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MS 2372 Garrick Mallery Collection on Sign Language and Pictography

Creator:
Mallery, Garrick, 1831-1894  Search this
Extent:
41.29 Linear feet (22 boxes, 29 folders, 3 mounted drawings, and 3 rolled items)
Note:
Some materials, especially in series 3, are stored in the NAA artwork collection.
Culture:
Arctic peoples  Search this
Indians of North America  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Pictographs
Place:
Oceania
Date:
1849-1902
bulk 1870-1895
Summary:
Garrick Mallery (1831-1894) was an ethnologist with the Bureau of American Ethnology who focused primarily on Native American sign language and pictography. This collection reflects Mallery's research interests and methods. Much of the collection is comprised of correspondence and notes relating to sign language and pictography and is organized chiefly by either the cultural or geographic region to which the material belongs. Bound volumes of several of his publications are included, along with annotated draft copies from collaborators. In the case of Mallery's work on pictography, the collection includes several oversize items including original works and reproductions.
Scope and Contents:
This collection contains Garrick Mallery's research and writings as a BAE ethnologist and is largely comprised of correspondence and preparatory materials for publications on Native American sign language and pictography. The geographic scope of the material is chiefly the present-day United States and Canada, though other areas of the world are represented less comprehensively. Correspondence and research notes include verbal descriptions of signs, sometimes with illustrations included. Bound volumes of Mallery's publications are included, along with annotations from collaborators. In addition, this collection includes notecards, drawings, illustrations, photographs, articles, and art objects. Art objects (mostly oversize) deal chiefly with Dakota winter counts and other artifacts.

Please note that the contents of the collection and the language and terminology used reflect the context and culture of the time of its creation. As an historical document, its contents may be at odds with contemporary views and terminology and considered offensive today. The information within this collection does not reflect the views of the Smithsonian Institution or National Anthropological Archives, but is available in its original form to facilitate research.
Arrangement:
This collection is arranged into 3 series: 1) Research Notes, undated; 2) Materials on Sign Language, 1843-1849, 1873-1894; 3) Materials on Pictographs and Petroglyphs, 1849-1902, undated
Biographical Note:
Garrick Mallery (1831-1894) was born in Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania and practiced law in Philadelphia from 1853 until the outbreak of the American Civil War. While serving in the army, he became interested in Native American sign language and pictography, perhaps while performing his duties in frontier areas. After retiring from the military in 1879, Mallery was appointed to the newly created Bureau of American Ethnology as one of its first ethnologists. In his work with the Bureau, Mallery pioneered the study of sign language and pictographs, examining them as a universal human phenomenon with a direct link to spoken language.

In his work, Mallery collected and examined sign language vocabulary from Native American groups throughout the U.S. and Canada and regularly solicited contributions from collaborators. He also related his findings to examples from the wider world, comparing the formation of Native American signs to those in other areas by hearing individuals and by the deaf. Mallery completed several publications on the topic throughout the 1880s, notably Introduction to the Study of Sign language Among the North American Indians (1880), A Collection of Gesture- Signs and Signals of the North American Indians (1880), and "Sign-language among North American Indians Compared with that Among other People and Deaf-mutes," which appeared in the BAE 1st Annual Report (1881).

While most widely known for his work with sign language, Mallery also undertook extensive research into Native American pictography. Like his work with sign language, he both conducted original research and solicited assistance from collaborators. He was especially interested in the representational images in Dakota winter counts and petroglyphs in the United States and throughout the world.

Sources Consulted

Fletcher, Robert. "Garrick Mallery, President of the Philosophical Society of Washington, in 1888." In Brief Memoirs of Colonel Garrick Mallery, U.S.A., Who Died October 24, 1894, 3-8. Washington: Judd & Detweiler, 1895.

Fletcher, Robert. "Colonel Garrick Mallery, U.S.A." American Anthropologist 8, no. 2 (1895): 79-80.

