 -- Died in Hamilton, Ontario

1991 -- Establishment of the Ruth Landes Memorial Research Fund at Research Institute for the Study of Man (RISM)
Related Materials:
Correspondence from Ruth Landes can be found in the William Duncan Strong Papers, the Leonard Bloomfield Papers, and MS 7369. The Ruth Bunzel Papers contains a copy of a grant application by Landes.
Provenance:
These papers were donated to the National Anthropological Archives by Ruth Landes in 1991.
Restrictions:
The Ruth Landes papers are open for research. The nitrate negatives in this collection have been separated from the collection and stored offsite. Access to nitrate negatives is restricted due to preservation concerns.

Access to the Ruth Landes papers requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Language and languages -- Documentation  Search this
Midéwiwin  Search this
Bilingualism  Search this
Aging  Search this
Candomblé (Religion)  Search this
Citation:
Ruth Landes papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.1991-04
See more items in:
Ruth Landes papers
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw37e032ce2-12b4-4c64-83be-ec51796c4bd6
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-1991-04
Online Media:

Mrs. Bonita La Beaux Fite [and] Preimeaux Family

Creator:
Landes, Ruth, 1908-1991  Search this
Names:
United States. Bureau of Indian Affairs  Search this
United States. Office of Indian Affairs. Pawnee Agency  Search this
Collection Correspondent:
Mead, Margaret, 1901-1978  Search this
Boas, Franz, 1858-1942  Search this
Wallis, Ruth Sawtell, 1895-1978  Search this
Wagley, Charles, 1913-1991  Search this
Lopez, Salvador  Search this
Little, Kenneth  Search this
Wilson, Maggie  Search this
Whitecloud, Thomas St. Germain  Search this
Henry, Jules, 1904-1969  Search this
Hellman, Ellen  Search this
Haugen, Einar  Search this
Gough, Kathleen  Search this
Lewis, Oscar  Search this
Kaberry, Phyllis Mary, 1910-  Search this
Imes, Elmer Samuel, 1883-1941  Search this
Strong, William Duncan, 1899-1962  Search this
Steyn, Anna F.  Search this
Spier, Leslie, 1893-1961  Search this
Stefansson, Vilhjalmur, 1879-1962  Search this
Solecki, Ralph S.  Search this
Sparta, Francisco  Search this
Rubin, Joan  Search this
Rubin, Vera  Search this
Rodnick, David  Search this
Rogers, Edward S.  Search this
Ritzenthaler, Robert E. (Robert Eugene), 1911-1980  Search this
Roberts, Robert W.  Search this
Ramo, Arthur  Search this
Richards, Audrey  Search this
Preston, Richard J.  Search this
Verger, Pierre  Search this
Vennum, Thomas  Search this
Topash, Mary  Search this
Topash, Joe  Search this
Teskey, Lynn  Search this
Taylor, Beryl  Search this
Tanner, Helen Hornbeck  Search this
Densmore, Frances, 1867-1957  Search this
Quain, Buell H. (Buell Halvor), 1912-1939  Search this
Dunning, William  Search this
Douglas, William A.  Search this
Eggan, Fred, 1906-1991  Search this
Edmondson, Munro S.  Search this
Black, Mary B.  Search this
Benedict, Ruth, 1887-1948  Search this
Domengeaux, James  Search this
Feldman, Albert G.  Search this
Feder, Norman  Search this
Gacs, Ute  Search this
Franklin, John Hope  Search this
Ewers, John C. (John Canfield), 1909-1997  Search this
Erickson, Vincent O.  Search this
Falk, Minna R.  Search this
Faitlovitch, V.  Search this
Alberto Torres, Heloisa  Search this
Buck, Pearl  Search this
Bruce, Harold E.  Search this
Borri, Rina  Search this
Boggs, Stephen Taylor  Search this
Arensberg, Conrad M. (Conrad Maynadier), 1910-1997  Search this
Baldus, Herbert  Search this
Barnouw, Victor  Search this
Bateson, Mary Catherine  Search this
Lurie, Nancy Oestreich  Search this
Malherbe, E.G.  Search this
Marks, Eli S.  Search this
Masha, Louise  Search this
Maslow, Will  Search this
Masquat, Joseph M.  Search this
Mayer, Kurt B.  Search this
McWilliams, Carey  Search this
Bunche, Ralph J.  Search this
Carneiro, Edison  Search this
Chilver, E. M.  Search this
Chilver, Richard  Search this
Clifton, James A.  Search this
Colson, Elizabeth F.  Search this
Daveron, Alexander  Search this
Lowenfeld, Margaret, 1890-1973  Search this
Officer, James E.  Search this
Odum, Howard W.  Search this
Park, Alice  Search this
Paredes, Anthony  Search this
Paton, Alan, 1903-1988  Search this
Park, George  Search this
Prado, Idabel do  Search this
Peschel, Keewaydinoquay M.  Search this
Merwe, Hendrik W. van der  Search this
Murphy, Robert Francis  Search this
Messing, Simon D.  Search this
Neumann, Anita  Search this
Nef, Evelyn Stefansson  Search this
Nocktonick, Louise  Search this
Neumann, Walter  Search this
Collection Creator:
Landes, Ruth, 1908-1991  Search this
Extent:
1 Photographic print (black & white, 11.5 x 7 centimeters)
Culture:
Chaticks Si Chaticks (Pawnee)  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Plains  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Photographic prints
Photographs
Place:
Anadarko (Okla.)
Date:
1968
Scope and Contents:
Bonita La Beaux Fite was a friend of anthropologist Ruth Landes. Photograph from SMC Cartographic Section, Concho, Oklahoma 1968. Printed on photograph: "Branch of Land Operations - B.I.A." A pink slip is taped to the verso of the prints with the following information: "Practice - Yearbook; Area - Anadarko; Field Location - Pawnee Agency; Negative Number 356P.63.745; 3. Exposure Description: Mrs.Bonita LaBeaux Fite & Preimeaux Family 4/17/68."
Local Numbers:
Image ID.landes_photo_friends_family_38
Collection Restrictions:
The Ruth Landes papers are open for research. The nitrate negatives in this collection have been separated from the collection and stored offsite. Access to nitrate negatives is restricted due to preservation concerns.

