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Rain forest recordings

Collection Creator:
Asch, Moses  Search this
Distler, Marian, 1919-1964  Search this
Folkways Records  Search this
Extent:
1 Sound recording (sound-tape reel, analog, 7 in.)
Type:
Archival materials
Sound recordings
Contents:
17 tracks
Local Numbers:
FW-ASCH-7RR-0746
General:
CDR copy FW-ASCH-7RR-0746, is contained in a solid black tape box, which often means that it was used to produce a Folkways LP; however, I can find no corresponding LP. There is no documentation other than what is stated on the recording intself, except for the title "Rain Forest". And "1st, 2nd , 3rd and 4th handwritten on the box. The recording contains many animal sounds - largely birds, but also insects, frogs and a buffalo, etc. Spoken introductions usually just state the track or cut number, although several are more extensive. One states that the track was recorded on Ceylon; another states that the track was recorded "near Indonesia," while another mentions the Ucayali river, which is in Peru. Although Folkways issued an album entitled "Sounds of a tropical rain forest" (FW06120) intended to accompany an exhibit on Indians of Peru, it was actually recorded in a Zoo and on Barro Colorado Island, Panama. Therefore, there seems to be no link to the Folkways recording and this tape.
Restrictions:
Restrictions on access. No duplication allowed listening and viewing for research purposes only.
Collection Rights:
Copyright restrictions apply. Contact archives staff for additional information.
Topic:
Sounds  Search this
Collection Citation:
Moses and Frances Asch Collection, Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
CFCH.ASCH, Item FW-ASCH-7RR-0746
See more items in:
Moses and Frances Asch Collection
Moses and Frances Asch Collection / Series 9: Audio Recordings / CD / CDR copy
Archival Repository:
Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/bk589c72304-cf48-42b2-8ae2-fcab3273e307
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-cfch-asch-ref19245

Animal Sounds- Monkeys and Cicadas

Names:
Lilly, John Cunningham, 1915-2001  Search this
Collection Creator:
Asch, Moses  Search this
Distler, Marian, 1919-1964  Search this
Folkways Records  Search this
Extent:
1 Sound recording (sound-tape reel, analog, 7 in.)
Type:
Archival materials
Sound recordings
Contents:
Monkeys from Panama--Barks of howling monkey--Cicadas
Local Numbers:
FW-ASCH-7RR-4524
General:
CDR copy
Restrictions:
Restrictions on access. No duplication allowed listening and viewing for research purposes only.
Collection Rights:
Copyright restrictions apply. Contact archives staff for additional information.
Topic:
Sounds  Search this
Nature  Search this
Entomology  Search this
Insects  Search this
Monkeys  Search this
insect sounds  Search this
Collection Citation:
Moses and Frances Asch Collection, Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
CFCH.ASCH, Item FW-ASCH-7RR-4524
See more items in:
Moses and Frances Asch Collection
Moses and Frances Asch Collection / Series 9: Audio Recordings / CD / CDR copy
Archival Repository:
Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/bk57e8ecad8-5ff3-4812-9d88-a9d2bc0a737d
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-cfch-asch-ref26209

Leo Baekeland Diary Volume 39

Author:
Baekeland, L. H. (Leo Hendrik), 1863-1944  Search this
Collection Creator:
Baekeland, L. H. (Leo Hendrik), 1863-1944  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (6.0" x 3.5")
Container:
Box 21, Folder 1
Type:
Archival materials
Diaries
Date:
1925 February 2-1925 March 25
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Family -- 20th century  Search this
Genre/Form:
Diaries -- 20th century
Collection Citation:
Leo Baekeland Papers, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Leo H. Baekeland Papers
Leo H. Baekeland Papers / Series 4: Diaries
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep896d1f4a9-4622-48c8-bc5e-841f23af30e9
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0005-ref328
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Mohave

Creator:
Harrington, John Peabody, 1884-1961  Search this
Names:
Henderson, Junius, 1865-1937  Search this
Robbins, Wilfred William, 1884-1952  Search this
Collection Creator:
Harrington, John Peabody, 1884-1961  Search this
Extent:
33 Boxes
Culture:
Mojave (Mohave)  Search this
Chemehuevi  Search this
Cocopa  Search this
Havasupai (Coconino)  Search this
Hualapai (Walapai)  Search this
Piipaash (Maricopa)  Search this
Quechan (Yuma/Cuchan)  Search this
Indians of North America -- California  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Field notes
Vocabulary
Date:
1907-circa 1914, 1946-circa 1957
Scope and Contents:
This subseries of the Southern California/Basin series contains John P. Harrington's research on Mohave.

Harrington organized his early linguistic and ethnographic notes into more than eighty categories, covering a broad spectrum of Mohave culture from daily practices to mythological and religious beliefs. The variety of content and order of arrangement are encyclopedic. Most of the material is original data from numerous native speakers. Animal and plant notes are also filed in this section. Notes on these topics stem from the Mohave Valley Expedition made with Henderson and Robbins. A typescript of Henderson's report precedes the botanical notes and one by Robbins precedes the zoological notes.

The semantic slipfile consists of data from the original field notes rewritten on slips and arranged in thirteen semantic divisions. Some new information provided by Irving and Wagner was inserted. Material relative to other Yuman tribes is included and almost all categories contain some inextricably interwoven Chemehuevi data which were originally provided by Chemehuevi speakers Jack Jones, John Pete, William Johnson, and Patty Smith. In most instances, the Chemehuevi equivalences are clearly marked. Information on kinship is relatively substantial.

Two Mohave notebooks are also present. One contains vocabulary and texts credited to "Mr. Edgar, Needles, Cal." The other is a packet of loose pages evidently removed from a notebook covering random linguistic and ethnographic data.

Another section consists of a small set of grammar notes arranged under such headings as language, phonology, and morphology. Some notes apparently were taken as early as 1907 and were transferred to slips in 1910 and 1911.

The section of miscellaneous notes on Yuman languages contains Yuma, Cocopa, and Walapai field notebooks. They are principally ethnographic and are difficult to read. Unrelated small groups of notes include Mohave, Yuma, Maricopa, Havasupai, and Walapai ethnographic data, probably provided by Joe Homer. There are lecture notes and students' papers probably from one of the courses which Harrington gave at the University of Colorado. Three small groups of slips include a list of Yuman clan names and a series of excerpts from a Yuman notebook which has not been located. The third is a copy of some Yavapai terms supplied by Barbara Freire-Marreco.

Late linguistic and ethnographic notes contain what appears to be the first draft of a manuscript on Mohave culture. Such subjects as sociology, religion and mythology, physical and mental characteristics, the Mohave universe, warfare, and design are covered. A variety of notes on historical events and on the geographic, political, and economic life of the Needles area was compiled from published sources and correspondence with the Bureau of Indian Affairs and with Indian Agency superintendents. The focus is on Mohave with some general Yuman references. The material has evidently undergone several reorganizations and notes from informants of the earlier period are interfiled. New linguistic and ethnographic information was supplied principally by Hal Davidson, Mr. and Mrs. Harry Lewis, and Russell. Comparative terms appear in Yuma, Maricopa, Chemehuevi, and Paiute. Kroeber apparently lent Harrington some of his personal manuscripts, and information from this source is introduced as "Kr. notes." Correspondence with Charles Battye and excerpts from his scrapbooks in the possession of the Needles Public Library are also contained among these notes.

Another section consists of notes and drafts on material culture. They are arranged alphabetically and predominantly ethnographic. Notes came from the earlier period and such 1946 informants as Davidson and the Lewises. George Turner contributed numerous placenames.

