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Seaboard & Western Airlines Collection [Hill]

Creator:
Hill, David O.  Search this
Names:
Canadair  Search this
Federal Express Corporation  Search this
Flying Tiger Line  Search this
International Air Transport Association  Search this
John F. Kennedy International Airport  Search this
Seaboard & Western Airlines  Search this
United States. Air Force. Military Air Transport Service  Search this
Jackson, Richard M.  Search this
Norden, Arthur  Search this
Norden, Raymond  Search this
Extent:
1.09 Cubic feet ((1 record center box))
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Manuals
Memoranda
Annual reports
Newsletters
Date:
undated
Summary:
This collection consists of the complete set of Seaboard & Western Airlines annual reports, from 1947-1979, as well as the following two Seaboard & Western technical manuals: Canadair CL-44 Operating Manual and a Lockheed Model 1049 Super Constellation Flight Manual. In the Lockheed 1049 manual, there is also a Lockheed 1049 exam (completed by Lawrence Nelson), a memo, and two issues of "Canadair Service News", one from October 1960 and one from September/October 1961.
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of the complete set of Seaboard & Western Airlines annual reports, from 1947-1979, as well as the following two Seaboard & Western technical manuals: Canadair CL-44 Operating Manual and a Lockheed Model 1049 Super Constellation Flight Manual. In the Lockheed 1049 manual, there is also a Lockheed 1049 exam (completed by Lawrence Nelson), a memo, and two issues of Canadair Service News, one from October 1960 and one from September/October 1961.
Arrangement:
The Seaboard & Western Airlines Collection is arranged by content type.
Biographical / Historical:
Seaboard & Western Airlines was founded by Arthur and Raymond Norden. These brothers were both World War II veterans of the Army's Air Transport Command. Over a 33 year period the airline these men helped create established itself as the preeminent carrier of cargo on the world's richest trade routes. This airline was the first to fly an all-cargo flight across the Atlantic, the first to land and takeoff at Idlewild (now John F. Kennedy) Airport, the first to fly support for the Berlin Airlift, the first to fly a Military Air Transport Service (MATS) charter, the first to support Pacific Airlift for the Korean Conflict (with a planeload of Air Force fighter pilots), the first to order and operate the Lockheed 1049D Super Constellation, the first to order and operate the Douglas DC-8-55, the first to order and operate the DC-8-63 CF, the first to order and operate the Boeing 747F (first 747 built as a freighter from the beginning of its production), the first all-cargo airline to join the International Air Transport Association (IATA), and the first airline in the world to equip its entire fleet with Inertial Navigation Systems. On April 4th, 1961 the company's name changed to Seaboard World Airlines after Richard M. Jackson was brought in as the new Chairman and President. On October 1, 1980 Seaboard World Airlines was absorbed by The Flying Tiger Line, Inc., and on December 16, 1988 The Flying Tiger Line, Inc., was absorbed by the Federal Express Corporation.
Provenance:
David O. Hill, Gift, 2002
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Topic:
Aeronautics  Search this
Airlines  Search this
Cargo  Search this
Aeronautics, Commercial  Search this
Airlift, Military  Search this
Korean War, 1950-1953 -- Aerial operations  Search this
Berlin (Germany) -- History -- Blockade, 1948-1949  Search this
Inertial navigation  Search this
Lockheed Model 1049D Super Constellation  Search this
Douglas DC-8-55  Search this
Douglas DC-8-63 (Super DC-8)  Search this
Canadair CL-44 (CC-106 Yukon)  Search this
Boeing 747 Family  Search this
Genre/Form:
Manuals
Memoranda
Annual reports -- 20th century
Newsletters
Citation:
Seaboard & Western Airlines Collection [Hill], Accession 2002-0041, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.2002.0041
See more items in:
Seaboard & Western Airlines Collection [Hill]
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-2002-0041
Online Media:

R. E. G. (Ron) Davies Air Transport Collection

Creator:
Davies, R. E. G. (Ronald Edward George)  Search this
Extent:
65 Cubic feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographic prints
Timetables
Annual reports
Memorabilia
Notebooks
Date:
bulk 1910s-1980s
Scope and Contents:
This reference collection was compiled by Ron Davies and consists of the following: 5,000 aviation prints; 3,500 airline timetables; 63 loose-leaf notebooks; airline annual reports; and miscellaneous airline memorabilia. It is unclear if additional timetables, negatives, photographs, and dossiers were donated from 1982-1989, or if the collection was transferred to the Archives over a period of time.
Biographical / Historical:
R. E. G. (Ron) Davies (b. 1921) was born in England and educated in Shaftesbury, Dorset. After spending six and a half years in the British Army, Davies joined the newly formed Ministry of Civil Aviation. Davies then spent six years in economic research with British European Airways, before joining British Aeroplane Company in 1957, where he set up a market research department. Davies worked in various manufacturing companies, specializing in market research and traffic analysis. In 1968, Davies went to work in the United States for Douglas Aircraft where he remained for 13 years as head of market research. In 1981 Davies was appointed as the Charles Lindbergh Chair of Aerospace History at the National Air and Space Museum, Washington, DC. After his appointment as Lindbergh Chair ended, Davies became a curator in the Aeronautics Division of the Museum. Davies has written 25 books about airlines, airline personalities and aspects of air transport, including the reference standards A History of the World Airlines, Airlines of the Untied States since 1914, Airlines of Latin America since 1919, and Airlines of Asia. Davies is a Fellow of three Royal Societies: Aeronautics, Arts,and Geographical and is an Associate of the Academe National de L'Air et de l'Espace. He is a Fellow National of the Explorers Club and a member of the New York's Wings Club and Washington's Cosmos Club. From Brazil he received the Santos Dumont Medal and the Aeronautics Order of Merit.
Provenance:
R. E. G. (Ron) Davies, Gift, 1981
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Topic:
Aeronautics, Commercial  Search this
Airlines  Search this
Air travel  Search this
Airplanes  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographic prints
Timetables
Annual reports
Memorabilia -- 20th century
Notebooks
Citation:
R. E. G. (Ron) Davies Air Transport Collection, Accession XXXX-0604, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.XXXX.0604
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-xxxx-0604

Miscellaneous

Collection Creator:
Studenski, Paul, 1887-1961  Search this
Container:
Box 1, Folder 12
Type:
Archival materials
Text
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Collection Rights:
Permissions Requests
Collection Citation:
Paul Studenski Collection, Acc. 1989-0012, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Paul Studenski Collection
Paul Studenski Collection / Series 2: Aviation Career and Activities
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-1989-0012-ref27
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Nancy Shia Papers

Extent:
0.75 Linear feet (2 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Annual reports
Fliers (printed matter)
Correspondence
Photographs
Newspaper clippings
Newsletters
Place:
Adams Morgan (Washington, D.C.)
Date:
1969 - 2001
Scope and Contents:
These records include documents relating to Nancy Shia's service from 1982-1984 as an Advisory Neighborhood Commissioner of the Adams Morgan neighborhood in Washington, DC. Materials include correspondence, meeting agendas and minutes, annual reports, grant proposals, newspaper clippings, and political fliers. Also contained in the collection are several editions of the Rock Creek Monitor, a newspaper of Adams Morgan and surrounding communities, and photographs by Nancy Shia of the annual Adams Morgan Day celebration.
Biographical/Historical Note:
Nancy Shia is a photographer, political artist, neighborhood activist, and longtime Adams Morgan resident. She received her B.A. in Sociology (with a minor in Photography) from City College of New York, her M.A. in Social Work from Columbia University, and came to Washington, DC in 1972 to attend Antioch School of Law (from which she received her J.D. in 1978). She has extensively documented the Adams Morgan neighborhood through photography since the early 1970s. She later worked for the Federal News Service and was elected to serve as Advisory Neighborhood Commissioner from 1982-1984 and again from 2007-2010.
Provenance:
Donated by Nancy Shia in 2017.
Restrictions:
Use of the materials requires an appointment. Please contact the archivist at acmarchives@si.edu.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Festivals  Search this
Newspapers -- 20th century  Search this
Housing policy  Search this
Genre/Form:
Annual reports -- 20th century
Fliers (printed matter)
Correspondence
Photographs
Newspaper clippings
Newsletters
Citation:
Nancy Shia papers, Anacostia Community Museum Archives, Smithsonian Institution, gift of Nancy Shia.
Identifier:
ACMA.06-099
Archival Repository:
Anacostia Community Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-acma-06-099
Online Media:

Woodward Governor Company Records

Collector:
History of Technology, Division of, NMAH, SI  Search this
Mechanical and Civil Engineering, Division of [former name], NMAH, SI.  Search this
History of Technology, Division of, NMAH, SI  Search this
Mechanical and Civil Engineering, Division of [former name], NMAH, SI.  Search this
Creator:
Woodward Governor Company  Search this
Extent:
7 Cubic feet (40 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Trade catalogs
Annual reports
Reports
Bulletins
Photographs
Manuals
Place:
Rockford (Ill.)
Date:
1902-1960
Scope and Contents:
The records contain catalogs, operator's manuals, illustrations, technical bulletins, glass plate negatives, and annual reports dealing with the activities and products of the company.
Arrangement:
1 series.
Provenance:
Immediate source of acquisition unknown.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research but a portion of the collection is stored off-site and special arrangements must be made to work with it. Special arrangements required to view negatives due to cold storage. Using negatives requires a three hour waiting period. Contact the Archives Center for information at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Hydraulic governors  Search this
Genre/Form:
Trade catalogs
Annual reports -- 20th century
Reports
Bulletins
Photographs -- Black-and-white photonegatives -- Glass -- 20th century
Manuals
Citation:
Archives Center, Woodward Governor Company Records, ca. 1902-1953, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1094
See more items in:
Woodward Governor Company Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1094

Fuller Brush Company Records

Creator:
Fuller Brush Company  Search this
Extent:
32.5 Cubic feet (77 boxes, 1 map-folder)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Articles
Clippings
Ledgers (account books)
Letters (correspondence)
Motion picture film
Newsletters
Photographs
Printed materials
Programs (documents)
Reports
Sales catalogs
Sales records
Trade catalogs
Trade literature
Training manuals
Financial statements
Market surveys
Business records
Place:
Connecticut -- Hartford
Kansas
Date:
1890-2017
Summary:
The collection documents the Fuller Brush Company founded by Alfred C. Fuller in 1906.
Content Description:
The collection documents the Fuller Brush Company from the early years of its existence. The contents include photographs; ledgers; correspondence; internal reports; manufacturing facility studies; quality control reports; financial statements; sales data; company newsletters, some loose and some in bound form; other internal publications; advertising; trade literature; product manuals; catalogs; training manuals and employee handbooks; company annual reports; convention programs and materials; films; materials relating to employee incentives; vinyl records of radio broadcasts; scripts, pressbooks, and other promotional material for motion pictures; informational audio-cassete tapes; contracts, trial testimonies, and other legal papers; industry surveys and marketing campaign proposals; and clippings and printed materials.
Arrangement:
Collection is arranged into thirteen series. Unless otherwise noted, material is arranged chronologically.

Series 1: Historical background, 1916-2001

Series 2: Corporate records, 1917-2010 (bulk 1973-1976)

Series 3: Marketing, 1941-2013

Series 4: Operational records, 1913-1976 (bulk 1969-1976)

Series 5: Financial materials, 1919-1996

Series 6: Personnel, 1922-1984

Series 7: Sales managers, 1922-1990

Series 8: Distributors, 1921-2006

Series 9: Publications, 1920-1999

Series 10: Product materials, 1912-2017

Series 11: Photographs, circa 1890-2000

Series 12: Press Clippings and Publicity, 1921-2010

Series 13: The Fuller Brush Man and The Fuller Brush Girl, 1947-1953, 2004 (bulk 1947-1952).
Historical:
Founded in 1906 by Alfred C. Fuller in Hartford, Connecticut, the Fuller Brush Company predominately sold a wide range of cleaning products, marketed for personal care, housekeeping, and commercial users. Mostly a direct-selling company, it is perhaps best known for its independent, door-to-door salesmen, a figure referred to in popular culture as "the Fuller Brush Man." Calling on the housewives of America, the Fuller Brush Man would visit households with a gift, flyers, and a case full of samples, with which he would demonstrate the use of cleaning implements of various shapes and sizes. Through techniques such as developing new products based on customer feedback, and providing a satisfaction guarantee by allowing for product returns during the Fuller Brush Man's next visit, the Fuller Brush Company inspired new levels of trust and credibility in direct selling. In return, the company reaped massive profits. During the peak of the company's popularity, in around the 1950s, the Fuller Brush Man was a ubiquitous part of the American landscape, alluded to in comic strips, radio programs, and popular films, such as the 1948 Red Skelton comedy The Fuller Brush Man and the 1950 comedy The Fuller Brush Girl, starring Lucille Ball.

The Fuller Brush Company continually used its resources to promote and establish the identity of the Fuller Brush Man, to its own salespeople as well as the public. Traditional print advertisements were supplemented with extensive publicity coverage, carefully crafted by the Fuller Brush Company's advertising and public relations team. The company fostered a culture of achievable aspiration among new recruits, through in-house publications, which celebrated the accomplishments of fellow dealers, incentive programs, and a career ladder pipeline, which allowed high achieving salesmen to advance from independent dealers to regional sales managers--who were considered formal employees of the Fuller Brush Company. Some sales managers became local celebrities in their districts, adding their own charisma to the development of the Fuller Brush Man--such as New York District's Al Teetsel--whose "Fine and Dandy" personal motto established a cult following. Other Fuller Brush Company salesmen used the Fuller Brush Man's distinctive optimism, pluck, and perseverance to later become celebrities in their own right, such as evangelist Billy Graham, who attributed his high school days as a successful Fuller Brush Man to his future success.

While the Fuller Brush Company is best known for its door-to-door network of Fuller Brush Men, and its household products division, the company experimented with various channels of distribution and other specialized products during its over 100-year history. The Fuller Brush Company produced implements to clean guns during World War II, and in 1945 was honored with the E Award for its war effort contributions. In the 1940s, the Fuller Brush Company introduced female salespeople, or "Fullerettes" to their door-to-door ranks (mostly to promote their Debutante Cosmetics line, released by Daggett & Ramsdell, Inc. in 1948). The company returned to actively recruiting Fullerettes in 1966, and thereafter welcomed distributors of either sex. The company's Machine Division produced the mast for the sailboat "Columbia" in 1958, and in the 1960s, its Marine Division produced items for the maintenance of nautical equipment. Around the 1960s, its Household Division incorporated new items such as vitamins and hormone treatments into its personal care product line. The company experimented with retail brick-and-mortar locations, and, in 1974, instigated a telemarketing program. After 1985, the Fuller Brush Company began to move away from door-to-door sales techniques, redeveloping its sale channel distribution system to include mail order catalogs, a secure sales website for distributors, network-marketing techniques, and a reinterpretation of sales territories for distributors where district territories began to blur in favor of nationwide sales opportunities.

Founded in Hartford, Connecticut, the company remained in the region through the 1960s, though the company shifted locations to larger offices and manufacturing facilities as it grew. In 1960, operational facilities and headquarters moved to a large, custom-built campus in East Hartford, Connecticut. However, in 1968, the company was acquired by the Kitchens of Sara Lee, Inc. (then a part of the Consolidated Foods Corporation). During the 1970s the Fuller Brush Company experienced rapid changes in administration and organization. Under President Nat Zivin, headquarters relocated to Niles, Illinois in 1973. Later the same year, headquarters and operations moved to a large manufacturing facility in Great Bend, Kansas. The company remained a division of Sara Lee until 1989.

The Fuller Brush Company grew to involve multiple subsidiaries, including many that were international. The Fuller Brush Company established a wholly-owned Canadian subsidiary in 1921, called the Fuller Brush Company, Limited. In 1942, the Fuller Brush Company bought out a competitor, the Albany, New York-based Mohawk Brush Company. The "bristlecomb" hairbrush, introduced by the Mohawk Brush Company in 1928, remained one of the Fuller Brush Company's signature products. In 1961, the Fuller Brush Company founded and incorporated Charter Supply Corporation as a wholly-owned Mohawk subsidiary. Charter Products operated as a "private label" division, to rebrand duplicate products. The Fuller Brush Company also owned subsidiaries in Mexico; in 1968, the Fuller Brush Company held 100% interest in House of Fuller, S.A. and Charter de Mexico, S.A., both established in Mexico. Also in 1968, the Fuller Brush Company was a partial owner of House of Fuller (Jamaica), Ltd. The Fuller Brush Company conducted business around the world, including dealings in England, France, Jamaica, Trinidad, Puerto Rico, Spain, and Venezuela.

With growth came legal challenges. The Green River Ordinance, established in 1931, placed limits on door-to-door sales. The Fuller Brush Company challenged the ordinance, when it went to the Supreme Court in 1937. Over the course of its history, the Fuller Brush Company weathered lawsuits ranging from trademark disputes to labor treatment complaints from area managers in Puerto Rico.

After the sale by Sara Lee in 1989, the Fuller Brush Company was held by a series of private owners, including Lee Turner and Stuart A. Ochiltree. In June 1994, CPAC, Inc. purchased the company. In 1995, CPAC, Inc. also bought a longtime competitor of the Fuller Brush Company, Stanley Home Products, a company founded in 1929 by Stanley Beverage, a former sales vice president for the Fuller Brush Company. The two companies became siblings under the same parent organization; items from the Stanley Home Products line were sold by Fuller Brush Company distributors, and manufactured at the Fuller Brush Company plant in Great Bend. In 2012, both the Fuller Brush Company and Stanley Home Products filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy. The companies merged their product lines and catalogs, eliminating equivalent products, to cut costs and streamline operations.

In December 2012, David Sabin and Chicago-based private equity firm Victory Park Capital purchased the Fuller Brush Company. The company headquarters moved to Napa Valley, California. Facing increased financial difficulties, in 2016 the company began to phase out its independent distributor system and domestic manufacturing operations. Around January 2018, the company was sold to Galaxy Brush LLC of Lakewood, New Jersey.
Biographical:
Alfred C. Fuller (January 13, 1885 - December 4, 1973), was founder and first president of the Fuller Brush Company, as well as the "original Fuller Brush Man." He was born in rural Nova Scotia, to parents Leander Joseph Fuller and Phebe Jane Collins. The eleventh of twelve children, Fuller took pride in the resilient and self-sufficient spirit he developed growing up on a Nova Scotian farm, and valued such qualities throughout his life over formal education. Long after his success, he promoted himself as an average man among average men.

In 1903, at age eighteen, Alfred Fuller left his family home in Nova Scotia, and followed siblings who settled in the United States. He moved in with his sister Annie and her husband, Frank Adler, in Somerville, Massachusetts. After a series of odd jobs, Fuller considered trying his hand at selling brushes (he was inspired by a brother, Dwight, who made and sold brushes before his death by tuberculosis in 1901). Alfred discovered a knack for trade; unlike many other direct salesmen at the time, his sales technique emphasized product demonstrations. Eventually, Fuller decided to make his own brushes. He set up a workbench in his sister's basement in January 1906. Four months later, he moved to Hartford, Connecticut where he founded the Fuller Brush Company.

The rapid success of the company, improved Alfred C. Fuller's romantic prospects. With the enthusiastic support of his sister, Annie, Alfred initiated a courtship with a Nova Scotian woman who had formerly caught his eye, Evelyn Ellis. They were married on April 10, 1908. However, the marriage was strained, and they divorced in 1930. In 1932, Alfred Fuller remarried. His second wife, Mary Primrose Pelton, was also Nova Scotian, the daughter of a judge from Yarmouth. They remained together for the rest of his life.