Access to the Ruth Landes papers requires an appointment.
Collection Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Collection Citation:
Ruth Landes papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Ruth Landes papers
Ruth Landes papers / Series 6: Graphic Materials / 6.2: Photographs / Chippewa [Ojibwa]: People
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw30762a242-d469-4225-8f30-6c2d0aea861e
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-1991-04-ref2697

Printed and processed materials

Collection Correspondent:
Mead, Margaret, 1901-1978  Search this
Boas, Franz, 1858-1942  Search this
Wallis, Ruth Sawtell, 1895-1978  Search this
Wagley, Charles, 1913-1991  Search this
Lopez, Salvador  Search this
Little, Kenneth  Search this
Wilson, Maggie  Search this
Whitecloud, Thomas St. Germain  Search this
Henry, Jules, 1904-1969  Search this
Hellman, Ellen  Search this
Haugen, Einar  Search this
Gough, Kathleen  Search this
Lewis, Oscar  Search this
Kaberry, Phyllis Mary, 1910-  Search this
Imes, Elmer Samuel, 1883-1941  Search this
Strong, William Duncan, 1899-1962  Search this
Steyn, Anna F.  Search this
Spier, Leslie, 1893-1961  Search this
Stefansson, Vilhjalmur, 1879-1962  Search this
Solecki, Ralph S.  Search this
Sparta, Francisco  Search this
Rubin, Joan  Search this
Rubin, Vera  Search this
Rodnick, David  Search this
Rogers, Edward S.  Search this
Ritzenthaler, Robert E. (Robert Eugene), 1911-1980  Search this
Roberts, Robert W.  Search this
Ramo, Arthur  Search this
Richards, Audrey  Search this
Preston, Richard J.  Search this
Verger, Pierre  Search this
Vennum, Thomas  Search this
Topash, Mary  Search this
Topash, Joe  Search this
Teskey, Lynn  Search this
Taylor, Beryl  Search this
Tanner, Helen Hornbeck  Search this
Densmore, Frances, 1867-1957  Search this
Quain, Buell H. (Buell Halvor), 1912-1939  Search this
Dunning, William  Search this
Douglas, William A.  Search this
Eggan, Fred, 1906-1991  Search this
Edmondson, Munro S.  Search this
Black, Mary B.  Search this
Benedict, Ruth, 1887-1948  Search this
Domengeaux, James  Search this
Feldman, Albert G.  Search this
Feder, Norman  Search this
Gacs, Ute  Search this
Franklin, John Hope  Search this
Ewers, John C. (John Canfield), 1909-1997  Search this
Erickson, Vincent O.  Search this
Falk, Minna R.  Search this
Faitlovitch, V.  Search this
Alberto Torres, Heloisa  Search this
Buck, Pearl  Search this
Bruce, Harold E.  Search this
Borri, Rina  Search this
Boggs, Stephen Taylor  Search this
Arensberg, Conrad M. (Conrad Maynadier), 1910-1997  Search this
Baldus, Herbert  Search this
Barnouw, Victor  Search this
Bateson, Mary Catherine  Search this
Lurie, Nancy Oestreich  Search this
Malherbe, E.G.  Search this
Marks, Eli S.  Search this
Masha, Louise  Search this
Maslow, Will  Search this
Masquat, Joseph M.  Search this
Mayer, Kurt B.  Search this
McWilliams, Carey  Search this
Bunche, Ralph J.  Search this
Carneiro, Edison  Search this
Chilver, E. M.  Search this
Chilver, Richard  Search this
Clifton, James A.  Search this
Colson, Elizabeth F.  Search this
Daveron, Alexander  Search this
Lowenfeld, Margaret, 1890-1973  Search this
Officer, James E.  Search this
Odum, Howard W.  Search this
Park, Alice  Search this
Paredes, Anthony  Search this
Paton, Alan, 1903-1988  Search this
Park, George  Search this
Prado, Idabel do  Search this
Peschel, Keewaydinoquay M.  Search this
Merwe, Hendrik W. van der  Search this
Murphy, Robert Francis  Search this
Messing, Simon D.  Search this
Neumann, Anita  Search this
Nef, Evelyn Stefansson  Search this
Nocktonick, Louise  Search this
Neumann, Walter  Search this
Collection Creator:
Landes, Ruth, 1908-1991  Search this
Container:
Box 30
Type:
Archival materials
Text
Date:
undated
Scope and Contents:
-Robert L. Bee, "Potawatomi peyotism: the influence of traditional patterns," Southwestern Journal of Anthropology, v. 22 (1966), pp. 194-205 (printed item annotated)