The subseries also contains notes and drafts of tribenames. They represent an attempt to identify ethnic names applied to Yuman and some neighboring non-Yuman tribes. Some of the Mohave names may have been given by bilingual Chemehuevi speakers in July 1946, when Harrington and Murl Emery traveled the Colorado River-Mohave Valley area. A brief typescript follows the notes.

The section of semantically arranged notes consists of small amounts of data on minerals, pigments, fire, plants, animals, hunting, food, and medicine.

The section of late grammatical notes is also small. The notes originated mainly from Russell, Mr. and Mrs. Lewis, and Warren McCord. He based some hearings on Kroeber's (1911) "Phonetic Elements of the Mohave Language" and Sapir's (1930) "Southern Paiute Language." He also drew on A. M. Halpern's (1946 and 1947) six monographs on Yuma grammar published in the International Journal of American Linguistics. In the mid-1950s he again turned to Halpern and produced a small section of comparative Yuman terms.

The final section of the subseries consists of miscellaneus notes, including drafts of a paper on Mohave history and culture and another on the Kuchan vocabulary of George H. Thomas.
Biographical / Historical:
As a teacher of modern languages at Santa Ana High School in California (1906-1909), John P. Harrington spent his vacations studying Mohave and Yuma in Needles and Yuma, California. Working with a young Mohave woman in Needles in 1907, Mohave was the first Indian language that he ever recorded.

From 1909 until 1915, when he joined the Bureau of American Ethnology, Harrington held various positions with the Museum of the University of New Mexico and the School of American Archaeology, based mainly in Santa Fe. Along with work in other indigenous languages and cultures, he pursued his Mohave studies in Lincolnia, Cottonia, Needles, and Fort Mohave. The focus was on Mohave with ethnographic references to Yuma, Maricopa, Cocopa, Havasupai, and Walapai.

Under the auspices of the Bureau of American Ethnology, the School of American Archaeology, and the University of Colorado, he was ethnologist for a Mohave Valley expedition undertaken in March and April 1911, in conjunction with Junius Henderson and W. W. Robbins. Henderson identified the botanical life of the Mohave Valley and Robbins the zoological.

According to field notes and reports, the years 1910 and 1911 were the most productive ones for this first period of accumulation of Mohave data. Harrington worked with a number of people who spoke Mohave and Chemehuevi, resulting in numerous comparative references. Among the many Mohave speakers, Lee Irving (abbreviated L. I.), Mr. Edgar (Rev. Edgar), Ferd Wagner (Mr. Ferd), and Peter Dean (Peter) contributed substantially. Harrington primarily worked with Wagner in 1907. Edward H. Davis accompanied him on various placename trips and apparently advised him on the collection of artifacts. Financial records indicate that he spent about six weeks in Needles in late spring, 1914, collecting objects for the Panama-California Exposition.

A second period of endeavor commenced in 1946 with new recordings from Hal Davidson (Hal), Mr. and Mrs. Henry Lewis, George Turner, and Russell. Returning from the field to Washington, D.C., in 1947, Harrington compiled a variety of notes on historical events and interfiled some of his earlier material. The physical arrangement indicates an interest in drafting a paper on Mohave culture, more ethnographic than linguistic.
Local Numbers:
Accession #1976-95
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Mohave language  Search this
Yuma language  Search this
Chemehuevi language  Search this
Cocopa language  Search this
Hualapai language  Search this
Havasupai language  Search this
Maricopa language  Search this
Yuman languages  Search this
Language and languages -- Documentation  Search this
Linguistics  Search this
Grammar, Comparative and general  Search this
Names, Ethnological  Search this
Names, Geographical  Search this
Ethnology  Search this
Ethnobotany  Search this
Zoology  Search this
Genre/Form:
Field notes
Vocabulary
Collection Citation:
John Peabody Harrington papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
The preferred citation for the Harrington Papers will reference the actual location within the collection, i.e. Box 172, Alaska/Northwest Coast, Papers of John Peabody Harrington, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution.

However, as the NAA understands the need to cite phrases or vocabulary on specific pages, a citation referencing the microfilmed papers is acceptable. Please note that the page numbering of the PDF version of the Harrington microfilm does not directly correlate to the analog microfilm frame numbers. If it is necessary to cite the microfilmed papers, please refer to the specific page number of the PDF version, as in: Papers of John Peabody Harrington, Microfilm: MF 7, R34 page 42.
Identifier:
NAA.1976-95, Subseries 3.11
See more items in:
John Peabody Harrington Papers
John Peabody Harrington Papers / Series 3: Papers relating to the Native American history, language and culture of southern California and Basin
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw39e2556eb-1c2d-43d3-85a3-fdeca5f835b0
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-1976-95-ref14386

Cuna

Creator:
Harrington, John Peabody, 1884-1961  Search this
Nigdibippi, Chief Igwa  Search this
Names:
Marsh-Darien Expedition, 1924  Search this
Collins, Henry Bascom, 1899-1987  Search this
Densmore, Frances, 1867-1957  Search this
Hough, Walter, 1859-1935  Search this
Marsh, Richard O. (Richard Oglesby), 1883-1953  Search this
Collection Creator:
Harrington, John Peabody, 1884-1961  Search this
Extent:
1 Boxe
Culture:
Guna (Kuna)  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Field notes
Vocabulary
Manuscripts
Songs
Date:
1914, 1924-circa 1931
Scope and Contents:
This subseries of the Mexico/Central America/South America series contains Harrington's Cuna research, consisting of linguistic and ethnographic notes, reports and clippings, and miscellaneous notes.

There is a small section of "S[an] Blas" vocabulary which was recorded from Enrique Tule in Los Angeles in 1914. Most of his linguistic and ethnographic notes were obtained from the Cuna group that visited Washington, D.C., in 1924. He recorded vocabulary for animals, especially fishes; relationships; months; placenames; and tribenames. He also collected ethnographic information for cataloged artifacts from the Marsh Expedition, such as paddles, necklaces, and baskets. Some notes were elicited while examining the contents of a mannequin case in the U. S. National Museum. Interspersed with the linguistic and ethnographic data are information on members of the Cuna group, references to photographs, and quotes regarding the Marsh Expedition from one of its members, Major H. B. Johnson. Also filed here are a set of texts. Song texts, including the Canoe Song, Flower Song, and Headache Song, appear to have been written down from dictation or during a performance; there are virtually no translations. A few pages are in the hand of Paul Vogenitz. There is also a three-page typescript of Cuna text with a partial interlinear translation. It was dictated by Igwa Nigdibippi on December 9, 1924, as a discussion of the chief's activities in Washington, D.C., and was transcribed by Vogenitz on the following day. The second text, which takes the form of a letter addressed from "Pablo" [Paul] to "Kwan" Uohn], was prepared by Vogenitz as a writing exercise in the Cuna language. The subject is evolution, a topic of public interest at the time in light of the on-going trial of John Thomas Scopes. There are also typed data on note slips with handwritten annotations on plants and material culture. Original catalog numbers and Smithsonian catalog numbers are provided for some of the artifacts discussed. In addition, a few items collected by the Marsh Expedition are illustrated in sketches. There are also references to Dr. Walter Hough, Mr. Marsh, and Dr. Henry B. Collins. A second set of slips deals with terms for parts of the body and for various animal species. The slips were handwritten by both Harrington and Vogenitz. There are corresponding typed copies for many of the slips. Each entry consists of a single word and commentary on the phonetics.

