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Covers Stewart's research from 1975-1986, his hobby of painting portraits, and international travel, c. 1924-1986, including: revision of his research on the Potomac Creek site, begun in the 1940s and completed in the 1980s; reminiscences of Turkey Tay...

Collection Creator::
Stewart, T. D. (Thomas Dale), 1901-1997, interviewee  Search this
Container:
Interviews
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Rights:
Restricted. Recording of interview 13 may not be reproduced without permission. Contact SIHistory@si.edu for permission.
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Record Unit 9521, T. D. Stewart Oral History Interviews
See more items in:
T. D. Stewart Oral History Interviews
T. D. Stewart Oral History Interviews / Interviews
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-sia-faru9521-refidd1e1053

Covers his years as aide and Assistant Curator, affiliation with professional societies, research, the Senate of Scientists and the position of Smithsonian anthropologists within the profession, c. 1927-1968, including: his duties as aide and Assistant...

Collection Creator::
Stewart, T. D. (Thomas Dale), 1901-1997, interviewee  Search this
Container:
Interviews
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Rights:
Restricted. Recording of interview 13 may not be reproduced without permission. Contact SIHistory@si.edu for permission.
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Record Unit 9521, T. D. Stewart Oral History Interviews
See more items in:
T. D. Stewart Oral History Interviews
T. D. Stewart Oral History Interviews / Interviews
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-sia-faru9521-refidd1e496

H[oward] U[niversity] Anthroplogists Conference and students, May 1960 [cellulose acetate photonegative]

Photographer:
Scurlock Studio (Washington, D.C.)  Search this
Creator:
Eastman Kodak Company (film manufacturer)  Search this
Names:
Howard University -- 1960-1970  Search this
Cobb, W. Montague (William Montague), 1904-1990  Search this
Subseries Creator:
Scurlock Studio (Washington, D.C.)  Search this
Scurlock, Robert S. (Saunders), 1917-1994  Search this
Custom Craft  Search this
Scurlock, Addison N., 1883-1964  Search this
Scurlock, George H. (Hardison), 1919-2005  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (Silver gelatin on cellulose acetate film sheet., [4" x 5"].)
Container:
Box 109
Culture:
African Americans -- Washington (D.C.)  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Place:
Washington (D.C.) -- African Americans
Washington (D.C.) -- 1960-1970 -- Photographs
Date:
May 1960
Scope and Contents:
Group of five men standing in a line in front of a brick wall. There is a sign on the wall which reads, "American Association of Physical Anthropologists 25th Annual Meeting May 12 13 14 1960..." It continues to list the topics and speakers for the meeting. The man in the center of the line is William Montague Cobb. No ink on negative. Ink on envelope: caption and "c/o/ S. C. Smith 2 of ea". "KODAK - SAFETY -- FILM" edge imprint.
Subseries Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.

Gloves must be worn when handling unprotected photographs and negatives. Special arrangements required to view negatives due to cold storage. Using negatives requires a three hour waiting period. Contact the Archives Center at 202-633-3270.
Subseries Rights:
When the Museum purchased the collection from the Estate of Robert S. Scurlock, it obtained all rights, including copyright. The earliest photographs in the collection are in the public domain because their term of copyright has expired. The Archives Center will control copyright and the use of the collection for reproduction purposes, which will be handled in accordance with its standard reproduction policy guidelines. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
African American anthropologists  Search this
African American college teachers  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- 1960-1970 -- Black-and-white negatives -- Acetate film
Subseries Citation:
Scurlock Studio Records, Archives Center, National Museum of American History. Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Scurlock Studio Records, Subseries 4.1: Black-and-White Silver Gelatin Negatives
Scurlock Studio Records, Subseries 4.1: Black-and-White Silver Gelatin Negatives / 4.1: Black-and-White Silver Gelatin negatives
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0618-s04-01-ref3461
Online Media:

Donald J. Ortner Papers

Creator:
Ortner, Donald J.  Search this
Names:
Paleopathology Association  Search this
Smithsonian Institution Department of Anthroplogy  Search this
University of Bradford  Search this
Frohlich, Bruno, 1945-  Search this
Putschar, Walter G. J., 1904-1987  Search this
Extent:
44.37 Linear feet (96 boxes, 3 map-folders)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Maps
Photographs
Slides (photographs)
Negatives (photographic)
Manuscripts
Sound recordings
Correspondence
Place:
Virginia
England
Jordan
Peru
Date:
1963-2013
Summary:
The Donald J. Ortner Papers, dated 1963 to 2013, document his research and professional activities while working in the Division of Physical Anthropology in the Department of Anthropology at the Smithsonian Institution National Museum of Natural History. They primarily deal with his contributions to the field of paleopathology and his work with specimens from Bab edh-Dhra, Jordan and Chichester, England. The bulk of this collection consists of correspondence, files related to Ortner's publications, specimen observations and analysis, and photographs.
Scope and Contents:
The Donald J. Ortner Papers primarily document his projects, research, and correspondence working as a biological anthropologist in the Division of Physical Anthropology of the Department of Anthropology from 1963 until his death in 2012. The bulk of the projects represented relate to his work in paleopathology, such as the Near Eastern skeletal biology program in Jordan and the medieval skeletal disease project in England. The collection consists of notes, research materials, correspondence, data and data analysis, transcripts of specimen observations, maps, blueprints, artwork, negatives, slides, photographs, CD-Roms, floppy discs, and sound cassettes.
Arrangement:
This collection is arranged in 8 series: Series 1. Correspondence, 1966-2012; Series 2. Subject files, 1965-2013, undated; Series 3. Near Eastern Skeletal Biology Program, 1977-2010, undated; Series 4. Medieval Skeletal Disease Project, 1988-2006, undated; Series 5. Other publications, projects, and research, 1963-2011, undated; Series 6. Professional activities, 1971-2007, undated; Series 7. Biographical and office files, 1963-2011, undated; Series 8. Artwork, 1978, undated
Biographical Note:
Donald J. Ortner was a biological anthropologist in the Department of Anthropology at the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History (NMNH). By the time of his death, Ortner had served in many positions at the Museum, including Acting Director (1994-1996). His areas of expertise included human paleopathology, human health in medieval England, bioarcheology of the ancient Near East, and the history and evoluton of human infectious diseases. Ortner was a founding member of the Paleopathology Association.

Ortner was born in 1938 in Stoneham, Massachusetts and arrived at the NMNH in 1963, working primarily with J. Lawrence Angel who had recently started as Curator in the Division of Physical Anthropology. While working at the Museum, Ortner completed his Master's in Anthropology in 1967 and received his Ph.D. from the University of Kansas in 1970. His doctoral dissertation was on The Effects of Aging and Disease on the Micromorphology of Human Compact Bone.

Ortner worked with Walter G. J. Putschar, a pathologist based at Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston, on a series of short-courses (1971-1974) on paleopathology at the Smithsonian. During the summer of 1974, Putschar and Ortner traveled to Europe (London, Edinburgh, Zurich, Strasbourg, Vienna, Prague) studying and photographing examples of skeletal pathology in museums and other repositories. The result of this research was the book Identification of Pathological Conditions in Human Skeletal Remains published in 1981, with later editions in 1985 and 2003.

In 1977, Ortner joined the Expedition to the Dead Sea Plain directed by archaeologists Walter E. Rast and R. Thomas Schaub, focusing on the site of Bab edh-Dhra. Ortner studied the tombs and skeletons for data indicating cultural and biological changes, especially urbanization and connection to the development of other "Western civilizations." Ortner participated in two more field seasons in Bab edh-Dhra in 1979 and 1981. From his research at Bab-edh-Dhra, Ortner published many scholarly articles and recreated two tombs for the Hall of Western Civilization at NMNH.

In 1988, Ortner began his collaboration with the University of Bradford in Bradford, England, teaching short-courses on paleopathology. While a Visiting Professor at the University, he also participated in a project on human health and disease in Medieval England. The project focused on leprosy and syphilis in skeletons from St. James Hospital's leprosarium cemetery in Chichester, Wharram Perry, and Magistrates' Court in Kingston-upon-Hull. He received an Honorary Doctorate of Science from the University in 1995.

Donald J. Ortner died on April 29th, 2012 in Maryland.