Chronology

1831 -- Born in Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania, on April 25

1850 -- Graduates Yale College

1853 -- Earns LL. B. from the University of Pennsylvania Admitted to the Pennsylvania bar

1853-1861 -- Practices law in Philadelphia

1861 -- Enters the volunteer army of the United States

1862 -- Severely wounded in the battle of Peach Orchard, Virginia Captured and held prisoner at Libby prison in Richmond, Virginia

1866 -- Completes service with volunteer army of the United States Accepts commission in regular army of the United States

1870 -- Marries Helen W. Wyckoff

1879 -- Retires from the United States army due to disability Appointed to the Bureau of American Ethnology

1880 -- Publishes Introduction to the Study of Sign-Language Among the North American Indians as Illustrating the Gesture-Speech of Mankind and A Collection of Gesture-Signs and Signals of the North American Indians With Some Comparisons

1881 -- Publishes "Sign Language Among North American Indians, Compared with that Among Other Peoples and Deaf-Mutes"

1894 -- Dies after a short illness in Washington, D.C., on October 24
Related Materials:
See MS 2322 A collection of gesture-signs and signals of the North American Indians for more of Garrick Mallery's work on sign language.
Provenance:
MS 2372 was transferred from the Bureau of Ethnology Archives to the Smithsonian Office of Anthropology Archives with the merger of the BAE and the Department of Anthropology of the National Museum of Natural History in 1965. The Smithsonian Office of Anthropology Archives was renamed the National Anthropological Archives in 1968.
Restrictions:
Manuscript 2372 is open for research.

Access to Manuscript 2372 requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Language and languages -- Documentation  Search this
Sign language  Search this
Picture-writing  Search this
Ethnology  Search this
Anthropology  Search this
Genre/Form:
Pictographs
Citation:
Manuscript 2372, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.MS2372
See more items in:
MS 2372 Garrick Mallery Collection on Sign Language and Pictography
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw367638eb8-dce6-4d4e-bea5-2204e49134ef
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-ms2372
Online Media:

"Living Our Cultures" in Alaska

Creator:
National Museum of Natural History  Search this
Type:
YouTube Videos
Uploaded:
2011-07-13T17:53:22.000Z
YouTube Category:
Education  Search this
Topic:
Natural History  Search this
See more by:
smithsonianNMNH
Data Source:
National Museum of Natural History
YouTube Channel:
smithsonianNMNH
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt_7fQIaFROzVU

Smithsonian Arctic Studies Center Alaska

Creator:
Smithsonian Arctic Studies Center Alaska  Search this
Type:
YouTube Videos
Uploaded:
2018-10-18T17:52:04.000Z
YouTube Category:
Education  Search this
Topic:
Arctic Studies;Alaska;Alaska Natives;Native Art;Indigenous Art  Search this
See more by:
Smithsonian Arctic Studies Center Alaska channel
Data Source:
Smithsonian Arctic Studies Center Alaska
YouTube Channel:
Smithsonian Arctic Studies Center Alaska channel
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt_NX_HCeUKKf4

Stellar Connections: Explorations in Cultural Astronomy - Pt. 3, John MacDonald

Creator:
National Museum of the American Indian  Search this
Type:
Symposia
YouTube Videos
Uploaded:
2012-10-24T17:38:50.000Z
YouTube Category:
Education  Search this
Topic:
Native Americans;American Indians  Search this
See more by:
SmithsonianNMAI
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
YouTube Channel:
SmithsonianNMAI
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt_Hz4jlfA8A9U

Patterns of Health and Wellbeing 08: Environmental Degradation and Mental Health

Creator:
National Museum of the American Indian  Search this
Type:
Symposia
Interviews
YouTube Videos
Uploaded:
2014-04-29T19:28:45.000Z
YouTube Category:
Education  Search this
Topic:
Native Americans;American Indians  Search this
See more by:
SmithsonianNMAI
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
YouTube Channel:
SmithsonianNMAI
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt_JWybQZLcvDE

Native Cinema Showcase 2022 NOVEMBER 18–25

Creator:
National Museum of the American Indian  Search this
Type:
YouTube Videos
Uploaded:
2022-11-11T13:43:18.000Z
YouTube Category:
Education  Search this
Topic:
Native Americans;American Indians  Search this
See more by:
SmithsonianNMAI
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
YouTube Channel:
SmithsonianNMAI
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt_MCmAPoQ4JSs

Zebras of the Arctic: 3 Dr. Stephen Loring

Creator:
National Museum of the American Indian  Search this
Type:
YouTube Videos
Uploaded:
2017-07-26T18:44:34.000Z
YouTube Category:
Education  Search this
Topic:
Native Americans;American Indians  Search this
See more by:
SmithsonianNMAI
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
YouTube Channel:
SmithsonianNMAI
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt_XsdSu-hg0PA