This subseries also contains a series of reports on the Cuna Indians. Included are drafts of a paper titled "Ethnological and Linguistic Study of the Tule Indians of Panama" and a similar untitled typescript of two pages. This statement by Harrington includes discussion of estimated population, geographical area, tribal names and divisions, and language of the Cuna and lists the names of his informants. It also contains references to his study of Tule placenames of the coast and mountains and to the map drawn by Chief Igwa Nigdibippi (see MS 4490). The extensive "8000-word vocabulary" mentioned in the paper has not been located. There is also material relating to the reports Frances Densmore prepared regarding her study of the Cuna. Included are a typed copy of "Music and Customs of the Tule Indians of Panama" and handwritten and typed copies by Harrington of "Songs and Instrumental Music of the Tule Indians of Panama." These are followed by notes for an unfavorable review Harrington was writing of the papers by Densmore. Also filed here are newspaper clippings discussing Richard O. Marsh's explorations and Harrington's linguistic work with the Tule Indians.

Harrington retained a number of files of miscellany relating to his study of Cuna. Included are reading notes from Lionel Wafer's book, A New Voyage and Description of the Isthmus of America, concerning observations of the Tule in 1699. They contain a few annotations regarding vocabulary items and phrases. There are also notes on Baron Erland Nordenskiold, a Swedish anthropologist who traveled among the Cuna in 1927, and Karl Gustav Izikowitz, who worked with a Tule informant named Ruben Perez Kantule in Goteborg, Sweden, in 1931. These are accompanied by two lists of vocabulary which were evidently prepared by Vogenitz with the intention of demonstrating the affinity of Cuna with the Scandinavian and Germanic languages. This claim was based on mistranslations or comparisons of inappropriate forms of a given word. A few additional pages, labeled "Tule miscellaneous," include a note from H. B. Johnson to Harrington. There are also random notes on bibliography and the names of contact persons.
Biographical / Historical:
From October through December of 1924, John P. Harrington worked with a party of Cuna--the "White Indians" as they were called by the press. The group was brought to the United States in July by an engineer, Richard O. Marsh, who earlier in 1924 had led the "Marsh Darien" expedition to eastern Panama, with representatives from the Smithsonian and other institutions. After a well-publicized short visit to New York City (during which Harrington probably reported on the Indians for a New Orleans newspaper) and longer stays in upstate New York and Canada, the party travelled in October to Washington, D.C. While in the capital, Marsh lobbied on behalf of the Cuna against the Panamanian government and the party was studied by various Smithsonian scientists--among them Frances Densmore, Herbert Krieger, and Ales Hrdlicka. Harrington and his colleague Paul Vogenitz of the Post Office Department undertook linguistic work with members of the group both at the Smithsonian and at the house where they were staying in nearby Chevy Chase, Maryland.

The party of eight Cuna consisted of three young albinos and five non-albino adults; two of the latter served as chaperones for the young people. The other three were delegates on a secret political mission to the United States. These individuals and their communities of origin are inconsistently identified in the documents. This is due to mistakes and simplifications by Harrington and others and because in this era, Cuna often had multiple and variously spelled names. The chaperones were a couple from the island of Nargana (also referred to as San Jose, Yantuppu and Rio Diablo in the notes): Jim, James, or Santiago Perry (also Berry, Beri, or Campos) and his wife Inez or Alice. The albinos were their adolescent daughter Margarita or Marguerite, and two unrelated boys who were sometimes passed off as their sons. The younger was called Tcippu (the Cuna word for "white," often given to albinos) from the island of Ustupu or Portogandi. The older boy was Olo Piniginya or Olo from Ailigandi.

The three political delegates were Igwa Nigdibippi, a subchief of the island of Ailigandi and personal emissary of the high chief Cimral Coleman; Alfred Robinson or Kantule, son of the high chief Nele Kantule of Portogandi; and Phillip (Phillip, Felipe) Thompson, also called Niga ("nephew") of Tikantikki or Niatupu. Alfred and Phillip spoke English and Spanish, and Phillip had attended primary school in Washington some years earlier.

Harrington and Vogenitz worked with Jim Perry and his daughter Margarita, Phillip Thompson (abbreviated "Ph." or "Fe!."), Alfred Robinson ("Alf."), and Igwa Nigdibippi ("Chief"). The group was first brought to the museum on October 18, 1924, and Harrington began recording information from them the next day. His field notes mention dates in October through December; during some of this period Vogenitz worked more intensively with the Indians while Harrington attended to other work at the Smithsonian. A vocabulary slip dated January 12 [1925] was probably written out after the fact. Frances Densmore began her musical studies with the Cuna on November 25th and worked intensively with them from November 30 to December 6.

The Cuna party left the United States at the beginning of January. Later in the month Marsh returned to San BIas, the coastal territory of the Cuna, and at the end of February helped to lead an uprising against the Panamanian government.
Local Numbers:
Accession #1976-95
Related Materials:
See Manuscript 4490 for the map of San Blas drawn by Igwa Nigdibippi for Harrington. The NAA also holds the papers of Richard Marsh.
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Cuna language  Search this
Language and languages -- Documentation  Search this
Linguistics  Search this
Ethnology  Search this
Ethnobotany  Search this
Ethnomusicology  Search this
Names, Geographical  Search this
Names, Ethnological  Search this
Zoology -- nomenclature  Search this
Genre/Form:
Field notes
Vocabulary
Manuscripts
Songs
Collection Citation:
John Peabody Harrington papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
The preferred citation for the Harrington Papers will reference the actual location within the collection, i.e. Box 172, Alaska/Northwest Coast, Papers of John Peabody Harrington, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution.

However, as the NAA understands the need to cite phrases or vocabulary on specific pages, a citation referencing the microfilmed papers is acceptable. Please note that the page numbering of the PDF version of the Harrington microfilm does not directly correlate to the analog microfilm frame numbers. If it is necessary to cite the microfilmed papers, please refer to the specific page number of the PDF version, as in: Papers of John Peabody Harrington, Microfilm: MF 7, R34 page 42.
Identifier:
NAA.1976-95, Subseries 7.6
See more items in:
John Peabody Harrington Papers
John Peabody Harrington Papers / Series 7: Mexico/Central America/South America
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw3e676f691-d235-4e0f-8d74-29782087c33b
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-1976-95-ref15138

Records Relating to Lectures

Creator:
Harrington, John Peabody, 1884-1961  Search this
Collection Creator:
Harrington, John Peabody, 1884-1961  Search this
Extent:
2 Boxes
Culture:
Indians of North America -- Northwest Coast of North America  Search this
Indians of North America -- Southwest, New  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Lecture notes
Date:
1910-1915
Scope and Contents:
This subseries of the Notes and writings on special linguistic studies series contains materials relating to Harrington's lecturing experiences, including preparatory notes, several sets of lecture notes, and a small file of student papers. Preparatory notes for some of Harrington's classes are contained in a small notebook labeled "Notebook B." It includes numerous bibliographic references and reading notes from such anthropologists as Waldemar Bogoras, Waldemar Jochelson, and Franz Boas. Harrington used marginal notations to flag any sources of data on the Ainu. For his course on the Indians of the Southwest there are only seven pages of notes. These include an outline of the course and a list of illustrations which Harrington wished to have made by Kenneth M. Chapman, an artist at the School of American Archaeology. The course notes for the Indians of the Northwest consist of a mixture of outlines, verbatim texts of lectures, bibliography, and reading notes. There are relatively small files on the Chukchee, Siberian Indians, Eskimo, and Aleut, and an especially large section on the Ainu. The notes for the evening lecture series on "The Siberian Origin of the American Indian" include the text of Harrington's talks with commentary on forty-nine slides. The subject headings are: (1) Whence?, (2) Ainu, (3) Eastern Siberian Indians, (4) Eskimos, (5) Indians of the Northwest-especially Haida and Kwakiutl, and (6) Washington and Oregon of yesterday. There are also rough notes on the origin of the American Indian and data on comparative mythology. The file of notes for Harrington's class on linguistics appears to have been compiled and used over an extensive period. The largely unorganized notes cover the physical aspects of speech, animal communication, gesture and sign language, the language of children, writing, and phonetics. They also touch on field methods. There is a large file of bibliographic references and a set of eight charts for illustrative purposes. The student papers were submitted to Harrington by students in his class on linguistics. Filed with Harrington's lecture notes is a set of notes for a proposed exhibit which he evidently prepared while working at the Panama-California Exposition. These include an outline, slips with ideas, and a twenty-three page proposal titled "The Linguistic Laboratory" which gives detailed physical descriptions of the various parts of the exhibit. Among the concepts which he planned to cover in the exhibit were the origin, geography, and classification of languages, the development of writing, and the use of modern inventions such as the typewriter and kymograph.
Biographical / Historical:
Early in his career John P. Harrington was asked to lecture in a number of academic settings. From February to March 1910, Harrington taught a class on the Indians of the Southwest at the University of Colorado at Boulder and then appeared on the lecture circuit in Denver and Colorado Springs. He returned to Boulder to repeat the course from October to November and again in September and October of the following year.