Sources consulted:

Ubelaker, D. H. "Obituary: Donald J. Ortner (1938–2012)." American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 149 (2012): 155–156.

Arnoldi, Mary Jo and Ann Kaupp. "Donald J. Ortner, Sr. (1939-2012)." Anthropolog: Newsletter of the Department of Anthropology, Spring 2012: 1-3.

Chronology

1938 -- Born on August 23 in Stoneham, Massachusetts.

1960 -- Received B.A. in Zoology from Columbia Union College in Takoma Park, Maryland.

1963 -- Began working at the Smithsonian Institution.

1967 -- Received M.A. in Anthropology from Syracuse University.

1969 -- Promoted to Assistant Curator.

1970 -- Received Ph.D. from the University of Kansas.

1971 -- Promoted to Associate Curator.

1971-1975 -- Taught part-time at the University of Maryland.

1974 -- Spent summer with Dr. Walter G. J. Putschar studying pathological specimens in Europe.

1976 -- Promoted to Curator in the Anthropology Department, National Museum of Natural History.

1977 -- First field season at Bab edh-Dhra cemetery site in Jordan.

1979 -- Second field season at Bab edh-Dhra cemetery site in Jordan.

1981 -- Third field season at Bab edh-Dhra cemetery site in Jordan.

1988 -- Began association with the University of Bradford in Bradford, England.

1988-1992 -- Chairman of the Department of Anthropology, National Museum of Natural History.

1994-1996 -- Acting Director of the National Museum of Natural History.

1995 -- Awarded an Honorary Doctorate of Science degree from the University of Bradford.

1999-2001 -- President of the Paleopathology Association.

2005 -- Received Eve Cockburn Award from the Paleopathology Association in recognition of his contributions in the field of paleopathology.

2012 -- Died on April 29 in Maryland.
Related Materials:
The following photo lots depicting Donald J. Ortner can be found at the NAA:

Photo Lot 7D: Photograph of attendees after American Anthropological Association annual meeting, 1965

Photo Lot 7A: Portraits made at the annual meeting of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists, 1970

Photo Lot 77-45: Photograph of Smithsonian Institution physical anthropologists, circa 1977

Photo Lot 4822: Division of Physical Anthropology collection of photographs of physical anthropologists, undated

Sound recordings of Donald J. Ortner at the NAA:

John Lawrence Angel Papers, Sound Recordings, "How Humans Adapt: A Biocultural Odyssey," November 9, 1981

Other collections at the NAA in which Donald J. Ortner is a correspondent or creator of material:

Records of the Department of Anthropology, 1877-1980

Department of Anthropology Annual Reports, 1920-1983

John Lawrence Angel Papers, 1930s-1980s

Three films that document Ortner's work in Bab edh-Dhra are located in the Human Studies Film Archives (HSFA):

Film number 2000.9.1, The Bones of Bab edh-Dhra, ca. 1970s

Film number 2000.9.3, Bab edh-Dhra Film Project, 1970-1980

Film number 2014.3, City of the Dead, 1978

The Smithsonian Institution Archives holds the original City of the Dead in Accession 05-282, Office of Telecommunications, Productions.
Provenance:
These papers were transferred to the NAA from the Department of Anthropology in 2014.
Restrictions:
The Donald J. Ortner Papers are open for research.

Access to the Donald J. Ortner Papers requires an appointment.

Requests to view forensic files are subject to review by the NAA. Forensic files can only be viewed in the National Anthropological Archives reading room. No copies are permitted unless permission is granted by the agency the report was written for.

Electronic records are unavailable for research. Please contact the reference archivist for additional information.

Use of audiovisual recordings with no duplicate access copy requires advance notice.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Anthropologists -- United States  Search this
Archaeology  Search this
Human remains (Archaeology)  Search this
Excavations (Archaeology) -- Middle East  Search this
Scurvy  Search this
Leprosy -- Research  Search this
Physical anthropology  Search this
Bāb edh-Dhrā Site (Jordan)  Search this
Excavations (Archaeology) -- England  Search this
Forensic anthropology  Search this
Paleopathology  Search this
Bronze age  Search this
Chichester (England)  Search this
Diseases  Search this
Genre/Form:
Maps
Photographs
Slides (photographs)
Negatives (photographic)
Manuscripts
Sound recordings
Correspondence
Citation:
Donald J. Ortner Papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NAA.2014-07
See more items in:
Donald J. Ortner Papers
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-2014-07

Morris Steggerda photographs of Mayan peoples

Creator:
Steggerda, Morris, 1900-1950  Search this
Names:
Carnegie Institution of Washington. Department of Genetics  Search this
Extent:
70 Prints (silver gelatin)
Culture:
Mayas  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Prints
Date:
1931
Scope and Contents note:
Anthropometric portraits of Maya people in the vicinity of Chichen Itza, probably made for Steggerda's Carnegie Institution publication 434, "Anthropometry of Adult Maya Indians: A Study of Their Physical and Physiological Characteristics," 1932.
Biographical/Historical note:
Morris Steggerda (1900-1950) was a biological anthropologist who studied Mayan culture. He received his BA from Hope College in Michigan (1922) and his MA (1923) and PhD (1928) from the University of Illinois Department of Zoology. While still in his PhD program, he met Charles Davenport of the Department of Genetics at Carnegie Institution of Washington, with whom he studied the indigenous people of the British West Indies and published Race-Crossing in Jamaica (1929). Steggerda became an assistant professor at Smith College in Northampton, Massachusetts, (1928-1930) before joining the research staff of the Carnegie Institution Department of Genetics based in Cold Spring Harbor, Long Island, New York. During his fourteen-year career with the Institution, Steggerda did research in Yucatan, Mexico, and wrote two reports that were published by the Carnegie Institution in 1932 and 1941. In 1944, he was appointed professor of Anthropology at Hartford Seminary Foundation (Connecticut), a position which he kept until his death. Steggerda was a founding member of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists in 1930 (later serving on its Executive Committee and as its vice president) and a councilmember for the American Anthropological Association.
Local Call Number(s):
NAA Photo Lot 3319
Location of Other Archival Materials:
Additional Steggerda photographs held in the National Anthropological Archives in the Bureau of American Ethnology-Smithsonian Institution Illustrations.
Correspondence from Steggerda held in the National Anthropological Archives in the Handbook of South American Indians Records, Bureau of American Ethnology General correspondence, John Lawrence Angel Papers, Ales Hrdlicka Papers, and MS 4846.
The Otis Historical Archives, National Museum of Health and Medicine holds the Steggerda Collection of anthropometric records.
Contained in:
Numbered manuscripts 1850s-1980s (some earlier)
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.

Access to the collection requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Photographs  Search this
Citation:
Photo Lot 3319, Morris Steggerda photographs of Mayan peoples, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.PhotoLot.3319
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-photolot-3319

Frank Livingstone papers

Creator:
Livingstone, Frank B., 1928-2005  Search this
Names:
River Basin Surveys  Search this
University of Michigan. Department of Anthropology  Search this
Extent:
1 Boxe
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Field notes
Correspondence
Photographs
Manuscripts
Place:
Liberia
Date:
circa 1948-1990s
Summary:
Frank B. Livingstone (1928-2005) was an anthropologist who conducted fieldwork in Liberia, studying the correlation between malaria and sickle cell anemia. This collection contains files relating to his research in Liberia on malaria and sickle cell anemia; correspondence; a photo of Livingstone; his 1950 application for temporary field work on the Missouri River Basin Survey; reprints and articles by others; a miscellany of materials pertaining to University of Michigan's Anthropology Department; and some conference materials.
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of Frank Livingstone's bibliographic research and field notes from Liberia on malaria and sickle cell anemia; correspondence, which include his Havard grade transcript; typescript drafts by Livingstone on sickle cells and human evolution; a photograph of Livingstone as a young man (standing on right) working at an excavation site; his 1950 application for temporary field work on the Missouri River Basin Survey; reprints and articles by others; a miscellany of materials pertaining to University of Michigan's Anthropology Department, including a 4-page typescript "[Michigan] Department of Anthropology, 1940-1975"; and some conference materials
Arrangement note:
Folders are arranged in the following order: 1) Correspondence, 1948-1962, 1993; 2) Field Journals (4 folders); 3) Typescript drafts; 4) Reprints, articles, & brochure; 5) University of Michigan; 6) Conferences and seminar; 7) River Basin Survey application and excavation photo; 8) Fortran printouts.
Biographical/Historical note:
Frank B. Livingstone was born on December 8, 1928 in Winchester, Massachusetts. He obtained his undergraduate degree in mathematics from Harvard University (1950) and his Ph.D. in anthropology from University of Michigan in 1957. In 1959, he joined the faculty of University of Michigan's Anthropology Department, retiring in 1998. Livinstone conducted fieldwork in Liberia, studying the correlation between malaria and sickle cell anemia; in recognition of his research, he received the Martin Luther King Award from the Southern Christian Leadership Conference. His publications include Abnormal Hemoglobin in Human Populations (1967), "On the Non-existence of Human Races" (1962), "Did Australopithecines Sing" (1973), and "What Happened to the Universality of the Incest Taboo" (1991). The American Association of Physical Anthropologists (AAPA) awarded Livingstone the Charles R. Darwin Award for Lifetime Achievement in 1999. In 2002, a symposium was held in his honor at AAPA's annual meeting. He passed away on March 21, 2005
Topic:
Physical anthropology  Search this
Sickle cell anemia  Search this
Malaria  Search this
Excavations (Archaeology)  Search this
Genetics  Search this
Human evolution  Search this
Genre/Form:
Field notes
Correspondence
Photographs
Manuscripts
Citation:
Frank Livingstone papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.2009-22
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-2009-22