Alfred C. Fuller and his first wife Evelyn had two sons. Alfred Howard was born in 1913 and Avard in 1916. Both would later rise to prominence within the Fuller Brush Company, serving as its second and third presidents. The elder son, Howard, was Fuller Brush Company President from 1943 until 1959. From an early age, Howard challenged his father regarding the direction of the company. With his bold and aggressive personality, Howard was able to institute changes to the company that resulted in higher profits, such as distributing catalogs before the salesman's visit, shortening product demonstrations, prioritizing many small sales over few large sales, and developing other techniques that emphasized speed and efficiency. However, his temperament also contributed to Howard and his wife Dora's untimely deaths. Howard, always interested in thrilling, high-risk pursuits (such as driving sports cars, piloting airplanes, and racing speedboats and sailboats) was cruising through Nevada at 120-miles per hour for a business trip, uncharacteristically accompanied by his wife, when his Mercedes-Benz 300 SL blew a tire. Both Fullers died in the accident.

Following the tragic accident, Avard assumed leadership of the Fuller Brush Company. Avard's more conservative nature ushered in an era of leadership where his father, Alfred C. Fuller, rose in honor and influence with the company. However, Avard relied on traditional sales strategies (such as promoting a culture around the Fuller Brush Man, rather than take a more active strategy toward integrating female distributors) which placed the Fuller Brush Company at a disadvantage with competitors such as Avon Cosmetics. Avard served as President of the Fuller Brush Company until 1969.

Although Alfred C. Fuller never reclaimed presidency of the Fuller Brush Company, he remained chairman emeritus for the duration of his life. A treasured company figurehead, celebrations were held in his honor long after his retirement. In 1956, a testimonial dinner was held where a portrait of Fuller was unveiled in honor of the 50-year anniversary of the Fuller Brush Company. In 1965, Alfred C. Fuller was further honored, when his birthplace was dedicated as a historic landmark. Alfred C. Fuller was known as "Dad" Fuller to the thousands of Fuller Brush Men and Fullerettes who represented the company door-to-door throughout the country, and made frequent appearances in in-house publications and external publicity. Working with Hartzell Spence, Alfred C. Fuller wrote an autobiography, titled A Foot in the Door, published by the McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc. in 1960. A practicing Christian Scientist with a devout Methodist mother, Fuller frequently alludes to the influence of his faith in his autobiography. Alfred C. Fuller passed away on December 4, 1973.
Related Materials:
Materials in the Archives Center

Stanley Home Products Collection (AC0788)

Earl S. Tupper Papers (AC0470)

Brownie Wise Papers (AC0509)

Ann and Thomas Damigella Collections (AC0583)

Industry on Parade Film Collection, episodes 66, 217 (AC0507)

Materials at the Smithsonian Institution

Smithsonian Libraries Trade Literature Collection, includes some Fuller Brush Company catalogs;

The Work and Industry Division, National Museum of American History holds artifacts from the Fuller Brush Company from previous accessions, such as hairbrushes for women and men (including bristlecomb hairbrushes); shower brushes; toothbrushes; combs; a military brush; brush holders; and similar materials. (AG.A.6645-AG.A.6653; AG.A.6656-AG.A.6666; AG.77-FT-15.0523; ZZ.RSN833134).

The Medicine and Science Division, National Museum of American History holds a general purpose cleaning brush, and a bathroom fixtures cleaning brush from a previous accesssion (2006.0098).

National Portrait Gallery holds a portrait of Alfred Fuller.

Materials at Other Organizations

Hagley Museum and Library, Manuscripts and Archives Department

Avon Products Inc., Records, 1880-2012

University of Wyoming, American Heritage Center, Archives

Columbia Pictures Records, 1934-1974 (collection #93555)

Includes materials related to the Fuller Brush man and Fuller Brush Girl, 1950.
Separated Materials:
Artifacts collected along with the acquisition of archival material are held by the Divisions of Work and Industry, and Medicine and Science.

Separated materials assigned to the Division of Work and Industry include a men's tie; buttons; ashtray; charm; and tape measure. See accession 2018.0089.

Separated materials assigned to Division of Medicine and Science include a bathing brush, a dental plate brush, a women's hair brush, a comb cleaner, and toothbrushes. Some items are maintained in original packaging, or are kept with original paper inserts. See accession 2018.0090.
Provenance:
Collection donated by the Fuller Brush Company through David Sabin, 2018.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research but is stored off-site and special arrangements must be made to work with it. Contact the Archives Center for information at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Advertising copy  Search this
Advertising, Point-of-sale  Search this
Broom and brush industry  Search this
Door-to-door selling  Search this
Household supplies  Search this
Print Advertising  Search this
Sales promotion  Search this
Traveling sales personnel  Search this
Manufacturing  Search this
Cosmetics industry  Search this
Industry -- U.S.  Search this
Direct selling  Search this
Businesspeople  Search this
Marketing  Search this
Radio broadcasts  Search this
Product demonstrations  Search this
Genre/Form:
Articles -- 20th century
Clippings -- 20th century
Ledgers (account books) -- 20th century
Letters (correspondence) -- 20th century.
Motion picture film
Newsletters -- 20th century
Photographs -- Black-and-white photoprints -- 20th century
Printed materials
Programs (documents)
Reports -- 20th century
Sales catalogs
Sales records
Trade catalogs -- 20th century
Trade literature -- 20th century
Training manuals -- 20th century
Financial statements
Market surveys
Business records -- 20th century
Citation:
Fuller Brush Company Records, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1459
See more items in:
Fuller Brush Company Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1459
Online Media:

Bobcat Company Records

Creator:
Nelson, Scott  Search this
Bobcat Company  Search this
Extent:
24 Film reels
56 Cubic feet (128 boxes, 8 oversized folders)
10 Electronic discs (CD)
5 Electronic discs (DVD)
14 Videocassettes (BetacamSP)
38 Videocassettes (U-matic)
9 Videocassettes (VHS)
1 Videocassettes (Digital Betacam)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Film reels
Electronic discs (cd)
Electronic discs (dvd)
Videocassettes (betacamsp)
Videocassettes (u-matic)
Videocassettes (vhs)
Videocassettes (digital betacam)
Dvds
Compact discs
Christmas cards
Awards
Advertisements
Posters
Stickers
Tickets
Videocassettes
Photographs
Placemats
Invitations
Newsletters
Greeting cards
Place:
West Fargo (North Dakota)
Gwinner (North Dakota)
Date:
1940s-2009
Summary:
The Bobcat Company Records document a post-war invention process and American manufacturing system through the case study of a dynamic machine, the Bobcat skid-steer loader. The records focus primarily on Bobcat's products, marketing, and advertising through product literature, photographs, advertisements, posters, newsletters, and audiovisual materials.
Scope and Contents:
The records are divided into ten series which document a post-war invention process and American manufacturing system, through the case study of a dynamic machine, the Bobcat skid-steer loader. The records focus primarily on Bobcat's products, marketing, and advertising through product literature, photographs, advertisements, posters, newsletters, and audiovisual materials.

Series 1, Historical Background, 1965-2007 and undated, is divided into nine subseries: Subseries 1, Company Histories, 1965-1996 and undated; Subseries 2, Organizational Materials, 1970s-2003 and undated; Subseries 3, Factories/Plants, 1965-1996; Subseries 4, Union Materials, 1971, 2005-2007; Subseries 5, Kaizen Materials, 2003-2004 and undated; Subseries 6, Company Christmas Cards, 1965-1974 and undated; Subseries 7, Company Picnics, 1966-1979; Subseries 8, Awards, 1969-1988; and Subseries 9, Subject Files, 1963-1985.

Subseries 1, Company Histories, 1965-1998 and undated, consists of published and unpublished accounts of the early history of Melroe Manufacturing and its corporate evolution. Of note is the undated A Modern Guide to North Dakota. This guidebook is intended for "foreign" visitors (anyone from Minneapolis, Chicago, New York, St. Louis, Los Angeles, Seattle, Canada, South America, Europe, Asia or outside the city limits of Gwinner, North Dakota) and provides historical background as well as information on the many diverse and interesting aspects of North Dakota.

Subseries 2, Organizational Materials, 1970s-2003 and undated, consists of mission statements, codes of conduct, a corporate directory, organizational charts, and letterhead. The organizational chart, while marketing and sales specific, does provide an overview of the company's administrative functions.

Subseries 3, Factories/Plants, 1965-1996, includes information about each plant.Factories represented include Belcourt, Bismarck, Cooperstown, and Gwinner, North Dakota; and Fort Benton, Montana. The materials document each plant and consist of a range of formats from articles and clippings to birthday cards, highway maps, fact sheets, field trip schedules, histories of the plant, service awards, product literature, guides, press releases, and employee information.

The Belcourt Plant was home to Melroe Manufacturing's welding division. Dedicated in 1975 at the Turtle Mountain Indian Reservation (Chippewa Tribe), this plant was established to relieve the Bismarck Plant of a heavy workload in welding requirements. The plant closed in the 1980s.

The Fort Benton Plant manufactured thirty-two different models of chisel plows under Clark Equipment Company's Melroe Division for Ag Products. The Fort Benton Plant closed in 1982.

The Bismarck Plant served as Melroe Manufacturing's headquarters for the three Ag Product Plants: Bismarck, Benton, and Cooperstown. Opened in 1973, the Bismarck Plant made grain drills, the windrow pick-up combine attachment, the automatic reset plow and plow packers, and crop sprayer (the Spra-Coupe). The Bismarck Plant closed in 2009.

The Cooperstown Plant also manufactured Ag products such as grain augers, swathers, field sprayers, machinery trailers, raw crop harvesters, grain drill packers, steel buildings, and aluminum grain boxes. The best known products produced at this plant were the steel teeth for making hay stacks and the automatic reset moldboard plow. The plant also fabricated parts and components for the Bobcat skid-steer loader. Of note in the Cooperstown Plant materials are a black-and-white advertisement and programmatic brochures for Clark Equipment Company's 1975 International Teenage Exchange Program. Five teenagers from "Clark North America" were selected to live with Clark families in Argentina, Belgium, Brazil, France, or Germany. The Cooperstown Plant closed in 1977.

The Gwinner Plant remains open today and is the main manufacturing facility for Bobcat of North America. The Gwinner folder contains a high school paper title "Melroe" by Craig Allen Knudson, undated, and remarks given at a Dealer Advisory Council Meeting by Jim Strande about the "B Series" from the Engineering Department.

Subseries 4, Union Materials, 1971, 2005-2007, includes information about the United Steel Workers Local 560, the union that is currently in place at the Bobcat Company. Employees formally voted to unionize on April 2, 1970, under the Allied Industrial Workers (A.I.W.). In the early 1990s, the A.I.W. was becoming too small and could no longer provide the best financial backing or representation to Melroe employees, and therefore the employees decided to merge with the United Paperworkers International Union (U.P.I.U.). In 2005, the U.P.I.U. decided to merge with the delegates of the United Steel Workers of America and form the United Steelworkers (U.S.W.). Today, the Bobcat Company is represented by the U.S.W. in District 11 which includes Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, North Dakota and South Dakota. The materials in this subseries consist of United Steel Workers Local 560 handbooks and agreements as well as authorized announcements from the local union members and Bobcat management that were posted for employees to read. These announcements/fliers were placed in authorized areas at the factory in Gwinner. There is one grievance record from 1971 detailing the request that certain jobs be posted so personnel can bid for the position.

Subseries 5, Kaizen Materials, 2003-2004 and undated, contains materials related to the Kaizen process, which is a Japanese philosophy that focuses on continuous improvement throughout all aspects of life. When applied to the workplace, Kaizen activities continually improve all functions of a business, from manufacturing to management and from the chief operating officer to the assembly line workers. These materials include An Introduction to the Bobcat Production System ( BPS), undated, and a booklet that provides a road map to all Bobcat employees in utilizing "lean" concepts versus traditional mass production manufacturing. The BPS is intended to redesign production systems, machinery and labor to be as efficient as possible. Other documents include copies of power point slides and materials from a Kaizen workshop.

Subseries 6, Company Christmas Cards, 1965-1974 and undated, includes Christmas cards sent by the Bobcat Company as well as "mock-ups" of cards created by Flint Communications. The Bobcat Company purchased merchandise from companies that specialized in promotional and specialty gifts. Additonal information from those companies is included in this subseries.

Subseries 7, Company Picnics, 1966-1979, contains information about the company's annual family picnic or "family feast" at Lisbon Park in Lisbon, North Dakota. The picnics typically included a program (musical entertainment), games for children, prizes, and a softball game. The documentation includes fliers announcing the picnic, tickets, and receipts and memos detailing the prizes available and the associated costs. Prizes included, but were not limited to, portable televisions, drills, binoculars, cookware, cameras, bicycles, camping equipment, vacuums, and clocks.

Subseries 8, Awards, 1969-1988, contains information about awards given to the Bobcat Company from external organizations as well as individual awards given by the company to its employees. The Export "E" Award is bestowed by the United States Department of Commerce. Awarded for success in boosting sales of American products abroad, Melroe Manufacturing won this honor in 1969 for its increased sales of farm implements and industrial equipment to Canadian and European markets. Material about the 'E" Award includes newspaper clippings and articles, presentation remarks, and photographs. The United States Senate Productivity Award is administered through the United States Senate Commerce Committee. Each United States senator is allowed to select one winner every year. The program was established to encourage competiveness in American industry and ensure its survival in the international marketplace through increased productivity. In 1984, Senator Mark Andrews (R) announced that the Melroe Division of Clark Equipment Company was a recipient of the Productivity Award. The file contains correspondence, newspaper clippings, black-and-white photographs of the presentation, a tour of the factory in Gwinner, North Dakota, and the medal itself. There are other files about awards that recognize employees: Employee Recognition Service Awards, Patents Awards Recognition Dinner, and the 1000 Club. These materials contain lists of awardees, award programs, invitations, and napkins.

Subseries 9, Subject Files, 1963-1985, captures a varity of documentation associated with the company's corporate structure such as testimonials from owners and users of Bobcat skid-steer loaders, the first invoice for the Bobcat skid-steer loader (1963), the celebration of the 100,000th Bobcat skid-steer loader being produced and the "Melroe Mission to Japan." In 1985, a cross-sectional group of Melroe employees were selected to tour Japanese manufacturing plants and examine new concepts in both manufacturing and engineering. The lessons learned from this valuable trip were implemented at Bobcat and ultimately manifested themselves in the Kaizen materials. See Series 1, Subseries 4. The report, Bobcat Reports: The Melroe Mission to Japan contains employee observations about the trip, insights into similarities and difference between Japanese plants and Melroe plants; life style differences; and what it meant individually to the employee.

Series 2, Clark Equipment Company, 1965-1994, contains documentation about the Clark Equipment Company, one of the largest producers of material handling equipment. There are three subseries: Subseries 1, Company Histories, 1965-1978, (not inclusive); Subseries 2, Annual Reports, 1974-1994 (not inclusive); and Subseries 3, Employee Information, undated. The histories consist of typescript documents that were used for various presentations as well as a printed history, "Growing Up with Clark," Clark Magazine, spring 1978, by Steve Lokker. The employee information contains an employee handbook titled "Your Circle of Security" detailing total compensation of pay, benefits, and career opportunities at Clark, and a Guide to Maintaining Non-Union Status and Combating Union Organizational Attempts, undated. The annual reports, 1974-1994, also include information about quarterly report and annual meeting summaries.

Series 3, Newsletters, 1965-2009, consists of published newsletters for both internal and external distribution. Arranged alphabetically by title, the newsletters represent a variety of Bobcat Company news items aimed at specific audiences such as current employees, former employees (alumni), dealers, prospective customers, and the industry. For example, Bobcat Briefs, a monthly publication, contains information for and about Melroe Manufacturing Company employees. The Summit (Bobcat Sales Masters) a monthly newsletter designed for salesmen at varying levels, allowed them to stay up-to-date on their progress in the Sales Masters Program. It was created to recognize the achievements of retail salesmen. Additional newsletters targeted at salesmen/dealers include the Bobcat's Pajamas, Feller Buncher Toppers, Melroe Scoop, Winners Circle, Territory Tales and Worksaver. Worksaver is published four times a year and sent directly to a dealer's mailing list of customers and prospects. Worksaver is part of the Bobcat Company's co-op advertising program, with the single most important feature being the ability to target the Bobcat sales message. Newsletters aimed at employees include Bobcat Briefs, Bobcat Messages, Melroe Pick-up, Clark Pick-up, Melroe and Messages. The only newsletter not represented in this series is the Spra-Coupe Reporter. See series 8 for this newsletter.

Series 4, Photographs, Negatives, Slides and Transparencies, 1960-2003 and undated, contains photographs, negatives, slides, and transparencies. The materials are arranged in alphabetical order following the original filing scheme created by the Bobcat Company. The only exception to this order is "Products" which are filed numerically by model number. For example, the B300 (Loader Backhoe), 2005, is filed before the 310 (Skid Steer Loader), 1977. Each model is identified parenthetically. The bulk of the materials consists of photographs, both black-and-white and color prints documenting the company's activities. They were created and assembled by Ernie Feland, the company's photographer for 37 years.

The images document almost every aspect of the company and its culture. Included are: products, employees, company picnics and outings, factory activities, trade shows, and dealerships. Well documented are the various company outings and activities that involved dealers and vendors. Elaborate theme-based activities were created for the dealers/vendors which were the highlight of the year. The company fostered a "family friendly" atmosphere and this is evident in the images. Many of the photographs documenting company products show the product in use in various industries and with various attachments. For example, there are photographs of skid-steer loaders removing snow, moving fertilizer, drilling holes, and hauling dirt.

Series 5, Dealer Materials, 1964-2003, documents the valuable connection between the customer, dealer, and the company. Dealers are an important part of the Bobcat success story. This series is further divided into eight subseries: Subseries 1, Dealer Advisory Council Meetings, 1967-1996; Subseries 2, Sales Meetings, 1964-1999; Subseries 3, District Manager Meetings, 1971-1990; Subseries 4, Conferences, 1973, 1974,1993; and Subseries 5, Specific Dealers, 1978, 1979, 2003; Subseries 6, Dealer Advertising and Sales Promotion Kits, 1967-1996; Subseries 7, Co-op Advertising Materials for Dealers, 1979-1982; and Subseries 8, Subject Files, 1965-2003.

Subseries 1, Dealer Advisory Council Meetings, 1967-1996, documents Dealer Advisory Council (DAC) activities and meetings. The first DAC was held in 1965 at the Ash Forks Camp on Lake of the Woods, Canada. Dealers competed in a sales contest prior to the meeting to determine which twelve of them would attend. Over the years the roster of dealers attending grew, and those chosen to serve on the council had an outstanding sales record. The company sought these dealers' advice on all aspects of Bobcat marketing, engineering and manufacturing, and both dealers and company management were encouraged to share their ideas and experiences. It is through a strong dealership system that the company sells its products and many times, it was a solid demonstration that sold the product. Dealers frequently were invited to the Bobcat Boot Camp in Lisbon, North Dakota, where they spent one week training on various Bobcat Company products as well as competitors' products.

To this day, dealers meet annually in different locations throughout the United States with particular emphasis on North Dakota, Minnesota, Idaho, Wisconsin, and parts of Canada. The meetings were well planned and followed a structure with receptions, orientations, dinners, plant tours, presentations, group discussions, and award presentations.

