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Billy Al Bengston papers

Creator:
Bengston, Billy Al  Search this
Names:
Ferus Gallery (Los Angeles, Calif.)  Search this
James Corcoran Gallery  Search this
John Berggruen Gallery (San Francisco, Calif.)  Search this
Martha Jackson Gallery  Search this
Alexander, Peter, 1939-  Search this
Altoon, John, 1925-  Search this
Andre, Carl, 1935-  Search this
Chamberlain, John, 1927-2011  Search this
Diebenkorn, Richard, 1922-1993  Search this
Flavin, Dan, 1933-  Search this
Goode, Joe, 1937-  Search this
Lichtenstein, Roy, 1923-1997  Search this
Motherwell, Robert  Search this
Plagens, Peter  Search this
Ruscha, Edward  Search this
Extent:
10.4 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Interviews
Photographs
Date:
circa 1940s-1989
bulk 1960-1988
Summary:
The papers of southern California Pop artist Billy Al Bengston measure 10.4 linear feet and date from circa 1940s to 1989, with the bulk of the materials dating from 1960 to 1988. The collection documents the life and work of the artist through biographical materials, correspondence, personal business records, gallery and museum files, teaching files, project and commission files, scattered artwork, printed materials, and photographs.
Scope and Content Note:
The papers of Billy Al Bengston measure 10.4 linear feet and date from circa 1940s to 1989, with the bulk of the materials dating from 1960 to 1988. The collection documents the life and work of the southern California artist through biographical materials, correspondence, personal business records, gallery and museum files, teaching files, project and commission files, scattered artwork, printed materials, and photographs.

Found within the biographical materials series are three feet of calendars which extensively document Bengston's personal and professional activities for fourteen years, and include ephemera related to these activities. This series also includes health records, wills, and passports.

Correspondence is with galleries, museums, universities, businesses, friends, and colleagues, and primarily concerns exhibitions, sales, consignments, commissions, and Bengston's personal finances. Bengston's relationship with the James Corcoran Gallery, Janie C. Lee Gallery, John Berggruen Gallery, Martha Jackson Gallery, and Texas Gallery are well-documented here, as well as in the Museum and Gallery Files series. Also found is a limited amount of personal correspondence with collectors, researchers, and friends. A few letters from other artists, including Peter Plagens and a letter from Richard Diebenkorn are interfiled here.

Bengston's professional relationships with galleries, museums, and universities are well-documented in the gallery and museum files, including the galleries mentioned above, Ferus Gallery, and others. Lists of consignments and prices, invoices, records of sales, loan agreement forms, shipping receipts, exhibition checklists, and exhibition floor plans provide information about sales, exhibitions, and loans. A few files provide further information about Bengston teaching activities. His personal business records include art sales records, price lists, lists of purchases, records of investment, and personal finance records. Project files include correspondence, notes, and printed materials related to Bengston's commissions for artwork and personal projects, including a book he worked on with Ed Ruscha, Business Cards.

Writings by Bengston include responses to exhibitions of West Coast art and his thoughts on his career, art, the artistic community, motorcycles, as well as a recollection of John Altoon. Also found are questionnaires sent out by Bengston for an art survey, with responses from Peter Alexander, Carl Andre, John Chamberlain, Dan Flavin, Joe Goode, Robert Graham, Roy Lichtenstein, Robert Motherwell, Ed Ruscha, and others. Writings by others consist primarily of exhibition catalog essays, manuscripts of interviews with Bengston, and other writings about Bengston. Also found is an essay by Walter Hopps. Photographs of Bengston include a family picture from the 1940s, Bengston at work on projects in Los Angeles and Syracuse, New York, and Bengston at social events. Other photographs consist of pictures of friends and artists, Bengston's artwork, documentary evidence of damaged artwork, and of commission sites.

Printed materials from the 1960s - 1980s include clippings, full articles, exhibition announcements and catalogs, and posters. They document exhibitions, art in southern California, and society and art events. The collection houses limited amounts of artwork including sketches, cut-outs, doodles and drawings.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into 10 series:

Series 1: Biographical Materials, 1958-1987 (Boxes 1-4, 11; 3.7 linear feet)

Series 2: Correspondence, 1966-1989 (Boxes 4-6; 1.75 linear feet)

Series 3: Gallery and Museum Files, 1961-1989 (Boxes 6-7; 1.5 linear feet)

Series 4: Teaching Records, 1968-1982 (Box 7; 7 folders)

Series 5: Personal Business Records, circa 1960-1987 (Boxes 7-8; 1.0 linear foot)

Series 6: Project Files, 1968-1987 (Boxes 8-9; 0.25 linear feet)

Series 7: Writings, 1967-circa 1988 (Box 9, OV 12; 0.25 linear feet)

Series 8: Artwork, 1960s-1987 (Box 9; 7 folders)

Series 9: Printed Materials, 1958-1988 (Boxes 9-10, OV 12-13; 1.25 linear feet)

Series 10: Photographs, circa 1940s-1987 (Box 10; 0.5 linear feet)
Biographical Note:
Billy Al Bengston was born in Dodge City, Kansas on June 7, 1934. After moving back and forth from Kansas to California multiple times, he and his family settled in Los Angeles in 1948. While attending the Manual Arts High School, Bengston became interested in art, especially ceramics. After a brief stint at Los Angeles Junior College, Bengston worked as a beach attendant at Doheny State Beach. While working there he met fellow surfer and future ceramicist Kenneth Price, who became one of Bengston's closest friends. In 1953, he reenrolled in Los Angeles Junior College to study ceramics. For the next four years he attended both the California College of Arts and Crafts and the Los Angeles County Art Institute (now the Otis Art Institute of Parsons School of Design). At these institutions he studied with Richard Diebenkorn, Sabro Hasegawa, Nathan Oliveira, and Peter Voulkos.

Around 1957, Bengston shifted his emphasis from ceramics to painting, and became affiliated with the Ferus Gallery in Los Angeles, founded that same year by Edward Kienholz and Walter Hopps. Bengston's first solo exhibition was held at the Ferus Gallery in 1958, and a second followed in 1960. At this time Bengston began to work with Pop icons combined with Color Field abstractions. His early bold paintings often featured symmetrical strong color compositions with a central image of a valentine, star, cross, chevron, or iris. The irises he called "draculas," after Kenneth Price remarked that they resembled Dracula flying through a window. He first showed his chevron paintings in 1962 at the Martha Jackson Gallery in New York. In the early 1960s, Bengston extended his imagery to the California subculture and created paintings of leisure time activities, focusing on motorcycles, racing, and scuba diving - his own interests as well.

Throughout his career, Bengston experimented with technique and materials. He experimented with automobile lacquer and spray painting techniques associated with car customization. He also used non-traditional surfaces, such as masonite and aluminum. In 1965, Bengston began creating paintings on sheets of aluminum into which he hammered dents and sometimes bent and buckled; these subsequently came to be known as "dentos." Along with painting, Bengston has also created watercolors, ceramics, and furniture. He was also one of the artists selected by Carol and Roy Doumani to design their home.

Bengston first visited Hawaii in 1974, and after several subsequent trips, established a second studio there in 1979. The work Bengston created in the following years was characterized by the use of tropical colors and representational images of running figures, airplanes, and the moon. In 1988, the Contemporary Arts Museum in Houston organized a retrospective entitled "Billy Al Bengston: Paintings of Three Decades," which traveled to the Oakland Museum, the Los Angeles County Museum of Art, and the Contemporary Museum of Art, Honolulu. Bengston also completed several years as an art instructor and lecturer at the Chouinard Art Institute in Los Angeles and The University of California at Los Angeles. Bengston continues to create and exhibit new work.
Related Material:
Found in the Archives of American Art are oral history interviews with Bengston conducted by Susan Larsen, September 9, 1980, and Susan Ford Morgan, August 2-October 7, 2002. Also found are portraits of Bengston in the Photographs of artists taken by Mimi Jacobs collection, and a rare copy of the book Business Cards by Bengston and Ed Ruscha in the Wallace Berman papers.
Provenance:
The collection was donated to the Archives of American Art by Billy Al Bengston in 1990.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research. Use requires an appointment.
Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Occupation:
Painters -- California  Search this
Topic:
Works of art  Search this
Art galleries, Commercial  Search this
Art -- Study and teaching  Search this
Art -- Economic aspects  Search this
Genre/Form:
Interviews
Photographs
Citation:
Billy Al Bengston papers, circa 1940s-1989 (bulk 1960-1988). Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.bengbill
See more items in:
Billy Al Bengston papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-bengbill