Phillip Walker papers

Creator:
Walker, Phillip L., 1947-2009  Search this
Extent:
34.75 Linear feet (71 boxes, 1 map-folder)
Culture:
Chumash  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Field notes
Manuscripts
Place:
Santa Barbara (Calif.)
Channel Islands (Calif.)
Date:
1969-2008, undated
Summary:
The Phillip Walker papers document his research and professional activities from 1969-2008 and primarily deal with his bioarchaeological research in California and his studies of primate feeding behavior and dentition. His involvement in issues surrounding the repatriation of Native American human remains, forensic work for public agencies dealing with human remains, and writings are also represented. The collection consists of research and project files, raw data and analysis, graphs and illustrations, photographs, and dental impressions.
Scope and Contents:
The Phillip Walker papers document his research and professional activities from 1969-2008 and undated and primarily deal with with his bioarchaeological research in California and his studies of primate feeding behavior and dentition. The collection consists of research and project files, raw data and analysis, graphs and illustrations, photographs, x-rays, and dental impressions.

Material documenting his involvement in issues surrounding the repatriation of human skeletal remains, forensic work for public agencies, and writings are also represented. There is limited material regarding the courses he taught at the University of California, Santa Barbara and his other research on pinniped butchering methods, an archaeological project in Mosfell, Iceland, and a project in the Aral Sea region.
Arrangement:
This collection is arranged in 7 series: Series 1. California projects and research, 1969-2003, undated; Series 2. Primate research, 1970-1988, 1997, undated; Series 3. Forensic work, 1980-2003, undated; Series 4. Repatriation work, 1987-1999; Series 5. Writings and academic material, 1974-2008, undated; Series 6. Other research, 1976-circa 2008, undated; Series 7. Slides, 1969-1998, undated.
Biographical Note:
Phillip L. Walker was a leading physical anthropologist and bioarchaeologist and a professor of anthropology at the University of California, Santa Barbara (UCSB). Born in 1947 in Elkhart, Indiana, Walker graduated from the University of Chicago in 1973 with a Ph.D. in Anthropology. His doctoral work focused on the feeding behavior of great apes and included field work at the Yerkes Regional Primate Center in Atlanta, Georgia. In 1975, he completed field work in Guatemala studying the behavior of free-ranging New World monkeys.

Walker began teaching at UCSB in 1974 and became fascinated with the "enormous archaeological heritage of the Santa Barbara Channel Islands region, and the native peoples who occupied it." He started a research program on the bioarchaeology of the region and collaborated with other scholars as well as the Chumash community in the region. He "struck up a positive dialog with the Chumash tribe, developed friendships, and pioneered the notion that the living descendant community is a crucial player in research and learning about the past."

In the late 1980s and early 1990s Walker was active in the development and implementation of the Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act (NAGPRA). He was a founding member of the U.S. Department of the Interior's NAGPRA review committee and the Smithsonian Institution's Native American Repatriation Review Committee.

In the late 1990s Walker was instrumental in launching the Global History of Health Project which focused on the investigation of regional and continental patterns of health and lifestyle through the study of human remains. In addition, he was the co-director of an archaeological project excavating a Viking settlement in Mosfell, Iceland and volunteered his forensic services to public agencies in California and Nevada.

Over the course of his career Walker authored more than 200 scholarly articles and reports. He died in 2009 at his home in Goleta, CA.

Source consulted: Larsen, Clark Spencer and Patricia M. Lambert. 2009. "Obituary: Phillip Lee Walker, 22 July 1947- 6 February 2009." American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 141:1-2

Chronology

1947 -- Born on July 22 in Elkhart, Indiana

Summer 1966 -- Archaeological fieldwork, Atlas, Illinois (Director, field laboratories in Human Osteology)

September 1969 -- Archaeological fieldwork, Northwestern Hudson Bay Tule Expedition, Northwest Territories, Canada

1970 -- B.A. Indiana University (Anthropology, minor in Zoology)

Summer 1970 -- Dental anthropological fieldwork, International Biological Program (Eskimo villages in Northern Alaska)

March 1971 -- Dental anthropological fieldwork, Gila River Indian Reservation (Pima), Arizona

1971 -- M.A. University of Chicago (Anthropology)

Summer 1971, Spring 1973 -- Primate Behavioral Research, Yerkes Regional Primate Center, Atlanta, Georgia

1973 -- Ph.D. University of Chicago (Anthropology)

1974 -- Lecturer, University of California, Davis

1974-2009 -- Professor, University of California, Santa Barbara

Summer 1975 -- Field study of the behavior of free-ranging New World monkeys in Guatemala

Summer 1982 -- Archaeological fieldwork, San Miguel Island

1991-1992 -- Chairman, Society for American Archaeology Task Force on Repatriation

1992-1997 -- Member, Department of the Interior Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act Review Committee

Summer 1995 -- Archaeological fieldwork, Mosfell, Iceland

Fall 1996 -- Archaeological fieldwork, San Miguel Island

1998-2002 -- Advisor then Co-Chair, Society for American Archaeology Task Force on Repatriation

Summer 1999 -- Archaeological fieldwork, Mosfell, Iceland

2000-2002 -- Vice President, American Association of Physical Anthropologists

August 2000 -- Cemetery excavation, Vandenberg Air Force Base

August 2001 -- Cemetery excavation, Chatsworth, CA

Summer 2001-2007 -- Cemetery excavation, Mosfell, Iceland

2003-2005 -- President, American Association of Physical Anthropologists

2003-2009 -- Fellow, American Association for the Advancement of Science

Summer 2006 -- Archaeological excavations, San Miguel Island

2009 -- Died on February 6 in Goleta, CA
Separated Materials:
Seven rolls of 16mm film (100' each), 3 rolls of Super 8mm film (50' each), and one small roll of Super 8mm film of primate behavior were transferred to the Human Studies Film Archive (accession number 2014-013).
Provenance:
These papers were donated to the National Anthropological Archives by Phillip Walker's wife, Cynthia Brock, in 2014.
Restrictions:
The Phillip Walker papers are open for research.

Requests to view forensic files are subject to review by the NAA. Forensic files can only be viewed in the National Anthropological Archives reading room. No copies are permitted unless permission is granted by the agency the report was written for.