These records provide insight into the relationship between the company and its dealers with dealer distributor materials such as the dealer kits. The photographs in Series 4 document this aspect of the company well. Among one of the boot camp's first trainers was none other than inventor Cyril Keller.

The materials are arranged chronologically by meeting date and contain correspondence, agendas, memos, lists of dealers (in some instances with profiles), certificates (recognizing outstanding sales achievement), invitations, licenses for fishing, invoices for airline tickets, presentation scripts, photographs (the majority document fishing and hunting trips), and brochures. Many of the meetings also had programs for "ladies" since many of the dealer's wives accompanied them.

Subseries 2, Sales Meetings, 1964-1999, documents the annual gathering of all Bobcat dealers. Unlike the DAC Meetings, the annual sales meetings were larger in scale and had more programmatic functions. Meetings were held in a variety of locations throughout the United States, and almost all of the meetings were held either in January or February. The meetings are arranged chronologically and contain the location of the meeting if known. There is unevenness to the type and amount of documentation for each meeting. Many files include agendas, memos, correspondence, name tags, meeting programs, banquet programs, and presentation remarks. Some meetings contained more unusual materials. The 1974 Kona, Hawaii Meeting had a "Clark Money Tree Mid-Term Quiz" designed for dealers and dealer salesmen as a means of testing their knowledge of the Clark Retail Finance programs. The quiz was graded, and if the individual passed, a doctor of finance was issued along with a cash prize. Additionally, an audio disc from the 1974 Kona, Hawaii Meeting, Swing and Sway The Bobcat Way with Bobcat- The One and Only and Cattin Around was intended for use by dealers for a wide variety of promotional and selling situations: background music for radio and TV commercials, local fairs, exhibits, and conventions.

Subseries 3, District Manager Meetings, 1971-1990, consists of documentation for district managers' meetings which dealt with the "how" of demonstrating, advertising, financing, and servicing and the "why" of compact size, maneuverability, all-wheel drive, visibility, time, and labor for Bobcat products. These meetings appear to have been held in conjunction with the annual sales meeting.

Subseries 4, Conferences, 1973, 1974, 1993, includes speeches, photographs, agendas, invoices, memos, programs, and notes. The bulk of the materials consists of Clark Executive Conference materials from 1973.

Subseries 5, Specific Dealers, 1978, 1979, 2003, contains files for specific Bobcat dealers in the United States. The files are arranged alphabetically by dealership name and include advertisements, announcements, correspondence, and other branded materials with the Bobcat logo.

Subseries 6, Dealer Advertising and Sales Promotion Kits, 1967-1996, consists of folders filled with a memo or letter to the dealer, dealer lists, newsletters, logo types, line drawings, price lists, brochures, product information sheets, specifications, and posters designed to assist dealers in promoting a certain product, campaign, or sale. Reg Stansfield served as the dealer development manager (regional, European and worldwide) from 1978 to 1988. It's clear that the company was interested in measuring performance, seeking room for improvement, and knowing about problems. Stansfield had a great interest in training and in helping salesmen avoid making unnecessary mistakes. He created "Sales Success Strategy" cards with sales tips which were included in the dealer promotion kits. These tips were part of the "Melroe Success Formula," which was to promote, demonstrate, sell, and support. Arranged chronologically, these kits provide valuable information on what the company was sending its dealers and the accompanying instructions. The kits also provide a comprehensive overview of the types of industries using Bobcat products, such as colleges, cemeteries, landscapers, stockyards, rendering, and the poultry industry.

Subseries 7, Co-op Advertising Materials for Dealers, 1979-1982, includes materials that were assembled into binders and were distributed to dealers as a way to assist them in promoting and advertising Bobcat products. The binders were organized into categories: direct mail, newspaper, radio, television, Yellow Pages, specialties, signs and displays, and fairs and shows.

Subseries 8, Subject Files, 1965-2003, are arranged alphabetically by topic. These files include topics such as dealer financial profiles, golf tournaments, review guidelines, motivational concepts, sales specialist's guides, website programs, and Y2K compliancy. The dealer-initiated materials include examples of specific materials developed by dealers for promoting Bobcat products and sales. For example, the J.S. Equipment Company of Sacramento, California, developed a Bobcat Bulletin and the K.C. Bobcat of Kansas City, Missouri, developed a mailer card touting their Bobcat Center with equipment and accessories. Proper use of the Bobcat brand name adds value, helps develop customer loyalty and presents a consistent identity. Spelled out in a brochure of Brand Identity and Standards for Bobcat Dealers are the four trade name categories used by dealers: "Bobcat of (location);" "Bobcat (Name);" "(Name) Bobcat;" and "An Independent Trade Name." Additionally, it details unacceptable uses of the Bobcat trademark logo and the associated color standards.

The Melroe Annual Sands Hill One Invitational Engolfment (MASHIE) files chronicle the establishment of an annual golf tournament designed for the company (Melroe) and its dealers to get to know each other better and have fun while doing it. The golf tournament included visits to the factory and offices as well as an awards dinner.

The motivational concepts file contains a variety of notes and lists detailing motivational concepts for dealers. There is an untitled poem about Christmas, Santa, and a Bobcat as well as a 1977 planning session document from Flint Advertising. The Y2K compliancy materials consist of memos, correspondence, spreadsheets, and questionnaires for dealers about their computer compliancy for the year 2000.

Series 6, Marketing and Promotional Materials, 1954-2007, are divided into ten subseries: Subseries 1, Correspondence of Ferd Froeschle, 1974-1976, 1990; Subseries 2, Budget/Finances, 1961-2000 (not inclusive); Subseries 3, Advertisements, 1964-2001; Subseries 4, Artwork/Storyboards, undated; Subseries 5, Advertising Proof Books, 1954-1993; Subseries 6, Surveys/Profiles, 1977, 1979, 1990-1991; Subseries 7, Promotional Ideas/Retail Sales, 1970s-2007; Subseries 8, Sales Campaigns and Programs, 1972-2001; Subseries 9, Contests, 1965-1999, undated; and Subseries 10, Posters, 1977-2005, undated.

Almost all of the promotional pieces were created by Flint Communications of Fargo, North Dakota, under the direction of the Bobcat Advertising/Marketing Department. Flint was established in 1946, by Harold Flint. Today, Flint consists of a network of six companies, known as the Flint Group, serving a diverse list of businesses, industries, government entities, and not-for-profit clients. The Flint Group includes Flint Communications, Fargo, North Dakota; HatlingFlint, St. Cloud, Minnesota; SimmonsFlint, Grand Forks, North Dakota; WestmorelandFlint, Duluth, Minnesota; AadlandFlint, Anchorage, Alaska; and Flint Interactive, an online services firm with staff in multiple locations. In some instances the marketing and promotional pieces have a Knight Printing Company tag affixed to them. This tag provided critical information to both Flint and the Bobcat Company for reordering purposes and dating. For example KN-500-397-#650152-F translated means Knight Printing Company-quantity 500-March 1997-Bobcat Company job number, and the F equals Flint.

The marketing and promotional materials were intended for dealers in the Bobcat dealership network. Many of these pieces were distributed through targeted promotional programs which were designed to maintain regular contact with all existing users, to foster rental customers, and generate new inquiries. The promotional pieces consisted of giveaways, sponsorships, machine displays on dealership frontage, special displays at shopping centers, casual machine displays at stockyards and auctions, presentations and lectures to associations and colleges, group demonstrations, and highway billboards. The promotional methods included permanent advertisements, building and truck designs, ads in newspapers, local television and radio spots, envelope stuffers and stickers for correspondence, fairs, shows, and customer service schools, open houses at dealerships, handouts for salesmen and mechanics, and special telephone canvassing campaigns. These methods maximized the "Worksaver" Program.

Basic markets for the Bobcat include agriculture, agri-business (feed, fertilizer, grain elevators, meat packing), construction (excavating, landscaping, paving, utility, sewer, roofing, concrete, sand and gravel, snow removal, asphalt, and brick), industry (foundries, glass, steel mills, chemicals, coal and coke, lumber, papers, smelters and refiners, castings), forestry, rental yards, and miscellaneous (garbage, rubbish removal, waste paper, nurseries).

Subseries 1, Correspondence of Ferd Froeschle, 1974-1976, 1990, contains correspondence of Ferd Froeschle, the advertising manager and public relations director at Melroe Manufacturing from 1964 to 1981.

Subseries 2, Budget/Finances, 1961-2000 (not inclusive), includes budgets, price lists, advertising schedules (with proposed ad expenditures). There are monthly budget spreadsheets with actuals, budget, and variation for media, production, printing, film and photo, travel, conventions, co-op advertising, sales aids, and miscellaneous.

Subseries 3, Advertisements, 1964-2001, documents advertisements (both color and black and white), color proofs (used to evaluate the ads' final appearance), some examples of the four-color process-a printing process that combines different amounts of the four colors red, yellow, blue and black, copies and/or originals torn from trade and industry magazines. The advertisements are arranged chronologically and then alphabetically by language. There is some clip art with Bobcat Company logos and an advertising manual for the international market. The manual was intended to help dealers prepare their own advertising.

Subseries 4, Artwork/Storyboards, undated, include artwork-the visual components of many advertisements-with and without typeset text for a variety of Bobcat Company products. Many are black and color ink on tracing paper or a transparency such as a photographic image on clear plastic. Also included is documentation on the development of the Bobcat Company logo and storyboards for the Bobcat of Futureville with plans on how to set-up/lay out a Bobcat dealership.

Subseries 5, Advertising Proof Books, 1954-1993, consists of advertisements that were placed in newspapers or various industrial, construction, and farming publications. The proofs are arranged chronologically and then alphabetically by product or the industry in which the product was used; for example, agriculture, contruction, forestry, industry, and rental. In some instances, the alphabetical heading is further refined such as construction (regional) versus construction (national). This distinction was drawn to distinguish the type of advertisement and where it would appear. Advertisements appeared in publications such as The Dakota Farmer, Montana Farmer- Stockman, The Farmer, Canadian Machinery and Metalworking, and Heavy Construction News.

Subseries 6, Surveys/Profiles for Skid-Steer Loaders, 1977, 1979, 1990-1991, contains survey and summaries from research services that conducted interviews and analysis for the company on the use of skid-steer loaders. The testimonials contained within this section are from employees at Central Bi-Products, (a meat processing facility) in Long Prairie, Minnesota.

Subseries 7, Promotional Ideas/Retail Sales, 1972-2001, include pamphlets, brochures, point-of-purchase ads, stickers, calendars, and greeting cards (Christmas, birthday, and Thanksgiving).

Subseries 9, Contests, 1965-1999 and undated, contains documentation illuminating the company's many and varied contests. Held company-wide and worldwide, the contests were intended for dealers to promote the sale of new products. Incentives included cash, prizes, or attachments for various Bobcat skid-steer loaders. The Let's Do It! contest and campaign of 1972-1973, was a competiton for all employees to think more about their productivity efforts. Employees competed quarterly for corporate awards which were given to divisons and plants with the best nine month performance. Employees were judged on return on investment, inventory control, sales volume, and forecasting while the plants were judged on productivity improvement and inventory control.

Subseries 10, Posters, 1977-2005 and undated, consists of posters created by the company for dealers to use in conjunction with various campaigns, programs, and contests.

Series 7, Product Information, 1967-2008, contains brochures, specification sheets, and catalogs detailing the various products offered for sale by the Bobcat Company. Melroe product history file consists of histories of Melroe Ag products, memorable dates in the Melroe company history and speeches about Melroe Manufacturing.

Series 8, Melroe Ag Products/Spra-Coupe Materials, 1972-1998, is divided into two subseries: Subseries 1, Melroe Ag Products Division, 1973-1983 and Subseries 2, Spra-Coupe, 1972-1998, undated. Melroe Ag Products was a division of Melroe Manufacturing which specialized in farm equipment. The products included reset plows, multi-weeders, rock pickers, chisel plows, grain drills, harroweeders, windrow pick-ups and the Spra-Coupe. The Spra-Coupe materials consist primarily of advertisements, product information, and promotional materials. The Spra-Coupe was first built in 1963 by John D. Kirschmann and brought to market in 1965. In the spring of 1972, Melroe Manufacturing acquired the Spra-Coupe, which was designed to apply chemicals using a self-propelled sprayer. The Spra-Coupe was sold primarily to custom operators and was used to replace the airplane as a means of applying liquid spray.

Series 9, Press Related Materials, 1969-2005, is arranged chronologically and divided into four subseries: Subseries 1, Press Clippings, 1969-2005; Subseries 2, Scrapbook of clippings, 1977-1978; Subseries 3, Press Releases, 1972-1999, undated; Subseries 4, Press Conferences, 1978, 1989, 1994; and Subseries 4, Articles, 1967, 1979, 1993. The press releases were used by the company as "organizational announcements" and were released internally to announce promotions, new positions, scholarship recipients, and service awards. In some instances there are black-and-white photographs found in this series as well as "special" releases from 1972-1974 containing correspondence with television stations and industry specific publications such as the Montana Farmer- Stockman and Fertilizer Solutions.

Series 10, Audiovisual Materials, 1963-2007, is divided into seven subseries: Subseries 1, Corporate documentation, circa 1960s-2007, undated; Subseries 2, Promotional, 1967-2007, undated; Subseries 3, Sales, 1963-2003, undated; Subseries 4, Safety/training, circa 1970s-1983, undated; Subseries 5, Commercials, 2004, undated; Subseries 6, Spra-Coupe, 1988-1993, undated; and Subseries 7, Supplemental documentation, 1974-1975, 1983, undated.

Of note are the commercial films made by William Snyder. Snyder was born and raised in North Dakota, and after working in Hollywood, California, for Technicolor he returned to Fargo to form Bill Snyder Films, Inc. Most of Snyder's output was 16 mm film format in color and black-and-white for industrial programs produced by corporate entities and non-profit groups. Snyder supplemented this work by producing television commercials and commercial movies for industry, including Melroe Manufacturing. Melroe hired Snyder in the early 1960s to make a "short" demonstrating the company's skid-steer loader. Eventually more movies were made: The Story of the Bobcat Kid, Bobcat a Go- Go, and Farm Boy at Heart. The movies provide an insight into the marketing strategy of a small company looking for a new and creative marketing effort called the "info-mercial." Aired on local television in the five-state area (Minnesota, South Dakota, Montana, and Wyoming) and using Melroe employees, these movies boosted sales for the company.

Subseries 1, Corporate documentation, circa 1960s-2007 and undated, contains footage of corporate events (primarily National Dealer Meetings), the manufacturing process in the two North Dakota factories, employees at work, and other company-related moving images.

Subseries 2, Promotional, 1967-2007 and undated, consists of films that promote various models of Bobcats and attachments to consumers and dealers. Many films highlight the features, capabilities, and different uses of specific models and associated attachments. CD-ROMs were probably given to potential customers based on their interest in Bobcat products or could have been used in dealerships for customers to access the same information.

Subseries 3, Sales, 1963-2003 and undated, documents the material shown to salesmen and dealers of Bobcats for sales purposes. Methods for improving sales, techniques for selling against competitors' machines, and detailed information about Bobcats' capabilities and features are highlighted to educate salesmen on the products. Numerous motivational and instructional videos were made with Reg Stansfield, Regional Sales Manager, offering strategies to improve sales and increase productivity. Some films in this subseries may have been shown to customers.

Subseries 4, Safety/training, circa 1970s-1983 and undated, documents education of the safe operation of Bobcat machines.

Subseries 5, Commercials, 2004 and undated, contains tapes of thirty second television commercials promoting Bobcat skid-steer loaders.

Subseries 6, Spra-Coupe, 1988-1993 and undated, consists of material relating to the Melroe Spra-Coupe and its electrostatic spraying process. Customer testimonials, descriptions of the use of the machine, and the features and capabilities of the Spra-Coupe are included.

Subseries 7, Supplemental documentation, 1974-1975, 1983, and undated, consists of brochures, scripts, and descriptions for some of the audio visual materials.
Arrangement:
Collection is arranged into ten series.

Series 1, Historical Background, 1965-2007

Subseries 1.1, Company Histories, 1965-1998 and undated

Subseries 1.2, Organizational Materials, 1970s-2007 and undated

Subseries 1.3, Factories/Plants, 1965-1996; 2007

Subseries 1.4, Union Materials, 1971, 2005-2007

Subseries 1.5, Kaizen Materials, 2003-2004 and undated

Subseries 1.6, Company Christmas Cards, 1965-1974 and undated

Subseries 1.7, Company Picnics, 1966-1979

Subseries 1.8, Awards, 1969-1988

Subseries 1.9, Subject Files, 1963-1985

Series 2, Clark Equipment Company, 1965-1994 and undated

Subseries 2.1, Company Histories, 1965-1978

Subseries 2.2, Annual Reports, 1974-1994

Subseries 2.3, Employee Information and undated

Series 3, Newsletters, 1965-2009 and undated

Subseries 3.1, Bobcat Alumni Newsletter, 1984 fall; 1987 spring

Subseries 3.2, Bobcat Brief, 1985-1993

Subseries 3.3, Bob Cat's Pajamas, 1965-2008

Subseries 3.4, Bobcat Messages, 2000

Subseries 3.5, Bobcat System, 1993

Subseries 3.6, Clark Pickup, 1975-1976

Subseries 3.7, Feller Buncher Toppers, 1984-1985

Subseries 3.8, Melroe Farm Reporter, 1973-1977

Subseries 3.9, Melroe Messages, 1987-1996, 1999

Subseries 3.10, Melroe Pickup, 1969-1975

Subseries 3.11, Melroe Scoop, 1970

Subseries 3.12, Newsloader, 1979-1982 and undated

Subseries 3.13, Scoop, 1991

Subseries 3.14, The Summit, 1990-1992

Subseries 3.15, Territory Tales, 1974-2002

Subseries 3.16, The Winner's Circle, 1983-1989

Subseries 3.17, Worksaver, 1977-2008

Series 4, Photographs, Negatives, Slides, and Transparencies, 1960-2003 and undated

Subseries 4.1, Alphabetical, 1960-2003 and undated

Subseries 4.2, Miscellaneous, 1963-1986 and undated

Series 5, Dealer Materials, 1964-2003

Subseries 5.1, Dealer Advisory Council Meetings, 1967-1996

Subseries 5.2, Sales Meetings, 1964-1999

Subseries 5.3, District Managers Meetings, 1971-1990

Subseries 5.4, Conferences, 1973, 1974, 1993

Subseries 5.5, Specific Dealers, 1978, 1979, 2003

Subseries 5.6, Dealer Advertising and Sales Promotion Kits, 1967-1996

Subseries 5.7, Co-op Advertising Materials for Dealers, 1979-1982

Subseries 5.8, Subject Files, 1965-2003

Series 6, Marketing and Advertising Materials, 1954-2007

Subseries 6.1, Correspondence of Ferd Froeschle, 1974-1976, 1990

Subseries 6.2, Budget/Finances, 1961-2000 (not inclusive)