Oral history interview with Jackie Ferrara

Interviewee:
Ferrara, Jackie  Search this
Interviewer:
Berman, Avis  Search this
Creator:
United States. General Services Administration. Design Excellence and the Arts Oral History Project  Search this
Names:
Michigan State University -- Students  Search this
United States. General Services Administration. Design Excellence and the Arts Oral History Project  Search this
Wayne State University -- Students  Search this
Addams, Charles, 1912-1988  Search this
Andre, Carl, 1935-  Search this
Beauchamp, Robert, 1923-  Search this
Bellamy, Richard  Search this
DeLap, Tony, 1927-2019  Search this
Eisenhauer, Lette  Search this
Ferrara, Don  Search this
Forst, Miles, 1923-  Search this
Frank, Mary, 1933-  Search this
Frankenthaler, Helen, 1928-2011  Search this
Gallo, Frank, 1933-  Search this
Graves, Nancy Stevenson, 1940-1995  Search this
Gross, Sally  Search this
Hesse, Eva, 1936-1970  Search this
Hofmann, Hans, 1880-1966  Search this
Judd, Donald, 1928-1994  Search this
LeWitt, Sol, 1928-2007  Search this
Marcus, Marcia, 1928-  Search this
Motherwell, Robert  Search this
Oldenburg, Claes, 1929-  Search this
Protetch, Max  Search this
Rockburne, Dorothea  Search this
Rosenquist, James, 1933-  Search this
Samaras, Lucas, 1936-  Search this
Smithson, Robert  Search this
Extent:
3 Items (Sound recording: 3 sound files (5 hr., 12 min.), digital, WMA files)
115 Pages (Transcript)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Pages
Sound recordings
Interviews
Date:
2009 January 16-February 13
Scope and Contents:
An interview of Jackie Ferrara conducted 2009 January 16-February 13, by Avis Berman, for the Archives of American Art's U.S. General Services Administration, Design Excellence and the Arts oral history project, at the Ferrara's home, in New York, New York.
Ferrara speaks of growing up in Detroit, Michigan; her early interest in mathematics and its ever present role in her work; attending Michigan State University for one year; taking fashion drawing classes at Wayne State University and her supposed lack of drawing skills; an early interest in pottery and leather making; moving to New York City in 1951 on a night train from Detroit; working at the Henry Street Playhouse and its influential role on her art; her relationship with Robert Beauchamp and her friendship with many artists in Provincetown, Massachusetts; early works, including the cotton batting works and the rope works, most of which were destroyed; her dislike of traveling and her use of imagination for inspiration; participating in the performances and happenings of Claes Oldenburg; her friendship with Robert Smithson and his influence on her later works; working with Max Protetch; never teaching art because she herself did not attend art school; her creation process of her wood and stone pieces, including their conception in early drawings; having a positive attitude towards her pieces being rebuilt because of decay; quickly moving into public art in the late 1970s, early 1980s; living and working in the same loft in New York for over 40 years; the helpful role the women's movement played in her successful career though she did not participate; receiving art grants to enable her to work for a year or two without having to find an odd job to support herself; various public art projects around the country, how they came to be, creating the works and their significance to her. Ferrara also recalls Charlotte Tokayer, Don Ferrara, Alvin Nikolai, Richard Bellamy, Mary and Paul Frank, Miles and Barbara Forst, Sally Gross, Hans Hofmann, Robert Motherwell, Helen Frankenthaler, Nat Halprin, Lucas Samara, Letty Lou Eisenhauer, James Rosenquist, Marcia Marcus, Charles Addams, Eva Hesse, Frank Gallo, Tony DeLap, Dorothea Rockburne, Time Doyle, Sol LeWitt, Donald Judd, Carl Andre, Nancy Graves, Marty Greenbaum, Abe Sachs, Mel Bochner, Jan Groover, Alice Aycock, Alice Adams, Jackie Windsor, Scott Burton, Siah Armajani, Michelle Stuart, Lucy Lippard, Zaha Hadid, Max Hutcinson, Andrea Blum, and others.
Biographical / Historical:
Jackie Ferrara (1929- ) is a sculptor. Ferrara works with the built environment in her designs for courtyards and architectural structures.
Provenance:
This interview is part of the Archives of American Art Oral History Program, started in 1958 to document the history of the visual arts in the United States, primarily through interviews with artists, historians, dealers, critics and administrators.
Restrictions:
Audio: ACCESS RESTRICTED; Use requires written permission.
Topic:
Women sculptors -- New York (State) -- New York -- Interviews  Search this
Genre/Form:
Sound recordings
Interviews
Identifier:
AAA.ferrar09
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-ferrar09

Oral history interview with Paula Colton Winokur

Interviewee:
Winokur, Paula, 1935-  Search this
Interviewer:
Riedel, Mija, 1958-  Search this
Creator:
Nanette L. Laitman Documentation Project for Craft and Decorative Arts in America  Search this
Names:
Beaver College -- Faculty  Search this
Graphic Sketch Club (Philadelphia, Pa.)  Search this
Helen Drutt Gallery  Search this
Nanette L. Laitman Documentation Project for Craft and Decorative Arts in America  Search this
National Council on Education for the Ceramic Arts (U.S.)  Search this
Philadelphia Museum of Art  Search this
Temple University. -- Students  Search this
Tyler School of Art -- Students  Search this
Andre, Carl, 1935-  Search this
Blai, Boris, 1893-1985  Search this
Bobrowicz, Yvonne  Search this
Cunningham, Imogen, 1883-1976  Search this
Cushing, Val M.  Search this
De Staebler, Stephen, 1933-2011  Search this
Ferguson, Ken, 1928-  Search this
Heizer, Michael, 1944-  Search this
Higby, Wayne  Search this
Leon, Dennis, 1933-  Search this
Long, Richard, 1945-  Search this
Love, Arlene, 1953-  Search this
Marks, Graham, 1951-  Search this
McKinnell, James  Search this
Mestre, Enrique, 1936-  Search this
Minter, Myrna  Search this
Moran, Lois  Search this
Natzler, Gertrud  Search this
Natzler, Otto  Search this
Nesbitt, Lowell, 1933-1993  Search this
Notkin, Richard  Search this
Randall, Theodore, 1914-1985  Search this
Schulman, Norman, 1924-  Search this
Sedestrom, Carol  Search this
Serra, Richard, 1938-  Search this
Shores, Kenneth, 1928-  Search this
Simon, Sandy  Search this
Slivka, Rose  Search this
Staffel, Rudolf, 1911-2002  Search this
Takaezu, Toshiko  Search this
Vavrek, Ken  Search this
Winokur, Robert, 1933-  Search this
Ólafur Elíasson, 1967-  Search this
Extent:
9 Items (Sound recording: 9 sound files (6 hr., 24 min.))
171 Pages (Transcript)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Pages
Interviews
Sound recordings
Place:
Alaska
Hungary
Iceland
Mesa Verde (Calif.)
Rocky Mountains
Stonehenge (England)
Date:
2011 July 21-22
Scope and Contents:
An interview of Paula Colton Winokur conducted 2011 July 21-22, by Mija Riedel, for the Archives of American Art's Nanette L. Laitman Documentation Project for Craft and Decorative Arts in America, at Winokur's home and studio, in Horsham, Pennsylvania.
Paula speaks of taking drawing and painting classes at the Graphic Sketch Club (now the Fleischer Art Memorial) in Philadelphia at age 11; her first experience handling clay at 13 or 14 when taking a class at the Philadelphia Museum of Art; when her family agreed to send her to college, providing she became a teacher, and she attended the Tyler School of Art at Temple University as a painting major; the influence of her teacher Rudolf Staffel in her sophomore year when she took a ceramics class and fell in love with working in clay; meeting her husband Robert Winokur when they were students at Tyler, getting married in 1958, eventually having two sons; glaze testing to find a palette of glazes to use; moving to Massachusetts and starting Cape Street Pottery for their production pottery; her involvement with NCECA [National Council on Education for the Ceramic Arts] and other professional organizations; when she began a 30-year teaching career at Beaver College in 1973 (more recently known as Arcadia University), building their ceramics department; changing from using stoneware to porcelain in 1970; making boxes and architectural forms; how she stopped making functional items when her first child was born and began creating the things she wanted to; the decision in 1982 to make landscapes and how geology, the Artic, and threats to the environment influence her work; the process she uses when creating texture; selling exclusively through the Helen Drutt Gallery beginning in 1973 until the gallery closed in 2011; the important influences in her work of artists such as Michael Heizer, Carl Andre, Richard Long, Richard Serra, Olafur Eliasson, and Steven De Staebler and others; the immense the geologic formations of Mesa Verde, the Rocky Mountains, Stonehenge, Alaska and Iceland are inspiring; various lecturing opportunities and exhibits through the years, as well as a working residency she took advantage of in Hungary in 1994; slowly moving away from glazes and instead using metallic sulfates for color; that her intention is to express the relationship between the internal part of herself and the external world for other people to experience and find something in common; the importance of a liberal arts education for art students; her gelatin and clay prints; the concern over collectors of clay art dying off and no new ones taking their places; that galleries are closing and Internet galleries are the norm; meeting photographer, Imogen Cunningham, and seeing her as a wonderful role model; and the feeling that the high cost of fuel and the invention of newer materials may end ceramic classes. Paula also recalls Lowell Nesbitt, Myrna Minter, Arlene Love, Dennis Leon, Boris Blai, Ted Randall, Val Cushing, Norm Schulman, Jim McKinnel, Gertrud Natzler, Otto Natzler, Ken Ferguson, Rose Slivka, Enrique Mestre, Sandy Simon, Wayne Higby, Richard Notkin, Graham Marks, Toshika Takaezu, Yvonne Bobrowicz, Ken Vavrek, Carol Sedestrom, Lois Moran, and Ken Shores and others.
Biographical / Historical:
Paula Colton Winokur (1935- ) is a ceramist in Horsham, Pennsylvania. Mija Riedel (1958- ) is a curator and writer from San Francisco, California.
General:
Originally recorded as 9 sound files. Duration is 6 hr., 24 min.
Provenance:
This interview is part of the Archives of American Art Oral History Program, started in 1958 to document the history of the visual arts in the United States, primarily through interviews with artists, historians, dealers, critics and administrators.
Topic:
Art -- Study and teaching  Search this
Ceramicists -- Pennsylvania -- Interviews  Search this
Ceramics -- Study and teaching  Search this
Painting -- Study and teaching  Search this
Women artists -- Pennsylvania -- Interviews  Search this
Genre/Form:
Interviews
Sound recordings
Identifier:
AAA.winoku11
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-winoku11

Oral history interview with Brice Marden

Interviewee:
Marden, Brice, 1938-  Search this
Interviewer:
Cummings, Paul  Search this
Names:
Boston University -- Students  Search this
Andre, Carl, 1935-  Search this
Chaet, Bernard  Search this
Geldzahler, Henry  Search this
Katz, Alex, 1927-  Search this
Kay, Reed  Search this
Kertess, Klaus  Search this
Pollack, Reginald  Search this
Rauschenberg, Robert, 1925-2008  Search this
Schueler, Jon, 1916-  Search this
Vicente, Esteban, 1903-2001  Search this
Extent:
90 Pages (Transcript)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Pages
Sound recordings
Interviews
Date:
1972 Oct. 3
Scope and Contents:
Interview of Brice Marden conducted 1972 Oct. 3, by Paul Cummings, for the Archives of American Art. Marden speaks of his early family life and schools in Briarcliff, N.Y.; the development of his interest in art; his art and theater activities at Florida State Southern College; Boston University and the Boston art scene in the 1950s.
He comments on the impact of a summer in California on his painting style, living in Paris and New York, and changes in his work, including rectangles, one-color panels, paintings over silk-screen proofs, oil and wax. Marden also speaks of his first one-man exhibition, working as Robert Rauschenberg's assistant, his exhibit in Paris, teaching at the School of Visual Arts, his drawings, lithographs and grid drawings, his use of color, paintings as statements and influences on his work. He recalls Henry Geldzahler, Reed Kay, Bernard Chaet, Jon Schueler, Reginald Pollack, Alex Katz, Esteban Vicente, Carl Andre and Klaus Kertess.
Biographical / Historical:
Brice Marden (1938) is a painter from New York, N.Y.
General:
Originally recorded on 2 sound tape reels. Reformatted in 2010 as 3 digital wav files. Duration is 2 hrs., 47 min.
Provenance:
This interview is part of the Archives of American Art Oral History Program, started in 1958 to document the history of the visual arts in the United States, primarily through interviews with artists, historians, dealers, critics and others.
Restrictions:
Transcript available on the Archives of American Art website.
Occupation:
Painters -- New York (State)  Search this
Topic:
Pop art  Search this
Postmodernism  Search this
Painters -- New York (State) -- Interviews  Search this
Painting -- Technique  Search this
Genre/Form:
Sound recordings
Interviews
Identifier:
AAA.marden72
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-marden72