Access to the Phillip Walker papers requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Archaeology  Search this
Anthropologists -- United States  Search this
Forensic anthropology  Search this
Physical anthropology  Search this
Primates  Search this
Pinnipedia  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Field notes
Manuscripts
Citation:
Phillip Walker papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.2014-08
See more items in:
Phillip Walker papers
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-2014-08

Aleš Hrdlička papers

Creator:
Hrdlička, Aleš, 1869-1943  Search this
Correspondent:
American Association of Physical Anthropologists  Search this
Names:
American Journal of Physical Anthropology  Search this
Army Medical Museum (U.S.)  Search this
Hyde Exploring Expedition (1902-1903)  Search this
Institute of Population  Search this
International Congress of Americanists  Search this
Panama-California Exposition (1915 : San Diego, Calif.)  Search this
Smithsonian Institution. Department of Anthropology. Division of Physical Anthropology  Search this
Extent:
206.71 Linear feet (294 boxes, 138 folders, 9 rolled items, and 4 folios)
Culture:
Indians of North America  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Place:
Saint Lawrence Island (Alaska) -- Archaeology
Australia
Alaska -- Archaeology
Mexico -- Anthropology
Florida -- Archaeology
Egypt -- Archaeology
Czechoslovakia
Peru -- Physical anthropology
Kodiak Island (Alaska)
Date:
1875-1966
bulk 1903-1943
Summary:
The papers of Aleš Hrdlička, curator in the Division of Physical Anthropology, Department of Anthropology, United States National Museum of the Smithsonian Institution, offer considerable insight into the development of physical anthropology in the first half of this century. The papers include honors bestowed on Hrdlička, autobiographical notes, correspondence with many of the leading anthropologists of the day, anthropometric and osteometric measurements and observations (forming most of the collection), extensive photographs of Hrdlička's field work, manuscripts, research materials, and "My Journeys" (essentially a diary Hrdlička kept of his field work). In addition, there is material of a personal nature. The papers date from 1875 to 1966, but the bulk of the materials date from 1903 to 1943, the time of Hrdlička's career at the USNM.
Scope and Contents:
This collection is comprised of both professional and personal materials. The professional material includes honors bestowed on Hrdlička, autobiographical notes, correspondence with many of the leading anthropologists of the day, anthropometric and osteometric measurements and observations (forming most of the collection), extensive photographs of Hrdlička's field work, manuscripts, research materials, and "My Journeys" (essentially a diary Hrdlička kept of his field work). The personal material primarily consists of correspondence with his first wife (Marie Dieudonnée Strickler) and other family members, but there are also financial records. The papers date from 1875 to 1966, but the bulk of the materials date from 1903 to 1943, the time of Hrdlička's career at the United States National Museum of the Smithsonian Institution. Hrdlička investigated all major questions confronting physical anthropologists of his day (the fossil record of early humans, the arrival of humans in the Americas, human variation, evolution, and eugenics) and made valuable contributions in all these areas. Hrdlička's interests in the establishment of physical anthropology as a distinct and important field, the welfare of the Czech people, early hominids, and variation within the human species are all documented in the collection as are the services he performed for various United States government agencies. He pursued field studies in many different parts of the world, but there are relatively few field notes as such among his papers. There is instead the edited journal "My Journeys," photographs, and physical anthropological forms. There is also relatively little material on his administrative involvement in the USNM. There is no material from Hrdlička's time at the Pathological Institution of the New York State Hospitals; after he resigned, fire destroyed the anthropological records Hrdlička collected as a member of the staff. There are materials in the collection which contradict, or at least complicate, many long-held criticisms of Hrdlička, particularly claims that he was racist and opposed feminist ideas. The collection contains materials of interest to genetic research, including anthropometric measurements, hair clippings and fingerprints.

There are a few items in the collection which are dated earlier than the collection's date span. These are publication dates, and the folders containing the items have been dated accordingly, but they have not affected the dates of the series or collection. There are also a few items which are dated after Hrdlička's death. These dates reflect the fact that the collection was added to by the Department of Physical Anthropology after Hrdlička's death and have been taken into account when formulating dates for the series and collection.

Please note that the contents of the collection and the language and terminology used reflect the context and culture of the time of its creation. As an historical document, its contents may be at odds with contemporary views and terminology and considered offensive today. The information within this collection does not reflect the views of the Smithsonian Institution or National Anthropological Archives, but is available in its original form to facilitate research.
Arrangement:
This collection is arranged in 37 series:

(1) Miscellaneous Personal Papers, 1875-1940

(2) Early Personal Correspondence, 1883-1919

(3) Correspondence, 1885-1953

(4) News Clippings and Printed Matter, 1893-1953

(5) Financial Papers, 1910-1943

(6) Journeys to the Southwestern United States and Mexican Indians, 1898-1919

(7) Journeys to the Dakota, Chippewa, Kickapoo, and Shawnee, 1916-1917

(8) Florida Survey, 1918, 1918-1927

(9) Alaska Archeological Expeditions, 1912-1938 (bulk 1926-1938)

(10) Panama-California Exposition Expeditions, 1912-1914

(11) Journey to Egypt, Europe, and Russia, 1908-1909

(12) Journey to South America, 1910, 1910-1912

(13) Journey to the Far East, 1920, 1900-1930

(14) Journey to Australia, Java, India, South Africa, and Europe, 1924-1925

(15) Anthropometric Measurements of Indians Taken at the United States National Museum, 1904-1905, most undated

(16) Bone Studies, 1893-1929, most undated

(17) Old Americans, 1914-1930

(18) Children Who Run on All Fours, 1928-1936

(19) Early Man Studies, 1906-1930

(20) European Ethnic History, 1908-1938

(21) Miscellaneous Research Notes, 1887-1930

(22) Manuscripts of Writings, 1901-1944, most undated

(23) Writings by Other Authors, 1877-1942

(24) Anthropometry, undated

(25) "From My Journeys", 1898-1938

(26) -- American Journal of Physical Anthropology -- , 1918-1931

(27) American Association of Physical Anthropologists, 1924-1931

(28) International Congress of Americanists, 1900-1928

(29) Institute of Population, 1942

(30) Department of Anthropology, 1914-1943

(31) Lecture Notes, 1920-1932

(32) Maps and Charts, 1900-1932

(33) Miscellany, 1895-1954

(34) Index Cards, 1899-1948

(35) Bibliographic Index, undated

(36) Physical Anthropology Folios, undated

(37) Photographs, 1887-1944
Biographical Note:
Aleš Hrdlička was born in Bohemia in 1869 and came to America when he was thirteen. As a young man, he was trained in medicine at New York's Eclectic Medical College and the New York Homeopathic Medical College, receiving degrees from each. His first professional work was as a private practitioner, but he gave that up in 1894 when he joined the staff of the New York State Hospital for the Insane at Middletown. There, in addition to other duties, he began studies of the physical characteristics of inmates. This set in motion developments that would eventually lead him to become one of the world's most prominent anthropologists who has sometimes been referred to as "the founder of physical anthropology in America."

In 1896, in preparation for a research appointment with the Department of Anthropology in the Pathological Institute of the New York State Hospitals, Hrdlička went to Paris and studied with Leon Manouvrier. After his return to America, he worked for a short period with the Pathological Institute and came into contact with G.S. Huntington of the College of Physicians and Surgeons in New York. Hrdlička arranged and studied Huntington's large collection of skeletal material, thus gaining knowledge of a well-documented collection representing largely normal persons of European ancestry. He came to the attention of Frederic Ward Putnam, of the American Museum of Natural History, who arranged for his first anthropological field studies.

It was thus that Hrdlička became a member of the Hyde Expeditions to the American Southwest and northern Mexico. In 1898, he traveled to Mexico with Carl Lumholtz to study the Tarahumaras, Huichols, and neighboring tribes. In subsequent years, he returned to Mexico and the Southwest alone and studied physical characteristics and medical conditions of several American Indian tribes. With this experience and examinations of the Trenton and Lansing skeletal material for Putnam, Hrdlička came fully into the world of anthropology. In 1903, he was appointed head of the newly formed Division of Physical Anthropology in the United States National Museum.

While in his position at the Smithsonian, Hrdlička returned to the Southwest for studies of Pima and Apache children in 1905 and, in the following year, traveled to Florida to examine allegedly ancient remains of man. In 1908, he worked among a number of Indian tribes, including the Menominee, Oglala Dakota, Quinailt, Hupa, and Mohave, in a study of tuberculosis among them. In 1909, he traveled to Egypt with an expedition of the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York in order to study living Egyptians and to examine remains of Egypt's past population. The following year took him to Argentina, Peru, and Mexico. In the first of these, he again examined allegedly ancient remains of man. In Peru, he made a large collection of skeletal material near Trujillo, at Pachamac, and in the Chicama Valley.