Subseries 6.3, Advertisements, 1964-2001

Subseries 6.4, Artwork/Storyboards, undated

Subseries 6.5, Advertising Proof Books, 1954-1993

Subseries 6.6, Surveys/Profiles, 1977, 1979, 1990-1991

Subseries 6.7, Promotional Ideas/Retail Sales, 1970s-2007

Subseries 6.8, Sales Campaigns and Programs, 1972-2001

Subseries 6.9, Contests, 1965-1999, undated

Subseries 6.10, Posters, 1977-2005, undated

Series 7, Product Information, 1967-2008

Series 8, Melroe Ag Division/Spra-Coupe Materials, 1972-1998

Subseries 8.1, Melroe Ag Products Division, 1973-1983

Subseries 8.2, Spra-Coupe, 1972-1998, undated

Series 9, Press Related Materials, 1969-2005

Subseries 9.1, Press Clippings, 1969-2005

Subseries 9.2, Scrapbook of clippings, 1977-1978

Subseries 9.3, Press Releases, 1972-1999, undated

Subseries 9.4, Press Conferences, 1978, 1989, 1994

Subseries 9.5, Articles, 1967, 1979, 1993

Series 10, Audiovisual Materials, circa 1960s-2007, undated

Subseries 10.1, Corporate documentation, circa 1960s-2007 and undated

Subseries 10.2, Promotional, 1967-2007 and undated

Subseries 10.3, Sales, 1963-2003 and undated

Subseries 10.4, Safety/Training, circa 1970s-1983 and undated

Subseries 10.5, Commercials, 2004 and undated

Subseries 10.6, Spra-Coupe, 1988-1993 and undated

Subseries 10.7, Supplemental documentation, 1974-1975 and undated
Biographical / Historical:
The Bobcat Company Records document the evolution of the Bobcat skid-steer loader from a simple agricultural machine into a versatile and widely recognized tool. The Company's loaders, mini track loaders, and product attachments improved productivity in many industries such as shipping, landscaping, and construction. In 1958, approximately 20 loaders were built, and by the 1960s, the total number of units was in the few thousands. In the 1970s, 10,000 loaders were being manufactured a year. Today, Bobcat produces approximately 40,000 loaders a year and celebrated its 750,000th loader in 2008. Other companies, such as Caterpillar, Case, John Deere and New Holland all make loaders, but Bobcat dominates the market and its name is synonymous with the compact construction equipment industry. The records focus primarily on Bobcat's products, marketing, and advertising through product literature, photographs, advertisements, posters, newsletters, and audiovisual materials. The Bobcat Company is a story of individuals, simple ingenuity, independence, and innovation and improvement. The Kellers' problem of removing turkey manure from a barn was solved with a can-do, make-do ethos of the farm which spawned a global industry. The early roots of the Bobcat machine lie in the farming heritage of central Minnesota and the North Dakota plains with two blacksmith brothers, Louis (b. 1923-) and Cyril (b. 1922-) Keller. Out of farming necessity to make manual labor easier, a story of technology grew into a world-wide industry that would become known as the compact equipment industry and would be identified with the name Bobcat. In the fall of 1947, Louis Keller formed Keller Manufacturing (sometimes known as Keller Welding) in Rothsay, Minnesota, which provided a wide range of general repair services to customers, especially blacksmithing and welding services. In 1953, Cyril Keller joined his brother Louis as an equal partner in the business. The small family business noted that they "weld anything except a broken heart." In the summer of 1956, Eddie Velo, a local turkey farmer, approached the Kellers with the problem of cleaning manure out of his turkey barns after the turkeys had been taken to slaughter. Standard loader tractors could not be utilized because of their limited maneuverability, and they were too heavy to operate on the second story of a barn. Velo needed a tractor that could maneuver around the posts in his barn, move backwards and forward, and make sharp turns. The Kellers developed a drive system that was designed to provide the maneuverability required by Velo. A bucket was placed in the front, and a motor in the back. A third castor wheel was added to permit sharp turning. They employed a pulley-and-chain system to switch back and forth. They found that this system was too dangerous, and they abandoned it for a clutch system. The result was a system for "transmitting power from a power unit to propulsion wheels, drive shafts and the like, and in particular to a transmission system for self-propelled vehicles having independently rotatable propulsion or drive wheels."0F[1] A completed loader was delivered to Velo in fall 1957, but the Kellers continued to refine and test it. They manufactured six additional models on speculation and ultimately sold them to area poultry farms. To address the instability issues of having three wheels, they added a counter weight at the back. Additionally, they introduced attachments for the loader-snow blade, sweeper, a bucket, and a manure fork. The Kellers sought to mass-produce their loader. After pursuing various avenues, their uncle, Anton Christianson, a dealer with Melroe Manufacturing Company of Gwinner, North Dakota, introduced them to Melroe Manufacturing. Melroe Manufacturing Company was founded in 1947 by Edward Gideon "E.G." Melroe (d. 1955), a pioneer in agricultural technology. The Kellers were invited to bring their loader to the Melroe booth at the 1958 Minnesota State Fair, to determine the amount of interest in the loader. The interest was so great that Melroe decided to manufacture the loader. After the State Fair, an agreement was reached-Melroe would have exclusive manufacturing rights on a royalty basis. The Kellers would be employed by Melroe to further develop the loader. Access to the Melroe facilities allowed the Kellers' work to progress and be widely marketed. In the fall of 1958, Louis and Cyril Keller moved to Gwinner, North Dakota, to begin work. Louis worked on the manufacturing floor from 1958 to 1967 developing the loader, and Cyril worked from 1958 to 1980 as a salesman promoting and selling Melroe products and training dealers. Development of the first Melroe loader prototype (M60) began in November 1958 and was completed in early 1959. The prototype utilized the Keller patented drive design, which was used on various Melroe and later Bobcat models until 1982. The name "Bobcat" originated in 1962 with Lynn Bickett, of Gould, Brown and Bickett, a marketing agency in Minneapolis, Minnesota. Allegedly, Bickett found the word "bobcat" in the dictionary, and noted that it was a North American mammal that is "tough, quick, and agile." These traits perfectly described the Melroe loader to them, and the Bobcat slogan, "Tough, quick, and agile," was born. Officially designated the Bobcat Company in 2000, the company previously operated under the names: Melroe Manufacturing (1958-1969); Clark Equipment Company (1969-1995); and was also known as Ingersoll-Rand Company (1995-2007). In 1969, Clark Equipment Company of Buchanan, Michigan, acquired Melroe Manufacturing and pushed the Bobcat loader to even greater sales. Clark was a leader in forklifts, but adding the Bobcat product line expanded Clark's range and marketing potential. In 1995, Clark was acquired by Ingersoll-Rand (IR), a leading manufacturer of construction equipment and industrial machinery. IR wanted a strong brand name and the top market share that accompanied it, and Bobcat was just the thing. The IR Company provided Bobcat with a platform to focus on product innovation (front end attachments) and it encouraged global manufacturing and development. The Bobcat Company was acquired by Doosan Infracore International of South Korea in October 2007.

2 Louis Keller. Transmission system. US Patent 3,151,503, filed Dec. 1, 1958, and issued Oct. 6, 1964.
Related Materials:
These records complement many of the Archives Center's agricultural holdings such as the William C. Kost Farm Records (documenting a 20th century family-owned farm in Illinois); the Robinson-Via Family Papers (documenting daily farm life in Prince George's County, Maryland); the Everett Bickley Collection (documenting agricultural technology of bean sorting) and the Southern Agriculture Oral History Project Records (documenting the disappearing farm). These papers also complement the Archives Center's holdings of industrial equipment such as Caterpillar, Page Tractors, and B.B. Brown (documenting tractor engines). Construction related papers include the Clyde Learned Papers (documenting a highway engineer); Lloyd F. Rader Papers (documenting civil engineering); the Leon Struck Photo Album (documenting road building) and many of our collections of civil engineering materials.
Separated Materials:
The Division of Work and Industry holds one magnetic lifter, Accession 2007.0196.01-.02
Provenance:
This collection was donated by Scott Nelson, President of the Bobcat Company of North America on June 23, 2008.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research but is stored off-site and special arrangements must be made to work with it. Viewing the film portion of the collection without reference copies requires special appointment, please inquire. Do not use original materials when available on reference video, DVD, or audio tapes. Contact the Archives Center for information at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions. The Archives Center does not own rights to these photographs. All requests for permission to use these photographs for non-museum purposes must be addressed directly to the Bobcat Company. All duplication requests must be reviewed and approved by Archives Center staff. Potential users must receive written permission from appropriate rights holders prior to obtaining high quality copies.
Topic:
Construction industry  Search this
Construction equipment  Search this
Genre/Form:
DVDs
Compact discs
Christmas cards
Awards
Advertisements -- 20th century
Posters -- 20th century
Stickers
Tickets
Videocassettes
Photographs -- 20th century
Placemats
Invitations
Newsletters -- 20th century
Greeting cards
Citation:
Bobcat Company Records, 1940s-2009, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1129
See more items in:
Bobcat Company Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1129
Online Media:

Delaware, Lackawanna and Western Railroad Records

Collector:
Mechanical and Civil Engineering, Division of [former name], NMAH, SI.  Search this
Work and Industry, Division of, NMAH, SI  Search this
Mechanical and Civil Engineering, Division of [former name], NMAH, SI.  Search this
Work and Industry, Division of, NMAH, SI  Search this
Donor:
ConRail  Search this
ConRail  Search this
Creator:
Delaware, Lackawanna and Western Railroad  Search this
Names:
Passaic Steel Company (Paterson, N.J.)  Search this
Extent:
22.3 Cubic feet (1 box, 59 map-folders)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photograph albums
Cyanotypes
Place:
Paterson (N.J.)
Hoboken (N.J.)
Date:
1878-1971
Scope and Contents:
The collection consists of: a 1903 book of photographs entitled "Illustrations Showing the Works of the Passaic Steel Company at Paterson, New Jersey"; photograph albums (including several cyanotype albums) of the port of Hoboken, the terminal and buildings and other structures; a "souvenir" photograph album of the Clarks Summit/Halstead cut-off, 1914, published by the American Society of Civil Engineers; reports from the 1950s and 1960s itemizing the precise costs of the elements of the Hoboken terminal; track maps; and approximately 10,000 oversized drawings, tracings and blueprints of structures built by the railroad.
Arrangement:
Collection divided into two series.

Series 1: Business Records

Series 2: Drawings
Historical:
The Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad Company was incorporated in Pennsylvania on April 7, 1832, as the Liggetts Gap Railroad Company. Its name was changed to the Lackawanna & Western Railroad Company on April 14, 1851, and to the Delaware, Lackawanna & Western (DL&W) Railroad Company on March 11, 1853, at which time it absorbed the Delaware & Cobbs Gap Railroad Company.

The first section of railroad, from Scranton to Great Bend, opened in October, 1851. The Southern Division of the railroad was opened between Scranton and the Delaware River on May 27, 1856, forming a more direct route to New York City in connection with the Warren Railroad and the Central Railroad of New Jersey. The DL&W leased the Morris & Essex Railroad in 1868 and, after upgrading it to permit a heavy coal tonnage, secured its own line to New York Harbor. Other extensions carried the Lackawanna to Utica, Syracuse, Ithaca, and Oswego in central New York State and to Buffalo in the early 1880s. The DL&W had a particular advantage in that it was allowed to directly operate coal mines. The DL&W began mining on its own account in 1851, when a Coal Department was organized. The Lackawanna was exceptionally well placed to supply both New York City and New England via the Southern Division and also upstate New York, the Great Lakes, and Canada via the Northern Division.

The DL&W was still bound by its 1856 traffic contract with the Central of New Jersey, and on March 16, 1872, the two companies agreed to consolidate, being managed by a joint committee of directors from the two companies. However, the two companies were actually now competitors, with roughly parallel lines between Scranton and New York. The consolidation broke up after about a year over arguments as to which company would be the dominant partner. All connection between the two companies was severed in 1875.

During the long presidency of the conservative Samuel Sloan (1867-1899), the road became extremely prosperous as a coal hauler. Financial control was exercised by Moses Taylor and his National City Bank of New York, who had bought into the company at the time of the Panic of 1857. In March 1876 the DL&W converted from 6-foot gauge to standard gauge.

In 1880 Jay Gould acquired an interest in the company and promoted its extension to Buffalo (1882), giving it a significant share of the truck line business for the first time. However, Taylor and his successors refused Gould any further voice in the management. In 1890 William Rockefeller became a director, reflecting the alliance between the Standard Oil group and the National City Bank.

William H. Truesdale replaced Sloan as president and began a massive modernization of both the company's management and the physical plant. The company began issuing full annual reports for the first time since 1857. Two major line relocations were built to the highest engineering standards, across western New Jersey and between Scranton and Binghamton, to improve grades and clearances. They featured massive cuts and fills and huge viaducts, the Tunkhannock Viaduct, 240 feet high, being the largest concrete arch bridge in the world. The DL&W was a pioneer in the adoption of reinforced concrete construction for all types of structures. Under Truesdale's successor, John M. Davis, the principal New Jersey commuter services were electrified in the early 1930s.

After successful government prosecution of the other anthracite railroads for antitrust violations, the DL&W voluntarily divested itself of its Coal Dept., which became the Glen Alden Coal Company in 1921.

After World War II the DL&W hoped to merge with its principal western connection, the Nickle Plate, but was unsuccessful. After continuing losses from commuter service and heavy storm damage to its main lines in 1955, the company began to explore the possibility of consolidation with the roughly parallel Erie Railroad. The merger, forming the Erie Lackawanna Railroad Company, took effect on October 17, 1960.

Source

Delaware, Lackawanna and Western Railroad Company records, Accession 1643, Manuscripts and Archives Department, Hagley Museum and Library
Related Materials:
Materials at Other Organizations

Manuscripts and Archives Department, Hagley Museum and Library

Delaware, Lackawanna and Western Railroad Company records, 1849-1960

Delaware, Lackawanna and Western Railroad Company Coal Department photographs (Accession 1990.267), Audiovisual Collections and Digital Initiatives Department

The Enderlin Collection of Delaware, Lackawanna and Western Railroad Company Records, 1835-1956

The collection consists of material acquired by Enderlin during his career with the Lackawanna, primarily the kind of historical miscellany that flowed into the secretary's office. Two-thirds of the collection consists of newsclippings on labor matters (ca. 1900-1919), and the remainder of agreements, letters of resignation, statistics and rough minutes. John G. Enderlin was born on August 16, 1888. In 1903, he began work as an office boy in the New York City headquarters of the Delaware, Lackawanna and Western Railroad Company, rising through the ranks in the president's and secretary's offices to become secretary-treasurer in 1933. He retired at the end of 1956 and died on September 28, 1981.

Syracuse University Libraries

Lackawanna County Historical Society

The Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad was one of the largest and most prosperous anthracite mining and transporting companies in Pennsylvania.Their records consist of minutes of the DL&W and its two direct predecessors.
Provenance:
The oversized items were donated to the Division of Mechanical and Civil Engineering by Consolidated Rail Corporation (ConRail) through William M. Wehner in 1987. Provenance for the rest of the collection is unknown.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Unprotected photographs must be handled with gloves.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Railroads -- Buildings and structures  Search this
Railroads  Search this
Railroad stations -- United States  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photograph albums -- 20th century
Cyanotypes
Citation:
Delaware, Lackawanna and Western Railroad Records, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1074
See more items in:
Delaware, Lackawanna and Western Railroad Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1074

Girard Estate Records

Collector:
Work and Industry, Division of, NMAH, SI  Search this
Work and Industry, Division of, NMAH, SI  Search this
Creator:
Lehigh Valley Coal Company  Search this
Lehigh Valley Railroad Company  Search this
Millington, W.P.  Search this
Philadelphia and Reading Coal and Iron Company  Search this
Wagner, E.C.  Search this
Extent:
5 Cubic feet (12 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Reports
Blueprints
Land titles
Correspondence
Maps
Deeds
Journals (accounts)
Photographs
Application forms
Patents
Place:
Pennsylvania -- Anthracite coal industry
Date:
1785-1965,(bulk 1870-1965).
Scope and Contents:
Records include voluminous correspondence, much of it to or from W.P. Millington, Secretary of the Estate; with the Lehigh Valley Coal Company and Lehigh Valley Railroad Company; and with the Philadelphia and Reading Coal and Iron Company. Also reports, including annual reports, reports by the Mining Engineer, and reports on visits by trustees; applications for permits; leases, including the lease for the City of Philadelphia as trustee under the will of Stephen Girard to Lehigh Valley Coal Company, 1884-1899; deeds; original agreements regarding the land, 1785 and 1793; licenses to mine coal; photographs, including photographs taken as part of surveys; blueprints; maps; patents; and daily journals for the years 1872, 1873, and 1879, kept by E.C. Wagner, Assistant Superintendent for the Girard Estate, detailing such things as inspections, meetings, etc.
Arrangement:
1 series.
Biographical / Historical:
In 1830, Stephen Girard, a merchant, financier, and philanthropist, purchased 67 tracts of land in Pennsylvania that had been held by trustees of the first Bank of the United States. A large portion of the land passed into the Girard Trusts, bequeathed by Girard to the city of Philadelphia. Beginning in 1862, leases for the mining of coal on these lands were granted by the Estate.
Provenance:
Collected for the Museum for the Division of Extractive Industries.
Restrictions:
Collection open for research on site by appointment. Unprotected photographs must be handled with gloves.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Coal mines and mining  Search this
Mining -- Pennsylvania  Search this
Genre/Form:
Reports
Blueprints
Land titles
Correspondence
Maps
Deeds
Journals (accounts)
Photographs -- 20th century
Application forms
Photographs -- 1850-1900
Patents
Citation:
Girard Estate Records, 1870-1965, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1011
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1011

National Photographic Society Records

Topic:
The Finder (newsletter)
Creator:
Revenue Camera Club  Search this
National Photographic Society  Search this
Donor:
Schroeder, Barbara  Search this
Names:
Greater Washington Council of Camera Clubs  Search this
Photographic History, Division of (NMAH, SI).  Search this
Photographic Society of America  Search this
Extent:
3.5 Cubic feet (10 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Correspondence
Photographs
Newsletters
Clippings
Minutes
Date:
1942-1986
Summary:
Collection documents the National Photographic Society, an amateur camera club in Washington, D.C.
Scope and Contents:
The Executive Records, 1944-1978, consist of copies and drafts of the constitution, by-laws, correspondence, and the Board of Trustee Meeting Minutes. The Treasurer Records, 1956-1973, include bank account information that deals with authorization to open an organizational bank account, correspondence about monies collected and expenses incurred and the treasurer's annual reports that document receipts, disbursements, and special activities. The Membership Records, 1945-1984, contain directories (with mailing addresses and telephone numbers), officer information detailing which members served as trustees and/or on what committee. The club had several committees—slide, projector, portrait, special activities, publicity, finance, reception, dinner, membership, salon, audit, print, nominating, program, library and by-laws. The membership applications were maintained on 3" x 5 and 5" x 8" index cards. The annual awards information contains certificates awarded to Barbara Schroeder for a variety of honors, but the majority of documentation deals primarily with annual awards given for color slides. The Henry B. Shaw Memorial Trophy was a specific award and honor that was presented to the NPS member who made the greatest contribution to the well being of NPS. The award was named for Henry B. Shaw, former president of NPS.