John Held papers relating to mail art

Creator:
Held, John, 1947-  Search this
Names:
Gutai Bijutsu Kyōkai  Search this
San Francisco Art Institute  Search this
Ackerman, Blaster Al, 1939-2013  Search this
Andre, Carl, 1935-  Search this
Bloch, Mark, 1956-  Search this
Braumuller, Hans, 1966-  Search this
Brown, Jean, 1911-  Search this
Cavellini, Guglielmo Achille, 1914-  Search this
Cohen, Ryosuke, 1948-  Search this
Durland, Steve  Search this
Gaglione, Bill  Search this
Higgins, Dick, 1938-  Search this
Janssen, Ruud, 1959-  Search this
Kaprow, Allan  Search this
Leigh, Michael  Search this
Shimamoto, Shozo, 1928-  Search this
Summers, Rod  Search this
Interviewee:
Cage, John, 1912-1992  Search this
Greenberg, Clement, 1909-1994  Search this
Johnson, Ray, 1927-  Search this
Extent:
12.9 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Diaries
Interviews
Date:
bulk 1973-2013
1947-2018
Summary:
The papers of rubberstamp and artistamp artist, performance artist, collector of mail art, and fine arts librarian John Held, Jr. date from 1947-2018, bulk 1973-2013, and measure 12.9 linear feet. Found within the papers are biographical material, 18 printed diaries, letters received by Held from mail artists around the world, art work consisting of artistamps designed by miscellaneous mail artists, interview transcripts, writings, project and event files, printed material, mail art sent for the Gutai Historical Survey Exhibition held at the San Francisco Art Institute in 2013, and a collection of biographical material presented by Held at a Mail Art Study Day held at the Archives of American Art in 2018.
Scope and Content Note:
The papers of rubberstamp and artistamp artist, performance artist, collector of mail art, and fine arts librarian John Held, Jr. date from 1947-2018, bulk 1973-2013, and measure 12.9 linear feet. Found within the papers are biographical material, 18 printed diaries, letters received by Held from mail artists around the world, art work consisting of artistamps designed by miscellaneous mail artists, interview transcripts, writings, project and event files, printed material, and mail art sent for the Gutai Historical Survey Exhibition held at the San Francisco Art Institute in 2013.

Scattered biographical material consists primarily of miscellanous biographical writings and accounts. Eighteen printed diaries provide very brief descriptions of daily activities and more detailed descriptions of art mail events, conferences, and travel experiences.

Letters comprise the largest and most significant series in the collection. Letters received by John Held, Jr. are from an extensive number of national and international mail artists, including Mark Bloch, Hans Braumüller, Jean Brown, William Gaglione (a.k.a. Picasso Gaglione), Dick Higgins, Ray Johnson, Shozo Shimamoto, Ryosuke Cohen, Michael Leigh, Guglielmo Cavellini, and Rod Summers. There are also scattered letters from Carl Andre and Clement Greenberg, typescripts of letters sent by Held, and a file of letters exchanged with Steve Durland.

There are twelve folders of artistamps, non-official or pseudo-postage stamps designed by miscellaneous participants in the international mail art network.

Transcripts are of interviews conducted by John Held, Jr. with some of the more notable artists involved with the mail art movement including Al Ackerman, John Cage, Ray Johnson, and Allan Kaprow. There are also interviews with John Held, Jr., William (Picasso) Gaglione, and Milan Knizak, including an interview with Held conducted by Ruud Janssen.

Extensive writings by John Held, Jr. consist of catalog essays, miscellaneous essays, bibliographies, miscellaneous box set texts, and miscellaneous typescripts. Project and event files concern miscellaneous projects, tours, lectures, and exhibitions with which John Held, Jr. was involved.

Printed material consists primarily of printouts of Bibliozone issues, a newsletter, exhibition catalogs, and press releases concerning mail art.

The Gutai exhibition project files include printed material related to the 2013 Experimental Exhibition of Modern Art to Challenge the mid-Winter Burning Sun: Gutai Historical Survey and Contemporary Response held at the San Francisco Art Institute. The bulk of the series consists of mail art created by over 135 artists who were asked to submit work inspired by Gutai and the artist Shozo Shimamoto.

The Mail Art Study Day Material consists of mostly biographical material regarding John Held, presented by him at the Archives of American Art's Mail Art Study Day on November 9, 2018. This assortment of largely printed material (news clippings, invitations, and programs) as well as select correspondence and photographs, each representing a year in the life of the artist, accompanied by a key for around 450 items dating from 1947-2018. They serve to document his career with regard to creating and disseminating Mail Art.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged as 10 series:

Series 1: Biographical Material, 1990-1999 (5 folders; Box 1)

Series 2: Diaries, 1990-2000 (20 folders; Box 1)

Series 3: Letters, 1973-2008 (7.9 linear feet; Box 1-8, Box 12)

Series 4: Artwork, 1985-2007 (12 folders; Box 8)

Series 5: Interview Transcripts, 1977-1995 (7 folders; Box 8)

Series 6: Writings, 1984-2000 (0.5 linear feet; Box 8)

Series 7: Project and Event Files, 1982-2000 (11 folders; Box 8)

Series 8: Printed Material, 1989-2000 (11 folders; Box 8)

Series 9: Gutai Exhibition Project Files, 2012-2013 (Box 9-11, Box 13, OV 14)

Series 10: Mail Art Study Day Materials, 1947-2018 (Box 15)
Biographical Note:
John Held, Jr. (1947-) of San Francisco, California, is a rubberstamp and artistamp artist, participant in the international mail art network, activist, performance artist, collector of mail art, and a fine arts librarian.

Jonathan Held was born on April 2, 1947. In the mid-1970s he took the name of the early twentieth century illustrator, John Held, Jr., famous for his images of "flapper girls" in the 1920s. This name change was both in tribute to the older artist as well as an expression of Dada.

Earning a Bachelor's Degree in 1969, Held received a Master of Library Science Degree from Syracuse University School of Information Studies in 1972 and expanded his interests toward participating in the international mail art network and assembling one of the largest archives of mail art in the United States. He was mentored by mail artist Ray Johnson, and Jean Brown, a leading participant in Fluxus, whose interest in the Dada and Surrealism movements promoted emerging art forms including mail art, visual poetry, and artists' books.

From 1981 to 1995, Held was a Fine Arts Librarian at the Dallas Public Library. In 1982, he began making artistamps, pseudo-postage stamps used as an art medium, and opened the Modern Realism Gallery and Archive in Dallas, Texas, with his future wife Paula Barber. The gallery sought to preserve the record of contemporary avant-garde cultural activity.

Held published Mail Art: An Annotated Bibliography, a five-hundred page listing of secondary sources on the field in 1991. In 1996, Held moved to San Francisco, California, where he established the Modern Realism Gallery and acted as curator of the Stamp Art Gallery, an exhibition space devoted to rubberstamp and artistamp works.

John Held, Jr. has lectured at the Victoria and Albert Museum, London; the Museum of Fine Arts, Havana; and at the National School of Art, Prague. He participated in international exhibitions and, since 1986, engaged in international performance work, appearing in Japan, Russia, Uruguay, and Yugoslavia, as well as in the United States. One of Held's more notable performance creations is the Fake Picabia Brothers, in partnership with artist Picasso Gaglione.

John Held, Jr. lives in San Francisco, California.
Provenance:
John Held donated his papers relating to mail art in 1999, 2008, 2013, and 2018.
Restrictions:
This collection is open for research. Access to original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C. Research Center.
Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Occupation:
Mail artists -- California -- San Francisco  Search this
Performance artists -- California -- San Francisco  Search this
Librarians -- California -- San Francisco  Search this
Topic:
Mail art  Search this
Genre/Form:
Diaries
Interviews
Citation:
John Held papers relating to mail art, 1947-2018. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.heldjohn
See more items in:
John Held papers relating to mail art
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-heldjohn
Online Media:

Oral history interview with Virginia Dwan

Interviewee:
Dwan, Virginia  Search this
Interviewer:
Stuckey, Charles F.  Search this
Names:
Dwan Gallery (Los Angeles, Calif.)  Search this
Dwan Gallery (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Andre, Carl, 1935-  Search this
Arman, 1928-2005  Search this
De Maria, Walter, 1935-2013  Search this
Guston, Philip, 1913-1980  Search this
Heizer, Michael, 1944-  Search this
Kienholz, Edward, 1927-  Search this
Klein, Yves, 1928-1962  Search this
Kline, Franz, 1910-1962  Search this
LeWitt, Sol, 1928-2007  Search this
Rauschenberg, Robert, 1925-2008  Search this
Reinhardt, Ad, 1913-1967  Search this
Ryman, Robert, 1930-2019  Search this
Smithson, Robert  Search this
Snelson, Kenneth, 1927-2016  Search this
Tinguely, Jean, 1925-  Search this
Extent:
192 Pages (Transcript)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Pages
Sound recordings
Interviews
Date:
1984 March 21-June 7
Scope and Contents:
An interview of Virginia Dwan conducted 1984 March 21-June 7, by Charles F. Stuckey, for the Archives of American Art.
Dwan speaks of her background and education; her early interest in art; starting her gallery in 1959 in Los Angeles; the early days of her gallery; the development of her circle of artists; early shows; financing the gallery; "shopping" for art and artists; public and critical reaction to her gallery's shows; the decision to go to New York, and getting established there; making decisions about what to show; collectors; the closing of the Dwan Gallery; and her life since. She also relates anecdotes about the creation and execution of Robert Smithson's "Spiral Jetty" and reminisces about numerous artists with whom she was associated, including: Jean Tinguely, Robert Rauschenberg, Yves Klein, Ad Reinhardt, Ed Kienholz, Philip Guston, Arman, Robert Smithson, Franz Kline, Kenneth Snelson, Carl Andre, Sol Lewitt, Michael Heizer, Walter De Maria, and Robert Ryman.
Biographical / Historical:
Virginia Dwan (1931- ) is an art dealer from New York, New York.
General:
Originally recorded on 10 sound cassettes. Reformatted in 2010 as 19 digital wav file. Duration is 11 hr., 20 min.
Provenance:
These interviews are part of the Archives of American Art Oral History Program, started in 1958 to document the history of the visual arts in the United States, primarily through interviews with artists, historians, dealers, critics and others.
Restrictions:
For information on how to access this interview contact Reference Services.
Rights:
Authorization to quote or reproduce for the purposes of publication requires written permission from Anne Kovach. Contact Reference Services for more information.
Topic:
Art dealers -- New York (State) -- New York -- Interviews  Search this
Function:
Art galleries, Commercial
Genre/Form:
Sound recordings
Interviews
Identifier:
AAA.dwan84
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-dwan84