From June to August 1910 he taught two classes in the summer school session at the University of Washington in Seattle. The titles of the classes given in his vitae are "The Science of Language" and "The Indians of the Northwest." During this period he also presented a series of evening lectures under the auspices of the Seattle Society of the American Institute of Archaeology. The six illustrated talks dealt with "The Siberian Origin of the American Indian."

Harrington also taught classes in linguistics while working for the School of American Archaeology and the Panama-California Exposition from 1912 to 1915.
Local Numbers:
Accession #1976-95
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Education  Search this
Language and languages -- Documentation  Search this
Linguistics  Search this
Function:
Exhibitions
Genre/Form:
Lecture notes
Collection Citation:
John Peabody Harrington papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
The preferred citation for the Harrington Papers will reference the actual location within the collection, i.e. Box 172, Alaska/Northwest Coast, Papers of John Peabody Harrington, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution.

However, as the NAA understands the need to cite phrases or vocabulary on specific pages, a citation referencing the microfilmed papers is acceptable. Please note that the page numbering of the PDF version of the Harrington microfilm does not directly correlate to the analog microfilm frame numbers. If it is necessary to cite the microfilmed papers, please refer to the specific page number of the PDF version, as in: Papers of John Peabody Harrington, Microfilm: MF 7, R34 page 42.
Identifier:
NAA.1976-95, Subseries 8.16
See more items in:
John Peabody Harrington Papers
John Peabody Harrington Papers / Series 8: Notes and Writings on Special Linguistic Studies
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw3247f07b5-803d-4e62-b85e-ab002292ec92
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-1976-95-ref15657

Carnegie Institute, Museum of Art records

Creator:
Carnegie Institute, Museum of Art  Search this
Names:
Art Institute of Chicago  Search this
Buffalo Fine Arts Academy  Search this
Corcoran Gallery of Art  Search this
Gallery of William Macbeth  Search this
M. Knoedler & Co.  Search this
Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Alexander, John White, 1856-1915  Search this
Beatty, John W. (John Wesley), 1851-1924  Search this
Beaux, Cecilia, 1855-1942  Search this
Brush, George de Forest, 1855-1941  Search this
Chase, William Merritt, 1849-1916  Search this
Church, Samuel Harden  Search this
East, Alfred, Sir, 1849-1913  Search this
Hassam, Childe, 1859-1935  Search this
Homer, Winslow, 1836-1910  Search this
Saint-Gaudens, Homer, b. 1880  Search this
Thayer, Abbott Handerson, 1849-1921  Search this
Extent:
265.8 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Letterpress books
Museum records
Place:
Spain -- History -- Civil War, 1936-1939
Date:
1883-1962
bulk 1885-1962
Summary:
The records of the Carnegie Institute, Museum of Art measure 265.8 linear feet and date from 1883-1962, with the bulk of the material dating from 1885-1940. The collection includes extensive correspondence between the museum's founding director, John Beatty, and his successor, Homer Saint-Gaudens, with artists, dealers, galleries, collectors, museum directors, representatives abroad, shipping and insurance agents, and museum trustees. The collection also includes Department of Fine Arts interoffice memoranda and reports; loan exhibition files; Carnegie International planning, jury, shipping, and sale records; Department of Fine Arts letterpress copy books, and a copy of the original card catalog index to these records.
Scope and Contents:
The records of the Carnegie Institute, Museum of Art measure 265.8 linear feet and date from 1883-1962, with the bulk of the material dating from 1885-1940. The collection includes extensive correspondence between the museum's founding director, John Beatty, and his successor, Homer Saint-Gaudens, with artists, dealers, galleries, collectors, museum directors, representatives abroad, shipping and insurance agents, and museum trustees. The collection also includes Department of Fine Arts interoffice memoranda and reports; loan exhibition files; Carnegie International planning, jury, shipping, and sale records; Department of Fine Arts letterpress copy books, and a copy of the original card catalog index to these records.

This collection is a complete record of the museum's work, starting with the planning of the first loan exhibition in 1885 and ending with the cancellation of the International at the start of World War II in 1940. The museum's day-to-day relationships with all aspects of the contemporary art world are documented within the historical context of artists' reactions to World War I; the economic repercussions of the Great Depression on art sales and museum budgets; the ramifications of fascism on German, Italian, and European art; the impact of civil war on Spanish art; and the tensions introduced by the rise of 'radical' modernist art in Europe.

Correspondence (Series 1) is the largest series in the collection (152.5 linear feet) and is comprised of extensive correspondence between the Museum of Art and over 8700 correspondents, with over 3600 correspondents specifically related to art and artists.

Correspondents related to the art world include museum staff, artists, collectors, museums, galleries, dealers, shippers, insurance agencies, art directors, associations, societies, clubs, critics, press, and governments. These exchanges include general requests for information; requests related to the museum's exhibitions, including the International; letters regarding the museum's involvement in the events of other art organizations; loan, sales, and provenance information for specific works of art; and information regarding the events of other art organizations.

The correspondence of the museum's staff provides the greatest insight into understanding the museum's evolution into an international cultural institution. Both directors' correspondence touch on their personal opinions on art, their rationale behind policy decisions, and their understanding of the extent to which the museum's work was dependent on the good relations they maintained in the art world. Additionally, the extensive, opinionated correspondence between Saint-Gaudens' European agents and museum staff during the 1920s and 1930s provide a unique perspective on emerging art trends and the skill, growth, and personalities of individual artists.

The most prolific of the museum staff correspondents include museum directors John Beatty and Homer Saint-Gaudens, Board of Trustees president Samuel Harden Church, assistant director Edward Balken, and European agents Guillaume Lerolle , Ilario Neri, Arnold Palmer, Margaret Palmer, and Charlotte Weidler. Additional prominent staff members include Helen Beatty, Robert Harshe, Caroline Lapsley, Henry Jack Nash, John O'Connor, Charles Ramsey, George Shaw, George Sheers, August Zeller, and Fine Arts Committee members John Caldwell, William Frew, William Hyett, and John Porter.