The club published a monthly bulletin titled The Finder, 1942-1986, which was distributed to club members and photographic dealers. The Finder was a one-page newsletter from 1942 to April 1945, but in May of 1945 enlarged to four pages, in some instances with inserts. The Photographs and Negatives, 1959-1960, provide documentation of the club's annual banquet and presentation of awards in 1959 and a holiday outing to Petersburg, West Virginia. The photographs and negatives are approximately 4" x 5". The Salons, 1944-1959, includes schedules and other printed materials about salons that club members participated in or attended in the Washington, D.C. area. Camera Clubs, 1949-1967, documents the Greater Washington Council of Camera Clubs, an organization with which NPS was affiliated, and the Metropolitan Camera Club Council, Inc. of New York, New York. The newspaper clippings, 1948-1955, contain information on two columns, "Camera Angles," a weekly written by Alexander J. Wedderburn, Curator of Photography at the Smithsonian Institution and the "Monthly Print Clinic" featuring a photograph with narrative description.
Includes documents concerning the National Photographic Society's affiliations with the Greater Washington Council of Camera Clubs and the Photographic Society of America.
Arrangement:
The collection is divided into six series

Series 1: Executive Records

Series 2: Treasurer Records

Series 3: Membership Records

Series 4: The Finder Newsletter

Series 5: Photographs and Negatives

Series 6: Salons

Series 7: Camera Clubs

Series 8: Newspaper Clippings
Biographical / Historical:
The Revenue Camera Club was organized in Washington, D.C. on March 14, 1938. It changed its name to The National Photographic Society (NPS) on April 1, 1943. It became affiliated with the Greater Washington Council of Camera Clubs and the Photographic Society of America. The NPS was incorporated in 1944 with a constitution and by-laws as a "non-profit organization under the provisions of Chapter 5 of the Code of the District of Columbia for the promotion of art and science of photography in all its various branches, through individual memberships, associated camera clubs and other photographic organizations, research and the dissemination of photographic knowledge and the promotion of photographic salons and exhibitions." The management of the society was vested in a board of trustees that was made up of nine members. The club held meetings in each other's homes, church basements or at the Mt. Pleasant or Georgia Avenue libraries where they showed member's prints and eventually held meetings at the Arts Club of Washington. The club dissolved in 1986.
Provenance:
Collection donated by Ms. Barbara Schroeder, February 12, 1999.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Clubs -- Photography -- 1940-1990 -- Washington (D.C.)  Search this
Exhibitions -- 1940-1990 -- Washington (D.C.)  Search this
Camera clubs -- 1940-1990 -- Washington (D.C.)  Search this
Genre/Form:
Correspondence -- 1940-2000
Photographs -- Black-and-white negatives -- Acetate film -- 1900-2000
Newsletters -- 20th century
Clippings -- 1940-1990 -- Washington (D.C.)
Minutes
Citation:
National Photographic Society Records, 1942-1986, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0681
See more items in:
National Photographic Society Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0681

Binney & Smith, Inc. Records

Creator:
Binney & Smith, Inc.  Search this
Names:
Binney, Edwin  Search this
Smith, Harold  Search this
Extent:
24 Cubic feet (64 boxes and 1 oversize folder)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Catalogs
Color charts
Annual reports
Price lists
Newsletters
Photographs
Date:
1897-1998
Summary:
Collection documents Binney & Smith, Inc. creators and manufacturers of Crayola crayons. Includes documentation on 20th century advertising, commercial packaging, commercial imagery, and retail merchandising: newsletters, annual reports, research and development records, color charts, advertising materials, and product information, including catalogs and price lists.
Scope and Contents:
The Binney & Smith Inc. Records, document twentieth century advertising, commercial packaging, commercial imagery, and retail merchandising. They are a major source for research on American consumer culture. This collection is divided into thirteen (13) series.

Series 2: Executive Records, 1897-1995, consists of annual and corporate reports, by-laws, minutes, correspondence, annual reports, stockholder materials and the attempted merger of Binney & Smith by Cheeseborough-Ponds in the early 1970s and the Kellogg Co., ca. 1979.

Series 3: Financial, Sales, and Marketing Records, 1902-1990, consists primarily of sales information and statistics for crayons and other products. The correspondence, 1913-1931, includes documentation on monthly sales with explanations and analysis. Binney & Smith created comparative data on a yearly basis for products and salesmen. The salesmen data, 1919-1932, contains the amount of sales, expenses, percentages, time periods, and increases and decreases in business. Specific salesmen are cited in reports. All of the sales information should be consulted as there is considerable overlap.

Series 4: Employee/Personnel Records, 1917-1993, contains payroll rate books, employee reports and miscellaneous documentation. The payroll rate books include the names of employees and the rate at which they were paid per hour. In some instances it is noted if the employee left the company.

Series 5: Newsletters and Publications, 1948-1995, include newsletters and other publications produced by Binney & Smith, Inc. Arranged alphabetically, this series contains publications intended for both internal distribution such as the Rainbow Insider and external distribution such as the Art Educationist and Drawing Teacher. This series provides valuable information on the history of the company, how it operates, the types of products produced, and the employees. The Art Educationist, formerly known as the Drawing Teacher, which began publication in 1926, was a publication for art teachers that promoted the value of art in schools. It contains editorials, comments from teachers, and suggested art activities.

Series 6: Research and Development Records, 1905-1987, includes a wide variety of materials documenting the Research and Development Department. The bulk of the materials include crayon formulas. Other formulas for products such as chalk exist.

Series 7: Advertising and Marketing Records, 1918-1998, contains several subseries with the bulk of the material being documentation on labeling and packaging. The advertising accounts are arranged chronologically and then within each year, alphabetically by the name of the journal or magazine in which Binney & Smith advertised. The cards provide the name, address, date of contract, date of expiration, space allotted, rate, subject of the ad, and remarks if applicable. Information on distribution and "specials" is available for some years. The promotional materials consist of licensing information, press kits, and printed literature, particularly Promotional Plans which describe the details of each promotion offered for each product along with suggestions for merchandising activities.

Series 8: Catalogs, 1916-1995, and Series 9: Price Lists, 1916-1995, are arranged alphabetically by division within Binney & Smith, Inc. Both series provide documentation on the types of products available to the consumer and costs associated with each product.

Series 10: Product Information, 1918-1995, consists of printed literature on a variety of products produced by Binney & Smith, Inc. The series is arranged alphabetically. The product inventories, 1920-1925, are arranged by product number in sequential order. There are three distinct inventories--those arranged by product number (#1-#7026); those arranged alpha-numerically (#04-#04Y); and those arranged alphabetically.

Series 11: Competitors, 1918-1992, contains published catalogs and advertising of crayon competitors. There is a scrapbook of competitors advertising contains correspondence, product information, advertisements, and newspaper clippings for the American Crayon Co., Art Crayon Co., Botts Mfg., Eberhard Faber Co., Ferst Brothers, Joseph Dixon Crucible Co., Milton-Bradley Co., and National Crayon Co.

Series 12: Photographs and Scrapbooks, circa 1900s-1997, includes several subseries documenting buildings and office spaces,displays, employees and machinery, products, portraits, photo albums, and oversized. The oversized photographs contain some panoramic shots of Binney & Smith company "annual outings." The photograph albums consist of several albums including the Middletown Township Workshop, 1952, an art workshop sponsored by Binney & Smith, Inc. Three albums contain photographs of various construction and expansion projects from the 1960s to 1975. Of note is the photo album containing photographs and newspaper clippings from the 1959 California Pacific Crayon Company fire. Also, there are Binney & Smith company albums, 1949-1976, that document a variety of activities within the company. Each album was photographed by W. H. Milliken, Jr., and specified the location, date, and number of photographs in the album. The albums cover topics such as art shows, trade shows, suppers, dinner parties, office shots, employee anniversaries, and retirement parties. The scrapbooks span the years 1962-1975, and contain both newspaper clippings and some black and white photographs documenting various company activities and its employees.

Series 13: Audio-Visual Materials, circa 1980s-1998, contain two 1/2" VHS tapes documenting the 40th anniversary of the Crayola 64 box and Silly Putty.
Arrangement:
Series 1: Historical Background

Series 2: Executive Records, 1897-1995

Series 3: Financial, Sales, and Marketing Records, 1902-1990

Series 4: Employee/Personnel Records, 1917-1993

Series 5: Newsletters and Publications, 1948-1995

Series 6: Research and Development Records, 1905-1987

Series 7: Advertising and Promotional Records, 1918-1998

Series 8: Catalogs, 1916-1995

Series 9: Price Lists, 1916-1925

Series 10: Product Information, 1918-1925

Series 11: Competitors, 1918-1992

Series 12: Photographs and Scrapbooks, circa 1900s-1997

Series 13: Audiovisual Materials, circa 1980-1998.
Series 1: Historical Background, 1956-1990s

Series 2: Executive Records, 1897-1995

Series 3: Financial, Sales and Marketing Records, 1902-1990

Series 4: Employee and Personnel Records, 1917-1993

Series 5: Newsletters and Publications, 1948-1995

Series 6: Research and Development Records, 1905-1987

Series 7: Advertising and Promotional Records, 1918-1998

Series 8: Catalogs, 1916-1995

Series 9: Price Lists, 1916-1995

Series 10: Product Information, 1918-1995

Series 11: Competitors, 1918-1992

Series 12: Photographs and Scrapbooks, circa 1900s-1997

Series 13: Audio-Visual Materials, circa 1980-1998
Biographical / Historical:
In 1864, Joseph W. Binney (1836-1898), began a small chemical works in Peekskill, New York. He ground and packaged hardwood charcoal and manufactured small quantities of lamp black from whale oil. In 1880, he opened a New York City office taking on his nephew, C. Harold Smith (1860-1931) as a salesman. Later, Joseph Binney's son, Edwin Binney (1866-1934), joined the business. The organization was known as the Peekskill Chemical Co. Joseph W. Binney retired and in May 1885, Edwin Binney and C. Harold Smith formed a partnership, Binney & Smith. Their early products included red oxide pigment used in barn paint and carbon for black tires. In 1900, the company began producing slate school pencils in its Easton, Pennsylvania mill. With the assistance of John Ketchum, the owner of a talc mine in North Carolina, Binney began combining old slate waste with cement and the talc supplied by Ketchum to produce slate pencils. Two years later, Binney & Smith introduced their white dustless blackboard chalk, "Au-Du-Septic" and in 1903, the company produced a box of eight crayons, which sold for a nickel. The word "Crayola" coined by Edwin Binney's wife, Alice, comes from "craie" the French word for chalk, and "ola," from oleaginous, meaning oily or pertaining to oil. Binney & Smith's best known product is Crayola crayons. However, its product line now includes: tempera, washable, and fabric paints, Liquitex acrylic paints, Magic Marker, chalk, clay, and Jazzy fashion and craft accessories. Binney & Smith acquired Silly Putty in 1977 and in 1984, became a subsidiary of Hallmark Cards, Inc. Products are still manufactured in Easton, Pennsylvania (world headquarters), as well as Mexico, and Indonesia and are available in twelve languages. In 2007, the company changed its name to Crayola LLC.
Separated Materials:
Artifacts were donated to the National Museum of American History, Division of Cultural History on November 18, 1997 and March 15, 1998. The artifacts consist of more than 150 objects, including 79 boxes of Crayola crayons from the 1900s to 1998; 24 boxes of chalk from the 1890s to 1998, 18 art kits; 10 sets of EDU-CARDS from the 1960s and 1970s; and 10 packages of Silly Putty from the 1950s to the 1990s.
Provenance:
This collection was donated to the National Museum of American History, Archives Center on November 18, 1997, by Binney & Smith through Patrick Morris. Additional materials were donated in March 1998, by Binney & Smith through Tracey Muldoon Moran and in February 2000 through Stacy Gabrielle.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Chalk -- 1910-2000  Search this
Crayons -- 1910-2000  Search this
Packaging -- 20th century  Search this
Paint -- 1910-2000  Search this
Genre/Form:
Catalogs -- 1910-2000
Color charts -- 1910-2000
Annual reports -- 20th century
Price lists
Newsletters -- 20th century
Photographs -- 20th century
Citation:
Binney & Smith, Inc., Records, 1897-1998, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0624
See more items in:
Binney & Smith, Inc. Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0624
Online Media:

Jantzen Knitting Mills Collection

Creator:
Jantzen, Carl C.  Search this
Names:
Costumes, Division of.  Search this
Jantzen Knitting Mills.  Search this
Portland Knitting Company.  Search this
Zehntbauer, John C.  Search this
Extent:
7 Cubic feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Business records
Catalogs
Photograph albums
Date:
1925-1977
Summary:
Carl C. Jantzen and John C. Zehntbauer founded the Portland Knitting Company in 1910 as a retail store selling knitted products (i.e. sweaters, hosiery, jackets). Carl Jantzen later invented an automated circular knitting machine that allowed the company to make light-weight materials for swimsuits. In 1916, the company first used the name Jantzen as their trademark and went on to specialize in swimsuits.
Scope and Contents:
This collection has a thorough representation of company newsletters, Jantzen Yarns, and many sample and print catalogues from the 1970s which show the Jantzen clothing and swimwear lines for misses, juniors, and men during that time. There are several company histories written by Zehntbauer which were printed in Jantzen Yarns. The photographs, though few in number, are a good sampling documenting Jantzen headquarters, as well as employees at work. The films, are aimed at store buyers and feature different lines of Jantzen clothing or swimwear, or are training films for sales representatives.

Series 1: SAMPLE CATALOGUES, 1974-1976, includes sample catalogs are for misses, juniors, and men.

Series 2: PUBLICATIONS, 1925-1977, contains issues of Jantzen Yarns (house publication), 1925-1973 (some of the covers of the newsletters include cover art by noted "pin-up" artists George Petty, Jon Whitcomb, Pete Hawley, and Rene Gruau); Intra-Views (company newspaper); and clothing and swimwear catalogues for women, juniors, and men, 1972-1977.

Series 3: COMPANY HISTORY, 1921, 1923-32, 1973, includes photocopies of various company histories written by John A. Zehntbauer; a photocopy of a patent; and an annual report for 1973 (many volumes of Jantzen Yarns [Series 2] have annual reports as an issue).

Series 4: PHOTOGRAPHS, ca. 1920s/30s, consists of a group of photos (originally from an album) showing the main office building, warehouses, and photographs of groups of employees at work or in posed groups.

Series 5: AUDIOVISUAL MATERIALS, 1951, 1976, undated, is divided into two subseries. Subseries 5.1: Films, circa 1951, undated, consists of four films produced for store buyers and sales representatives. Subseries 5.2: Slide Presentation Materials, 1976, includes slides, script, and audiocassette for an in-plant presentation on the Misses Fall 1976 line of Jantzen clothing.
Arrangement:
This collection is arranged into five series.

Series 1: Sample Catalogues, 1974-1976

Series 2: Publications, 1925-1977

Series 3: Ccompany History, 1921, 1923-32, 1973

Series 4: Photographs, circa. 1920s-1930s

Series 5: Audiovisual Materials, 1951, 1976, undated

Subseries 5.1: Films, 1951

Subseries 5.2: Slide Presentation Materials, 1976
Biographical / Historical:
Known primarily for its swimsuits, the Jantzen Knitting Mills are located in Portland, OR. John A. Zehntbauer and Carl C. Jantzen founded the company in 1910. It was then called the Portland Knitting Co. and consisted of a retail store and "a few knitting machines on the second floor" where heavy sweaters, woolen hosiery and other articles of clothing were manufactured.

The two partners were intent on expanding their company, especially by means of a product that would give them an edge in the highly competitive knitting industry. Fortunately, a member of a rowing club approached them one day and asked if they could make him a pair of rowing trunks "of a rib stitch." The success of this item led to the company's specialization in the manufacture of swimsuits in the elastic rib stitch. A patent for this suit was granted in 1921. Carl Jantzen's inventiveness was responsible for the development of an automated circular knitting machine, a derivative of hosiery knitting machines, with a fine needle-bed which produced the light-weight material needed for swimsuits. It also reduced the cost of knitting dramatically.

In 1916 the company first used the name Jantzen as a trademark in advertising, and in 1918 they changed the name officially to the Jantzen Knitting Mills. The name was again changed in 1954 to Jantzen Inc.

Early advertising campaigns were aimed at encouraging swimming. One of the longest used slogans was "the Suit that Changed Bathing to Swimming." An idea for a cut-out sticker of a "diving girl" in a red Jantzen suit and knitted cap was reported in a 1923 issue of Men's Wear N.Y. as "proving popular with auto-drivers--[and that] many windshields carry as many as 3 or 4 of the figure." It also became the Jantzen logo. Billboards were used extensively with artwork by George Petty and McClelland Barclay. Ads in Life and Vogue in 1921 represented the first national advertising of the bathing suits and established the product as "first class."

Before the peak year of 1930, the firm operated factories in Canada, England, and Australia, in addition to exporting to many countries in Europe, South America, and the Phillippines. After the Depression years of 1931-34, a decision was made to license companies in Europe, rather than operating there. The decision was based on the uncertainty of U.S. foreign trade regulations and on the awareness of Zehntbauer, after a trip to Europe, of the political changes taking place.

In 1936 Jantzen made one of its greatest plant investments: a new spinning mill which was considered "the most up to date dying and spinning mill in the U.S." It enabled Jantzen to experiment with different fibers instead of having to purchase them from other mills. In the same year the firm hired their first female designer.

In 1937 serious considerations of making satin latex swimsuits--which were cut and sewn--were resolved in favor of keeping the elastic knit stitch. By 1973 sales and earnings were the highest in the 63 year history. Employees numbered 4,500.

Currently, Jantzen is owned by Vanity Fair Corporation. The company also operates an archives which is limited to serious research inquiries. Some historical information may also be located on their website: http://www.jantzen.com.
Related Materials:
Materials in the Archives Center

Industry on Parade Film Collection (AC0507)

Contains a 1952 film about Jantzen entitled "Suited for Swimming!" which describes the manufacture of swim suits at the company's Portland, Oregon, plant.
Separated Materials:
Related collections in the Division of Home and Community Life. The collection includes bathing and swimming suits and men's, women's and children's clothing (tennis and exercise outfits, blouses, and trousers (1912-1990s). Items have been donated by Jantzen as well as private donors. Also available in the Division are samples of advertisements from the 1940s to 2000 and news articles about Jantzen.
Provenance:
Donated by Jantzen, Inc. in November 1973 and November 1978.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Reproduction permission from Archives Center: reproduction fees may apply.
Topic:
Bathing suits  Search this
Clothing Manufacturers  Search this
Knitting companies (Mills)  Search this
Textile industry  Search this
Textile fabrics  Search this
Genre/Form:
Business records -- 20th century
Catalogs
Photograph albums -- 20th century
Citation:
The Jantzen Knitting Mills Collection, 1925-1977, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0233
See more items in:
Jantzen Knitting Mills Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0233
Online Media:

John Bucheimer Papers

Creator:
Bucheimer, John  Search this
Names:
Head Ski Company.  Search this
Head, Howard, 1914-1991 (inventor, business executive)  Search this
Extent:
4 Cubic feet (11 boxes, 5 map folders)
21 Film reels
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Film reels
Drawings
Correspondence
Photographs
Business records
Audiovisual materials
Financial records
Blueprints
Date:
1954 - 1977
Summary:
Papers relate to John Bucheimer's work as manager of new product manufacturing in the Engineering Department at Head Ski Company.
Scope and Contents:
These records were assembled and saved by John Bucheimer in conjunction with his work at Head Ski Company. The bulk of the records relates to engineering matters and detail how the skis were manufactured. The records also provide insight into the daily operations and activities of the Head Ski Company factory.

Series 1, Operational Records, 1967-1973, include an organizational chart, company and management profile, annual reports, inter office correspondence, memoranda, management notes, the Management News Bulletin, and plant information. The organizational chart of 1969 provides the job title and name of the employee for specific positions within Head Ski Company, Head Ski and Sportswear, American Athletic Equipment, Wayne Plastics, Wing Archery, and Head International AG.