Dwan Gallery records

Creator:
Dwan Gallery  Search this
Names:
Dwan Gallery (Los Angeles, Calif.)  Search this
Dwan Gallery (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Anastasi, William, 1933-  Search this
Andre, Carl, 1935-  Search this
Arakawa, Shusaku, 1936-  Search this
Arman, 1928-2005  Search this
Dwan, Virginia  Search this
Flavin, Dan, 1933-  Search this
Goodnough, Robert, 1917-  Search this
Guston, Philip, 1913-1980  Search this
Kienholz, Edward, 1927-  Search this
Klein, Yves, 1928-1962  Search this
Kline, Franz, 1910-1962  Search this
LeWitt, Sol, 1928-2007  Search this
Mitchell, Joan, 1926-1992  Search this
Morris, Robert, 1931-2018  Search this
Oldenburg, Claes, 1929-  Search this
Parker, Raymond, 1922-  Search this
Rauschenberg, Robert, 1925-2008  Search this
Raysse, Martial, 1936-  Search this
Reinhardt, Ad, 1913-1967  Search this
Richenburg, Robert  Search this
Rivers, Larry, 1925-  Search this
Saint-Phalle, Niki de, 1930-  Search this
Scarpitta, Salvatore, 1919-2007  Search this
Smithson, Robert  Search this
Snelson, Kenneth, 1927-2016  Search this
Weber, John, 1932-2008  Search this
Extent:
2.3 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Slides (photographs)
Date:
1959-circa 1982
bulk 1959-1971
Summary:
The Dwan Gallery records measure 2.3 linear feet and consist primarily of files of exhibitions curated by Virginia Dwan at Dwan Galleries in Los Angeles (1959-1967) and New York (1965-1971). Found within this nearly comprehensive set of exhibition files may be lists of exhibited works, price lists, photographs, slides or color transparencies of installations, invitations, full-size posters, magazine and newspaper clippings and exhibition catalogs.
Scope and Contents:
The Dwan Gallery records measure 2.3 linear feet and consist primarily of files of exhibitions curated by Virginia Dwan at Dwan Galleries in Los Angeles (1959-1967) and New York (1965-1971). Found within this nearly comprehensive set of exhibition files may be lists of exhibited works, price lists, photographs, slides or color transparencies of installations, invitations, full-size posters, magazine and newspaper clippings and exhibition catalogs.

Artists that held exhibitions at the Dwan Gallery in New York and Los Angeles include: Robert Goodnough, Robert Richenburg, Larry Rivers, Philip Guston, Yves Klein, Salvatore Scarpitta, Arakawa, Martial Raysse, Ad Reinhardt, Arman, Franz Kline, Edward Kienholz, Claes Oldenburg, Niki de Sainte Phalle, Joan Mitchell, Robert Rauschenberg, Robert Morris, Dan Flavin, Raymond Parker, Kenneth Snelson, Carl Andre, Sol LeWitt, Robert Smithson, and Anastasi. Also, the exhibition files are nearly comprehensive and include: Language to be Looked at and/or Things to be Read annual series (1967-1970), Boxes (1964), Earth Works (1968), My Country 'tis of Thee (1962) and 10 (1967 and 1968). Many of the multiple artist shows were created and organized by gallery director John Weber and/or Virginia Dwan. Many of these exhibition files include full-sized posters and panoramic photos showing installations.

Also found are records created by a consulting firm hired by the Dwan Gallery to inventory the exhibition files prior to donation to the Archives of American Art. These guides appear at the beginning of each series and outline a chronology of exhibitions held at each branch.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into two series:

Series 1: Los Angeles Exhibition Files, 1959-1967, after 1981 (Box 1-2, 5, OV6, OV8; 1.3 linear feet)

Series 2: New York Exhibition Files, 1965-1971, after 1982 (Box 2-4, OV7; 1.0 linear feet)
Biographical / Historical:
In 1959, Virginia Dwan opened her first gallery on 1091 Broxton Avenue in the Westwood Village neighborhood of Los Angeles, California. Her independent wealth allowed her to open a gallery without worrying about business and sales. Three years after opening, the Dwan Gallery moved into a new Westwood Village space especially designed to express the gallery's contemporary aesthetic. In 1965, Virginia Dwan moved to New York City and founded an east coast branch of the Dwan Gallery at 29 West 57th Street.

Early exhibitions at the Dwan Gallery showed Abstract Expressionist artists and works of art from New York which Dwan consigned from other galleries. After traveling to New York and France, Virginia Dwan's interests and tastes manifested in exhibitions by 1961 with Yves Klein. Through Klein, Dwan made connections to other Nouveaux Réalistes artists that the gallery featured in solo and group shows. Later exhibitions featured Land and Minimilist artists. Dwan recognized that many of her shows were not considered salable but continued to show the avant-garde. She saw the gallery as an opportunity to expose the public to different styles of art.

Virginia Dwan maintained a close and personal relationship with many of her artists. She allowed large stipends to gallery artists and invited them to spend time at her home in Malibu, California. When working with artists concentrating on found objects, Dwan would accompany them on scavenger hunts and shopping trips. In the case of Robert Smithson and other Land Art artists, she traveled to offsite locations to visit works of art in progress. Dwan relied on her longtime gallery director, John Weber to interact with collectors as she preferred to maintain her connection with the artists.

The Dwan Gallery Los Angeles closed in mid-1967 but the New York branch remained open. By 1971, Virginia Dwan felt pressure to support her thirteen artists through a period of economic insecurity. She decided to close the gallery secretly and only informed her artists at the last minute. The final exhibition at Dwan Gallery New York closed in June of 1971.
Related Materials:
Also found within the Archives of American Art is an interview with Virginia Dwan conducted March 21 through June 1, 1984 by Charles Stuckey.
Separated Materials:
Dwan Gallery exhibition catalogs that were donated to the Archives in 1989 were transferred to the Smithsonian Institution American Art and National Portrait Gallery Library.

Bard College's Center for Curatorial Studies and Art in Contemporary Culture holds Dwan Gallery materials related to exhibitions in the Library and Archives.
Provenance:
The Dwan Gallery records were donated in 1996 by Virginia Dwan, the former owner of the gallery.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment.
Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Topic:
Art -- New York (State) -- New York -- Exhibitions  Search this
Art -- California -- Los Angeles -- Exhibitions  Search this
Earthworks (Art)  Search this
Minimal art  Search this
Abstract expressionism  Search this
Artists -- United States  Search this
Function:
Art galleries, Commercial -- California -- Los Angeles
Art galleries, Commercial -- New York (State) -- New York
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Slides (photographs)
Citation:
Dwan Gallery records, 1959-circa 1982, bulk 1959-1971. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.dwangall
See more items in:
Dwan Gallery records
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-dwangall
Online Media:

Oral history interview with Jeffrey Deitch

Interviewee:
Deitch, Jeffrey  Search this
Creator:
McElhinney, James Lancel, 1952-  Search this
Names:
Harvard Business School -- Students  Search this
John Weber Gallery  Search this
Wesleyan University (Middletown, Conn.) -- Students  Search this
Acconci, Vito, 1940-  Search this
Andre, Carl, 1935-  Search this
Beecroft, Vanessa  Search this
Callahan, Harry M.  Search this
Dwan, Virginia  Search this
Halley, Peter  Search this
Haring, Keith  Search this
Koons, Jeff  Search this
Panza, Giuseppe  Search this
Pretto, Julian  Search this
Ray, Charles  Search this
Extent:
33 Pages (Transcript)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Pages
Sound recordings
Interviews
Date:
2006 May 15
Scope and Contents:
An interview of Jeffrey Deitch conducted 2006 May 15, by James McElhinney, for the Archives of American Art, at Deitch Projects on Grand Street, in the SoHo neighborhood of New York, New York. Deitch discusses his childhood in Hartford, Connecticut; growing up in a family business; his experience as an exchange student in France and Japan during his teenage years; his education in economics and art history at Wesleyan University; the opening of his own local art gallery in Lenox, Massachusetts; his move to New York and his first job at the John Weber gallery as a secretary; curating an exhibition called "Lives" which described how artists use their lives as an art medium; attending Harvard Business School; moving back to New York and starting an art advisory program for Citibank in 1979; his travels to Asia; his first New York gallery opening with artists Peter Halley and Charles Ray; opening Deitch Projects in 1996; the administration of the gallery, including investing in an archivist, a financial manager, and a press liaison; incorporating popular musical acts into shows, attesting to his belief in diversity in the arts; his view of gallery publicity and criticism; art fairs versus traditional art galleries; discussion of works of art such as Tu M' (1918) by Marcel Duchamp and Edouard Manet's Bar at the Folies-Bergere (1881-82); and art education evolving into a more professional field. Deitch also recalls John Weber, Carl Andre, John Cage, Vito Acconci, Jeff Koons, Julian Pretto, Vanessa Beecroft, Virginia Dwan, Giuseppe Panza di Biumo, Keith Haring, and others.
Biographical / Historical:
Jeffrey Deitch (1950- ) is an art dealer from New York, New York. James McElhinney (1952- ) is a painter and educator from New York, New York.
General:
Originally recorded on 2 sound discs. Reformatted in 2010 as 2 digital wav files. Duration is 2 hr., 12 min.
Provenance:
This interview is part of the Archives of American Art Oral History Program, started in 1958 to document the history of the visual arts in the United States, primarily through interviews with artists, historians, dealers, critics and administrators.
Occupation:
Art dealers -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Function:
Art galleries, Commercial -- Massachusetts
Genre/Form:
Sound recordings
Interviews
Identifier:
AAA.deitch06
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-deitch06

Oral history interview with Tibor de Nagy

Interviewee:
De Nagy, Tibor, 1908-1993  Search this
Interviewer:
Cummings, Paul  Search this
Names:
Tibor de Nagy Gallery  Search this
Andre, Carl, 1935-  Search this
Bates, Alex  Search this
Castelli, Leo  Search this
Frankenthaler, Helen, 1928-2011  Search this
Freilicher, Jane, 1924-  Search this
Hartigan, Grace  Search this
Hess, Thomas B.  Search this
Myers, John Bernard  Search this
Nivola, Costantino, 1911-1988  Search this
O'Hara, Frank, 1926-1966  Search this
Rivers, Larry, 1925-2002  Search this
Extent:
41 Pages (Transcript)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Pages
Sound recordings
Interviews
Date:
1976 March 29
Scope and Contents:
An interview of Tibor de Nagy conducted 1976 March 29, by Paul Cummings, for the Archives of American Art. de Nagy disusses his family and educational background; his partnership with John Myers; exhibitions by Carl Andre, Helen Frankenthaler, Jane Freilicher, Grace Hartigan, Constantino Nivola, and Larry Rivers at the Tibor de Nagy Gallery; the gallery's clientele including Leo Castelli, Frank O'Hara, Alex Bates, Thomas Hess, and others. De Nagy also speaks of his relationship with museum curators and changes in the art market during the 1950s.
Biographical / Historical:
Tibor de Nagy (1908-1993) was an art dealer from New York, New York.
General:
Originally recorded on 1 sound tape reel. Reformatted in 2010 as 2 digital wav files. Duration is 1 hr., 56 min.
Provenance:
This interview is part of the Archives' Oral History Program, started in 1958 to document the history of the visual arts in the United States, primarily through interviews with artists, historians, dealers, critics and others.
Restrictions:
Transcript available on the Archives of American Art website.
Topic:
Art dealers -- New York (State) -- New York -- Interviews  Search this
Art galleries, Commercial -- Economic aspects  Search this
Function:
Art galleries, Commercial -- New York (State) -- New York
Genre/Form:
Sound recordings
Interviews
Identifier:
AAA.denagy76
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-denagy76