From 1912-1914, Hrdlicka undertook a physical anthropological exhibit for the Panama-California Exposition in San Diego and, for this, traveled to eastern Siberia, Mongolia, Peru, and Florida. He also examined fossil remains of man in Europe and directed field work of other anthropologists in South and East Africa, St. Lawrence Island in Alaska, the Philippines, eastern Siberia, and the Ukraine. In 1915, for the Department of Justice, he assessed the racial makeup of Chippewas on the Leech Lake and White Earth reservations in Minnesota and also studied Dakota Indians. In 1917, his field work was directed toward white American families with longtime residence in the United States. In 1918, he carried out a survey of ancient sites in eastern Florida for the Bureau of American Ethnology. In 1920, he traveled to Hawaii, Japan, Korea, and Manchuria in connection with an appointment to lecture at the Peking Union Medical College. As director of the American School for Prehistoric Studies in France, he again studied fossil remains of man in Europe in 1922 and 1923. In 1925, he carried out work in India, Ceylon, Java, Australia, South Africa, and Europe. In 1927, he was again in Europe to deliver the Huxley Memorial Lecture before the Royal Anthropological Society in Great Britain. Between 1929 and 1938, he traveled frequently to Alaska to carry on an anthropological survey. In 1939, he traveled to Russia and Siberia.

Beginning with much of the skeletal collection of the Army Medical Museum, which had been transferred to the Smithsonian in 1898 before he was appointed there, Hrdlička amassed a bone collection that included, among many other specimens, the Huntington collection, casts of fossil remains of man, and a large and diverse North American collection. He also gathered a large collection of human brains. Over three hundred publications resulted from his study of this material, his field work, and his study of specimens in other museums. In addition, he was involved in many other activities. For United States government agencies, he provided services ranging from examinations of human remains for law enforcement officials to providing information and opinions concerning national origins and traits that were needed to interpret laws and form foreign policy. During World War II, he also advised government officials on policies to be pursued with certain national groups following the war.

In 1918, Hrdlička founded the American Journal of Physical Anthropology and remained its editor until 1942. In 1928, he was the major force behind the organization of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists and served as its president from 1928 to 1932. He was also president of the Anthropological Society of Washington in 1907, the American Anthroplogical Association from 1925 to 1927, and the Washington Academy of Sciences from 1928 to 1929. He was chairman of Section H of the American Association for the Advancement of Science in 1918 and secretary of the Committee on Anthropology of the National Research Council in 1917. From the 1920s to the 1940s Hrdlicka was a member of the American Eugenics Society and prepared exhibits for various eugenics congresses. In addition, Hrdlička was a member of the American Philosophical Society and the National Academy of Sciences. He represented the Smithsonian at several international gatherings of scholars, including meetings of the International Congress of Americanists.

Chronology

1869 March 29 -- Alois Ferdinand Hrdlička (Aleš Hrdlička) born in Humpolec, Bohemia

1882 September -- Emigrated to New York City

1888 -- While stricken with typhoid, met M. Rosenbleuth, a physician who arranged for Hrdlička to enroll at the Eclectic Medical College of New York City

1892 -- Enrolled in the New York Homeopathic Medical College and Hospital Published first article, "Scheme of Examination (Medical)," Publications of the Eclectic Medical College Graduated first in his class from the Eclectic Medical College

1894 -- Graduated first from his class from the Homeopathic Medical College Became research intern at the State Homeopathic Hospital for the Insane in Middletown, New York, where he began his studies in physical anthropology Passed state board examination (allopathic)

1895 -- Joined staff of the Pathological Institute of the New York State Hospitals as associate in anthropology

1896 -- Studied anthropology under Leon Manouvrier in Paris

1896 August 6 -- Married Marie Stickler (Dieudonnée)

1898 March-July(?) -- Accompanied Carl Lumholtz on his expedition to northern Mexico, sponsored by the American Museum of Natural History (AMNH), and visited the Tarahumara, Huichol, and Tepecan Indians

1899 Spring -- Resigned from the Pathological Institute to take charge of physical and medical anthropological research on the Hyde Expeditions of the AMNH to the southwestern United States

1899 August -- Hyde expedition for the AMNH to Chaco Canyon, New Mexico, to excavate the site of Pueblo Bonito and to conduct somatological surveys among the Indians; visited Grand Gulch caves in southern Utah; included visits to the Navahos and southern Utes

1900 -- Hyde expedition for the AMNH to New Mexico, Arizona, and southern Colorado to conduct somatological surveys among the Indians; included visits to the Apaches, Yumas, and Pueblo Indians

1902 January-September -- Hyde expeditions for AMNH to southwestern Arizona, New Mexico, and northern Mexico to conduct somatological surveys; included visits to the Tepecanos, Papagos, Opatas, Pimas, Yaquis, Mayos, Huichols, Otomis, Tepehuanes, Maricopas, Yumas, Yavapais, Paiutes, Walapais, and Havasupais

1902 October-December -- Hyde expedition for the AMNH to Mexico for Hrdlička to complete his somatological investigations; included visits to the Tepehuanes, Coras, Huichols, "Nahuas," "Aztecs," and Tarascans

1903 May 1 -- Became assistant curator in charge of the new Division of Physical Anthropology, Department of Anthropology, at the United States National Museum, Smithsonian Institution

1905 -- Expedition under the auspices of the Bureau of American Ethnology to Arizona and New Mexico to complete the observations on the tribes of this region; Hrdlička especially studied Apache and Pima Indian children

1906 February -- Expedition to western Florida to investigate remains of alleged ancient man

1907 -- President of the Anthropological Society of Washington

1908 -- Expedition to Indian schools and reservations in Wisconsin, Washington, California, Arizona, and South Dakota to study tuberculosis for a report to the International Congress of Tuberculosis

1908 December - 1909 May -- Traveled to Egypt, Greece, Turkey, Hungary, Bohemia, Russia, Poland, and Germany to examine human skeletal remains from an excavation in Egypt by the Metropolitan Museum of Art and to study peoples of the Near East

1910 March 28 -- Promoted to curator in the Division of Physical Anthropology

1910 April-September -- Attended the 17th International Congress of Americanists in Buenos Aires and Mexico City Traveled to Argentina, Brazil, Peru, Mexico, and Panama

1912 -- Planned and directed seven expeditions for the physical anthropology exhibit at the Panama-California Exposition held at San Diego in 1915; expeditions included Hrdlička to Siberia and Mongolia and later to Peru; Riley D. Moore to St. Lawrence Island, Alaska; Philip Newton to the Philippine Islands; Vojtech Suk to Africa; Stanislaw Poniatowski to eastern Siberia; Kazimir Stolyhwo to the Birusa caves in Siberia and to the Ukraine; and Jindřich Matiegka to Bohemia

1912 May-Summer -- Traveled to London to attend 18th International Congress of Americanists Traveled to Siberia and Mongolia for the Panama-California Exposition

1912 September -- Traveled to Geneva for the 14th International Congress of Prehistoric Anthropology and Archaeology

1913 January-April -- Expedition to Peru as part the effort for the Panama-California Exposition

1914 November 18 - 1915 January 18 -- Attended Panama-California Exposition

1915 May -- Research for the Department of Justice at the White Earth and Leech Lake reservations in Minnesota to determine non-Indian mixture among Chippewas

1915 December -- Served as General Secretary for the 19th International Congress of Americanists held in Washington

1916 Fall -- Traveled to Florida to examine remains of supposed ancient man

1917 March-July -- Served as Secretary on the Committee on Anthropology of the National Research Council

1917 Summer -- "Old American" research at Yale University, Harvard University, and the University of Virginia and in Tennessee

1917 August -- Sponsored by the American Association for the Advancement of Science, traveled to Oklahoma to visit the Shawnee Agency in eastern Oklahoma and the Kickapoo Indians in McCloud to search for adequate samples of pure blood Indians

1918 -- Elected to the American Philosophical Society Served as Chairman of Section H of the American Association for the Advancement of Science Founded the American Journal of Physical Anthropology and became its long-time editor Surveyed prehistoric sites on the southwest coast of Florida

1918 October 8 -- Death of his wife Marie

1920 -- Anthropometry published by the Wistar Institute Elected an honorary fellow of the Royal Anthropological Society of Great Britain

1920 Summer -- Married Mina (Vilemina) Mansfield

1920 January-May -- Visited Japan, Korea, Manchuria, northern China, Mongolia, and Hawaii Lectured at Peking Union Medical College in China

1920 Fall -- Visited Minnesota Chippewa (at the White Earth Reservation?) to help the Department of Justice setter the question of mixed and pure bloods among the Chippewa

1921 -- Elected to the National Academy of Sciences

1922 -- Visited Spain, France, Germany, Moravia, and England Awarded honorary Sc.D. degree from the University of Prague Chairman of the American delegation to the 20th International Congress of Americanists in Rio de Janiero

1923 -- Served three and one-half months as Director of the American School in France for Prehistoric Studies Visited England, Holland, Belgium, France, Germany, Bohemia, Austria, Croatia, and Italy

1925 -- The Old Americans published by Williams and Wilkins Co.