This series contains the Management News Bulletin, 1967-1970. An internal communication from the president, the news bulletin provided a forum for announcements, resignations, work plans, reorganizations, organizational charts, employee changes, and general work flow issues. While small in size, the content is rich for getting a sense of the management style at Head Ski Company.

The management notes, 1968-1971, are handwritten by Bucheimer and contain information on training, responsibilities, manufacturing expenses, production schedules, regional sales meetings, and job postings. There are a few management pamphlets published by the Economic Press, Inc. These pamphlets provided "tips" to managers. Also, the management notes contain two union fliers addressing the issue of union dues. Both fliers urge employees to "keep your take home pay free from Union dues. Vote no union." Other materials include inventories of office surplus and plant information. There are instructions of how to conduct a tour of the plant and ADT protective service documentation. Bucheimer was the designated ADT card holder for the company.

Series 2, Employee Records, 1957-1973, consist of employee handbooks and insurance materials, a job description for manager of manufacturing projects, and vacation schedules for several employees. Some salary information is here.

Series 3, Marketing/Sales Records, 1969-1972, includes one catalog from 1972, three news releases, sales information, and ski show and shipment information. The ski show materials document specific shows—Canada, Chicago, Los Angeles, and New York—and the ski models displayed and, in some instances, orders placed. The special shipments, 1969-1971, include invoices, correspondence, notes, and material move tickets for companies such as Cell Pack, Ltd., Standard Metalwerke, Dura Fiber Corp., and United Shoe Machinery Corp.

Series 4, Financial/Accounting Records, 1967-1971, contains reports, inventories, expenses, and some payroll information. The majority of these records date from September 1969 to October of 1969. The expense statements reveal how much was budgeted and spent for materials, direct labor, payroll taxes, Christmas bonuses, travel, postage, maintenance, and ski parts, to name a few categories. There is some payroll information with the payroll control sheets.

Series 5, Engineering/Manufacturing Records, 1956-1977, comprise the largest and richest series within the collection. The records are subdivided into seven subseries: inventories, instructions, repair information, reports, drawings and specifications, testing information, and miscellaneous.

The inventories provide valuable information on the types of materials used, the quantities, and in some instances the cost. The raw material inventory of 1967 details material types (e.g. glue, plywood, aluminum, poles, saw blades), account numbers, date, quantity, price and actual cost. Like the raw material inventory, the perpetual inventory of 1966 is divided according to material type (e.g. aluminum, plastic, cloth tape, wood, rubber, steel) unit measure (typically in pounds), conversion factor, dates, and a balance amount.

The instructions include detailed information on "how to" for a variety of operations such as aluminum sandblasting bottom ski skin assembly, degreasing nosepieces, and sanding, gluing, and cutting "L" steel edges. The instructions consist of a workplace layout diagram, tools needed, and step by-step instruction elements. Of note is the material flow processes for the company. There are flow charts for each operational sequence performed. There are photographs of equipment with the flow charts, but they are not keyed to specific operational tasks.

The repair information contains procedures and lists of parts for skis. The repair procedures describe the repair needed and what model ski is affected. A detailed description of the repair is documented along with the materials required, tools, and how effective the repair was. The repairs documented here include finishing, grinding, bottom waxing, replacing edges, inlays, and remolding. The company had a program titled "rework" that handled returned skis. Many of the skis documented appear to have had cavity problems and were sent back to be remolded. There is some ski rejection analysis documentation citing why skis are being sent to the rework program. Additional information on cavity problems and production is also here. The parts list, 1969-1970, details various parts used on ski models JR-90, JR-60, 720-TA, 320-W, 240-B, K-short ski, deep powder-DP, Giant Slalom, slalom, 360-AR, 320-E and the downhill models. The part number and name, quantity, and any remarks are provided.

The reports, logs, and notes subseries contain manufacturing and production notes, and a variety of reports documenting engineering department activities. The inter-shift reports, 1963-1967, were maintained in spiral bound shorthand notebooks. They detail daily activities, operational suggestions, reminders to staff, materials available, and what work needs to be completed. Other reports include accidents, 1958-1961, and quality control reports, 1970-1971, which were created daily to provide detailed information on all aspects of the skis at final inspection time. The number of skis inspected with percentage information is summarized. The non-conforming material recovery reports, 1970, give the reasons why skis were rejected and indicate if skis were returned to vendors or used "as is."

The drawings and specifications, 1964-1970, are comprised of oversize drawings ranging from 8" x 10" to 34" x 43 _". The drawings are copies and include information on the short, slalom, giant slalom, downhill, and deep powder skis. The finished ski specifications, 1964-1967, document material types, assembly and subassembly procedures, ski data, ski poles, packaging material, and miscellaneous material. For each specification there is a corresponding instruction/narrative and, in some instances, a drawing.

The testing documentation is material specific (rubber, steel, plastic, adhesives) or ski model specific. It provides some insight into what materials the company worked with and under what conditions, such as, pulling, heating, or actual pilot ski runs. The suppliers, 1971-1973, include forms, receipts, bills, invoices, correspondence, receiving tickets, and descriptive inventories from companies that Head Ski Co. purchased supplies from.

Series 6, The General Files, 1954-1977, cover a variety of miscellaneous topics, such as the National Ski Patrol and postage, and are arranged alphabetically.

Series 7, Moving Image, no date, consists of twenty-one reels of 16 mm film which are unprocessed.

Series 8, Personal Materials, circa 1960s, contain greeting cards and notes and a photograph of Bucheimer with Howard Head.
Arrangement:
Collection organized into eight series.

Series 1: Operational Records, 1967-1973

Series 2: Employee Records, 1957-1973

Series 3: Marketing/Sales Records, 1969-1972

Series 4: Financial/Accounting Records, 1967-1971

Series 5: Engineering/Manufacturing Records, 1956-1977

Subseries 1, Inventories, 1966-1971

Subseries 2, Instructions, 1967-1970

Subseries 3, Repair Information, 1969-1971

Subseries 4, Reports, logs, and notes, 1956-1971

Subseries 5, Drawings and Specifications, 1964-1970

Subseries 6, Testing Information, 1963-1970

Subseries 7, Miscellaneous, 1967-1973

Series 6: General Files, 1954-1977

Series 7: Moving Image, no date

Series 8: Personal Materials, circa 1960s
Biographical / Historical:
John Bucheimer was born on December 7, 1919. During the 1940s, he worked with Howard Head at Glenn L. Martin Company, an aircraft company founded by aviation pioneer Glenn L. Martin (1886-1955) in Middle River, Maryland. At Martin, Bucheimer supervised work on planes and oversaw structural testing. Primarily self taught, he learned electronics and drafting skills on the job. Head left the Glenn L. Martin Company to start his own company, Head Ski Company in 1948, and Bucheimer joined him.

Head, a former aircraft engineer, developed, designed, manufactured, and marketed the first metal laminate skis in 1950 called the "Head Standard. These skis revolutionized the industry. They were made of two layers of aluminum bonded around a core of plywood at very high pressure; the outer layer was made of plastic. By 1952, Head introduced skis with edges made of tempered steel. His skis were lighter and faster than wood and earned the nickname "cheaters" by the industry. In 1969, Head introduced a fiberglass/metal ski, but this ski combined with a diversified product line of javelin and aluminum tennis rackets could not strengthen his company nor stop a takeover by AMF in 1970.

At Head Ski Company, Bucheimer held the position of manager of new products manufacturing. He trained employees on every aspect of work flow.
Related Materials:
Materials in the Archives Center

Howard Head Papers, 1926-1991, AC0589

Materials in the National Museum of American History

The Division of Culture and the Arts, formerly the Division of Music, Sports, and Entertainment, holds artifacts related to the Howard Head Papers. These artifacts include downhill skis, ski poles, ski boots, ski bindings, and cross sections of downhill skis.
Provenance:
The collection was donated by John Bucheimer on April 26, 2005.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning intellectual property rights. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Sporting goods industry  Search this
Skis and skiing  Search this
Genre/Form:
Drawings -- 20th century
Correspondence -- 1950-2000
Photographs -- Black-and-white photoprints -- Silver gelatin -- 1950-2000
Business records -- 1950-2000
Audiovisual materials
Financial records -- 20th century
Blueprints -- 1950-2000
Citation:
John Bucheimer Papers, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0889
See more items in:
John Bucheimer Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0889
Online Media:

Eskimo Pie Corporation Records

Creator:
Eskimo Pie Corporation.  Search this
Nelson, Christian Kent, 1893-1992  Search this
Extent:
15 Cubic feet (50 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Advertisements
Sheet music
Posters
Photographs
Business records
Legal records
Clippings
Date:
1921-1996
Scope and Contents:
Printed advertisements, photographs (including negatives and slides), sales presentation materials and packaging; patent and legal information, clippings, posters, scripts for radio commercials, sheet music for jingles, etc. Also includes personal papers (correspondence) of Christian Nelson, inventor of the Eskimo Pie.
Arrangement:
The collection is divided into eight series.
Biographical / Historical:
Eskimo Pie, America's first chocolate covered ice cream bar, was invented by Christian Kent Nelson in his home laboratory in 1920. Nelson patented his invention and the ice cream bar quickly rose in popularity in America. By 1922, Nelson was earning $2000 per day in royalties on his product.

Christian K. Nelson was born on March 12, 1893, in Gunstrup, Denmark, to Pedar Nelson and Margerethe Madesen Nelson. While Nelson was an infant, the seven Nelson children and their parents emigrated to the United States. The dairy farming family settled in Illinois, Wisconsin, and finally in Iowa in 1903. In Onawa, Iowa, Nelson opened a small confectionery shop near the high school where he worked as a teacher. The inspiration for the invention of Eskimo Pie was a boy's indecision in Nelson's confectionery store in 1920. A boy started to buy ice cream, then changed his mind and bought a chocolate bar. Nelson inquired as to why he did not buy both. The boy replied, "Sure I know--I want 'em both, but I only got a nickel." For weeks after the incident, Nelson worked around the clock experimenting with different methods of sticking melted chocolate to frozen ice cream until he found cocoa butter to be the perfect adherent.

Immediately, he produced 500 ice cream bricks with a chocolate candy coating. The "I-Scream Bars" were a hit at the local village fireman's picnic and Nelson began searching for companies to manufacture his new product.

On July 13, 1921, Nelson and chocolate maker Russell C. Stover entered into a joint agreement to market and produce the product. It was decided the name would change from Nelson's "I-Scream Bar" to "Eskimo Pie". In the hand-written agreement composed the same day the two met for the first time, the entrepreneurs agreed to "coat ice cream with chocolate [sic] divide the profits equally." They decided to sell the manufacturing rights to local ice cream companies for $500 to $1000, plus royalties on each Eskimo Pie sold.

Nelson and Stover began their business venture with an advertising campaign in Des Moines, Iowa. The first 250,000 pies produced were sold within 24 hours. By spring 1922, 2,700 manufacturers sold one million Eskimo Pies per day. On January 24, 1922, the United States granted patent number 1,404,539 for the Eskimo Pie. Nelson's patent applied to any type of frozen material covered with candy. Nelson also had the name "Eskimo Pie" trademarked. Initially, even the word "Pie" in a brand name frozen treat was covered by this trademark. The breadth of the patent was detrimental to Eskimo Pie because of growing legal costs associated with its defense.

Russell Stover sold his share of the company in 1922. Because of the cost of litigation, high salaried salesmen, and difficulties in collecting royalties, the company was sold in 1924. Eskimo Pie became a subsidiary of United States Foil Company, the supplier of the Eskimo Pie wrapper. Headed by R.S. Reynolds, Sr., the company later became known as Reynolds Metals Company.

In 1925, dry ice was invented. Nelson was eager to find a way to make buying Eskimo Pie as easy as buying another snack from a vendor. Nelson began to market thermal jugs with dry ice supplied with Eskimo Pies to vendors without access to a freezer. This increased visibility and distribution and made Eskimo Pie an "impulse" item.

The patent litigation continued until October 3, 1929, when the U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals upheld the decision of the lower courts declared that the 1922 patent was invalid, due to "lack of invention." Eskimo Pie resembled an earlier product that also called for ice cream with cocoa butter dipped in chocolate. The judge declared that Nelson had merely changed the shape for an existing product. Even his trademark on the work "pie" was invalidated, as the judge said the word had a wide variety of use.

Nelson retired to California and assigned his royalties to his wife, Myrtle Skidmore "Skid" Nelson. However, Nelson, reportedly "bored," came out of retirement in 1935 to rejoin Eskimo Pie and work on new products. Nelson continued to create ice cream innovations such as ice patties and colored ice cream holiday centers within Eskimo Pie products. In 1955, Nelson was awarded a patent for his Eskimo Machine. The machinery squeezed out ice cream of the correct dimensions which was then cut into bars. This process was faster than the older method of molding the ice cream bar. After a decline in sales during the Great Depression, Eskimo Pie received a boost from sales to the United States armed forces during World II. Rising commodity prices in the post war era forced the company to reduce the size of the product. However, the distinct foil wrapper remained the same. Nelson officially retired from Eskimo Pie in 1961 as vice-president and director of research. Surviving his wife by one year, he died March 8, 1992.

In 1992, Eskimo Pie became independent of Reynolds' Metals. The company continues to market dozens of shapes, sizes, and types of frozen treats. The brand name Eskimo Pie continues to have strong consumer recognition and has appeared in cartoons, movies, and even in Funk and Wagnall's Dictionary.

Sources

"He Made Kids Scream for Ice Cream," 1959, manuscript from collection Nelson-Stover Agreement, July 13, 1921, manuscript from the collection U.S. Patent 1,404,539 January 24, 1922, manuscript from the collection

Scope and Content Note

The Eskimo Pie Collection consists primarily of materials relating to the advertising, business, and packaging of its ice cream products. The collection includes numerous photographs, printed advertisements, and packaging materials. It also contains company annual reports and newsletters, business history, information on machines and equipment used in manufacturing the product, and the history of the invention of Eskimo Pie. The formulas and directions for creating many of the Eskimo Pie products are included.

Series 1: CHRISTIAN NELSON PAPERS, 1921-1992 - Contains personal information on the inventor of Eskimo Pie, Christian Nelson, including his correspondence and financial information. Most of the correspondence is business related. Subseries 1: Christian Nelson Personal Papers, 1933-1988 - These materials include tax information, bank account information, and a few documents related to his personal life. Not many documents of a personal nature are in the collection. Most details of his life are found in magazine and newspaper clippings in Series 2, Subseries 4. Subseries 2: Nelson Correspondence (by correspondent), 1944-1946 - This subseries contains Nelson's business correspondence previously arranged alphabetically by correspondent. The correspondence only dates from 1944-1946. Subseries 3: Nelson and Business Correspondence (by date), 1920-1990 - Arranged chronologically by decade, this correspondence consists of letters on various topics that were scattered throughout the collection. Most of these letters are business related but many have personal notations within them. Not all letters include Nelson.

Series 2: HISTORICAL AND BACKGROUND INFORMATION, 1921-1992 - This series includes any information that helps to narrate the story of the invention of Eskimo Pie and the company that sold the product. It contains company scrapbooks of specific years, important historical documents regarding Eskimo Pie history, and newspaper clippings and magazine articles that summarize the detailed history of the company. Subseries 1: Background Information on Company, 1921-1992 - This information includes company scrapbooks that contain articles, letters, promotions and/or advertisements for a particular year. The scrapbooks often relate the history of Eskimo Pie in past years as well as representing the year of the scrapbook. Other materials such as the Eskimo Pie patent, and information on Christian Nelson and Russell Stover with their original agreement are included. Subseries 2: Information on Related Companies, 1947-1987 - This material contains annual reports and the company publications of Reynolds Aluminum which supplied the Eskimo Pie wrapper. Eskimo Pie became a subsidiary of Reynolds (then known as US Foil Company) in 1924. Other companies whose products are related to Eskimo Pie are also included. Subseries 3: Patent and Legal Information, 1921-1965 - Important legal documents of the Eskimo Pie business are arranged in this subseries by type of document. The patents include many of Nelson's patents as well as other patents of invention related to ice cream. Subseries 4: Newspaper Clippings and Magazine Articles, 1920-1990 - Most articles in the subseries are related to the history or business of Eskimo Pie, although a few are not. Cartoons that use the Eskimo Pie name are included.

Series 3: MANUFACTURING AND EQUIPMENT, 1922-1990 - This series documents the machinery and equipment used to produce, package, and freeze the ice cream. It also includes the specific formulas of Eskimo Pie products with ingredients and directions for their preparation. Subseries 1: Machinery, 1922-1990 - This series is comprised of catalogues, plans, and brochures on general types of machines used to create ice cream along with very specific types of machines with specific names (such as the Eskimo Machine). It also includes video footage of a 1990 production line. Some photographs of equipment are included in the catalogues but other photographs of machinery can be found in Photographs under Series 5, Subseries 1. Subseries 2: Formulae and Directions, 1942-1963 - Formulas and specifications to create certain Eskimo Pie products make up this series. The formulas and directions were sent to franchise manufacturers and field personnel and state how to use the machinery to create the desired product. The folders labeled with product numbers include booklets of formulas and the folders labeled with formulas of specific products are loose pages or additions to the booklets. Other formulas and directions for specific products can be found in some of the promotional brochures in Series 7 Subseries 4.

Series 4: ESKIMO PIE COMPANY RECORDS, 1951-1995 - The company records in this series are comprised of Annual Company Reports and Company Newsletters. Subseries 1: Eskimo Pie Annual Reports, 1951-1995 - The Annual Reports include financial information as well as the names of the directors, officers, and management personnel for that particular year. Subseries 2: Eskimo Pie Newsletters, 1968-1979 - These monthly newsletters function as a company information tool for employees. They include company news along with general interest features such as cartoons, news of the company sports teams, announcements of vacations and birthdays, etc.

Series 5: PHOTOGRAPHS AND NEGATIVES, 1928-1990 - This series consists of photographs and negatives of various subject matter. Subseries 1: Photographs, 1928-1990 - These photographs are arranged by subject matter. Some of the main subject categories of the photographs include machinery and equipment, advertising, promotions, and pictures of Christian Nelson at company events. Subseries 2: Photograph Negatives and Slides, 1928-1990 - This subseries includes many negatives of the photographs already contained in Subseries 1. Only one folder in this subseries is slides.