Oral history interview with Carl Andre

Interviewee:
Andre, Carl, 1935-  Search this
Interviewer:
Cummings, Paul  Search this
Names:
Chapman, Michael, 1935-  Search this
Frampton, Hollis, 1936-  Search this
Martin, Agnes, 1912-2004  Search this
Morgan, Maud, 1903-1999  Search this
Morgan, Patrick, 1904-  Search this
Rose, Barbara  Search this
Stella, Frank  Search this
Extent:
68 Pages (Transcript)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Pages
Sound recordings
Interviews
Date:
1972 September
Scope and Contents:
Interview of Carl Andre conducted 1972 September, by Paul Cummings, for the Archives of American Art. Andre speaks of his family and education at Phillips Andover Academy and Kenyon College and classes with Patrick and Maud Morgan. He discusses his interest in Brancusi; Ezra Pound as a critic of sculpture; the relationship between painting, sculpture, prose, and poetry; materials and methods including his "theory of masonry"; exhibitions at Hunter College, the Tibor de Nagy, Dwan, and Konrad Fisher Galleries; the appeal of Japanese art; artists' rights and art and language. He recalls his employment at the Boston Gear Works, Prentice-Hall Publishing Company, and the Pennsylvania Railroad and reminisces about Michael Chapman, Hollis Frampton, Agnes Bernice Martin, Frank Stella, Barbara E. Rose, and others.
Biographical / Historical:
Carl Andre (1935-) is a sculptor from New York, New York.
General:
Originally recorded on 2 sound tape reels. Reformatted in 2010 as 4 digital wav files. Duration is 4 hrs., 9 minutes.
Provenance:
These interviews are part of the Archives of American Art Oral History Program, started in 1958 to document the history of the visual arts in the United States, primarily through interviews with artists, historians, dealers, critics and others.
Restrictions:
ACCESS RESTRICTED; written permission required. Contact Archives Reference Services for information.
Topic:
Sculpture, Modern -- 20th century -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Sculptors -- New York (State) -- New York -- Interviews  Search this
Genre/Form:
Sound recordings
Interviews
Identifier:
AAA.andre72sep
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-andre72sep

Robert Smithson and Nancy Holt papers

Creator:
Smithson, Robert  Search this
Names:
Dwan Gallery (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Herbert F. Johnson Museum of Art  Search this
Andre, Carl, 1935-  Search this
Atkinson, Terry, 1939-  Search this
Dibbets, Jan, 1941-  Search this
Dwan, Virginia  Search this
Flavin, Dan, 1933-  Search this
Graham, Dan, 1942-  Search this
Haacke, Hans, 1936-  Search this
Heizer, Michael, 1944-  Search this
Holt, Nancy, 1938-  Search this
Insley, Will, 1929-2011  Search this
Jenney, Neil, 1945-  Search this
Johnson, Ray, 1927-  Search this
Kepes, Gyorgy, 1906-2001  Search this
LeWitt, Sol, 1928-2007  Search this
Lippard, Lucy R.  Search this
Long, Richard, 1945-  Search this
Oppenheim, Dennis, 1938-2011  Search this
Valledor, Leo, 1936-1989  Search this
Wheeler, Dennis  Search this
Extent:
15.1 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Interviews
Sketches
Scrapbooks
Greeting cards
Photographs
Transcripts
Motion pictures (visual works)
Date:
1905-1987
bulk 1952-1987
Summary:
The papers of sculptor, writer, and earthworks artist Robert Smithson and his wife, sculptor, filmmaker, and earthworks artist Nancy Holt measure 15.1 linear feet and date from 1905 to 1987, with the bulk of the material dating from 1952 to 1987. The papers consist of Smithson's biographical material; business and personal correspondence, much of it with artists; interview transcripts; extensive writings and project files; financial records; printed material; a scrapbook of clippings; holiday cards with original prints and sketches; photographic material; and artifacts. Also found are project files related to Nancy Holt's motion picture film Pine Barrens and her seminal environmental work of art Sun Tunnels, including a video documentary about Sun Tunnels.
Scope and Content Note:
The papers of sculptor, writer, and earthworks artist Robert Smithson and his wife, sculptor, filmmaker, and earthworks artist Nancy Holt measure 15.1 linear feet and date from 1905 to 1987, with the bulk of the material dating from 1952 to 1987. The papers consist of Smithson's biographical material; business and personal correspondence, much of it with artists; interview transcripts; extensive writings and project files; financial records; printed material; a scrapbook of clippings; holiday cards with original prints and sketches; photographic material; and artifacts. Also found are project files related to Nancy Holt's film Pine Barrens and her seminal environmental work of art Sun Tunnels, including a video documentary about Sun Tunnels.

Biographical material includes Robert Smithson's curriculum vitae, personal identification and medical documents, eight engagement/day planners Smithson and Holt maintained from 1966 to 1973, and Smithson's funeral register.

Correspondence is primarily with Smithson's family, friends, fellow artists, and business associates discussing personal relationships, proposed art projects, and exhibitions. Correspondents of note include Carl Andre, the Dwan Gallery (Virginia Dwan), Dan Graham, Will Insley, Ray Johnson, Gyorgy Kepes, Sol Lewitt, Lucy Lippard, and Dennis Wheeler. There is also substantial correspondence received by Holt upon Smithson's death in 1973, and between Holt and the Herbert F. Johnson Museum of Art regarding Smithson's retrospective exhibition in 1982.

There are nine interview transcripts with Smithson discussing his works and his general philosophy on art, and one transcript of the Andrew Dickson White Museum's Earth Art Symposium (1969) featuring the following artists: Mike Hiezer, Dennis Oppenheim, Robert Smithson, Neil Jenney, Gunther Uecker, Jan Dibbets, Richard Long, and Hans Haacke.

Writings are substantial and include 73 drafts of published and unpublished essays by Smithson on art, artists, and works in progress. The series also includes poems by Smithson, six notebooks containing notes and sketches by Smithson, and drafts of writings sent to Smithson and Holt by friends and colleagues, including Carl Andre, Terry Atkinson, Dan Flavin, Dan Graham, and Jack Thibeau.

Project files contain correspondence, project instructions, diagrams and sketches, research materials, photographic material, and maps related to over 50 of Smithson's artworks. These include concepts, proposed projects, sculptures, non-sites, and earthwork projects, including Spiral Jetty, Broken Circle, and Spiral Hill.

Personal business records include gallery related loan arrangements and receipts for miscellaneous art supplies. Financial records include tax forms and preparation documents, including cancelled checks, receipts, statements, and related correspondence.

Printed materials include books, clippings, and periodicals related to Smithson, either containing writings or sketches by him, or containing articles reviewing his work. There are also exhibition announcements and catalogs of Smithson's group and solo shows from 1959 to 1985.

The scrapbook contains clippings of Smithson's published articles from 1966 to 1973 with annotated shorthand notes.

Artwork consists of Christmas cards collaged by Smithson, and sketches by Smithson and Leo Valledor.

Photographic materials include prints and negatives of Smithson with friends, promotional Hollywood movie stills, and original prints and copyprints of other artists' artwork.

Artifacts consist of a paper bag silkscreened with a Campbell's soup can (Warhol), promotional buttons (N.E. Thing Co.), various organic materials, and two art kits.

Nancy Holt's papers consist of correspondence, a grant application, printed materials, and project files and audio visual material related to her motion picture film Pine Barrens (1975) and her seminal environmental work of art Sun Tunnels (1975).
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged as 13 series:

Series 1: Biographical Materials, 1905-1974 (Box 1; 14 folders)

Series 2: Correspondence, 1959-1987 (Boxes 1-2, OV 21; 1.7 linear feet)

Series 3: Interview Transcripts, 1966-1973 (Box 2; 11 folders)

Series 4: Writings, 1959-1975 (Boxes 2-3; 1.1 linear feet)

Series 5: Project Files, circa 1950s-1982 (Boxes 4-5, Boxes 17-18, OV 20, OV 22-26, OV 36, RD 28-30, RD 32-35; 6.5 linear feet)

Series 6: Personal Business Records, circa 1967-1970s (Box 5; 4 folders)

Series 7: Financial Records, 1962-1972 (Box 6; 1 linear foot)

Series 8: Printed Material, 1955-1985 (Boxes 7-11, Box 18, RD 31; 5.6 linear feet)

Series 9: Scrapbook, 1966-1973 (Box 11, Box 16; 0.3 linear feet)

Series 10: Artwork, circa 1950s-1970s (Box 11; 4 folders)

Series 11: Photographs, circa 1950s-1970s (Box 11, Box 18; 5 folders)

Series 12: Artifacts, circa 1950s-1970s (Box 11, Box 14, OV 19; 0.5 linear feet)

Series 13: Nancy Holt Papers, circa 1960s-1980s (Box 12-13, 15, OV 27, FC 37-38; 1.9 linear feet)
Biographical Note:
Robert Smithson (1938-1973) was the pioneer of land and earthworks art. He was also a noted sculptor, painter, writer, and lecturer working primarily in New York City. Smithson's wife, Nancy Holt (1938-) was a noted sculptor and filmmaker and also worked as an earthworks artist.

Born in Passaic, New Jersey, Smithson expressed an early interest in art, enrolling in classes at the Brooklyn Museum School and the Art Student's League in New York while still attending high school. Smithson's early works were primarily paintings, drawings, and collages. In 1959, he exhibited his first solo show of paintings at the Artists' Gallery in New York and had his first solo international show in Rome with the Galleria George Lester in 1961.

During the early to mid-1960s, Smithson was perhaps better known as a writer and art critic, writing numerous essays and reviews for Arts Magazine and Artforum. He became affiliated with artists who were identified with the minimalist movement, such as Carl Andre, Donald Judd, Nancy Holt, Sol LeWitt, Robert Morris and others. In 1963, Smithson married sculptor and filmmaker Nancy Holt and a year later started to create his first sculptural works. In 1966, Smithson joined the Dwan Gallery, whose owner Virginia Dwan was an enthusiastic supporter of his work.