1925 March-October -- Traveled to Australia, Java, India, South Africa, and Europe on a trip sponsored by the Buffalo [New York] Society of Natural Science to obtain cranial measurements of Australian aborigines and Tasmanians, to investigate the Rhodesian Man site in South Africa, to survey the field of early man, and to collect data to support his hypothesis about the peopling of the Earth

1925-1926 -- President of the American Anthropological Association

1926 -- Awarded honorary Sc.D. degree from University of Brno and D.Nat.Sc. degree from Brunn University

1926 May-September -- First fieldwork in Alaska: reconnaissance down the Yukon River to its mouth, around the Bering Sea and through the Bering Strait along the Alaskan coast to Point Barrow

1927 -- Received Huxley Memorial Medal and gave Huxley Lecture on "the Neanderthal Phase of Man" before the Royal Anthropological Society of Great Britain

1928 -- Helped found the American Association of Physical Anthropologists (AAPA)

1928-1929 -- President of the Washington Academy of Sciences

1928-1932 -- Served as first president of the AAPA

1929 -- Fieldwork in Alaska: surveyed the Yukon River from Tanana to its mouth, to St. Lawrence and the Diomede Islands, to Cape Prince of Wales, up to Point Barrow and back to Unalaska Awarded honorary Sc.D. degree from Charles University, Prague

1930 -- Published The Skeletal Remains of Early Man, Vol. 83 Smithsonian Miscellaneous collections Published "Anthropological Survey in Alaska," Forty-sixth Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology, pp. 21-374

1930 Summer -- Fieldwork in Alaska: surveyed the Kuskokwim River from Bethel down river to Apogak and up river to Stony River

1931 -- Children Who Run on All Fours published by McGraw-Hill Book Co.

1931 Summer -- Fieldwork in Alaska: excavated at Our (Jones) point site, trial excavations at Chief's Point and other sites, and a survey of Kodiak Island

1932 -- Kober Foundation lecturer of Georgetown University

1932 Summer -- Fieldwork in Alaska: excavated at Our (Jones) Point site, trial excavations at Chief's Point and other sites, and a survey of Kodiak Island

1934 Summer -- Fieldwork in Alaska: excavated at Our (Jones) Point site and surveyed Cooks Inlet sites and the mainland opposite the Our Point site

1935 Summer -- Fieldwork in Alaska: excavated at Our (Jones) Point site

1936 Summer -- Fieldwork in Alaska: excavated at Our (Jones) Point site and surveyed the Dutch Harbor caves, some of the Aleutian Islands, and the mummy cave on Kagamil Island

1937 Summer -- Fieldwork in Alaska: surveyed the Aleutian Islands and Commander Islands

1938 Summer -- Fieldwork in Alaska: surveyed the Aleutian Islands, Dutch Harbor caves, and Commander Islands

1939 April 4 -- Testimonial dinner given by the American Association of Physical Anthropologists in honor of his 70th birthday

1939 April-June -- Recuperated in London hospital after suffering a coronary occlusion

1942 March 31 -- Retired from curatorship at United States National Museum, becoming an associate in anthropology

1942 December -- Resigned as editor of the American Journal of Physical Anthropology

1943 -- Alaska Diary published by Cattell Press

1943 September 5 -- Died of heart attack

1944 -- Anthropology of Kodiak Island published by Wistar Institute

1945 -- The Aleutian and Commander Islands and Their Inhabitants published by Wistar Institute

1969 -- Tenth Anthropological Congress of the Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences dedicated to Hrdlička in the 100th anniversary year of his birth

Selected Bibliography

1908 -- Hrdlička, Aleš. Physiological and Medical Observations Among the Indians of Southwestern United States and Northern Mexico. Bulletin 34, Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1908.

1912 -- Hrdlička, Aleš. Early Man in South America. Bulletin 52, Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1912.

1919 -- Hrdlička, Aleš. Physical Anthropology: Its Scope and Aims. Philadelphia: The Wistar Institute of Anatomy and Biology, 1919.

1920 -- Hrdlička, Aleš. Anthropometry. Philadelphia: The Wistar Institute of Anatomy and Biology, 1920.

1925 -- Hrdlička, Aleš. The Old Americans. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins Co., 1925.

1930 -- Hrdlička, Aleš. The Skeletal Remains of Early Man. Vol. 83, Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections. City of Washington: The Smithsonian Institution, 1930. Hrdlička, Aleš. Anthropological Survey in Alaska. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1930.

1931 -- Hrdlička, Aleš. Children Who Run on All Fours, and Other Animal-like Behaviors in the Human Child. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., 1931.

1943 -- Hrdlička, Aleš. Alaska Diary, 1926-1931. Lancaster, PA: The Jacques Cattell Press, 1943.

1944 -- Hrdlička, Aleš. Anthropology of Kodiak Island. Philadelphia: The Wistar Institute of Anatomy and Biology, 1944.

1945 -- Hrdlička, Aleš. The Aleutian and Commander Islands and Their Inhabitants. Philadelphia: The Wistar Institute of Anatomy and Biology, 1945.
Related Materials:
Additional material in the National Anthropological Archives relating to Aleš Hrdlička can be found in the papers of William Louis Abbott, Henry Bascom Collins, Herbert William Krieger, and Frank Spencer; records of the American Anthropological Association, Bureau of American Ethnology, Department of Anthropology of the United States National Museum (National Museum of Natural History), Science Service, Anthropological Society of Washington, and the United States Army Medical Museum (anatomical section, records relating to specimens transferred to the Smithsonian Institution); and glass negatives of Indians collected by the Bureau of American Ethnology, Smithsonian Institution illustrations.

Additional related photographs can be found in Photo Lot 8, Division of Physical Anthropology collection; Photo Lot 9, Photographs of Indians for the Panama-California Exposition, San Diego; Photo Lot 24, Bureau of American Ethnology, United States National Museum photographs of American Indians; Photo Lot 70, Department of Anthropology portrait file; Photo Lot 78, Miscellaneous negatives; Photo Lot 97, Division of Ethnology collection ("USNM" Collection); Photo Lot 73-26B, Aleš Hrdlička photographs relating to the Panama-California Exhibition; Photo Lot 73-26G, Miscellany; Photo Lot 77-48, Group portraits of International Congress; Photo Lot 79-38, Division of World Archeology collection; Photo Lot 83-41, Division of Physical Anthropology collection of photographs of human bones; and Photo Lot 92-46, Anthropology lantern slides.

Related films can be found in the Human Studies Film Archive under the accession numbers HSFA 1982.2.1, 1982.2.2, 1986.12.1, and 2015.13.1.

Hrdlička's extensive collection of reprints is maintained in the Division of Physical Anthropology.

Frank Spencer's doctoral dissertation "Aleš Hrdlička, M.D., 1869-1943: A Chronicle of the Life and Work of an American Physical Anthropologist" (1979) is the only book length biography of Hrdlička. The Frank Spencer papers, 1836-1999, are available at the NAA and contain original correspondence between Hrdlička and his first wife, Marie Strickler; his childhood report card from 1869; copies of family photos obtained from Lucy Miller, Hrdlička's niece; and an audio recording of Hrdlička speaking at Wistar Institute.

Further material may be found in the Smithsonian Institution Archives.