Series 6: ESKIMO PIE BUSINESS INFORMATION, 1921-1990 - This series consists of any records pertaining to the business of the Eskimo Pie company including finances, marketing, sales, promotions, personnel information, packaging, and publications. It does not include advertising. Subseries 1: General Business Information, 1922-1990 - Business information that did not fit into any particular business category comprises this series. Each folder's information is very specific to its own particular topic and is arranged chronologically. Subseries 2: Marketing, 1927-1996 - This series includes any marketing information that attempts to sell Eskimo Pie to the consumer. This information does overlap with some aspects of advertising and packaging, as they also function as marketing tools to promote increased buying. It also includes promotional materials for the film AWho's Minding the Mint?" which featured an Eskimo Pie ice cream man as a character. The information is organized by specific years or time periods. Subseries 3: Employee Information and Incentives, 1952-1970 - This subseries includes general information such as personnel lists and phone lists but also includes incentive campaigns for employees. These incentive campaigns were directed towards salesmen, particularly route driver salesman, and propose prize rewards for sales. The booklets in box 31 include the ads for incentives to be sent out to the salesmen throughout the year. Along with the ads are explanations of the incentive and the company's reasoning behind its approach to the salesmen in that particular ad. The prizes to be awarded are not specifically listed but are displayed in pictures in many of the incentive ads. Subseries 4: Premiums and Promotions, 1937-1990 - Information on premiums in which consumers save wrappers and send them to Eskimo Pie for goods as well as special promotions are included in this subseries. Lists of goods that can be purchased with the corresponding number of wrappers are included. Other promotions include prizes for contests or special offers with Eskimo proofs of purchase. This subseries includes promotional brochures that explain the new promotions. Subseries 5: Financial Information, 1932-1990 - Any business information pertaining to Eskimo Pie's finances, sales, and\or profits is included in this subseries. It also includes U.S. Foil Royalty Reports that report the number of wrappers shipped and manufactured of different businesses including those of Eskimo Pie (Eskimo Pie was a subsidiary of U.S. Foil). The U.S. Foil reports are addressed to Myrtle Nelson. Bank information of Frozen Products, Inc., which manufactured Eskimo Pie and Eskimo confections, is also included. Subseries 6: Packaging, 1921-1954 - This subseries consists of actual boxes, wrappers, lids, and sticks that were used in packaging Eskimo Pie products. The materials are organized by types of packaging and the dates of the materials are generally unclear. Subseries 7: General Publications Related to Ice Cream, 1935-1990 - Listed in chronological order, these publications provide information on the ice cream, dairy, and chocolate industries in a specific time frame. These publications generally do not mention Eskimo Pie products.

Series 7: ADVERTISING MATERIALS, 1922-1992 - The advertising materials included in this series mainly consist of the actual advertisements. Little written information on specific advertising campaigns is included with the print, radio, and television advertisements. The promotional brochures do include some written information on the product the company is promoting. Subseries 1: Print Advertisements, 1922-1989 - This subseries includes a range of types of advertisements. Some ads include printed ads in magazines and newspapers while many are proofs of advertisements that will go to print. Other types of advertisements include banners, decals, and railstrips which appear to be point of purchase displays for vending machines, ice cream stands, ice cream carts or trucks, or even the grocery store. Although the scrapbooks mainly consist of advertisements, they also include packaging, machinery, and marketing information. Subseries 2: Radio Advertisements, 1930-1985 - This small subseries includes scripts for radio announcements and advertisements. The sheet music for the radio jingles, "I Scream, You Scream, We All Scream for Ice Cream," "Oh My, Eskimo Pie,"and "New Eskimo Pie on a Stick" are included here. Subseries 3: Television Advertisements, 1948-1992 - The television materials included consist of story boards, scripts for television advertisements with corresponding still photographs, television commercials, and little written information on television campaigns. Subseries 4: Promotional Brochures, 1951-1964 - This subseries consists of materials pertaining to new products or special occasion items (e.g. Christmas, Halloween). The brochures were probably sent to vendors, distributors and /or ice cream producers. The brochures intended for vendors and distributors contain samples of advertising, packaging, point of purchase displays and in some instances, inexpensive premiums to be awarded to consumers. The brochures for ice cream manufacturers contain some of the same material as well as the formula and directions for the product, a list of equipment required, and a price list for rental of that equipment. The material, contained in the boxes has been organized alphabetically where possible.

Series 8: MISCELLANEOUS, 1921-1979 - This series includes materials found in the collection with no apparent relation to Christian Nelson or Eskimo Pie. Random materials that display the Eskimo Pie logo are also included.

Provenance

The Eskimo Pie collection was donated on May 10, 1996, to the National Museum of American History, Archives Center.

Related Collections The Division of Cultural History has several objects which are also part of the Eskimo Pie Collection.

The Archives Center holds many collections related to ice cream and the food industry including: #58 Warshaw Collection of Business Americana (see Dairy)

#78 Faris and Yamna Naff Arab-American Collection, 1880-1995 (see waffle cone machine)

#112 Famous Amos Collection, 1979-1983

#300 Sam DeVincent Collection of Illustrated American Sheet Music, 1790-1980 (see Ice Cream)

#451 Good Humor Collection, 1930-1990

#588 Carvel Ice Cream Records, 1934-1989

#594 Krispy Kreme Donut Corporation Records, 1937-1997
Separated Materials:
Related artifacts housed in the Division of Culture and the Arts.
Provenance:
Collection donated by Dave Clark, Eskimo Pie Corporation, July 12, 1996.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Copyright and trademark restrictions.
Topic:
Stereotypes (Social psychology)  Search this
Polar bear in art  Search this
Ice cream industry -- Equipment and supplies  Search this
Ice cream industry  Search this
Ethnic imagery  Search this
advertising -- 20th century  Search this
Genre/Form:
Advertisements
Sheet music -- advertising
Posters
Photographs -- Black-and-white negatives -- Glass -- 1890-1920
Business records -- 20th century
Photographs -- 20th century
Legal records
Clippings
Citation:
Eskimo Pie Corporation Records, 1921-1996, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0553
See more items in:
Eskimo Pie Corporation Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0553
Online Media:

Horn and Hardart Records

Creator:
Hardart, Paul  Search this
Hardart, Tom  Search this
Horn and Hardart.  Search this
Extent:
2.5 Cubic feet (9 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Newsletters
Annual reports
Photographs
Magazines (periodicals)
Manuals
Correspondence
Clippings
Business records
Date:
1895-2002
Summary:
The collection documents the Horn and Hardart chain of restaurants and retail stores.
Scope and Contents note:
The collection includes the business records for the Horn and Hardart chain of restaurants and retail stores. The records include business correspondence, photographs, annual reports, operating manuals, sales materials, and printed materials, such as employee newsletters and clippings. The collection documents changes in marketing, in restaurant technology, in customer feedback and in editing habits in urban areas in the United States. Documents changes in marketing, restaurant technology and service styles, evolution of food options based on customer feedback and eating habits in urban areas in the United States.
Arrangement:
Materials are arranged in chronological order. The collection is arranged into 8 series.

Series 1: Administrative Files, 1895-1987

Series 2: Financial Records, 1911-1979

Series 3: Horn and Hardart Family Papers, 1901-1987

Subseries 3.1: Joseph V. Horn, 1937-1941

Subseries 3.2: Frank Hardart, Sr., 1901-1918

Subseries 3.3: Frank Joseph Hardart, Jr., 1905-1962

Sub-series 3.4: Thomas R. Hardart, 1938-1987

Series 4: Employee Materials, 1927-1972

Series 5: Company Publications, 1938-1961

Series 6: Automats and Eating Establishments, 1912-1987

Series 7: Magazine Articles and Newspaper Clippings, 1918-2002

Series 8: Miscellaneous Materials, 1957-2002
Biographical/Historical note:
Horn and Hardart was co-founded by Frank Joseph Hardart, Sr. and Joseph V. Horn, who became restaurant partners in 1886. They opened the first automat in the United States in Philadelphia in 1902. It opened in New York between 1010 and 1920, eventually becoming, for a period of time, the world's largest restaurant chain. It also had retail stores. Automats were popular well into the 1960s, but they began to decline with the rise of fast-food restaurants. Horn and Hardart did expand their operations in 1981, by acquiring Bojangles' Famous Chicken n' Biscuits restaurants, but they sold it in 1990. The last Horn and Hardart automat closed in April 1991.

Joseph V. Horn was born in Philadelphia in 1861 and died in Philadelphia in 1941, aged 80.

Frank Joseph Hardart, Sr. was born in Sondernheim in 1852, and he emigrated to New Orleans, Louisiana, USA, in 1858. He married Marie Bruen in 1878, and they had six children. Their eldest child Frank Joseph Hardart, Jr., born 1884, graduated from St. Joseph's College in Philadelphia in 1905, and he took over for his father at Horn and Hardart. Frank Joseph Hardart, Jr. married Evelyn Marie Roche, and they had four children. Their eldest child Thomas R. Hardart was born in New York, Queens, New York, in 1918. He was the president and chairman of Horn and Hardart from 1967 to 1972.

Frank Joseph Hardart, Sr. died in 1918, at the age of 66. Frank Joseph Hardart, Jr. died in New York, New York, on September 15, 1972, when he was 88 years old. Thomas R. Hardart died on November 1, 1988, at the age of 70.
Provenance:
Donated to the Archives Center, National Museum of American History by Paul and Tom Hardart in 2006.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Food industry and trade  Search this
Restaurants  Search this
Retail trade  Search this
Genre/Form:
Newsletters -- 20th century
Annual reports -- 20th century
Photographs -- 20th century
Magazines (periodicals) -- 20th century
Manuals
Correspondence -- 20th century
Clippings -- 20th century
Business records -- 20th century
Citation:
Horn and Hardart Records, Archives Center, National Museum of American History. Gift of Paul and Tom Hardart.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0922
See more items in:
Horn and Hardart Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0922
Online Media:

Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Iron

Creator:
Warshaw, Isadore, 1900-1969  Search this
Extent:
4.82 Cubic feet (consisting of 10 boxes, 1 folder, 5 oversize folders, 2 map case folders, 1 flat box (partial).)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Manuals
Printed ephemera
Mail order catalogs
Manufacturers' catalogs
Trade cards
Printed material
Letterheads
Advertising fliers
Technical manuals
Advertising cards
Advertising mail
Publications
Sales catalogs
Trade catalogs
Illustrations
Sales letters
Correspondence
Advertisements
Trade literature
Commercial catalogs
Advertising
Sales records
Catalogs
Catalogues
Technical reports
Business letters
Business records
Ephemera
Invoices
Annual reports
Reports
Print advertising
Receipts
Business cards
Business ephemera
Date:
1803-1967
bulk 1830-1915
Summary:
A New York bookseller, Warshaw assembled this collection over nearly fifty years. The Warshaw Collection of Business Americana: Iron forms part of the Warshaw Collection of Business Americana, Subseries 1.1: Subject Categories. The Subject Categories subseries is divided into 470 subject categories based on those created by Mr. Warshaw. These subject categories include topical subjects, types or forms of material, people, organizations, historical events, and other categories. An overview to the entire Warshaw collection is available here: Warshaw Collection of Business Americana
Scope and Contents:
Iron and steel are companion industries so there is overlap in the products and goods manufactured and sold, which is evident in the documents. Iron was commonly used in construction as well as ornamental application in architecture and art, especially facades and sculptures, in addition to landscape and cemetery design, particularly in fencing. Some applications include bridges, concrete supports, joists, grating, casements, stairs, railings, trellises, doors, seats and other furniture, vases, vanes, shutters, posts, and fire escapes. Bar, plates, pig iron, cast iron, ore, and steel are commonly referred to in the collection materials. The emphasis is on products rather than production methods.

Materials represent a sampling of business records such as invoices, financial sheets, correspondence and a small number of advertising and promotional circulars. There are price sheets and a few product catalogs. Several company/foundry histories and prospectus documents are present. There is a large volume of import/export documents (European) present.

No extensive runs or complete records exist for any single company or brand, and no particular subtopic is represented in detail, although for any singular subtopic though some publications may provide general and historical overviews of a person, company, or facet of industry.
Arrangement:
The materials are arranged into three series.

Business Records and Marketing Materials

Genre

Subject
Forms Part Of:
Forms part of the Warshaw Collection of Business Americana.

Series 1: Business Ephemera

Series 2: Other Collection Divisions

Series 3: Isadore Warshaw Personal Papers

Series 4: Photographic Reference Material
Provenance:
Iron is a portion of the Business Ephemera Series of the Warshaw Collection of Business Americana, Accession AC0060, purchased from Isadore Warshaw in 1967. Warshaw continued to accumulate similar material until his death, which was donated in 1971 by his widow, Augusta. For a period after acquisition, related materials from other sources (of mixed provenance) were added to the collection so there may be content produced or published after Warshaw's death in 1969. This practice has since ceased.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Some items may be restricted due to fragile condition.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Mail-order business -- Catalogs  Search this
Benches, iron  Search this
Fences -- wrought iron  Search this
Iron and steel industry  Search this
Gates -- Iron  Search this
Iron and steel bridges  Search this
Public works  Search this
Wrought-iron  Search this
Periodicals  Search this
Ironwork  Search this
Sales promotion  Search this
Iron industry and trade -- United States  Search this
Iron and steel workers -- 1920-1930 -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Public buildings  Search this
Genre/Form:
Manuals
Printed ephemera
Mail order catalogs
Manufacturers' catalogs
Trade cards
Printed material
Letterheads
Advertising fliers
Technical manuals -- 20th century
Advertising cards
Advertising mail
Publications
Sales catalogs
Trade catalogs
Illustrations
Sales letters
Correspondence
Advertisements
Trade literature
Commercial catalogs
Advertising
Sales records
Catalogs
Catalogues
Technical reports
Business letters
Business records
Publications -- Business
Ephemera
Invoices
Annual reports
Reports
Print advertising
Receipts
Business cards
Business ephemera
Citation:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Iron, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0060.S01.01.Iron
See more items in:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Iron
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0060-s01-01-iron

Sally L. Steinberg Collection of Doughnut Ephemera

Collector:
Steinberg, Sally L. (Sally Levitt)  Search this
Names:
DCA Food Industries, Inc.  Search this
Doughnut Corporation of America  Search this
Doughnut Machine Company.  Search this
Dunkin' Donuts, Inc.  Search this
Mayflower Doughnut Shop  Search this
Mayflower Doughnuts  Search this
Mister Donut  Search this
Allen, Gracie  Search this
Brown, Joe E.  Search this
Durante, Jimmy  Search this
Eisenhower, Dwight D. (Dwight David), 1890-1969  Search this
Kennedy, John F. (John Fitzgerald), 1917-1963  Search this
Levitt, Adolph  Search this
Skelton, Red, 1913-1997  Search this
Stevenson, Adlai E. (Adlai Ewing), 1900-1965  Search this
Extent:
3.5 Cubic feet (7 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Audiocassettes
Advertisements
Photograph albums
Catalogs
Clippings
Magazines (periodicals)
Playbills
Sheet music
Photographs
Posters
Videocassettes
Reports
Packaging
Cartoons (humorous images)
Books
Drawings
Place:
New York (N.Y.) -- Food industry
Date:
1920s-1987
Summary:
This collection consists of ephemeral materials gathered by Sally L. Steinberg while she was researching her 1987 publication, The Donut Book: The origins, history, literature, lore, taste, etiquette, traditions, techniques, varieties, mathematics, mythology, commerce, philosophy, cuisine, and glory of the donut.
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of ephemeral materials gathered by Sally L. Steinberg while she was researching her 1987 publication, The Donut Book: The origins, history, literature, lore, taste, etiquette, traditions, techniques, varieties, mathematics, mythology, commerce, philosophy, cuisine, and glory of the donut. Photographs comprise the bulk of the collection. These depict doughnut making machines, early doughnut packaging, doughnut shops and doughnut production, doughnut promotional activities (many of them sponsored by DCA), celebrities and entertainment figures with doughnuts, and the role of doughnuts in the military. Other ephemeral materials featuring doughnuts include advertisements, posters, newsclippings, music, examples of doughnut packaging, toys, and artwork. Also included are several publications that feature doughnuts, notably such children's classics as Curious George Learns the Alphabet, Who Needs Donuts?, and Homer Price, as well as a copy of Ms. Levitt's book.

Materials relating to the history of the Doughnut Corporation of America include a 1947 memo entitled "History of Mayflower Operations, 1933 1944"; pages and clippings from the company's in house magazines, The Doughnut Magazine, 1931 1936, and DCA News, 1945 1947 (most of which are not in their entirety, since Ms. Steinberg seperated them for the production of her book); a script of the "DCA Merchandising Story"; inter office correspondence from 1947; a 1961 DCA Study of the Donut Market; and a 1973 prospectus for DCA Food Industries, Inc. Also included is a store display figure of "Danny Donut," the symbol of Mayflower Doughnuts. In addition, the collection contains 1980 and 1981 Annual Reports from Dunkin' Donuts, Inc., a sample degree from their "Dunkin' Donuts University," and a large training poster for employees. Also included are in house publications relating to other donut companies, including Krispy Kreme and Winchell, the predecessor of Denny's.
Biographical / Historical:
Sally Levitt Steinberg describes herself as a "doughnut princess," since her grandfather, Adolph Levitt, was America's original "doughnut king." Levitt's family had emigrated to the United States from Russia when he was eight and settled in Milwaukee. In 1920, he moved to New York City, where he invested in a bakery in Harlem. He soon realized that there was a strong consumer demand for doughnuts, sparked by veterans of World War One who fondly remembered those cooked by Salvation Army girls in the trenches in France. Levitt, with a flair for showmanship, placed a kettle in the bakery's window and began to fry doughnuts in it. This attracted crowds of customers, who enjoyed watching the process, smelling the aroma, and eating the doughnuts. Soon, doughnut production could not keep up with the customers' demands.

In consultation with an engineer, Levitt soon developed and patented an automatic doughnut making machine, which he then placed in the bakery's window. The result was the creation of the modern doughnut industry in America. In 1920, Levitt founded the Doughnut Machine Company to make and sell the machine across the country and to sell doughnuts under the tradename of "Mayflower." Soon after, the company began preparing and selling standardized mixes for use in the machine, and began to acquire bakeries in which its products could be made. In 1931, the company opened the first Mayflower doughnut shop at 45th and Broadway in New York City; ultimately, 18 shops were opened across the country the first retail doughnut chain.

The company, which changed its name to the Doughnut Corporation of America, dominated the doughnut industry. Its operations were characterized by a large scale approach, incorporating a full range of product and equipment systems unique in the food industry. As consumers demanded a wider variety of doughnuts from glazed to jelly filled the company developed and manufactured the necessary machinery, prepared the ingredients, and marketed the products. The company diversified its product line in the 1940s to produce pancake mixes and waffle mixes and machinery, including Downyflake Food products. The company is still in operation as DCA Food Industries, Inc.
Materials in the Archives Center:
The Doughnut Machine Company Scrapbooks (AC #662) contains two scrapbooks documenting the company=s advertising and marketing campaigns, ca. 1928.

The Industry on Parade Film Collection (AC #507) contains a 1956 film (reel #273) about the Doughnut Corporation of America.

The Earl S. Tupper Papers (AC #470) contain a number of World War One photographic postcards that show Salvation Army doughnut girls.

The Warshaw Collection of Business Americana (AC #60) contains four boxes of material on "bakers and baking."

The N W Ayer Collection (AC #59) contains advertising proofsheets for several bakeries.
Provenance:
Collection donated by Sally L. Steinberg, December 12, 1991, 1993, and 2009.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Food habits -- United States  Search this
advertising  Search this
Doughnuts  Search this
Celebrities  Search this
Entertainers  Search this
Periodicals  Search this
Genre/Form:
Audiocassettes
Advertisements
Photograph albums
Catalogs
Clippings
Magazines (periodicals) -- 20th century
Playbills
Sheet music
Photographs -- 20th century
Posters
Videocassettes
Reports
Packaging
Cartoons (humorous images) -- 20th century
Books
Drawings -- 1980-1990
Citation:
Sally L. Steinberg Collection of Doughnut Ephemera, 1920s-1987, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0439
See more items in:
Sally L. Steinberg Collection of Doughnut Ephemera
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0439
Online Media:

Glen Fishback Papers and Photographs

Photographer:
Fishback, Glen Curtis, 1912-1976  Search this
Creator:
Glen Fishback School of Photography.  Search this
Donor:
White, Judy  Search this
Manufacturer:
Ansco.  Search this
Kalart.  Search this
Eastman Kodak Company  Search this
Extent:
27 Cubic feet (101 boxes, 6 map-folders)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Annual reports
Magazines (periodicals)
Correspondence
Photographs
Transparencies
Slides (photographs)
Color slides
Date:
1930-1976
Scope and Contents:
Original photographic negatives, prints (black-and-white and color), and color slides and transparencies by Fishback, reflecting his career in advertising, calendar, and editorial photography; drafts of articles and correspondence by Fishback (typescripts), and incoming correspondence; copies of publications, such as magazines and annual reports, with reproductions. Lessons, assignments, outlines, and meeting minutes related to his school of photography.