Smithson's interest in land art began in the late 1960s while exploring industrial and quarry sites and observing the movement of earth and rocks. This resulted in a series of sculptures called "non-sites" consisting of earth and rocks collected from a specific site and installed in gallery space, often combined with photographs, maps, mirrors, or found materials. In September 1968, Smithson published the essay "A Sedimentation of the Mind: Earth Projects" in Artforum that promoted the work of the first wave of land art artists. Soon thereafter, he began creating his own large scale land art and earthworks.

From 1967 to 1973, Smithson's productivity was constant as he wrote, lectured, and participated in several solo and group shows a year, both at home and abroad. He explored narrative art as essay in "The Monuments of Passaic" and fully committed to his idea of visiting sites and using them as the basis for creating non-sites, Non-Site, Pine Barrens, (1968); incorporated and documented the use of mirrors at sites in Mirror Displacement, Cayuga Salt Mine Project (1968-1969); and created his first site-specific works through liquid pours of mud, asphalt, and concrete, including Asphalt Rundown (1969). In 1969, he also completed his first earth pour at Kent State University with his project Partially Buried Woodshed. Later that year, he created the sculptural artwork for which he is best known, Spiral Jetty (1969) on the Great Salt Lake in Utah. This was the first of his pieces to require the acquisition of land rights and earthmoving equipment, and would be followed two years later by Broken Circle and Spiral Hill in 1971.

On July 20, 1973, while surveying sites in Texas for the proposed Amarillo Ramp, Smithson died in a plane crash at the age of 35. Despite his early death, Smithson's writings and artwork had a major impact on many contemporary artists.

Nancy Holt began her career as a photographer and video artist. Today, Holt is most widely known for her large-scale environmental works, Sun Tunnels and Dark Star Park. Holt has also made a number of films and videos since the late 1960s, including Mono Lake (1968), East Coast, West Coast (1969), and Swamp (1971) in collaboration with her late husband Robert Smithson. Points of View: Clocktower (1974) features conversations between Lucy Lippard and Richard Serra, Liza Bear and Klaus Kertess, Carl Andre and Ruth Kligman and Bruce Brice and Tina Girouard. In 1978, she produced a film about her seminal work Sun Tunnels.
Related Material:
The Archives also holds several collections related to Robert Smithson and Nancy Holt, including an oral history interview with Robert Smithson conducted by Paul Cummings in 1972; an interview with Robert Smithson conducted by Tony Robbin in 1968; Robert Smithson letters to George B. Lester, 1960-1963; and oral history interviews with Nancy Holt conducted by Scott Gutterman in 1992 and Joyce Pomeroy Schwartz in 1993.
Separated Material:
Non-archival library books, periodicals, and phonographs from Robert Smithson's personal library are currently stored offsite.
Provenance:
The papers of Robert Smithson and Nancy Holt were donated by Nancy Holt in several accretions between 1986 and 2011.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment. Use of archival audiovisual recordings with no duplicate access copy requires advance notice.
Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Topic:
Sculptors -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Authors -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Art -- Philosophy  Search this
Earthworks (Art)  Search this
Filmmakers -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Genre/Form:
Interviews
Sketches
Scrapbooks
Greeting cards
Photographs
Transcripts
Motion pictures (visual works)
Citation:
Robert Smithson and Nancy Holt papers, 1905-1987, bulk 1952-1987. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.smitrobe
See more items in:
Robert Smithson and Nancy Holt papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-smitrobe
Online Media:

Dorothy and Herbert Vogel papers

Creator:
Vogel, Dorothy  Search this
Vogel, Herbert  Search this
Names:
Kunsthalle Bielefeld  Search this
Andre, Carl, 1935-  Search this
Antonakos, Stephen, 1926-2013  Search this
Artschwager, Richard, 1923-  Search this
Aycock, Alice  Search this
Barnet, Will, 1911-2012  Search this
Bochner, Mel, 1940-  Search this
Cadere, André, 1934-1978  Search this
Chernow, Ann, 1936-  Search this
Christo, 1935-  Search this
Cyphers, Peggy, 1954-  Search this
DeMonte, Claudia, 1947-  Search this
Francisco, Richard, 1942-  Search this
Graham, Dan, 1942-  Search this
Groth, Jan, 1938-  Search this
Hazlitt, Don, 1948-  Search this
Highstein, Jene, 1942-2013  Search this
Jean-Claude, Martha, 1919-2001  Search this
Kawara, On  Search this
LeWitt, Sol, 1928-2007  Search this
Mangold, Robert, 1937-  Search this
Mangold, Sylvia Plimack, 1938-  Search this
Pozzi, Lucio, 1935-  Search this
Renouf, Edda  Search this
Ryman, Robert, 1930-  Search this
Schultz, Barbara  Search this
Seawright, Sandy  Search this
Tabler, Bernadine  Search this
Taschler, Lori, 1959-  Search this
Tuttle, Richard, 1941-  Search this
Umlauf, Lynn  Search this
Extent:
47.5 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Date:
1960s-2009
Summary:
The papers of contemporary art collectors Dorothy and Herbert Vogel measure 47.5 linear feet and date from the 1960s to 2009. Found is scattered general correspondence, artists' files, subject files, business records, and printed material relating to the Vogel Collection. Artists' and subject files create the bulk of the collection, the majority of which is printed material but includes some correspondence from artists.
Scope and Contents:
The papers of contemporary art collectors Dorothy and Herbert Vogel measure 47.5 linear feet and date from the 1960s to 2009. Found is scattered general correspondence, artists' files, subject files, business records, and printed material relating to the Vogel Collection. Artists' and subject files create the bulk of the collection, the majority of which is printed material but includes some correspondence from artists.

Scattered general correspondence is with friends, acquaintances, and corporate entities.

Files for artists represented in the Vogel Collection include Carl Andre, Stephen Antonakos, Richard Artschwager, Alice Aycock, Will Barnet, Mel Bochner, Andre Cadere, Ann Chernow, Christo and Jeanne-Claude, Peggy Cyphers, Claudia DeMonte, Richard Francisco, Dan Graham, Jan Groth, Don Hazlitt, Jene Highstein, On Kawara, Sol Lewitt, Sylvia and Robert Mangold, Lucio Pozzi, Edda Renouf, Robert Ryman, Barbara Schultz, Lori Taschler, Richard Tuttle, and Lynn Umlauf among many others. Materials within artists' files may include printed material, correspondence, writings and notes, and scattered business records.

Subject files are found for Dorothy and Herbert Vogel's friends and colleagues within the art world including art historians, writers, gallerists, dealers, and collectors. Extensive letters are from Sandy Seawright and Bernadine Tabler. Exhibition related materials are found among the files.

Scattered business records of the Vogel Collection document exhibitions of the collection at U.S. institutions and at the Kunsthalle Bielefeld Museum in Germany.

Printed materials include clippings, posters, and exhibition catalogs and announcements.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged as 5 series:

Series 1: Correspondence, 1971-1987 (0.3 linear feet; Box 1)

Series 2: Artists' Files, 1963-2009 (30.4 linear feet; Boxes 1-31)

Series 3: Subject Files, 1969-2008 (9.8 linear feet; Boxes 31-41)

Series 4: Vogel Collection Business Records, 1974-1988 (0.3 linear feet; Box 41)

Series 5: Printed Material, 1960s-2000s (6.7 linear feet; Boxes 41-47, OV48-58)
Biographical / Historical:
Dorothy (1935- ) and Herbert Vogel (1922-2012) were contemporary art collectors in New York City, New York. The middle-class couple bought and collected art for forty-five years and amassed an extensive collection.

A life-long New Yorker, Herbert Vogel was born in 1922 and dropped out of school to work in a garment factory. After joining the U.S. Army, Vogel became a postal clerk and began to frequent Greenwich Village's Cedar Bar, a popular bar of the arts crowd. Vogel developed a deep appreciation for art and for the artists themselves.

In 1960, he met librarian Dorothy Faye Hoffman and they quickly fell in love. During their honeymoon, they visited the National Gallery of Art in Washington, D.C. Dorothy and Herb's first purchase was a sculpture by John Chamberlain. On their civil servant salary, the Vogels continued to collect and purchase art, beginning with young artists of the 1960s and 1970s while bypassing the dealer system of the New York City art scene. The result was a collection of 5,000 pieces which had to fit in their one-bedroom apartment.

In 1992, the Vogels donated the bulk of their collection to the National Gallery of Art, with fifty pieces intended to go to a museum or institution in each of the United States. Herbert Vogel died in 2012 in Manhattan and is survived by Dorothy.
Separated Materials:
The Archives of American Art also holds material lent for microfilming (reel 2435) including three notebooks containing clippings, articles, press releases, exhibition catalogs and announcements. Lent materials were returned to the lender and are not described in the collection container inventory.
Provenance:
Dorothy and Herbert Vogel donated their papers in several accretions from 1980 to 2009 and lent three notebooks for microfilming in 1982.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C. Research Center. Contact Reference Services for more information.
Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Topic:
Art -- Collectors and collecting  Search this
Art, Modern -- 20th century -- Collectors and collecting -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Citation:
Dorothy and Herbert Vogel papers, 1960s-2009. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.vogedoro
See more items in:
Dorothy and Herbert Vogel papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-vogedoro
Online Media:

Kit Schwartz interviews with artists

Creator:
Schwartz, Kit  Search this
Names:
Marianne Deson Gallery  Search this
O.K. Harris Gallery (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Andre, Carl, 1935-  Search this
Arman, 1928-2005  Search this
Arneson, Robert, 1930-1992  Search this
Charlesworth, Sarah, 1947-2013  Search this
Graham, Dan, 1942-  Search this
Johnson, Ray, 1927-1995  Search this
Karp, Ivan C., 1926-2012  Search this
Kosuth, Joseph.  Search this
Paik, Nam June, 1932-  Search this
Warhol, Andy, 1928-1987  Search this
Wegman, William  Search this
Weiner, Lawrence, 1942-  Search this
Extent:
0.4 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Interviews
Sound recordings
Date:
1977-1978
Scope and Contents:
A compendium of interviews for a project created by Kit Schwartz consisting of responses by 45 artists to the statement "People who live in glass houses should not throw stones" and responses from 90 artists to the question "Describe yourself as a person." Materials include sound recordings and corresponding transcripts of each response in two scrapbooks. Participants include Carl Andre, Arman, Robert Arneson, Sarah Charlesworth, Dan Graham, Ray Johnson, Ivan Karp, Joseph Kosuth, Nam June Paik, Andy Warhol, William Wegman, Lawrence Weiner, and others. Also included is a folder of background information on the project. The project was exhibited under the name "A New Portrait: A Semiographic Representation of Art During the Seventies" at the Marianne Deson Gallery, Ontario, Canada and the O.K. Harris Gallery, New York.
Biographical / Historical:
Kit Schwartz is a female author from Chicago, Illinois.
Provenance:
Transferred 2015 by Smithsonian American Art Museum, National Portrait Gallery Library via Anne Evenhaugen, Librarian.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C., Research Center.
Occupation:
Artists  Search this
Authors -- Illinois -- Chicago  Search this
Genre/Form:
Interviews
Sound recordings
Identifier:
AAA.schwkit
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-schwkit