The University of Alaska Anchorage holds diaries relating to Hrdlička's Expeditions to Alaska in 1936, 1937, and 1938 in the Alan G. May papers. The finding aid for this collection is avialable online at https://archives.consortiumlibrary.org/collections/specialcollections/hmc-0690/ and a trascription of May's diaries from the expeditions is available online at https://scholarworks.alaska.edu/handle/11122/11850
Provenance:
Hrdlička bequeathed his papers to the Smithsonian Institution. The Division of Physical Anthropology maintained them until they were deposited in the National Anthropological Archives in the 1960s. Some papers have come into the collection since then, most recently in 2018. These new accretions came to the collection through Donald Ortner, David Hunt, T. Dale Stewart, the Department of Anthropology, and the University of Alaska.
Restrictions:
The Aleš Hrdlička papers are open for research.

Access to the Aleš Hrdlička papers requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Human evolution  Search this
Physical anthropology  Search this
Children -- Physical anthropology  Search this
anthropometry  Search this
Ethnology  Search this
Fossil hominids  Search this
Citation:
Aleš Hrdlička papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.1974-31
See more items in:
Aleš Hrdlička papers
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-1974-31
Online Media:

Aleš Hrdlička photographs from Mexico and Arizona

Photographer:
Hrdlička, Aleš, 1869-1943  Search this
Owner:
Pepper, George H. (George Hubbard), 1873-1924  Search this
Source:
Lumholtz, Carl, 1851-1922  Search this
Names:
Hyde Exploring Expedition (1902-1903)  Search this
Former owner:
Lumholtz, Carl, 1851-1922  Search this
Extent:
588 Photographic prints
190 Copy negatives
Culture:
Hualapai (Walapai)  Search this
Akimel O'odham (Pima)  Search this
Havasupai (Coconino)  Search this
Opata  Search this
Yoeme (Yaqui)  Search this
Otomí (Otomi)  Search this
Cora  Search this
Piipaash (Maricopa)  Search this
Wixarika (Huichol)  Search this
Seri  Search this
Nahua  Search this
Mojave (Mohave)  Search this
Indians of North America  Search this
Tohono O'odham (Papago)  Search this
Yoreme (Mayo)  Search this
Purepecha (Tarasco)  Search this
Quechan (Yuma/Cuchan)  Search this
Tepecano  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographic prints
Copy negatives
Place:
Casa Grande (Ariz.)
Arizona -- photographs
Mexico -- Photographs
Date:
1898-1902
Summary:
This collection contains photographic prints and copy negatives taken by Ales Hrdlicka in Arizona and Mexico between 1898 and 1902. The majority of the photographs were donated by George Pepper to the Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation in 1923. Native communities that Hrdlicka photographed during his research include--Purepecha (Tarasco), Yoeme (Yaqui), Hualapai (Walapai), Havasupai (Coconino), Piipaash (Maricopa), Mojave (Mahave), Tohono O'odham (Papapgo), Quechan (Yuma/Cuchan), Tepecano, Akimel O'odham (Pima), Opata, Cora, Seri, Wixarika (Huichol), Nahua, Otomi and Yoreme (Mayo). Ales Hrdlicka (1869-1943) was born in the Czech Republic moved to the United States in 1881. Hrdlicka became known as the "Father" of Physical Anthropology and worked at the U.S. National Museum (now the National Museum of Natural History).
Scope and Contents:
This collection contains photographic prints taken by Ales Hrdlicka in Arizona and Mexico between 1898 and 1902. It is likely that many of the photographs were taken in 1902 as a part of the Hyde exploring expeditions on behalf of the American Museum of Natural History. Some of these photographs were taken by Carl Lumholtz and not Hrdlicka. Native communities that Hrdlicka photographed during his research include--Purepecha (Tarasco), Yoeme (Yaqui), Hualapai (Walapai), Havasupai (Coconino), Piipaash (Maricopa), Mojave (Mahave), Tohono O'odham (Papapgo), Quechan (Yuma/Cuchan), Tepecano, Akimel O'odham (Pima), Opata, Cora, Seri, Wixarika (Huichol), Nahua, Otomi, and Yoreme (Mayo). Locations photographed in Mexico include--Michoacán, Sonora, Mesa del Encanto and the Ruins of Totoate in Jalisco, Ruins of La Quamada and Ruins of Teul in Zacatecas, Nayarit State, and the central altiplano. Locations photographed in Arizona include--Casa Grande in Pinal County, Fort Yuma Reservation, Supai in Coconino County and the Mission San Xavier del Bac.

The photographs include a large amount of posed portraits of men and women, none of them identified in our collection. Hrdlicka often posed his subjects both facing forward and in profile so that he could better examine their physical attributes.There are some group portraits as well as scenic shots of houses, churches and village views. Hrdlicka also photographed archaeological ruins inlcuding Casa Grande, Mesa del Encanto, Totoate, La Quamada and Teul.

The copy negatives that were made from the prints in the late 1960s by the Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation.
Arrangement:
The majority of the photographs have been left in the order that they were originally cataloged. Photographs from the various tribal communities in Arizona and Mexico are in Series 1-16, each community with its own series. The final series, Series 17, contains photographs from various archaeological ruins in Arizona and Mexico.
Biographical / Historical:
Ales Hrdlicka (1869-1943) was born in Bohemia in and came to America when he was thirteen. As a young man, he was trained in medicine at New York's Eclectic Medical College and the New York Homeopathic Medical College, receiving degrees from each. His first professional work was as a private practitioner, but he gave that up in 1894 when he joined the staff of the New York State Hospital for the Insane at Middletown. There, in addition to other duties, he began studies of the physical characteristics of inmates. In 1896, in preparation for a research appointment with the Department of Anthropology in the Pathological Institute of the New York State hospitals, Hrdlicka went to Paris and studied with Leon Manouvrier. After his return to America, he worked for a short period with the Pathological Institute and came into contact with G.S. Huntington, of the College of Physicians and Surgeons in New York. Hrdlicka arranged and studied Huntington's large collection of skeletal material, thus gaining knowledge of a well-documented collection representing largely normal persons of European ancestry. He furthermore came to the attention of Frederic Ward Putnam, of the American Museum of Natural History, who arranged for his first anthropological field studies.

Hrdlicka became a member of the Hyde Expeditions to the American Southwest and northern Mexico. In 1898, he traveled to Mexico with Carl Lumholtz to study the Tarahumaras, Huichols, and neighboring tribes. In subsequent years, he returned to Mexico and the Southwest alone and studied physical characteristics and medical conditions of several American Indian tribes. Following this experience and examinations of the Trenton and Lansing skeletal material for Putnam, Hrdlicka was appointed head of the newly formed Division of Physical Anthropology in the United States National Museum in 1903.

In 1905, Hrdlicka returned to the Southwest for studies of Pima and Apache children and, in the following year, traveled to Florida to examine allegedly ancient remains of man. In 1908, he worked among a number of Native American tribes, including the Menominee, Oglala Dakota, Quinailt, Hupa, and Mohave, in a study of tuberculosis among them. In 1909, he traveled to Egypt with an expedition of the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York in order to study living Egyptians and to examine remains of Egypt's past population. The following year took him to Argentina, Peru, and Mexico. In the first of these, he again examined allegedly ancient remains of man. In Peru, he made a large collection of skeletal material near Trujillo, at Pachamac, and in the Chicama Valley.

Between 1912-1914, Hrdlicka undertook a physical anthropological exhibit for the Panama-California Exposition in San Diego and, for this, traveled to eastern Siberia, Mongolia, Peru, and Florida. He also examined fossil remains of man in Europe and directed field work of other anthropologists in South and East Africa, St. Lawrence Island in Alaska, the Philippines, eastern Siberia, and the Ukraine. In 1915, for the Department of Justice, he assessed the racial makeup of Chippewas on the Leech Lake and White Earth reservations in Minnesota and also studied Dakota Indians. In 1917, his field work was directed toward white American families with longtime residence in the United States. In 1918, he carried out a survey of ancient sites in eastern Florida for the Bureau of American Ethnology. In 1920, he traveled to Hawaii, Japan, Korea, and Manchuria in connection with an appointment to lecture at the Peking Union Medical College. As director of the American School for Prehistoric Studies in France, he again studied fossil remains of man in Europe in 1922 and 1923. In 1925, he carried out work in India, Ceylon, Java, Australia, South Africa, and Europe. In 1927, he was again in Europe to deliver the Huxley Memorial Lecture before the Royal Anthropological Society in Great Britain. Between 1929 and 1938, he traveled frequently to Alaska to carry on an anthropological survey. In 1939, he traveled to Russia and Siberia.