Subjects of the photographs include children, sports, circuses, stage performers, landscapes, the Far East, the Air Force, industrial, female nudes and glamour, etc. Many photos were used in advertisements for photographic manufacturers such as Ansco, Kodak, Kalart, Rolleiflex, etc. His photos appeared in articles and on covers of popular camera periodicals and in Life, Look, Colliers, Saturday Evening Post, and Holliday. Most of his pictures have cheerful, optimistic themes or subjects, such as his laughing daughter, Judy, posing with circus clowns.
Arrangement:
Divided into twenty-two series.

Series 1: Fishback Career and Biography

Subseries 1.1: Writings and Personal Materials

Subseries 1.2: Glen Fishback School of Photography

Series 2: Photographs--Advertisements and Contests

Series 3: Numbered and labeled envelopes in Glen Fishback's numbering system

Series 4-17: Photographs by Subject

Series 4: Air Force

Series 5: Animals

Series 6: Circus

Series 7: Far East

Subseries 7.1: Places Subseries 7.2: People

Series 8: Landscapes and places

Subseries 8.1: Architecture Subseries 8.2: Grand Tetons Subseries 8.3: Nature

Series 9: Industrial

Series 10: Kids

Subseries 10.1: Babies Subseries 10.2: Children

Series 11: Men

Subseries 11.1: Glen Fishback

Subseries 11.2: Other

Series 12: Mixed Groups

Subseries 12.1: Men and Women

Subseries 12.2: Men, Women, and Children

Series 13: Nudes

Series 14: Sports

Series 15: Stage Performers

Series 16: Transportation

Series 17: Women

Series 18: Reproductions

Series 19: Duplicates

Series 20: Magazines

Series 21: Ephemera

Series 22: Slides

Series 23: Audio Visual Materials
Biographical / Historical:
Glen Fishback was born in Orange, California in 1912. He became interested in photography in the early 30s after his friend took a photograph of him diving. He bought his first camera, a 39 cent univex camera, in 1934. He began his professional career as a staff reporter at the Sacramento Bee from 1937 until 1939. He owned his own portrait and commercial studio for the next 17 years; he sold the studio in the mid-1950s in order to devote his time to free-lancing. In 1958, flew over the Far East with the U.S. Air Force as a brigadier general on a special assignment sponsored by U.S. Camera magazine, Ansco, Rolleiflex, and the Air Force. Fishback and his wife also established the Glen Fishback School of Photography in the 1950s. It was the only school at the time which taught how to become a freelancer. The school lasted until the 1990s, even after Fishback's death.

Fishback also wrote technical and popular articles for photographic magazines and publications.

Fishback won 10 first places in major national and international photography contests; at the time of his death, he had reportedly won more money in contests than any other photographer.

He developed an accurate and reliable exposure system which Pentax included with each of their spotmeters. Fishback's system worked for both black and white and color photography.

Fishback and his wife were friends with Edward Weston Fishback took photographs of Weston at Point Lobos. The two exchanged photos and correspondence. Fishback supplied his photos for a film on Edward Weston's Daybooks; He also wrote an article "Edward Weston, A Legend in His Own Time" for Petersen's Photographic. Fishback and his wife named their son, Kurt Edward Fishback, in honor of their friend.
Provenance:
Collection donated by Fishback's daughter, Judy White, who, with her brother Kurt, inherited it on her father's death. Ms. White made the availability of the collection known on an Internet listserv, where the archivist saw the description and contacted Ms. White.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Some materials are restricted until 2050 and are noted in the container list.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Circuses (performances)  Search this
Photography of children -- 20th century  Search this
Photography, Industrial -- 20th century  Search this
Photographic industry -- 20th century  Search this
Photography, Advertising -- 20th century  Search this
Photography -- Schools -- 20th century  Search this
Trade schools -- 1970-1980  Search this
Photography of sports -- 20th century  Search this
Photography of the nude -- 20th century  Search this
Circus  Search this
Circus performers  Search this
Nudity  Search this
Nude in art  Search this
Airplanes  Search this
Clowns  Search this
Glamour photography -- 20th century -- United States  Search this
Sports -- 20th century  Search this
Children -- 20th century  Search this
Genre/Form:
Annual reports -- 20th century
Magazines (periodicals) -- 20th century
Correspondence -- 20th century
Photographs -- Color prints -- 20th century
Transparencies -- 20th century
Slides (photographs) -- 20th century
Photographs -- 20th century
Color slides -- 20th century
Citation:
Glen Fishback Papers and Photographs, 1930-1990, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0714
See more items in:
Glen Fishback Papers and Photographs
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0714
Online Media:

Goya Foods, Inc. Collection

Creator:
Unanue, Prudencio  Search this
Goya Foods, Inc.  Search this
Unanue family  Search this
Extent:
20 Cubic feet (62 boxes, 6 oversize folders)
8 Sound recordings
15 Video recordings
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Sound recordings
Video recordings
Photographs
Packaging
Calendars
Clippings
Color prints (photographs)
Cookbooks
Date:
undated
1856-2000
bulk 1960-2000
Summary:
Goya Foods, Inc., supported the cultural life of various communities in the United States and Puerto Rico. The company's current headquarters is in Secaucus, New Jersey. Photographs, calendars, sales promotional materials, cookbooks, packaging, and news clippings. Photographs depict primarily company sponsored events, but a few are family pictures.
Scope and Contents:
The Goya Foods, Incorporated Collection documents the history of the company from the 1960s to 2000. (A few earlier documents pertaining to Unanue and Sons and family photographs can be found in the collection, as well.) Materials include photographs, calendars, sales promotional materials, cookbooks, recipe packages, point-of-purchase items, and box and can labels, scrapbooks, and clippings files. Sound recordings, televisions advertisements, and anniversary video productions are also included. The material documents sales meetings, plant activities, and workers' events as well as the office life of the company and the philanthropic efforts and community activities of Goya Foods, Incorporated. Series 1, History and Biography 1960s-1990s, includes photographs and biographies of the Unanue family members. Also includes company anniversary programs. Series 2, United States Publicity Materials, 1970-2000, undated, contains extensive files of news clippings (compiled by an outside agency) arranged in chronological order. Also, press releases and publicity materials and copies of the newsletter La Voz Femenina[2], 1982-1989. Series 3, United States Photographs, 1960s-1990s, includes photographs of Goya "sponsored" activities, which took place in the United States. The majority of the photos are unlabeled and undated. The series is divided into twelve subseries. Subseries 3.1, Parades and Festivals, 1966-1999, include parades and festivals which Goya participated in, mainly in New York City and New Jersey. For many parades, Goya created a special float for participants to ride on. Many parades feature pageant contestants (see Subseries D). Tito Puente is a frequent performer. Subseries 3.2, Parties and Banquets, 1970s-1990s, include many of the banquets and parties included are related to the various parades and pageants, this may or may not be obvious from looking at the photographs. Also included are employee parties. Subseries 3.3, Community Events, 1970s-1990s, Goya prides itself on its civic work within the Hispanic communities of the United States. This subseries reflects many of the events Goya has sponsored or been a part of, including its support of the Manhattan Valley Golden Age Senior Center and Casa de Don Pedro, a home for children. Subseries 3.4, Pageants, 1980s-1990s, include beauty pageants sponsored throughout the 1980s and 1990s, usually associated with a community parade (for example, a Dominican Parade Pageant). Sometimes the photos from the pageants and related events are included, though the parades themselves can be found in Subseries A. Subseries 3.5, Employees, Plants, and Offices, 1960s-1990s, include photographs of Goya employees (both line workers and executives), offices, and plant facilities. Events in which employees participated (dances, parties, and picnics) are included here. Subseries 3.6, Awards, 1970s-1990s, include awards given to the Unanues or Goya Foods, Incorporated by various organizations and awards given to others by Goya. Subseries 3.7, Celebrities, 1980s-1990s, mainly events with celebrities in attendance. Prominent people include: Cardinal Cooke, Gloria Estefan, Michael J. Fox, Ed Koch, Spike Lee, David Letterman, Olga Elena Mattei, and Tito Puente. Subseries 3.8, Sporting Events, Teams, and Awards, 1970s-1990s, soccer, baseball, bowling, volleyball, and softball teams are included, as well as little league teams and sporting workshop participants (mainly children with "professional" players). Teams are mostly Goya sponsored, though some professional players appear. Subseries 3.9, Concerts, 1980s-1990s, include Tito Puente, Eddie Palmieri, and Willie Colón concerts at Penns Landing, plus multi-city Festival de Musica Goya, 1990. Subseries 3.10, Trade Shows, 1966, 1980s, include Food expositions, trade shows, and demonstrations. Subseries 3.11, Travel, 1970s-1990s, trips taken by [presumably] Goya employees. Santo Domingo, Peru, and Haiti were destinations. Subseries 3.12, Unidentified, 1970s-1990s Sub-subseries 3.12.1, Parade related events, 1980s-1990s Sub-subseries 3.12.2, Other, 1970s-1990s Series 4, United States Corporate Materials, 1960s-1990s, includes product labels and packaging, advertising materials, press kits, and memos. Series 5, Puerto Rican Publicity Materials, 1980s-2000, consists of publications arranged chronologically within each title. Series 6, Puerto Rican Photographs, 1960s-2000; undated, include photographs documenting events sponsored by Goya in Puerto Rico. The majority of the photographs were not identified or dated. The items that could be identified were arranged by subject including parades, parties, banquets, community events, employees, plants, offices, award ceremonies, sporting events, travel and products. Subseries 6.1, Parades, 1977, include images from one parade, Reina el Dario la Prenza. Subseries 6.2, Parties and Banquets, 1970-1996, primarily document employee parties. Subseries 6.3, Community Events, 1972-1999; undated, documents Goya's involvement with the Puerto Rican community and some of the events that the company sponsored. Subseries 6.4, Employees, Plants, and Offices, 1961-1999, undated, include images of Goya employees (both line workers and executives), offices, and plant facilities. Events in which employees participated (dances, parties, and picnics) are included here.

Subseries 6.5, Awards, 1970s-1996; undated, awards given to the Unanues or Goya Foods, Incorproated by various organizations and awards given to others by Goya. Subseries 6.6, Sporting Events, Teams, and Awards, 1970s, contains one (1) folder of sporting events and teams sponsored by Goya. Subseries 6.7, Travel, 1960s; undated, document trip(s) taken by [presumably] Goya employees primarily to Boca Cagrejos and Puerto Rico. Subseries 6.8, Products, 2000, undated, contain images of Goya products and of a photograph shoot for an advertisement. Series 7, Puerto Rican Corporate Materials, 1970s-2000, included are office forms, blank letterhead, advertising materials, press kits, annual reports, and newsletters. Series 8, Audiovisual Materials, 1990s; undated, consists of commercials and biographical programs on the Unanues. ** No reference copies exist for most audiovisual materials; please see the Reference Archivist for availability in viewing.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged in eight (8) series: Series 1, History and Biography 1960s-1990s, Series 2, United States Publicity Materials, 1970-2000; undated Series 3, United States Photographs, 1960s-1999; undated Subseries 3.1, Parades and Festivals, 1966-1999 Subseries 3.2, Parties and Banquets, 1970s-1990s Subseries 3.3, Community Events, 1970s-1990s Subseries 3.4, Pageants, 1980s-1994 Subseries 3.5, Employees, Plants, and Offices, 1960s-1990s Subseries 3.6, Awards, 1970s-1990s Subseries 3.7, Celebrities, 1980s-1990s Subseries 3.8, Sporting Events, Teams, and Awards, 1970s-1990s Subseries 3.9, Concerts, 1987-1990; undated Subseries 3.10, Trade Shows, 1966-1994; undated Subseries 3.11, Travel, 1970s-1996 Subseries 3.12, Unidentified, 1970s-1990s Sub-subseries 3.12.1, Parade related events, 1983-1993 Sub-subseries 3.12.2, Other, 1970s-1992; undated Series 4, United States Corporate Materials, 1960s-1990s Series 5, Puerto Rican Publicity Materials, 1980s-2000 Series 6, Puerto Rican Photographs, 1960s-2000; undated Subseries 6.1, Parades, 1977 Subseries 6.2, Parties and Banquets, 1970-1996 Subseries 6.3, Community Events, 1972-1999, undated Subseries 6.4 Employees, Plants, and Offices, 1961-1999, undated Subseries 6.5, Awards, 1970s-1996, undated Subseries 6.6, Sporting Events, Teams, and Awards, 1970s Subseries 6.7, Travel, 1960s, undated Subseries 6.8, Products, 2000, undated Series 7, Puerto Rican Corporate Materials, 1970s-2000; undated Series 8, Audiovisual Materials, 1990s, undated
Biographical / Historical:
Prudencio Unanue (1886-1976) was born in the Basque region of northern Spain. He immigrated to the island of Puerto Rico in 1902 and married Carolina Casal (1890-1984) in 1921. In 1916, he moved to New York where he studied business and worked for a customs agency. Missing the tastes and smells of home cooking, the Unanues believed that there was an expanding immigrant market for the ingredients of "authentic Spanish cuisine." In 1936, they opened Unanue, Incorporated, a warehouse on Duane Street in lower Manhattan, to supply corner stores or bodegas. Over thirty years, the Unanue and Sons import business grew tremendously. Eventually, the business began to do its own food processing, canning, and packaging. In 1958, Goya Foods bought its first factory in Brooklyn, New York. The Unanues and Sons Company purchased the name "Goya"[1] in 1936 from a Moroccan sardine supplier for one dollar. In 1946, the company changed its name to Unanue and Sons, Incorporated. It assumed the name Goya Foods, Incorporated in 1961, although it had used the name Goya for its products since 1936. Goya Foods Company continued to innovate, pioneering television advertising in Puerto Rico. During the 1960s, Goya Foods sought out opportunities to expand its customer base as larger numbers of Caribbean immigrants moved into the United States. By sponsoring music festivals, sports teams, and other activities Goya Foods supported the cultural life; parades, beauty pageants, festivals, of various communities in the United States and Puerto Rico. In 1974, Goya Foods moved to its current office headquarters and factory building in Secaucus, New Jersey. By 2000, Goya owned factories in upstate New York, California, Illinois, New Jersey, Massachusetts, Texas, Florida, as well as Puerto Rico, the Dominican Republic, and Spain.
Footnotes:
[1] Francisco de Goya (1746-1828) was an influential Spanish artist whose paintings reflected the historical upheavals of his time. For many, the art of Francisco de Goya truly revealed Spain because he painted all of its people.

[2] Note that words in Spanish are set off in italics; periodical titles are underlined.
Related Materials:
Government of Puerto Rico Division of Community Education Posters, Teodoro Vidal Collection, and Tito Puente Papers.
Separated Materials:
The Division of Culture and the Arts holds items related to this collection including promotional items, display props, a neon sign, products and containers, and clothing. See accession number, 1999.3017.
Provenance:
This collection was donated to the National Museum of American History in 1999 by Goya Foods, Inc. through Rafael Toro, Director of Public Relations.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use. Physical Access: Researchers must handle unprotected photographs with gloves. Researchers must use reference copies of audio-visual materials. When no reference copy exists, the Archives Center staff will produce reference copies on an "as needed" basis, as resources allow. Technical Access: Do not use when original materials are available on reference video or audio tapes.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Reproduction permission from Archives Center: fees for commercial use. All duplication requests must be reviewed and approved by Archives Center staff.
Topic:
advertising -- Food  Search this
advertising -- 1950-2000  Search this
Parades -- United States  Search this
Ethnic food industry  Search this
Family-owned business enterprises  Search this
Food  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- Black-and-white photoprints -- Silver gelatin -- 1950-2000
Packaging
Calendars
Clippings -- 20th century
Color prints (photographs)
Cookbooks
Citation:
Goya Foods, Incorporated Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0694
See more items in:
Goya Foods, Inc. Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0694
Online Media:

Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Missions

Creator:
Warshaw, Isadore, 1900-1969  Search this
Extent:
0.25 Cubic feet (consisting of .5 box, 1 folder. )
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Ephemera
Business ephemera
Date:
circa 1830-1937
Summary:
A New York bookseller, Warshaw assembled this collection over nearly fifty years. The Warshaw Collection of Business Americana: Missions forms part of the Warshaw Collection of Business Americana, Subseries 1.1: Subject Categories. The Subject Categories subseries is divided into 470 subject categories based on those created by Mr. Warshaw. These subject categories include topical subjects, types or forms of material, people, organizations, historical events, and other categories. An overview to the entire Warshaw collection is available here: Warshaw Collection of Business Americana
Scope and Contents:
This subject category- Missions-consists of materials from mission groups. There are materials printed concerning the missions themselves as well as materials on some of their causes supported. The materials are spread out through them time period given without a particular time emphasis. Most of the missions are from the state of New York with several other states and countries represented as well. Researchers looking for materials on various missions or on a few of the causes they supported during the 19th and early 20th centuries will find this information useful.

Missions contains ad cards, bulletins, pamphlets and booklets of information, agendas and programs of meetings, receipts for contributions, and requests for contributions. There are also annual reports of several groups. There is not a particular time period within the dates given above that most of the materials represent. The vast majority of the missions are found in New York. Other states included are Massachusetts, West Virginia, New Jersey, New Hampshire, Illinois, Connecticut, and Pennsylvania. There is one mission that appears to be located in London, England. Materials are arranged alphabetically by mission.

Related Information includes an image of a missionary, several foreign items, and some miscellaneous materials. Foreign items are in English (Great Britain), French, German, and Chinese. The German item is dated 1921. There is also a "Grande-Ligne Mission Register" from 1854 written in English but from an unknown country. The remaining foreign items are undated. The miscellaneous folder includes ad cards for a benefit concert (1864), an 1878 notice of the printing of the "Monthly Missionary Magazine", an 1879 state mission board appointment notice, undated information pamphlets, 1861 New York state legislative papers, an undated missionary prayer, and an 1888 copy of "The Mission Leaflet". Materials are arranged alphabetically by subject.
Materials in the Archives Center:
Archives Center Collection of Business Americana (AC0404)
Forms Part Of:
Forms part of the Warshaw Collection of Business Americana.

Series 1: Business Ephemera

Series 2: Other Collection Divisions

Series 3: Isadore Warshaw Personal Papers

Series 4: Photographic Reference Material
Provenance:
Missions is a portion of the Business Ephemera Series of the Warshaw Collection of Business Americana, Accession AC0060 purchased from Isadore Warshaw in 1967. Warshaw continued to accumulate similar material until his death, which was donated in 1971 by his widow, Augusta. For a period after acquisition, related materials from other sources (of mixed provenance) were added to the collection so there may be content produced or published after Warshaw's death in 1969. This practice has since ceased.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Some items may be restricted due to fragile condition.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Missions  Search this
Genre/Form:
Ephemera
Business ephemera
Citation:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Missions, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0060.S01.01.Missions
See more items in:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Missions
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0060-s01-01-missions

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