Barbara Rose papers

Creator:
Rose, Barbara  Search this
Names:
Adams, Ansel, 1902-1984  Search this
Andre, Carl, 1935-  Search this
Bannard, Walter Darby, 1934-  Search this
Bellamy, Richard  Search this
Bierman, A. K., 1923- (Arthur Kalme)  Search this
Bladen, Ronald, 1918-1988  Search this
Bowles, John  Search this
Castelli, Leo  Search this
Davis, Jim, 1901-1974  Search this
Davis, Ron, 1937-  Search this
De Forest, Roy, 1930-2007  Search this
Di Suvero, Mark, 1933-  Search this
Dzubas, Friedel, 1915-  Search this
Flavin, Dan, 1933-  Search this
Frazier, Charles  Search this
Geldzahler, Henry  Search this
Hare, David, 1917-1992  Search this
Hopps, Walter  Search this
Judd, Donald, 1928-  Search this
Karp, Ivan C., 1926-2012  Search this
Kauffman, Craig, 1932-2010  Search this
Krasner, Lee, 1908-1984  Search this
LeWitt, Sol, 1928-2007  Search this
Lefebre, John  Search this
Lichtenstein, Roy, 1923-1997  Search this
Locks, Seymour, 1919-  Search this
Lye, Len, 1901-1980  Search this
Mack, Heinz, 1931-  Search this
McCracken, John, 1934-2011  Search this
McShine, Kynaston  Search this
Meier, Richard, 1934-  Search this
Morris, Robert, 1931-2018  Search this
Motherwell, Robert  Search this
Mundt, Ernest Karl, 1905-  Search this
Murray, Robert, 1936-  Search this
Myers, John Bernard  Search this
Oldenburg, Claes, 1929-  Search this
Padovano, Anthony  Search this
Piene, Otto, 1928-  Search this
Poons, Larry  Search this
Rauschenberg, Robert, 1925-2008  Search this
Rexroth, Kenneth, 1905-1982  Search this
Rose, Barbara  Search this
Rudolph, Paul, 1918-  Search this
Sandler, Irving, 1925-  Search this
Segal, George, 1924-2000  Search this
Stella, Frank  Search this
Taylor, Edward Silverstone  Search this
Wasserman, Tamara E.  Search this
Wesselmann, Tom, 1931-2004  Search this
Extent:
1.4 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Interviews
Transcripts
Sound recordings
Lectures
Date:
1962-circa 1969
Summary:
The Barbara Rose papers date from 1962 to circa 1969 and measure 1.4 linear feet. Papers include letters, writings, printed material, interviews with artists, panel discussions, and lectures relating to Barbara Rose's research as an art historian.
Scope and Contents:
The Barbara Rose papers date from 1962 to circa 1969 and measure 1.4 linear feet. Papers include letters, interviews with artists, panel discussions, lectures, writings, and printed material relating to Barbara Rose's work as an art historian and critic.

Letters consist of responses to queries and questionnaires Rose and Irving Sandler sent to contemporary artists as research for writing projects. Questionnaires were sesnt in preparation for an article in Art in America on artists' sensibility of the 1960s, with responses from Robert Motherwell, Robert Craig Kauffman, Len Lye, Robert Morris, George Segal, David Hare, and others. A separate query asked sculptors for their assessment of contemporary sculptor's needs and the potential for patronage, and responses are found from Carl Andre, Charles Frazier, Robert Murray, Anthony Padovano, Ron Bladen, Roy Lichtenstein, Len Lye, Sol LeWitt, Heinz Mack, Otto Peine, Dan Flavin, and Donald Judd.

Interviews conducted by Rose between 1965 and circa 1969 are found with Richard Bellamy, Leo Castelli, James E. Davis, Henry Geldzahler, Ivan Karp, Lee Krasner, John Lefebre, John Myers, Donald Judd with Frank Stella, and Tom Wesselmann. All interviews include original sound recordings, and the Judd and Stella, Krasner, and Myers interviews include transcripts. Panel discussions and lectures include sound recordings and transcripts of seven events on a variety of contemporary art and architecture subjects held between 1962 and 1968. Sound recordings are present for five of the events on 10 sound tape reels, and transcripts are present for all events. Participants in the panel discussions and lectures include Barbara Rose, Ronald Davis, Dan Flavin, Robert Kauffman, John Harvey McCracken, Friedel Dzubas, Ansel Adams, Arthur Bierman, Kenneth Rexroth, Edward Taylor, Ernst Karl Mundt, John Bowles, Roy Dean De Forest, Seymour Locks, Walter Hopps, Mark Di Suvero, Donald Judd, Robert Morris, Kynaston McShine, Walter Darby Bannard, Donald Judd, Larry Poons, Robert Rauschenberg, Richard Meier, Paul Rudolph, Claes Oldenburg, and Robert Murray.

Writings include photocopied typescripts of "Myth, Symbol, or Me," by Emily Wasserman and "Excerpts from a Work Journal on Flying Sculpture," by Charles Frazier. Printed material consists of two copies of the premiere issue of the 57th Street Review, from Nov. 15, 1966.
Arrangement:
This collection is arranged as 4 series.

Series 1: Letters (0.2 linear feet; Box 1)

Series 2: Interviews (0.6 linear feet; Box 1)

Series 3: Panel Discussions and Lectures (0.5 linear feet; Boxes 1-2)

Series 4: Writings and Printed Material (0.1 linear feet; Box 2)
Biographical / Historical:
Barbara Rose is an American art historian and critic who has published widely in the field of modern American art. Born in 1938 in Washington, DC, Rose studied at the Sorbonne, Smith College, Barnard, and finally, Columbia University under Meyer Shapiro. Rose became immersed in the New York-based circle of modernist artists and curators in the late 1950s and early 1960s, and made her substantial contribution to the discourse on contemporary art with the insider's perspective this afforded her. In 1961, she married the painter Frank Stella and they had two children before their divorce in 1969.

Rose taught at Yale University, Sarah Lawrence, University of California at Irvine and San Diego, and the American University Art in Italy program, and was senior curator at the Museum of Fine Arts, Houston, from 1981-1985. A prolific writer, Rose is the author of American Art Since 1900 (1967), The Golden Age of Dutch Painting (1969), American Painting: The 20th Century (Skira, 1969), and monographs on the artists Magdalena Abankawicz, Helen Frankenthaler, Robert Rauschenberg, Alexander Liberman, Larry Rivers, and others, as well as dozens of exhibition catalog essays. She held editorial positions at Art in America, Vogue, Artforum, Partisan Review, and Journal of Art, and her writing has also appeared in Art International, Studio International, Arts Magazine, and ARTnews, among many others.
Related Materials:
Barbara Rose papers, 1940-1993 (bulk 1960-1985) are located at The Getty Research Institute Special Collections.
Separated Materials:
Additional papers of Barbara Rose are held by The Getty Research Institute.
Provenance:
Donated 1971-1977 by Barbara Rose.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C. Research Center. Contact Reference Services for more information.
Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Occupation:
Art historians -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Art critics -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Topic:
Art, American  Search this
Genre/Form:
Interviews
Transcripts
Sound recordings
Lectures
Citation:
Barbara Rose papers, 1962-circa 1969. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.rosebarb
See more items in:
Barbara Rose papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-rosebarb

Lucy R. Lippard papers

Creator:
Lippard, Lucy R.  Search this
Names:
Addison Gallery of American Art  Search this
Alliance for Cultural Democracy  Search this
Art Workers Coalition  Search this
Museum of Modern Art (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Political Art Documentation/Distribution (Organization)  Search this
Printed Matter, Inc.  Search this
Studio International (Firm)  Search this
University of Colorado -- Faculty  Search this
Women's Caucus for Art  Search this
Andre, Carl, 1935-  Search this
Chicago, Judy, 1939-  Search this
Darboven, Hanne  Search this
Edelson, Mary Beth  Search this
Hammond, Harmony  Search this
Henes, Donna  Search this
Johnson, Ray, 1927-  Search this
Judd, Donald, 1928-  Search this
LeWitt, Sol, 1928-2007  Search this
Pearson, Henry, 1914-2006  Search this
Stevens, May  Search this
Extent:
56.5 Linear feet
0.454 Gigabytes
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Gigabytes
Sound recordings
Interviews
Photographs
Date:
1930s-2007
bulk 1960-1990
Summary:
The papers of New York and New Mexico writer, art critic, and curator, Lucy R. Lippard, measure 56.5 linear feet and 0.454 GB and date from the 1930s to 2007, with the bulk of the material dating from the 1960s to the 1990s. Over half of the collection consists of correspondence files documenting Lippard's professional relationships with artists, writers, galleries, art institutions, and political organizations, and her interest in conceptual and minimalist art, feminism and political activism. Also found are Lippard's notes and writings including sound recordings and interviews, teaching and exhibition files, printed and digital material, several works of art, and photographs of artwork and artists. Scattered throughout the collection are a small number of records concerning Lippard's personal life. An addition of 3.0 linear feet donated 2015 includes subject files on feminist and conceptual art as well as land use, development, and local politics and history in New Mexico.
Scope and Contents:
The papers of New York and New Mexico writer, art critic, and curator, Lucy R. Lippard, measure 56.5 linear feet and 0.454 GB and date from the 1930s to 2007, with the bulk of the material dating from the 1960s to the 1990s. Over half of the collection consists of correspondence files documenting Lippard's professional relationships with artists, writers, galleries, art institutions, and political organizations, and her interest in conceptual and minimalist art, feminism and political activism. Also found are Lippard's notes and writings including sound recordings and interviews, teaching and exhibition files, printed and digital material, several works of art, and photographs of artwork and artists. Scattered throughout the collection are a small number of records concerning Lippard's personal life. An addition of 3.0 linear feet donated 2015 includes subject files on feminist and conceptual art as well as land use, development, and local politics and history in New Mexico.

A small amount of biographical material comprises resumes and an address book.