The most prolific artist correspondents include John White Alexander, George Grey Barnard, Cecilia Beaux, Frank Benson, George de Forest Brush, William Merritt Chase, William Coffin, Bruce Crane, Andre Dauchez, Charles H. Davis, Alfred East, Ben Foster, Daniel Garber, Charles P. Gruppe, John Johansen, Johanna Hailman, John McLure Hamilton, Birge Harrison, Childe Hassam, Winslow Homer, Laura Knight, John la Farge, Gaston la Touche, John Lavery, Henri le Sidaner, Jonas Lie, Hermon A. MacNeil, Antonio Mancini, Gari Melchers, Emile Menard, Henry R. Poore, Edward Redfield, W. Elmer Schofield, Leopold Seyffert, Lucien Simon, Eugene Speicher, Abbott Handerson Thayer, Robert Vonnoh, J. Alden Weir, Irving R. Wiles, and Ignacio Zuloaga. Other artists of note include: Edwin Austen Abbey, George Bellows, Edwin Blashfield, Frank Brangwyn, Mary Cassatt, Kenyon Cox, Thomas Wilmer Dewing, Thomas Eakins, William Glackens, Robert Henri, Eastman Johnson, Rockwell Kent, Paul Manship, Henry Ranger, John Singer Sargent, Edward Steichen, Alfred Stieglitz, Edmund Tarbell, James McNeil Whistler, N.C. Wyeth, and Charles Morris Young.

Frequent museum collaborators include the Art Institute of Chicago, Boston Museum of Fine Arts, Brooklyn Museum, Buffalo Fine Arts Academy, Cleveland Museum of Art, Corcoran Gallery of Art, Detroit Institute of Art, Metropolitan Museum of Art, Museum of Modern Art, Saint Louis Museum of Fine Arts, Toledo Museum of Art, and Worcester Art Museum.

Other prolific correspondents include collectors Chauncey Blair, Andrew Carnegie, Charles Lang Freer, George Hearn, Alexander Humphreys, Roy Hunt, Mrs. B.F. Jones, Burton Mansfield, Frank Nicola, Duncan Phillips, John Stevenson, and William Stimmel; dealers and galleries M. Knoedler, William Macbeth, Central Art Gallery, Charles A. Walker, C.W. Kraushaar Art Galleries, Downtown Gallery, Durand-Ruel and Sons, Ehrich Galleries, Ferargil Galleries, Frank Rehn, Frederick Keppel, Haseltine Art Gallery, R.C. Vose Galleries, and W. Scott Thurber Fine Arts; insurance agent Macomber Co.; and shippers Dicksee and Co., J.W. Hampton, P. Navel/R. Lerondelle, Stedman and Wilder, and W.S. Budworth and Son.

Correspondents not specifically related to the contemporary art world include businesses, educational institutions, libraries, and the general public. These exchanges detail the daily work of the museum, including the estimates and work orders of office suppliers, contractors, printers, and etc.; programming and research inquiries of k-12 and college/university institutions; acknowledgements of the receipt of Museum of Art publications; and general public inquiries regarding museum policies, exhibitions, and the permanent collection. Companies and institutions who worked particularly closely with the museum include Alden and Harlow (architects), Detroit Publishing Co., and Tiffany and Co.

Department of Fine Arts (Series 2) consists of art and artist lists, correspondence, memoranda, notes, and reports. These files were begun under John Beatty's tenure and streamlined under Homer Saint-Gaudens' directorship to track activities directly related to the museum's interoffice affairs. File headings continued under Saint-Gaudens focus on art considered and purchased for the permanent collection, employee records, exhibition proposals and loans, Fine Arts Committee minutes, museum programming, museum publications, press releases, requests for images, and requests for general information.

Under Saint-Gaudens, the Fine Arts Committee files contain voluminous impressions of contemporary European artists, which he composed during his annual studio tours of the continent in the early 1920s and late 1930s. These informal reports provide insight into the shaping of the International and include a running commentary on historical events of the time. The Fine Arts Committee files also document the artistic and budgetary compromises that were struck, particularly during the Great Depression and early run-up to World War II.

Exhibitions (Series 3) includes correspondence with collectors, museums, galleries, dealers, shippers, and many of the artists themselves. Additional documents include catalogs, lists, planning notes, and telegrams related to 185 traveling and loan exhibitions held at the Museum of Art from 1901 to 1940. Of these, over 100 are one-artist shows and 82 are group, survey, regional, or topical shows. The one-artist exhibitions tend to showcase contemporary artists of the time. Regional shows focused on American and European art, with two shows featuring the art of Canada and Mexico. Survey themes focused on animals, children, cities, gardens, landscapes, Old Masters, and portraitures. Many of the genre shows venture into art not typically collected by the Museum of Art, including architecture, crafts, engravings, figure studies, graphic arts, illustrations, miniatures, mural decorations, oriental rugs, prints, printed books, sculpture, small reliefs, stained glass, theater models, watercolors, and wood engravings.

The most important shows organized and curated by Museum of Art staff include the Panama-Pacific International Exposition (1915), American Sculpture Show (1915, 1920), Applied Arts Show (1917), Original Illustrations Show (1921), Mexican Art Show (1929), Garden Club Show (1922), Industrial Art Show (1924), Pittsburgh Artists Show (1935), French Survey Show (1936), English Painting Survey Show (1937), American Paintings, Royal Academy Show (1938), and Survey of American Painting Show (1940).

Important one-artist shows include Abbot Handerson Thayer (1919), George de Forest Brush (1922), Frank W. Benson (1923), Rockwell Kent (1923, 1939), Anders Zorn (1924), John Lavery (1925), Paul Manship (1925), Mary Cassatt (1925), Laura Knight (1925), Edouard Manet (1932), Edward Hopper (1936), Winslow Homer (1922, 1936), Paul Cezanne (1936), Charles Burchfield (1937), and William Glackens (1938).

International (Series 4) is comprised of catalogs, correspondence, art and artist lists, itineraries, jury selection ballots, minutes, notes, and reports related to the planning, logistics, and promotion of the International Exhibition from 1895 to 1940. These documents were originally grouped and filed separately under John Beatty and were more rigorously streamlined under Homer Saint-Gaudens. The folder headings continued under Saint-Gaudens focus on art purchases, artists' invitations, artists' request for information, general exhibition planning, Foreign Advisory Committees, foreign governments, jury reception planning, loan requests, and touring logistics.

Letterpress books (Series 5) consist of 75 volumes that chronologically collect all of the Museum of Art's outgoing correspondence from 1896 to 1917. Volumes 1-8 contain the only copy of outgoing correspondence from 1896 to 1900. Duplicate copies of all outgoing correspondence dating from 1901 to 1917 were filed in Correspondence (Series 1) by museum staff.

Card catalogs (Series 6) also include three sets of catalogs created by the Museum of Art to track the outgoing and incoming correspondence contained in this collection. Set 1 (1895-1906) consists of the original cards. Set 2 (1907-1917) and Set 3 (1918-1940) consists of photocopies of the original cards that were merged together into one contiguous set.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into six series:

Missing Title

Series 1: Correspondence, 1883-1962, (Boxes 1-153, OV 267; 152.5 linear feet)

Series 2: Department of Fine Arts, 1896-1940, (Boxes 153-184, OV 268; 31.6 linear feet)

Series 3: Exhibitions, 1901-1940, (Boxes 184-204; 20 linear feet)

Series 4: International, 1895-1940, (Boxes 204-234, 265-266; 30.2 linear feet)

Series 5: Letterpress Books, 1900-1917, (Boxes 235-251; 17 linear feet)

Series 6: Card Catalogs, 1895-1940, (Box 252-264; 11 linear feet)
Biographical / Historical:
The Carnegie Institute Museum of Art was established in 1895 by industrialist and philanthropist Andrew Carnegie. One of the first modern contemporary art museums in the United States, its flagship exhibition, the Carnegie International, is recognized as the longest running contemporary exhibition of international art in North America and is the second oldest in the world.