Stone Sinkers

Collector:
Dr. Ales F. Hrdlicka  Search this
Donor Name:
Dr. Ales F. Hrdlicka  Search this
Culture:
Prehistoric Aleut (Unangax^ ; Unangan; Unangas)  Search this
Object Type:
Sinker
Place:
Umnak Island, Umnak Quad / Unalaska Quad / Samalga Island Quad / Aleutian Islands / Fox Islands, Alaska, United States, North America
Accession Date:
21 Dec 1938
Topic:
Archaeology  Search this
Accession Number:
149653
USNM Number:
A395768-0
See more items in:
Anthropology
Data Source:
NMNH - Anthropology Dept.
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/3428524b9-aca3-449e-97c5-3462273f83a3
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhanthropology_8142042
Online Media:

Firebag

Culture/People:
Cree  Search this
Object Name:
Firebag
Media/Materials:
Wool cloth, cordage, glass bead/beads, thread
Techniques:
Sewn, loom beadwork, overlay beadwork, edge beaded, strung, fringed
Dimensions:
38 x 30 x 1.5 cm
Object Type:
Bags/Pouches (and parts)
Place:
Manitoba; Canada (inferred)
Date created:
1860-1880
Catalog Number:
21/573
Barcode:
210573.000
See related items:
Cree
Bags/Pouches (and parts)
On View:
NMAI, New York, NY: Infinity of Nations, Arctic & Subarctic
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ws62506d540-2641-407f-baa2-4c248b5832b9
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_224804
Online Media:

Child's boots

Culture/People:
Yup'ik (Yupik Eskimo)  Search this
Artist/Maker:
Marie Moses (Cup’aq), Yup'ik (Yupik Eskimo), 1931-2020  Search this
Seller:
Phillip Moses, Yup'ik (Yupik Eskimo), 1925-2010  Search this
Object Name:
Child's boots
Media/Materials:
Sealskin/fur (Ring seal), beaver skin/fur, bearded seal/ugruk hide/skin, commercially tanned leather, wool yarn
Techniques:
Sewn, braided
Dimensions:
21.5 x 20.7 x 8.5 cm
Object Type:
Clothing/Garments: Footwear
Place:
Toksook Bay; Calista Native Corporation; Alaska; USA
Archipelago:
Bering Sea Islands
Island Name:
Nelson Island
Date created:
2002
Catalog Number:
26/2601
Barcode:
262601.000
See related items:
Yup'ik (Yupik Eskimo)
Clothing/Garments: Footwear
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ws6b9c03792-e9cc-4653-8204-5c765d902c63
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_278716
Online Media:

Woman's boots

Culture/People:
Yup'ik (Yupik Eskimo)  Search this
Artist/Maker:
Marie Moses (Cup’aq), Yup'ik (Yupik Eskimo), 1931-2020  Search this
Seller:
Phillip Moses, Yup'ik (Yupik Eskimo), 1925-2010  Search this
Object Name:
Woman's boots
Media/Materials:
Bearded seal/ugruk hide/skin, beaver skin/fur, wool cloth, glass bead/beads
Techniques:
Sewn, braided, overlay beadwork
Dimensions:
55.5 x 29.3 x 9 cm
Object Type:
Clothing/Garments: Footwear
Place:
Toksook Bay; Calista Native Corporation; Alaska; USA
Archipelago:
Bering Sea Islands
Island Name:
Nelson Island
Date created:
2002
Catalog Number:
26/2602
Barcode:
262602.000
See related items:
Yup'ik (Yupik Eskimo)
Clothing/Garments: Footwear
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ws61acb5f7f-f308-44b9-8efe-8904f6668a34
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_278717
Online Media:

Child's Mask Dance

Culture/People:
Unangan (Aleut)  Search this
Artist/Maker:
Bill Prokopiof, Unangan (Aleut), 1944-1999  Search this
Seller:
Hilary Elliot, Non-Indian  Search this
Previous owner:
Hilary Elliot, Non-Indian  Search this
Title:
Child's Mask Dance
Object Name:
Figural group
Media/Materials:
Steel
Techniques:
Welded
Dimensions:
81.5 x 45.6 x 99.3 cm
Object Type:
Sculpture/Carving/Figures
Place:
Santa Fe; Santa Fe County; New Mexico; USA
Date created:
1990
Catalog Number:
26/8913
Barcode:
268913.000
See related items:
Unangan (Aleut)
Sculpture/Carving/Figures
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ws6a174ad55-bb7c-4c32-aefa-34372062749e
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_407613
Online Media:

Zebras of the Arctic: 4 Jack Omelak

Creator:
National Museum of the American Indian  Search this
Type:
YouTube Videos
Uploaded:
2017-07-26T18:44:33.000Z
YouTube Category:
Education  Search this
Topic:
Native Americans;American Indians  Search this
See more by:
SmithsonianNMAI
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
YouTube Channel:
SmithsonianNMAI
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt_CBy-voS3Z6I

2021 Native Cinema Showcase

Creator:
National Museum of the American Indian  Search this
Type:
YouTube Videos
Uploaded:
2021-11-02T19:05:51.000Z
YouTube Category:
Education  Search this
Topic:
Native Americans;American Indians  Search this
See more by:
SmithsonianNMAI
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
YouTube Channel:
SmithsonianNMAI
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt_EpWjZgemFHA

Stellar Connections: Explorations in Cultural Astronomy - Pt. 3, John MacDonald

Creator:
National Museum of the American Indian  Search this
Type:
Symposia
YouTube Videos
Uploaded:
2012-11-13T20:10:16.000Z
YouTube Category:
Education  Search this
Topic:
Native Americans;American Indians  Search this
See more by:
SmithsonianNMAI
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
YouTube Channel:
SmithsonianNMAI
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt_GkbbXqoBgp0

2021 Native Cinema Showcase

Creator:
National Museum of the American Indian  Search this
Type:
YouTube Videos
Uploaded:
2021-11-02T19:11:45.000Z
YouTube Category:
Education  Search this
Topic:
Native Americans;American Indians  Search this
See more by:
SmithsonianNMAI
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
YouTube Channel:
SmithsonianNMAI
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt_am9yOZ60mmw

Infinity of nations art and history in the collections of the National Museum of the American Indian edited by Cécile R. Ganteaume

Editor:
Ganteaume, Cécile R  Search this
Author:
National Museum of the American Indian (U.S.)  Search this
National Museum of the American Indian (U.S.) George Gustav Heye Center  Search this
Subject:
National Museum of the American Indian (U.S.) George Gustav Heye Center  Search this
National Museum of the American Indian (U.S.)  Search this
Physical description:
320 pages illustrations (chiefly color), color maps 29 cm
Type:
Exhibitions
Exhibition catalogs
History
Date:
2010
Topic:
Indian art  Search this
Indians--History  Search this
Material culture  Search this
Antiquities  Search this
Indians  Search this
Indians--Antiquities  Search this
Indians--Material culture  Search this
Call number:
E59.A7 I54 2010
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_952738

Wooden Mask

Collector:
Captain Riedell  Search this
Donor Name:
Dr. William H. Dall  Search this
Height - Object:
31.5 cm
Culture:
Aleut (Unangax^ ; Unangan; Unangas)  Search this
Object Type:
Mask
Place:
Unga Island / Delarof Harbor, Port Moller Quad / Aleutian Islands / Shumagin Islands, Alaska, United States, North America
Accession Date:
26 Jan 1869
Collection Date:
1868
Topic:
Ethnology  Search this
Accession Number:
69A00010
USNM Number:
E7604-0
See more items in:
Anthropology
Data Source:
NMNH - Anthropology Dept.
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/349fbc171-56f2-4f03-81d8-47a557c2be3d
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhanthropology_8479203

Zebras of the Arctic: 6 Kelly Kapsar

Creator:
National Museum of the American Indian  Search this
Type:
YouTube Videos
Uploaded:
2017-07-26T18:44:32.000Z
YouTube Category:
Education  Search this
Topic:
Native Americans;American Indians  Search this
See more by:
SmithsonianNMAI
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
YouTube Channel:
SmithsonianNMAI
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt_YrOVJQPDNEQ

Strong Women/Strong Nations 9: Panel 3, Business Leadership

Creator:
National Museum of the American Indian  Search this
Type:
Symposia
YouTube Videos
Uploaded:
2016-03-25T16:26:45.000Z
YouTube Category:
Education  Search this
Topic:
Native Americans;American Indians  Search this
See more by:
SmithsonianNMAI
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
YouTube Channel:
SmithsonianNMAI
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt_f-pDx7ijQw0

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