-United States Bureau of Indian Affairs, Social and economic survey of Potawatomie jurisdictions, 1975 (bound multilith)

-James A. Clifton, "Potawatomi," draft of chapter for Handbook of the North American Indians, ed. by William C. Sturtevant, v. 12, Northeast, ed. By Bruce G. Trigger (mimeograph)

-__________, "Sociocultural dynamics of the Prairie Potawatomi drum cult," prepared for Plains anthropologist, v. 14 (1969) (mimeograph)
Collection Restrictions:
The Ruth Landes papers are open for research. The nitrate negatives in this collection have been separated from the collection and stored offsite. Access to nitrate negatives is restricted due to preservation concerns.

Access to the Ruth Landes papers requires an appointment.
Collection Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Collection Citation:
Ruth Landes papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Ruth Landes papers
Ruth Landes papers / Series 2: Research Materials / 2.17: Potawatomi
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw3d8798222-49c6-4c62-a600-571c9ecdb77c
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-1991-04-ref582

Cuna

Creator:
Harrington, John Peabody, 1884-1961  Search this
Nigdibippi, Chief Igwa  Search this
Names:
Marsh-Darien Expedition, 1924  Search this
Collins, Henry Bascom, 1899-1987  Search this
Densmore, Frances, 1867-1957  Search this
Hough, Walter, 1859-1935  Search this
Marsh, Richard O. (Richard Oglesby), 1883-1953  Search this
Collection Creator:
Harrington, John Peabody, 1884-1961  Search this
Extent:
1 Boxe
Culture:
Guna (Kuna)  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Field notes
Vocabulary
Manuscripts
Songs
Date:
1914, 1924-circa 1931
Scope and Contents:
This subseries of the Mexico/Central America/South America series contains Harrington's Cuna research, consisting of linguistic and ethnographic notes, reports and clippings, and miscellaneous notes.

There is a small section of "S[an] Blas" vocabulary which was recorded from Enrique Tule in Los Angeles in 1914. Most of his linguistic and ethnographic notes were obtained from the Cuna group that visited Washington, D.C., in 1924. He recorded vocabulary for animals, especially fishes; relationships; months; placenames; and tribenames. He also collected ethnographic information for cataloged artifacts from the Marsh Expedition, such as paddles, necklaces, and baskets. Some notes were elicited while examining the contents of a mannequin case in the U. S. National Museum. Interspersed with the linguistic and ethnographic data are information on members of the Cuna group, references to photographs, and quotes regarding the Marsh Expedition from one of its members, Major H. B. Johnson. Also filed here are a set of texts. Song texts, including the Canoe Song, Flower Song, and Headache Song, appear to have been written down from dictation or during a performance; there are virtually no translations. A few pages are in the hand of Paul Vogenitz. There is also a three-page typescript of Cuna text with a partial interlinear translation. It was dictated by Igwa Nigdibippi on December 9, 1924, as a discussion of the chief's activities in Washington, D.C., and was transcribed by Vogenitz on the following day. The second text, which takes the form of a letter addressed from "Pablo" [Paul] to "Kwan" Uohn], was prepared by Vogenitz as a writing exercise in the Cuna language. The subject is evolution, a topic of public interest at the time in light of the on-going trial of John Thomas Scopes. There are also typed data on note slips with handwritten annotations on plants and material culture. Original catalog numbers and Smithsonian catalog numbers are provided for some of the artifacts discussed. In addition, a few items collected by the Marsh Expedition are illustrated in sketches. There are also references to Dr. Walter Hough, Mr. Marsh, and Dr. Henry B. Collins. A second set of slips deals with terms for parts of the body and for various animal species. The slips were handwritten by both Harrington and Vogenitz. There are corresponding typed copies for many of the slips. Each entry consists of a single word and commentary on the phonetics.

This subseries also contains a series of reports on the Cuna Indians. Included are drafts of a paper titled "Ethnological and Linguistic Study of the Tule Indians of Panama" and a similar untitled typescript of two pages. This statement by Harrington includes discussion of estimated population, geographical area, tribal names and divisions, and language of the Cuna and lists the names of his informants. It also contains references to his study of Tule placenames of the coast and mountains and to the map drawn by Chief Igwa Nigdibippi (see MS 4490). The extensive "8000-word vocabulary" mentioned in the paper has not been located. There is also material relating to the reports Frances Densmore prepared regarding her study of the Cuna. Included are a typed copy of "Music and Customs of the Tule Indians of Panama" and handwritten and typed copies by Harrington of "Songs and Instrumental Music of the Tule Indians of Panama." These are followed by notes for an unfavorable review Harrington was writing of the papers by Densmore. Also filed here are newspaper clippings discussing Richard O. Marsh's explorations and Harrington's linguistic work with the Tule Indians.