Andrew Carnegie (1835-1919) was born in Dumfermline, Scotland and migrated to America with his family in 1848. Often regarded as the second-richest man in history behind John D. Rockerfeller, Carnegie built his industrialist fortunes in the steel industry and spent the remainder of his life in support of major philanthropic projects. By the age of 33, he had developed his personal philosophy of philanthropy, which saw it as the responsibility of the wealthy to foster educational opportunities and disseminate the ideals of high culture among all levels of society. In addition to establishing over 2500 free public libraries, in 1895, he provided the funds to build the Carnegie Institute, located in the Oakland neighborhood of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. The Carnegie Institute originally maintained three separate departments under the auspices of the Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh, the Carnegie Museum of Natural History, and the Carnegie Museum of Art.

The Carnegie Institute was administered by a Board of Trustees selected by Carnegie, all prominent professional men of Pittsburgh. Within this group, eight men were selected to serve on the Museum of Art's Fine Arts Committee, which was initially granted the final say on gallery affairs. The first Fine Arts Committee was composed of two artists, Alfred Bryan Wall and Joseph Ryan Woodwell, and six businessmen. Among the latter group, John Caldwell, Henry Clay Frick, William Nimick Frew, and David Thompson Watson were also knowledgeable art patrons and collectors. Over time, the Fine Arts Committee's sway over gallery affairs would be measured by the dedication of its various members and tempered by the vision and authority of the Museum's directors, John Beatty and Homer Saint-Gaudens, and the Carnegie Institute Board of Trustees president, Samuel Harden Church.

From 1896 to 1921, John Wesley Beatty (1851-1924) served as the first director of the Museum of Art. A native Pittsburgher and an accomplished silver engraver, illustrator, and painter, Beatty attended the Royal Bavarian Academy in Munich and upon his return to America, made a living as an artist. He also taught at the Pittsburgh School of Design for Women and co-founded a small school of art with fellow local artist George Hetzel. In 1890, while serving as the secretary of the Pittsburgh Art Society, he became the primary organizer of a loan exhibition to be displayed at the opening of the Carnegie Free Library in Allegheny, Pennsylvania. In 1895, when the Carnegie Institute trustees began discussing the possibility of a similar loan exhibition for the opening of their new institution, Beatty was contacted and eventually enlisted to take on the task. Upon the success of that exhibition, he was invited to direct the gallery's affairs and served as the Museum of Art's director until his retirement.

Beatty was an enthusiastic supporter of Impressionism, Realism, Tonalism, Symbolism, and the critically acclaimed contemporary art of the 1890s. He also shared Carnegie's vision for the Museum of Art and believed in the educational and uplifting role aesthetic beauty could provide to the general public. Pursuant to the stated goals of Andrew Carnegie, under Beatty's direction the museum began to purchase important contemporary works to add to its chronological collection of "Old Masters of tomorrow" and almost immediately began planning the first of its Internationals.

The Internationals were viewed as the primary means of showcasing the Museum of Art's selection of the best in contemporary American and European painting, thereby elevating its role as an influential cultural institution on a national and international level. Juried monetary prizes would be awarded to the two best works by American artists, additional awards would be offered to artists of all nationalities, and the Museum of Art's purchases for the year would be selected from the exhibition. Certain artists and collectors were tapped to serve as unofficial representatives of the Museum of Art at home and abroad, among them John White Alexander, William Coffin, I.M. Gaugengigl, Walter Shirlaw, and Edmund Tarbell. Many of the most prominent Pittsburgh art collectors were also asked to lend works to the exhibition. While details of the jury and artist selection process, number of representatives, exhibition show dates, and amount and total number of prizes would change over the years, the planning template was set and would remain the same for future Internationals.

Beatty continued to rely on a stable of close friends and confidantes to help smooth over relations with artists, dealers, shipping agents, and galleries alike, relying heavily on John White Alexander and W. Elmer Schofield, in addition to artists Thomas Shields Clarke, Walter Gay, Robert Henri, Frank D. Millet, and critic Charles M. Kurtz. Over time, many of the artists who served on International juries or Foreign Advisory Committees also became reliable friends and advocates of the International, including Edwin Austen Abbey, Edmond Aman-Jean, Edwin Howland Blashfield, William Merritt Chase, Charles Cottet, Kenyon Cox, Charles Harold Davis, Alfred East, Ben Foster, Charles Hopkinson, John la Farge, Gari Melchers, Leonard Ochtman, Irving R. Wiles, and Robert W. Vonnoh.

From 1896 to 1921, the Museum of Art held twenty-one Internationals, with the only exceptions coming in 1906 (construction of the Hall of Architecture, Hall of Sculpture, and Bruce Galleries), 1915 (deference to the San Francisco Panama-Pacific International), and 1916-1919 (World War I). During these years, the scope and administration of the International slowly expanded, though not without growing pains. At the turn of the century, new modernist styles of art that were appearing in galleries across Europe had not yet entered major American museums and the Carnegie Museum of Art maintained this trend. The museum's generally conservative selection policies, combined with criticism regarding the timing of the exhibition and the jury selection process, led to increasingly tense relations with artists, and were only partially resolved by changes made to the format of the International. In spite of these challenges, the Carnegie International retained its reputation as a preeminent venue for contemporary art and awarded top prizes to John White Alexander, Cecilia Beaux, George W. Bellows, Frank W. Benson, Andre Dauchez, Thomas Wilmer Dewing, Thomas Eakins, Childe Hassam, Winslow Homer, John Lavery, Henri le Sidaner, Edward W. Redfield, W. Elmer Schofield, Edmund C. Tarbell, Abbot Handerson Thayer, Dwight W. Tryon, and J. Alden Weir.

In addition to the International, Carnegie's mission of bringing cultural and educational opportunities to Pittsburgh was a central priority of the museum's daily operations. Beatty cultivated relationships with fellow museum directors, which allowed for the easy co-ordination and planning of traveling exhibitions benefiting the city. The museum developed educational programs for children and adults, including lectures, gallery talks, Saturday morning classes, fine art extension classes, guided tours, and outreach to local schools. As popular Pittsburgh art societies and clubs formed, the museum also provided meeting and exhibition spaces for groups such as the Associated Artists of Pittsburgh, the Art Society of Pittsburgh, the Art Students League, the Garden Club of Allegheny County, and the Junior League.

After more than 25 years of service, Beatty made the decision to retire and put out an informal call for candidates. Being the right man at the right time, in 1921, Homer Schiff Saint-Gaudens (1880-1958) became the Museum of Art's second director.

The only child of American sculptor Augustus Saint-Gaudens and his wife and artist, Augusta Fisher Homer, Saint-Gaudens frequently traveled abroad and grew up in the company of his parents' wide circle of friends, many of them artists, poets, writers, and performers who frequented the Cornish Artists' Colony. More intimate friends of the family included former students, assistants, and colleagues, the architect Stanford White, and successful artist-couples who resided near the family's Cornish, New Hampshire home, among them Louise and Kenyon Cox, Maria and Thomas Dewing, Florence and Everett Shinn, and Emma and Abbott Thayer.

Homer Saint-Gaudens attended the preparatory school Lawrenceville, graduated from Harvard in 1903, married the artist and suffragist Carlota Dolley (1884-1927) in 1905, and remarried to Mary Louise McBride (n.d.-1974) in 1929. He began his professional career as a journalist and worked as assistant editor of The Critic (1903) and managing editor of Metropolitan Magazine (1905). During those years, he was introduced to a number of the Ash Can school artists, wrote articles on contemporary art, and honed his abilities as a writer. In 1907, Saint-Gaudens took a break from professional editing and began a second career as the stage manager for Maude Adams, the most highly paid and successful stage actress of her day, with a yearly income of over one million dollars at the peak of her popularity. Working in theater and as Adams' manager for over ten years, Saint-Gaudens learned the ins and outs of event promotion and logistics, media coverage, and maintaining diplomatic relations through compromise, ideal skills he would later use in organizing the Carnegie Internationals.