Correspondence files document all aspects of Lippard's professional life including her relationships with artists such as Carl Andre, Judy Chicago, Hanne Darboven, Ray Johnson, Sol LeWitt, and Henry Pearson; feminist artists including Mary Beth Edelson, Harmony Hammond, Donna Henes, and May Stevens; political and art-related activist groups such as Alliance for Cultural Democracy, Art Workers Coalition, Political Art Documentation/Distribution, Printed Matter, and Women's Caucus for Art; galleries and museums including Addison Gallery of American Art and the Museum of Modern Art, and publishers including Art International and Art Forum. The series also traces the development of Lippard's involvement in activist causes including censorship and the rights of artists, Central America and the impact of U.S. policy on the region, and equality and reproductive rights for women, as well as her interest in conceptual and minimalist art. The series includes scattered artwork and photographs of artists.

Writings are primarily by Lippard and include correspondence, manuscript drafts, extensive notes, and publication records for some of her best-known books such as The Graphic Work of Philip Evergood (1966), Six Years: The Dematerialization of the Art Object (1973), Eva Hesse (1976), Ad Reinhardt (1985), and Mixed Blessings: New Art in a Multicultural America (1990), as well as essays for publications such as Art Forum and Studio International and contributions to exhibition catalogs. Also found are edited transcripts from conferences, symposia and interviews conducted by and of Lippard, some audio recordings of interviews and symposia, including an interview with Donald Judd, and notes and typescripts for lectures and speeches.

A small number of files document Lippard's teaching work during the 1970s and 1980s, primarily at the University of Colorado, Boulder where she taught several courses and seminars.

Exhibition files document Lippard's involvement with exhibitions she helped to organize or curate such as A Different War: Vietnam in Art (1989-1991) 557,087 and 955,000 (1969, 1970), 2,972, 453 (1971) c.7,500 (1973-1974) and those for which she wrote catalog contributions.

Printed material includes a collection of articles written by Lippard and a small amount of material concerning events, such as speaking engagements, in which Lippard was involved. Other printed material reflects Lippard's wide range of artistic, political and activist interests and documents exhibitions and performances and the activities of art-related and political groups. Material includes many exhibition catalogs, announcements, invitations, printed posters, news clippings, journal articles, brochures, pamphlets and other publications.

Artwork includes sixteen items by unidentified artists, including two by children. Photographs consist primarily of photographs of works of art in addition to a small number of photos of exhibition installations.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged as eight series:

Series 1: Biographical Material, circa 1960s-circa 1980s (Box 1; 2 folders)

Series 2: Correspondence, 1950s-2006 (Boxes 1-28, 51, OVs 54-63; 28.8 linear feet)

Series 3: Writings, 1930s-1990s (Boxes 28-41, 51-52, OVs 64-66; 13.24 linear feet, ER01; 0.454 GB)

Series 4: Teaching Files, 1966-1993 (Boxes 41, 52; 0.76 linear feet)

Series 5: Exhibitions, 1960s-1990s (Boxes 42-45, 52, OVs 67-68; 4.2 linear feet)

Series 6: Printed Material, 1940s-2007 (Boxes 45-49, 52, OVs 69-77; 5.3 linear feet)

Series 7: Artwork and Ephemera, circa 1960s-circa 1990s (Boxes 50, 53; 4 folders)

Series 8: Photographs, 1950s-circa 1990s (Boxes 50, 53, OV 71; 1.0 linear foot)
Biographical / Historical:
New York and New Mexico writer and art critic, Lucy R. Lippard, is the curator of numerous exhibitions and the author of over twenty-four books and other writings that trace the emergence of minimalist and conceptual art and document Lippard's commitment to feminism and political activism.

Born in New York City in 1937, Lippard earned a B.A. from Smith College in 1958 and an M.A. in 1962 from New York University's Institute of Fine Arts. In the 1960s she began writing art criticism for the journals Art International and Artforum. In 1966 she curated the landmark exhibition Eccentric Abstraction at the Fischbach Gallery in New York City. Lippard then curated the first of four defining conceptual art exhibitions that became known as her "numbers" shows, each titled after the populations of the cities in which they took place, with catalogs in the form of a set of 10 x 15 cm index cards. Opening at the Seattle Art Museum in 1969, 557,087 was followed by 955,000 in Vancouver, Canada, a few months later. 2,972,453 was held at the Centro de Arte y Comunicacíon in Buenos Aires in 1971 and c.7500 opened in Valencia, California, in 1973-1974 before traveling to several other venues in the United States and Europe.

Lippard's first book, The Graphic Work of Philip Evergood was published in 1966, followed by Pop Art the same year, and a collection of her early essays, Changing, in 1971. Six Years: The Dematerialization of the Art Object (1973) and From the Center: Feminist Essays on Women's Art (1976) documented the emergence of conceptual art and the early years of feminist art respectively. In 1976 Lippard published her seminal book on the life and work of Eva Hesse.

Between 1977 and 1978 Lippard lived on a farm in Devon, England, and worked on a novel, The First Stone, about the role of politics in the lives of three generations of women. During her walks across the English countryside she became interested in landscape art and conceived of her book Overlay: Contemporary Art and the Art of Prehistory which was subsequently published in 1983. Other books include Get the Message?: A Decade Of Art For Social Change (1984), Ad Reinhardt (1985), and Mixed Blessings: New Art in a Multicultural America (1990). Lippard has also written regular columns on art and politics for the Village Voice, In These Times and Z Magazine, and has been a contributing editor of Art in America.

Lippard was radicalized during a trip to Argentina in 1968 when she was invited to be a juror at the Museo Nacional de Bellas Artes in Buenos Aires. On her return to the United States she became heavily involved in anti-war activities and the Art Workers Coalition. She is a co-founder of several feminist and artist organizations including the feminist collective Heresies, which produced Heresies: A Feminist Journal on Art and Politics from 1977-1992, Ad Hoc Women Artists, Alliance for Cultural Democracy, Artists Call Against U.S. Intervention in Central America, Women's Action Coalition, and Women's Art Registry. In 1976 she was a founder of Printed Matter, a New York nonprofit dedicated to producing artists' publications. She also worked closely with Franklin Furnace, an artist-run space devoted to the promotion of artists' books, installation art, and video and performance art, and served on the organization's International Committee.

Lippard has been a visiting professor at the School of Visual Arts, the University of Colorado, Boulder, and the University of Queensland, Australia, and was Eminent Artist in Residence at the University of Wyoming Department of Art in 2015. She has received honorary doctorates in fine arts from Maine College of Art, the Massachusetts College of Art, Moore College of Art, San Francisco Art Institute, and others, and awards including a Guggenheim Fellowship, two National Endowment for the Arts grants in criticism, the Smith College Medal, the ArtTable Award for Distinguished Service to the Visual Arts, and the Bard College Center for Curatorial Studies Award for Excellence.

Lippard has lived in New Mexico since 1992 and works as a freelance writer and speaker.
Related Materials:
Also found in the Archives of American Art is an oral history interview with Lucy Lippard conducted in 2011 March 15, by Sue Heinemann, for the Archives of American Art's Elizabeth Murray Oral History of Women in the Visual Arts project, funded by a grant from the A G Foundation.
Provenance:
Lucy R. Lippard donated her papers in several increments between 1972-1995, and 2006.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C. Research Center. Use of archival audiovisual recordings with no duplicate access copy requires advance notice. Contact Reference Services for more information.
Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Occupation:
Art critics  Search this
Topic:
Curators -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Art -- Study and teaching  Search this
Art, Modern -- 20th century  Search this
Artists -- Political activity  Search this
Authors -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Conceptual art  Search this
Art criticism -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Feminism and art  Search this
Minimal art  Search this
Genre/Form:
Sound recordings
Interviews
Photographs
Citation:
Lucy R. Lippard papers, 1930s-2007, bulk 1960s-1990s. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.lipplucy
See more items in:
Lucy R. Lippard papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-lipplucy
Online Media:

Oral history interview with Carl Andre

Creator:
Andre, Carl, 1935-  Search this
Interviewer:
Raikin, Laurin  Search this
Names:
Art Workers Coalition  Search this
National Art Workers Community (U.S.)  Search this
Extent:
24 Pages (Transcript)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Pages
Interviews
Date:
1972
Scope and Contents:
Interview of Carl Andre conducted in 1972, by Laurin Raikin, for the "Art World in Turmoil" oral history project.
Andre speaks of politics and art; capitalism and class structure; the gallery system; professional organizations including the National Art Workers Community and the Art Workers Coalition; economic survival and the success of American artists; exploitation of artists; "radical art"; and the need for and artist's trade union.
Biographical / Historical:
Carl Andre (1935- ) is a sculptor in New York, New York.
Provenance:
This interview is part of the Archives' Oral History Program, started in 1958 to document the history of the visual arts in the United States, primarily through interviews with artists, historians, dealers, critics and others.
Restrictions:
ACCESS RESTRICTED; written permission required. Contact Archives Reference Services for information.
Use of this interview, with permission, requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives of American Art reading rooms.
Topic:
Art -- Political aspects  Search this
Art and state  Search this
Sculptors -- New York (State) -- New York -- Interviews  Search this
Sculpture, Modern -- 20th century -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Genre/Form:
Interviews
Identifier:
AAA.andre72
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-andre72

Oral history interview with Carl Andre, 1972

Interviewee:
Andre, Carl, 1935-  Search this
Interviewer:
Raikin, Laurin  Search this
Subject:
Art Workers Coalition  Search this
National Art Workers Community (U.S.)  Search this
Type:
Interviews
Topic:
Art -- Political aspects  Search this
Art and state  Search this
Sculptors -- New York (State) -- New York -- Interviews  Search this
Sculpture, Modern -- 20th century -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)12059
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)214150
AAA_collcode_andre72
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_oh_214150

Oral history interview with Carl Andre, 1972 September

Interviewee:
Andre, Carl, 1935-  Search this
Interviewer:
Cummings, Paul, 1933-1997  Search this
Subject:
Chapman, Michael  Search this
Frampton, Hollis  Search this
Martin, Agnes  Search this
Morgan, Maud  Search this
Morgan, Patrick  Search this
Rose, Barbara  Search this
Stella, Frank  Search this
Type:
Sound recordings
Interviews
Topic:
Sculpture, Modern -- 20th century -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Sculptors -- New York (State) -- New York -- Interviews  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)13302
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)211931
AAA_collcode_andre72sep
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_oh_211931

Carl Andre postcard to Nancy Holt and Robert Smithson, New York, New York

Creator:
Andre, Carl, 1935-  Search this
Smithson, Robert, 1938-1973  Search this
Subject:
Holt, Nancy  Search this
Type:
Correspondence
Date:
circa 1973
Record number:
(DSI-AAA)12004
See more items in:
Robert Smithson and Nancy Holt papers, 1905-1987, bulk 1952-1987
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_item_12004
Online Media:

Proposal for an explosion

Creator:
Andre, Carl, 1935-  Search this
Type:
Writings
Date:
1967 May 7
Record number:
(DSI-AAA)13658
See more items in:
Robert Smithson and Nancy Holt papers, 1905-1987, bulk 1952-1987
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_item_13658

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