Harrington retained a number of files of miscellany relating to his study of Cuna. Included are reading notes from Lionel Wafer's book, A New Voyage and Description of the Isthmus of America, concerning observations of the Tule in 1699. They contain a few annotations regarding vocabulary items and phrases. There are also notes on Baron Erland Nordenskiold, a Swedish anthropologist who traveled among the Cuna in 1927, and Karl Gustav Izikowitz, who worked with a Tule informant named Ruben Perez Kantule in Goteborg, Sweden, in 1931. These are accompanied by two lists of vocabulary which were evidently prepared by Vogenitz with the intention of demonstrating the affinity of Cuna with the Scandinavian and Germanic languages. This claim was based on mistranslations or comparisons of inappropriate forms of a given word. A few additional pages, labeled "Tule miscellaneous," include a note from H. B. Johnson to Harrington. There are also random notes on bibliography and the names of contact persons.
Biographical / Historical:
From October through December of 1924, John P. Harrington worked with a party of Cuna--the "White Indians" as they were called by the press. The group was brought to the United States in July by an engineer, Richard O. Marsh, who earlier in 1924 had led the "Marsh Darien" expedition to eastern Panama, with representatives from the Smithsonian and other institutions. After a well-publicized short visit to New York City (during which Harrington probably reported on the Indians for a New Orleans newspaper) and longer stays in upstate New York and Canada, the party travelled in October to Washington, D.C. While in the capital, Marsh lobbied on behalf of the Cuna against the Panamanian government and the party was studied by various Smithsonian scientists--among them Frances Densmore, Herbert Krieger, and Ales Hrdlicka. Harrington and his colleague Paul Vogenitz of the Post Office Department undertook linguistic work with members of the group both at the Smithsonian and at the house where they were staying in nearby Chevy Chase, Maryland.

The party of eight Cuna consisted of three young albinos and five non-albino adults; two of the latter served as chaperones for the young people. The other three were delegates on a secret political mission to the United States. These individuals and their communities of origin are inconsistently identified in the documents. This is due to mistakes and simplifications by Harrington and others and because in this era, Cuna often had multiple and variously spelled names. The chaperones were a couple from the island of Nargana (also referred to as San Jose, Yantuppu and Rio Diablo in the notes): Jim, James, or Santiago Perry (also Berry, Beri, or Campos) and his wife Inez or Alice. The albinos were their adolescent daughter Margarita or Marguerite, and two unrelated boys who were sometimes passed off as their sons. The younger was called Tcippu (the Cuna word for "white," often given to albinos) from the island of Ustupu or Portogandi. The older boy was Olo Piniginya or Olo from Ailigandi.

The three political delegates were Igwa Nigdibippi, a subchief of the island of Ailigandi and personal emissary of the high chief Cimral Coleman; Alfred Robinson or Kantule, son of the high chief Nele Kantule of Portogandi; and Phillip (Phillip, Felipe) Thompson, also called Niga ("nephew") of Tikantikki or Niatupu. Alfred and Phillip spoke English and Spanish, and Phillip had attended primary school in Washington some years earlier.

Harrington and Vogenitz worked with Jim Perry and his daughter Margarita, Phillip Thompson (abbreviated "Ph." or "Fe!."), Alfred Robinson ("Alf."), and Igwa Nigdibippi ("Chief"). The group was first brought to the museum on October 18, 1924, and Harrington began recording information from them the next day. His field notes mention dates in October through December; during some of this period Vogenitz worked more intensively with the Indians while Harrington attended to other work at the Smithsonian. A vocabulary slip dated January 12 [1925] was probably written out after the fact. Frances Densmore began her musical studies with the Cuna on November 25th and worked intensively with them from November 30 to December 6.

The Cuna party left the United States at the beginning of January. Later in the month Marsh returned to San BIas, the coastal territory of the Cuna, and at the end of February helped to lead an uprising against the Panamanian government.
Local Numbers:
Accession #1976-95
Related Materials:
See Manuscript 4490 for the map of San Blas drawn by Igwa Nigdibippi for Harrington. The NAA also holds the papers of Richard Marsh.
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Cuna language  Search this
Language and languages -- Documentation  Search this
Linguistics  Search this
Ethnology  Search this
Ethnobotany  Search this
Ethnomusicology  Search this
Names, Geographical  Search this
Names, Ethnological  Search this
Zoology -- nomenclature  Search this
Genre/Form:
Field notes
Vocabulary
Manuscripts
Songs
Collection Citation:
John Peabody Harrington papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
The preferred citation for the Harrington Papers will reference the actual location within the collection, i.e. Box 172, Alaska/Northwest Coast, Papers of John Peabody Harrington, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution.