With the United States' entry into World War I, Saint-Gaudens served as the chief of the U.S. Army's first camouflage unit and was awarded the Bronze Star. After his discharge, he managed Adams' 1918 final season and simultaneously helped his mother organize a major retrospective of his father's sculptures. While organizing a section of his father's work for the 1921 International, he was invited to step into the position of assistant director of the Carnegie Museum of Art, and was promoted to the directorship upon John Beatty's retirement.

Throughout his tenure, Saint-Gaudens was able to call upon long-standing family friendships with artists and art patrons to the museum's benefit. His connections to the art world can clearly be seen in his first major stand-alone exhibition, the Garden Club Show (1922). In this, he enlisted the aid of Elizabeth Alexander, wife of John White Alexander, and Johanna Hailman, artist and wife of John Hailman, who reached out to their circle of artists and art collecting friends in search of works appropriate for the show. Their efforts, combined with the relationships Beatty had established with museum directors, galleries, and dealers, as well as Saint-Gaudens' own friendships with Kenyon Cox, Thomas Dewing, Barry Faulkner, and Gari Melchers, resulted in an assemblage of 150 paintings of note. Coming immediately upon the heels of the 1922 International, the show was a resounding success. The exhibition's opening attracted over 300 delegates of the Garden Club of America and the entirety of Pittsburgh high society, settling any concerns regarding his leadership abilities.

As director of the Museum of Art, Saint-Gaudens instituted measures intended to streamline the Internationals and improve diplomatic relations with artists. Though the basic format of the juried exhibition remained the same, his solutions to the complaints many artists raised with the artist invitation, art selection, and jury systems reformed the International's reputation at a critical time. Though he was naturally inclined to appreciate the art and artists he had grown up with, Saint-Gaudens understood the immediate necessity of introducing modernist contemporary art into the museum's exhibitions and galleries. He circumvented the conservative Fine Arts Committee's resistance to the accolades of European modernists by choosing the tamest of the new 'radical' works. Eventually, he balanced the Internationals with a mix of conservative, moderate, and advanced works that appealed to a large range of audiences and increased the status and diversity of the Internationals.

To aid in his reformation of the International, Saint-Gaudens formalized a team of European agents who worked year round to scout artists' studios, recommend suitable art and artists, navigate local politics, arrange local transportation and logistics, and maintain cordial relations with artists abroad. In the spring, Saint-Gaudens would travel to Europe to meet with his agents in person, tour the most promising studios, and meet with artists personally. His team was headed by Guillaume Lerolle, who shared Saint-Gaudens' distinction of being the son of a well regarded national artist, Henry Lerolle. Like Saint-Gaudens, Lerolle was able and willing to call upon longstanding family friendships and networks on behalf of the Museum of Art. The other core members of the team were Ilario Neri (Italy), Arnold Palmer (England), Margaret Palmer (Spain), and Charlotte Weidler (Germany).

From 1922 to 1940, the Museum of Art held seventeen Internationals, with the exceptions coming in 1932 (Great Depression) and 1940 (World War II). After a brief period of change, growth, and experimentation in the early 1920s, the museum eventually settled on a routine of planning the Internationals, arranging for traveling exhibitions, and expanding upon the most popular of their educational programs. In addition to those programs put into place under Beatty's tenure, Saint-Gaudens paved the way for a revamped lecture series featuring visiting critics and traveled as a visiting lecturer himself.

During the 1930s, financial difficulties and increasing political tensions in Europe presented ample challenges to the diplomatic skills of Saint-Gaudens and his agents, and they found themselves increasingly forced to navigate through political minefields presented by the fascist ideologies of Germany and Italy, the chaos of the Spanish civil war, and the eventual outbreak of World War II in Europe. In spite of these challenges, under Saint-Gaudens' direction, the museum remained true to Andrew Carnegie's vision. The International was expanded to accept on average over sixty additional works of art, and at its peak, included art from twenty-one countries. Beginning in 1927, top prizes and recognition were awarded to Georges Braque, Marc Chagall, Salvador Dali, Andre Derain, Raoul Dufy, Karl Hofer, Rockwell Kent, Yasuo Kuniyoshi, Henri Matisse, Pablo Picasso, and Edouard Vuillard.

Works by Arthur B. Davies, Charles Hawthorne, Edward Hopper, Augustus John, Oskar Kokoschka, Leon Kroll, Ernest Lawson, and William Orpen were added to the museum's permanent collection. And, as under Beatty's tenure, many of the artists selected to serve on the Jury of Award became advocates and friends of the museum, including Emil Carlsen, Anto Carte, Bruce Crane, Charles C. Curran, Daniel Garber, Charles Hopkinson, Laura Knight, Jonas Lie, Julius Olsson, Leopold Seyffert, Lucien Simon, Eugene Speicher, Maurice Sterne, Gardner Symons, Horatio Walker, and Charles H. Woodbury.

The monumental task of establishing the Carnegie Institute Museum of Art and the Carnegie International has left an archival record that is unique and unparalleled in documenting its relations with every aspect of the contemporary art world from the turn of the century through the first forty years of the twentieth century.
Provenance:
The Carnegie Institute, Museum of Art records were loaned for microfilming in 1966 and later donated to the Archives of American Art in 1972. A small addition of corrrespondence was donated in 2017 by Elizabeth Tufts Brown.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment.
Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Topic:
Art -- Economic aspects  Search this
World War, 1914-1918  Search this
Depressions -- 1929  Search this
Art, Modern -- Exhibitions  Search this
Fascism  Search this
World War, 1939-1945  Search this
Museum directors  Search this
Function:
Art museums -- Pennsylvania
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Letterpress books
Museum records
Citation:
Carnegie Institute, Museum of Art records, 1883-1962, bulk 1885-1940. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.carninst
See more items in:
Carnegie Institute, Museum of Art records
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-carninst
Online Media:

Polioptila plumbea superciliaris

Collector:
James McLeannan  Search this
Preparation:
Skin: Whole
Sex:
Male
Place:
Panama, North America
Collection Date:
-- -- 18--
Common name:
Tropical Gnatcatcher
Taxonomy:
Animalia, Chordata, Vertebrata, Aves, Passeriformes, Sylviidae, Polioptilinae
Published Name:
Polioptila plumbea superciliaris
Accession Number:
000000
USNM Number:
34097
See more items in:
Vertebrate Zoology
Birds
Data Source:
NMNH - Vertebrate Zoology - Birds Division
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/31d6efde3-9fcd-4aab-8dd1-276379c08f05
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhvz_13335790

Ameiva undulata

Biogeographical Region:
Neotropical Region  Search this
Expedition:
Smithsonian Biological Survey of Panama  Search this
Preparation:
Ethanol
Place:
MIRAFLORES, Panama, North America
Collection Date:
18 Jan 1911
Taxonomy:
Animalia, Chordata, Vertebrata, Reptilia, Squamata, Sauria, Teiidae
Published Name:
Ameiva undulata
Accession Number:
059882
Other Numbers:
Field Number : No Field Number
USNM Number:
53842
See more items in:
Vertebrate Zoology
Amphibians & Reptiles
Data Source:
NMNH - Vertebrate Zoology - Herpetology Division
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/350508bab-b82d-427d-9156-f561d9962023
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhvz_6030236