However, as the NAA understands the need to cite phrases or vocabulary on specific pages, a citation referencing the microfilmed papers is acceptable. Please note that the page numbering of the PDF version of the Harrington microfilm does not directly correlate to the analog microfilm frame numbers. If it is necessary to cite the microfilmed papers, please refer to the specific page number of the PDF version, as in: Papers of John Peabody Harrington, Microfilm: MF 7, R34 page 42.
Identifier:
NAA.1976-95, Subseries 7.6
See more items in:
John Peabody Harrington Papers
John Peabody Harrington Papers / Series 7: Mexico/Central America/South America
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw3e676f691-d235-4e0f-8d74-29782087c33b
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-1976-95-ref15138

Correspondence

Creator:
Harrington, John Peabody, 1884-1961  Search this
Names:
Smithsonian Institution. Bureau of American Ethnology  Search this
United States. Office of Censorship  Search this
Collection Creator:
Harrington, John Peabody, 1884-1961  Search this
Extent:
14.58 Linear feet ((37 boxes))
Type:
Archival materials
Correspondence
Date:
undated
1904-1960
bulk 1935-1954
Scope and Contents note:
The contents of this section are more fully described in the guide to Vol. IX of the microfilmed papers. Please note that there is correspondence in the microfilm that is NOT part of the Harrington papers. Read the guide to Vol. 9 carefully and consult the reference archivist if there are any questions.
Scope and Contents:
The Correspondence series within the John Peabody Harrington papers, perhaps more strikingly than any other part of the collection, highlight the amazing scope of Harrington's linguistic work, the wide variety of his peripheral interests, and the large number of correspondents with whom he kept in frequent contact. Harrington maintained correspondence with fellow linguists and anthropologists and colleagues and administrators at the Bureau of American Ethnology (B.A.E.). In addition, he exchanged many letters with scientists in other fields, numerous Indian agents, staff at many governement agencies, individuals involved in Indian rights organizations, museum and library personnel, local historians, and representatives of various technical companies. The bulk of the Harrington's correspondence was with friends, including a number of people who assisted him in the field and on various projects. There is also correspondence with members of his family, including his daughter Awona.

The primary focus of Harrington's correspondence is his work--both that which he undertook on an official basis for the B.A.E. and that which he pursued because of strong personal interests. References to his research and fieldwork take the form of passing references in letters to acquaintances, detailed accounts in letters to close friends, requests for authorization of proposed fieldwork, and reports of work accomplished in letters to supervisors, and lists of instructions to field and clerical assistants.

Much of the correspondence involves queries and the exchange of information and questions. Harrington wrote to scientists for identification of plant, animal or mineral specimens collected during fieldwork, and to postmasters, Indian agents, and social works in search of informants. There is also correspondence regarding acquisition of books, photostats, microfilm, and various supplies and equipment. There are also letters to editors of various journals enclosing articles for publication as well as letters of introduction, obtained by Harrington to facilitate his own work or prepared by him for use by his assistants. A number of letters involve answers which Harrington prepared to questions which were addressed directly to him by members of the public or were referred to him in the capacity of Senior Ethnologist at the B.A.E.

Several hundred items of correspondence relate to Harrington's duties when detailed to the Office of Censorship from 1943 to 1945. Most of these reflect his efforts to obtain translations of letters in foreign languages which he could not identify or for which dictionaries were not available.

Finally there are letters exchanged with landladies; real estate agents; bank personnel; and city, county and federal officials regarding payment or collection of rent, selling of property, confirmation of bank balances, and payment of taxes, as well as letters written to friends and family dealing with purely personal matters.
Arrangement:
Series is arranged into 3 subseries: (1) Letters Received; (2) Letters Sent; (3) Third Person Letters.
Local Numbers:
Accession #1976-95
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Linguistics  Search this
Genre/Form:
Correspondence
Collection Citation:
John Peabody Harrington papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
The preferred citation for the Harrington Papers will reference the actual location within the collection, i.e. Box 172, Alaska/Northwest Coast, Papers of John Peabody Harrington, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution.

However, as the NAA understands the need to cite phrases or vocabulary on specific pages, a citation referencing the microfilmed papers is acceptable. Please note that the page numbering of the PDF version of the Harrington microfilm does not directly correlate to the analog microfilm frame numbers. If it is necessary to cite the microfilmed papers, please refer to the specific page number of the PDF version, as in: Papers of John Peabody Harrington, Microfilm: MF 7, R34 page 42.
Identifier:
NAA.1976-95, Series 9
See more items in:
John Peabody Harrington Papers
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw37e4d1646-53a5-4a51-b1c3-07f5e5ba78c9
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-1976-95-ref15989

Leonard Mason papers

Creator:
Mason, Leonard, 1913-2005  Search this
Extent:
1.5 Linear feet
Culture:
Anishinaabe (Chippewa/Ojibwa)  Search this
Saulteaux  Search this
Dunne-za (Beaver)  Search this
Swampy Cree  Search this
Cree  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Place:
North America
Date:
1938-1943
Summary:
The collection includes material on the Swampy Cree and Beaver. It also includes a letter from Allan Nelson concerning the Salteaux at Little Grand Rapids in Manitoba in 1938.
Scope and Contents:
The papers of Leonard E. Mason reflect a portion of the academic life of anthropologist Leonard E. Mason. While a student at the University of Minnesota, Mason visited the Swampy Cree Indians at the Hudson Bay Company's Oxford House in Manitoba, Canada. In 1943 Mason prepared a proposal for the study of the Beaver Indians and collected a small amount of data about them.

Included in this collection are field notes, research materials, slides, negatives, topographical maps, and correspondence. The majority of the collection consists of Mason's research files concerning his field work with the Cree Indians at Oxford House from 1938 to 1940.

Please note that the contents of the collection and the language and terminology used reflect the context and culture of the time of its creation. As an historical document, its contents may be at odds with contemporary views and terminology and considered offensive today. The information within this collection does not reflect the views of the Smithsonian Institution or National Anthropological Archives, but is available in its original form to facilitate research.
Biographical note:
Anthropologist Leonard Edward Mason was born on June 26, 1913, in Seattle, Washington. He received both his BA and MA degrees from the University of Minnesota in 1935 and 1941 respectively. He earned a PhD in Anthropology from Yale University in 1950.

Mason's professional life includes museum, governmental, and academic appointments. From 1935-1941, Mason was Assistant Anthropologist at the Science Museum in St. Paul, Minnesota. From 1941 to 1943 he served as the resident assistant for the Cross-Cultural Survey Institute of Human Relations at Yale University. He also served as an instructor of area studies at the Army Specialized Training Program from 1943-1944. From 1944-1945 he served at the Office of Strategic Services and from 1945-1946 he was the resident analyst at the Office of Residence and Intelligence at the United States State Department.

In 1947, Mason began his association with University of Hawaii as both an associate professor and professor. His areas of expertise include Pacific Islands ethnology, with special interest in social and cultural change; resettled populations; applied anthropology; applied research in contemporary socio-cultural change in the Pacific Islands, especially Micronesia. He has been in his current position as Emeritus Professor of Anthropology at the University of Hawaii since 1969.
Restrictions:
The Leonard Mason papers are open for research.

Access to the Leonard Mason papers requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Citation:
Leomard Mason papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.XXXX.0207
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw3cb2d043f-a5b3-4c1f-ac7f-0a965cf5e43c
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-xxxx-0207

S. Ann Dunham papers

Creator:
Dunham, S. Ann (Stanley Ann)  Search this
Extent:
18 Linear feet ((44 boxes))
Culture:
Javanese (Indonesian people)  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Place:
Indonesia
Date:
1965-2013
Summary:
The S. Ann Dunham papers, 1965-2013, primarily document her work as an economic anthropologist in Indonesia. The papers include her dissertation research on blacksmithing and materials relating to her professional work as a consultant for organizations like the Ford Foundation and Bank Raykat Indonesia (BRI). Her work included projects on microcredit, women in development, and rural industries. Materials consist of field notebooks, correspondence, reports, research proposals, case studies, surveys, lectures, photographs, research files, and floppy disks.
Scope and Contents:
The S. Ann Dunham papers, 1965-2013, primarily document her work as an economic anthropologist in Indonesia. The papers include her dissertation research on blacksmithing and materials relating to her professional work as a consultant for organizations like the Ford Foundation and Bank Raykat Indonesia (BRI). Her work included projects on microcredit, women in development, and rural industries. Materials consist of field notebooks, correspondence, reports, research proposals, case studies, surveys, lectures, photographs, research files, and floppy disks.

The field notebooks are mostly written in English, but also contain a mixture of Indonesian and Javanese, and include notes from her years of fieldwork in central Java, work-related travel, experiences as a consultant, and notes on readings.

The bulk of the professional materials relate to Dunham's work at the Ford Foundation as Program Officer for Women and Employment in Jakarta from 1981-1984. Her work with the Provincial Development Program in the Indonesian Department of Industries, a consultancy in Pakistan, at Bank Rakyat Indonesia (BRI), and at Women's World Banking are represented to a lesser degree.

Academic materials primarily deal with Dunham's work toward her PhD, including her comprehensive exams and her dissertation.

The personal and biographical materials include limited material regarding her son, President Barack Obama, and a comprehensive collection of her resumes and qualifications.

The bulk of the photographs relate to Dunham's early field research for dissertation, and subsequently her work as a consultant.

Materials related to Dunham's computer files from 1991-1995 includes floppy disks, inventories, copies of floppy disks on CDs with content lists, and printouts of selected documents. They include final versions of her dissertation and files relating to her work with Women's World Banking and DAI (Development Alternatives Incorporated). The floppy disks and CD-roms are unavailable for research. The printed inventories, content lists, and documents are available.

The reference and research materials were collected by Dunham over the course of her career and studies. A bibliography of the majority of the reference and research materials is filed with the materials.