Ameiva undulata

Biogeographical Region:
Neotropical Region  Search this
Expedition:
Smithsonian Biological Survey of Panama  Search this
Preparation:
Ethanol
Place:
Panama, North America
Taxonomy:
Animalia, Chordata, Vertebrata, Reptilia, Squamata, Sauria, Teiidae
Published Name:
Ameiva undulata
Accession Number:
059882
Other Numbers:
Field Number : No Field Number
USNM Number:
53999
See more items in:
Vertebrate Zoology
Amphibians & Reptiles
Data Source:
NMNH - Vertebrate Zoology - Herpetology Division
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/3988d6b9a-2a03-45e1-845f-8d304cd95597
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhvz_6030383

Mastigodryas melanolomus alternatus

Biogeographical Region:
Neotropical Region  Search this
Preparation:
Ethanol
Place:
Fort Davis, Panamá, Panama, North America
Collection Date:
1921
Taxonomy:
Animalia, Chordata, Vertebrata, Reptilia, Squamata, Ophidia, Colubrinae
Published Name:
Mastigodryas melanolomus alternatus
Mastigodryas alternatus
Mastigodryas boddaerti
Accession Number:
069993
Other Numbers:
Field Number : No Field Number
USNM Number:
65856
See more items in:
Vertebrate Zoology
Amphibians & Reptiles
Data Source:
NMNH - Vertebrate Zoology - Herpetology Division
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/3027d1af3-1216-4d3e-bff0-06a01aaac29b
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhvz_6041467

Chondrohierax uncinatus

Collector:
J. H. Roome  Search this
Preparation:
Skin: Mounted
Sex:
unknown
Place:
Panama, North America
Collection Date:
-- -- 18--
Common name:
Hook-billed Kite
Taxonomy:
Animalia, Chordata, Vertebrata, Aves, Falconiformes, Accipitridae
Published Name:
Chondrohierax uncinatus
Accession Number:
000000
USNM Number:
34605
See more items in:
Vertebrate Zoology
Birds
Data Source:
NMNH - Vertebrate Zoology - Birds Division
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/3a89195ac-68e3-419d-8c95-eea30d375caf
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhvz_4004990

Pelecanus occidentalis

Collector:
Collector Unknown  Search this
Preparation:
Skeleton: Whole
Sex:
Unknown
Place:
Panama Bay, Panama, North America
Common name:
Brown Pelican
Taxonomy:
Animalia, Chordata, Vertebrata, Aves, Pelecaniformes, Pelecanidae
Published Name:
Pelecanus occidentalis
Accession Number:
000000
USNM Number:
18483
See more items in:
Vertebrate Zoology
Birds
Data Source:
NMNH - Vertebrate Zoology - Birds Division
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/35c285cff-8a95-41af-b4b6-e7c9db2c9bdd
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhvz_4003007

Trogon massena hoffmanni

Collector:
J. Akhurst  Search this
Preparation:
Skin: Whole
Sex:
Female
Stage:
Juvenile
Place:
Panama Rail Road, Panama, North America
Common name:
Slaty-tailed Trogon
Taxonomy:
Animalia, Chordata, Vertebrata, Aves, Trogoniformes, Trogonidae
Published Name:
Trogon massena hoffmanni
USNM Number:
32002
See more items in:
Vertebrate Zoology
Birds
Data Source:
NMNH - Vertebrate Zoology - Birds Division
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/3792a2671-9f40-4f0c-b7c4-af1d2830838b
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhvz_4004758

Cnipodectes subbrunneus panamensis

Collector:
McLeannan  Search this
Preparation:
Skin: Whole
Sex:
Male
Place:
Panama, North America
Collection Date:
1862
Common name:
Brownish Flycatcher
Brownish Twistwing
Taxonomy:
Animalia, Chordata, Vertebrata, Aves, Passeriformes, Tyrannidae
Published Name:
Cnipodectes subbrunneus panamensis
Accession Number:
000000
USNM Number:
29575
See more items in:
Vertebrate Zoology
Birds
Data Source:
NMNH - Vertebrate Zoology - Birds Division
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/35ccfc02d-05e3-4e7a-a5b6-3712ad988bfe
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhvz_4321661

Tyrannus tyrannus

Collector:
James McLeannan  Search this
Preparation:
Skin: Whole
Sex:
unknown
Place:
Panama Railroad, Panama, North America
Common name:
Eastern Kingbird
Taxonomy:
Animalia, Chordata, Vertebrata, Aves, Passeriformes, Tyrannidae
Published Name:
Tyrannus tyrannus
USNM Number:
32005
See more items in:
Vertebrate Zoology
Birds
Data Source:
NMNH - Vertebrate Zoology - Birds Division
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/37e1edf41-a2d0-413c-b46a-fab57a69089d
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhvz_4369584

Cacicus cela vitellinus

Collector:
J. Akhurst  Search this
Preparation:
Skin: Whole
Sex:
Male
Place:
Panama Rail Road, Panama, North America
Common name:
Yellow-rumped Cacique
Taxonomy:
Animalia, Chordata, Vertebrata, Aves, Passeriformes, Icteridae
Published Name:
Cacicus cela vitellinus
USNM Number:
32003
See more items in:
Vertebrate Zoology
Birds
Data Source:
NMNH - Vertebrate Zoology - Birds Division
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/3dfdab642-e88c-4a7b-a8f2-47118adcb73b
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhvz_4399695

Thryothorus rufalbus castanonotus

Collector:
Collector Unknown  Search this
Preparation:
Skin: Whole
Sex:
Male
Stage:
Adult
Type Citation:
Ridgway, R. Mar 1888. Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist. 23: 386.
Type Status:
Type
Place:
"Cote Ferme", Panama, North America
Common name:
Rufous-and-white Wren
Taxonomy:
Animalia, Chordata, Vertebrata, Aves, Passeriformes, Troglodytidae
Published Name:
Thryothorus rufalbus castanonotus
Thryophilus rufalbus castanonotus Ridgway
Accession Number:
000000
USNM Number:
32694
See more items in:
Vertebrate Zoology
Birds
Data Source:
NMNH - Vertebrate Zoology - Birds Division
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/3d3ec41e7-9150-4ba6-aa49-822e44be1ae6
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhvz_4294199
Online Media:

Cymbilaimus lineatus

Expedition:
Smithsonian Bocas Del Toro Project - 1989  Search this
Preparation:
Nest(s)
Sex:
unknown
Place:
Tierra Oscura, Bocas Del Toro, Panama, North America
Collection Date:
22 Feb 1989
Common name:
Fasciated Antshrike
Taxonomy:
Animalia, Chordata, Vertebrata, Aves, Passeriformes, Formicariidae
Published Name:
Cymbilaimus lineatus
Accession Number:
382896
Other Numbers:
Field Number : BDT-89-544
USNM Number:
B47989
See more items in:
Vertebrate Zoology
Birds
Data Source:
NMNH - Vertebrate Zoology - Birds Division
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/3e4866fa0-f7b5-45ab-afc1-a53f41e94363
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhvz_4235646

Leptotila cassini

Collector:
T. J. Parsons  Search this
R. I. Crombie  Search this
Expedition:
Smithsonian Bocas Del Toro Project - 1989  Search this
Preparation:
Egg(s)
Sex:
unknown
Place:
Tierra Oscura, Bocas Del Toro, Panama, North America
Collection Date:
24 Feb 1989
Common name:
Gray-chested Dove
Grey-chested Dove
Taxonomy:
Animalia, Chordata, Vertebrata, Aves, Columbiformes, Columbidae
Published Name:
Leptotila cassini
Accession Number:
382896
Other Numbers:
Field Number : BDT-89-623
Other Catalog Number : 612285
USNM Number:
B47990
See more items in:
Vertebrate Zoology
Birds
Data Source:
NMNH - Vertebrate Zoology - Birds Division
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/37bcf8d39-5610-4618-bafc-ca16d13a607b
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhvz_4235647

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