The collected materials about S. Ann Dunham comprise files posthumously collected by Bronwen Solyom about Dunham and her legacy. These include academic files, publication files, biographical material, and files relating to the recognition of Dunham and her work.
Arrangement:
This collection is arranged in 8 series: Series 1. Field notebooks, 1977-1994; Series 2. Professional, 1974-1994, undated; Series 3. Academic, 1973-1992, undated; Series 4. Personal and biographical, 1965-1994, undated; Series 5. Photographs, 1978-1992, undated; Series 6. Computer files, 1991-2012, undated; Series 7. Reference and research, circa 1969-2012, undated; Series 8. Collected materials about S. Ann Dunham, 1972-2013, undated.
Biographical Note:
Chronology

1942 November 29 -- Born in Wichita, Kansas

1961 August 4 -- Son Barack Hussein Obama, Jr. born in Hawaii

1967 -- BA, Department of Anthropology, University of Hawaii

1967 -- First trip to Indonesia

1970 August 15 -- Daughter Maya Soetoro born in Indonesia

1972-1973 -- Asia Foundation grant

1973-1974 -- Part-time instructor in handicrafts, Bishop Museum, Honolulu

1973-1978 -- East-West Center, Technology and Development Institute grant

1975 -- M.A. in Anthropology, University of Hawaii

1975 -- Went to Indonesia for PhD fieldwork

1979-1980 -- Consultant on international development, U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID)

1981-1984 -- Program Officer for Women and Employment, Ford Foundation Regional Office for Southeast Asia, Jakarta

1986-1987 -- Rural Development Consultant to the Agricultural Development Bank of Pakistan, under the Gujranwala Integrated Rural Development Project (GADP), credit component

1988-1992 -- Research Coordinator and Consultant to the Bank Rakyat Indonesia (under 3 separate contracts funded by the World Bank and USAID in microfinance)

1992 -- PhD, Department of Anthropology, University of Hawaii

1992-1994 -- Research and Policy Coordinator, Women's World Bank, New York City

1995 November 7 -- Died in Honolulu

Stanley Ann Dunham was an anthropologist who worked primarily in Indonesia conducting research for her PhD in economic anthropology while also building a professional career as an international consultant with various non-governmental organizations. Born in 1942 in Kansas, Dunham attended high school in Mercer Island, WA and moved to Honolulu, HI with her family. She attended the University of Hawaii at Manoa where she received her BA in 1967, her MA in 1975, and her PhD in 1992, all in anthropology.

Dunham's research and work dealt mostly with Indonesian handicrafts and small non-argricultural rural industries, including the study of economic and technical aspects that were important to enabling and sustaining development and village level microfinance programs.

Her dissertation Peasant Blacksmithing in Indonesia: Surviving Against all Odds was completed in 1992. The first half of her dissertation was published posthumously in 2009.

Dunham is the mother of President Barack Obama.

She died on November 7, 1995 in Honolulu, Hawaii.

(Chronology courtesy of the Ann Dunham Chronology by Ellen Chapman, S. Ann Dunham papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution.)
Separated Materials:
Objects have been transferred to the Anthropology Collections department. For more information please contact the department at 301.238.1340.
Provenance:
These papers were donated to the NAA by Ann Dunham's daughter, Maya Soetoro-Ng, in 2011.
Restrictions:
The S. Ann Dunham papers are open for research.

Electronic records are unavailable for research. Please contact the reference archivist for additional information.

Access to the S. Ann Dunham papers requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Women anthropologists  Search this
Economic anthropology  Search this
Mothers of presidents -- United States  Search this
Microfinance  Search this
Blacksmithing  Search this
Citation:
S. Ann Dunham papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NAA.2011-04
See more items in:
S. Ann Dunham papers
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw333e5597c-17a6-46e4-8ed5-50de8a215eed
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-2011-04
Online Media:

Wooden Mask

Collector:
Captain Riedell  Search this
Donor Name:
Dr. William H. Dall  Search this
Height - Object:
31.5 cm
Culture:
Aleut (Unangax^ ; Unangan; Unangas)  Search this
Object Type:
Mask
Place:
Unga Island / Delarof Harbor, Port Moller Quad / Aleutian Islands / Shumagin Islands, Alaska, United States, North America
Accession Date:
26 Jan 1869
Collection Date:
1868
Topic:
Ethnology  Search this
Accession Number:
69A00010
USNM Number:
E7604-0
See more items in:
Anthropology
Data Source:
NMNH - Anthropology Dept.
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/349fbc171-56f2-4f03-81d8-47a557c2be3d
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhanthropology_8479203

Spoon

Culture/People:
Seminole  Search this
Previous owner:
Amos H. Gottschall, Non-Indian, 1854-1936  Search this
Ira S. Reed, Non-Indian  Search this
Dr. Frank G. Speck (Frank Gouldsmith Speck/F.G. Speck/FGS), Non-Indian, 1881-1950  Search this
Seller:
Dr. Frank G. Speck (Frank Gouldsmith Speck/F.G. Speck/FGS), Non-Indian, 1881-1950  Search this
Object Name:
Spoon
Media/Materials:
Wood
Techniques:
Carved
Object Type:
Food/Beverage Serving
Place:
Florida; USA
Catalog Number:
21/1948
Barcode:
211948.000
See related items:
Seminole
Food/Beverage Serving
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ws61f42c539-78fd-4f55-b2c1-51bc4ddf4f99
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_225950
Online Media:

Bag

Culture/People:
Iowa  Search this
Previous owner:
Annie Kent, Iowa  Search this
Mrs. John Roubidoux, Iowa  Search this
Joe Amber, Iowa  Search this
Collector:
Chief William M. Skye (Bill Skye), Peoria, 1868-1923  Search this
Leo Walker, Sac and Fox (Sauk & Fox)  Search this
Mark Raymond Harrington (M. R. Harrington/MRH), Non-Indian, 1882-1971  Search this
Object Name:
Bag
Media/Materials:
Cotton yarn, wool yarn, buffalo hair yarn, dye/dyes
Techniques:
Twined, aboriginally repaired
Dimensions:
46.00 x 58.00 x 3.00 cm
Object Type:
Bags/Pouches (and parts)
Place:
Oklahoma; USA
Date created:
1880-1900
Catalog Number:
2/6831
Barcode:
026831.000
See related items:
Iowa
Bags/Pouches (and parts)
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ws6cbbb74cb-de54-4a57-8fa7-6cec3ac9cb11
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_28602
Online Media:

Cradleboard

Culture/People:
Kiowa  Search this
Previous owner:
Ai-ya-no'n-te, Kiowa  Search this
Collector:
Mark Raymond Harrington (M. R. Harrington/MRH), Non-Indian, 1882-1971  Search this
Object Name:
Cradleboard
Media/Materials:
Wood, hide, canvas, cotton cloth, glass bead/beads, metal tacks/bosses, hide thong/babiche
Techniques:
Carved, sewn, lazy/lane stitch beadwork, laced, studded
Dimensions:
109 x 30 x 24 cm
Object Type:
Transportation Items: Baby carriers
Native Term:
pa'n' koi
Place:
Oklahoma; USA
Date created:
circa 1890
Catalog Number:
2/2419
Barcode:
022419.000
See related items:
Kiowa
Transportation Items: Baby carriers
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ws6897cab14-81fb-4dcc-973d-921c4cf108a3
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_23475
Online Media:

Parsee religious ceremonial objects in the United States National Museum

Author:
Casanowicz, I. M.  Search this
Object Type:
Smithsonian staff publication
Electronic document
Year:
1903
Topic:
Natural History  Search this
Data source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:SILSRO_119451

The present status of archaeology in the United States

Author:
Judd, Neil M.  Search this
Object Type:
Smithsonian staff publication
Electronic document
Year:
1929
Topic:
Natural History  Search this
Data source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:SILSRO_119498

Analysis of Forensic Anthropology Cases Submitted to the Smithsonian Institution by the Federal Bureau of Investigation from 1962 to 1994

Author:
Ubelaker, Douglas H.  Search this
Grisbaum, Gretchen A.  Search this
Object Type:
Smithsonian staff publication
Electronic document
Year:
2001
Data source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:SILSRO_113392

Bellingham, WA: General Material

Collection Creator:
National Congress of American Indians  Search this
Container:
Box 2, Folder 14
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1950
Collection Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Collection Rights:
Single photocopies may be made for research purposes. Permission to publish or broadbast materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiarchives@si.edu.
Collection Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Collection Title, Box and Folder Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
National Congress of American Indians records
National Congress of American Indians records / Series 1: NCAI Conventions and Mid-year Conferences
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sv4ee2b515c-f7b6-4bc6-a057-84663cfc7686
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmai-ac-010-ref52
1 Page(s) matching your search term, top most relevant are shown: View entire project in transcription center
  • View Bellingham, WA: General Material digital asset number 1

Group of Men and Women in Costume with Ornaments, Some Holding Paddles and Weapons, Outside Elaborately Carved and Painted Tama -Te Karua Whare Rununga (Meeting House)

Names:
New Zealand Gov't Centennial Exhibition  Search this
Collection Creator:
Smithsonian Institution. United States National Museum. Department of Anthropology. Division of Ethnology  Search this
Extent:
1 Photographic print (014 in x 010 in mounted on 014 in x 010 in)
Culture:
Maori (New Zealand people)  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Photographic prints
Photographs
Date:
1875
Local Numbers:
NAA INV.05094300
Local Note:
Gov't Centennial Exhibition Note: Otis Tufton Mason (Anthropologist) Written on Reverse Side of Photo
Black and white photoprint on cardboard mount
Place:
Polynesia -- New Zealand Islands -- North Island/Ohinemutu
New Zealand ? -- New Zealand Islands -- North Island/Ohinemutu
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Citation:
Photo Lot 97 DOE Oceania: Polynesia: New Zealand: New Zealand 05094300, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Division of Ethnology photograph collection
Division of Ethnology photograph collection / Oceania / Polynesia / New Zealand
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw39f488367-6c21-4736-b8ec-256ae01cb917
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-photolot-97-ref11833
Online Media:

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