Beginning with much of the skeletal collection of the Army Medical Museum, which had been transferred to the Smithsonian in 1898 before he was appointed there, Hrdlicka amassed a bone collection that included, among many other specimens, the Huntington collection, casts of fossil remains of man, and a large and diverse North American collection. He also gathered a large collection of human brains. Over three hundred publications resulted from his study of this material, his field work, and his study of specimens in other museums. In addition, he was involved in many other activities. For United States government agencies, he provided services ranging from examinations of human remains for law enforcement officials to providing information and opinions concerning national origins and traits that were needed to interpret laws and form foreign policy. During World War II, he also advised government officials on policies to be pursued with certain national groups following the war.

In 1918, Hrdlicka founded the American Journal of Physical Anthropology and remained its editor until 1942. In 1928, he was the major force behind the organization of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists and served as its president in 1928-1932. He was also president of the Anthropological Society of Washington in 1907, the American Anthroplogical Association in 1925-1927, and the Washington Academy of Sciences in 1928-1929. He was chairman of Section H of the American Association for the Advancement of Science in 1918 and secretary of the Committee on Anthropology of the National Research Council in 1917. In addition, Hrdlicka was a member of the American Philosophical Society and the National Academy of Sciences. He represented the Smithsonian at several international gatherings of scholars, including meetings of the International Congress of Americanists.

Biographical note courtesy of the National Anthropological Archives, National Museum of Natural History. See Ales Hrdlicka Papers. Edited by Rachel Menyuk, Processing Archivist at the National Museum of the American Indian.
Related Materials:
The majority of Ales Hrdlicka's papers and photographs are located at the National Athropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution. In addition to the Ales Hrdlicka Papers ca. 1887-1943 additional Hrdlicka photographs can be found in photographic lots 8, Division of Physical Anthropology collection; 9, photographs of Indians for the Panama-California Exposition, San Diego; 24, Bureau of American Ethnology, United States National Museum photographs of American Indians; 70, Department of Anthropology portrait file; 78, miscellaneous negatives; 97, Division of Ethnology collection (―USNM‖ Collection); 73-26B, Aleš Hrdlička photographs; 73-26G, miscellany; 77-48, group portraits of International Congress; 79-38, Division of World Archeology collection; 83-41, Division of Physical Anthropology collection of photographs of human bones; and 92-46, anthropology lantern slides.
Provenance:
Although it is unclear when George Pepper received the photographs from Ales Hrdlicka, Pepper donated the majority of the collection of photographs to the Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation (MAI) in 1923. The rest of the photographs were cataloged by the MAI some time in the 1920s but the provenance history is unknown.
Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).

There are several restricted photographs in Series 2: Yoeme (Yaqui). This have been restricted due to cultural sensitivity.
Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiphotos@si.edu. For personal or classroom use, users are invited to download, print, photocopy, and distribute the images that are available online without prior written permission, provided that the files are not modified in any way, the Smithsonian Institution copyright notice (where applicable) is included, and the source of the image is identified as the National Museum of the American Indian. For more information please see the Smithsonian's Terms of Use and NMAI Archive Center's Digital Image request website.
Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Aleš Hrdlička photographs from Mexico and Arizona, Folder Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.103
See more items in:
Aleš Hrdlička photographs from Mexico and Arizona
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmai-ac-103
Online Media:

Social (see also oversized, Box 154)

Collection Creator:
Davis, Benjamin O., Jr., 1912-  Search this
Container:
Box 11, Folder 7
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
undated
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Collection Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Collection Citation:
Benjamin O. Davis, Jr. Collection, Acc. 1992.0023, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Benjamin O. Davis Jr. Collection
Benjamin O. Davis Jr. Collection / Series 2: Military Career / 2.3: Materials Arranged by Posting / 2.3.13: Far East Air Force (FEAF) Headquarters (Tokyo, Japan), Director of Operations and Training
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-1992-0023-ref1915
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  • View Social (see also oversized, Box 154) digital asset number 1

Wilton M. Krogman Center for Research in Child Growth and Development records, 1947-1989

Creator:
Krogman, Wilton Marion, 1903-1987  Search this
Krogman, Wilton Marion, 1903-1987  Search this
Production place:
Children's Hospital of Philadelphia (CHOP)  Search this
Children's Hospital of Philadelphia (CHOP)  Search this
Repository:
University of Pennsylvania  Search this
University of Pennsylvania  Search this
Extent:
520 Linear feet (520 boxes)
Culture:
African Americans  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Patient medical records
Date:
circa 1947 - circa 1989
Summary:
The Wilton M. Krogman Center for Research in Child Growth and Development records consist of data collected by the Krogman Growth Center over a 40-year period documenting physical growth and faciodental development in Philadelphia children from approximately 1947-1989. The study observed children throughout their lives, starting at infancy once Philadelphia's participation in the Collaborative Perinatal Project (1959-1974) began. In all, the data collected from these growth studies helped establish healthy growth standards for children, and reflect largest and longest U.S. studies on growth, pregnancy, and childhood. The collection includes a variety of mixed materials and medical records, including: photographs, clinical notes, patient evaluations, family medical histories, newspaper clippings, X-rays, and dental records.
Scope and Contents:
Access to the collection is restricted, due to the presence of personally identifiable information (PII). Access is subject to approval by the Smithsonian Institution's Institutional Review Board (IRB). Please contact the National Anthropological Archives for further information.

The Wilton M. Krogman Center for Research in Child Growth and Development records contain the data collected for the Philadelphia branch of the National Collaborative Perinatal Program (CPP) (1954-1974) and for a 40-year longitudinal study (1947-1983) by Wilton M. Krogman (and his successor, Solomon H. Katz) at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia (CHOP). Data was collected in the form of a variety of medical records, including pediatric, dental, and hospital records, all of which contain PII: National Infant Mortality Surveillance (NIMS) numbers; birthdays; photographs; clinical notes; family medical histories; pediatric, psychological, and neurological evaluations; X-rays; and death reports (including autopsies and related newspaper clippings).

Please note that the language and terminology used in this collection reflects the context and culture of the time of its creation. As an historical document, its contents may be at odds with contemporary views and terminology. The information within this collection does not reflect the views of the Smithsonian Institution, but is available in its original form to facilitate research.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into two series: (1) National Collaborative Perinatal Project (CPP), Dental Program, 1959-1976; and (2) Child Growth and Development: Patient Files Information, circa 1947-circa 1989.
Wilton Marion Krogman Center for Research in Child Growth and Development:
The Wilton M. Krogman Center for Research in Child Growth and Development (originally known as the Philadelphia center for Research in child Growth) was founded by anthropologist Wilton M. Krogman in 1947. The Center was located in the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia (CHOP).

Its objective was to establish growth standards for "normal," healthy children, as determined by age, sex, and race. Longitudinal research for this study began in approximately 1947. The study involved approximately 9,000 initial participants (7,200 of which were followed up on), who were observed annually for physical growth, psychological performance, faciodental development with cleft lip and/or palate, facial growth in regards to tooth development, and any existing endocrine disorders and orthopedic concerns.

Additionally, the Center led the Philadelphia portion of the 11-city Collaborative Perinatal Project (CPP) (1959-1974), which remains the largest and longest U.S.-based study of pregnancy and childhood ever conducted. In all, the research of the Center compromises the largest longitudinal study ever conducted on growth in the U.S. and the largest in the world on people of African descent, and produced hundreds of publications between 1959 and 2011. Many of the original participants contributed to later phases of the project as adults for decades thereafter, making a significant contribution to the study of aging. The results of Krogman's initial research helped establish physical growth standards for elementary and high school age children.

Chronology: Wilton Marion Krogman Center for Research in Child Growth and Development

1947 -- Founded by Wilton M. Krogman (originally named the Philadelphia Center for Research in Child Growth)

1947-1983 -- Longitudinal Research, Child Growth: Physical Growth, Faciodental Development, Dental Program

1959-1974 -- Longitudinal Research, National Collaborative Perinatal Project (CPP), Philadelphia

1970 -- Krogman publishes growth study findings through the Society for Research in Child Development

1971 -- Dr. Solomon H. Katz becomes new Center Director

1972 -- Krogman republishes growth study findings in his book Child Growth
Wilton Marion Krogman:
Wilton Marion "Bill" Krogman was born on June 28, 1903 to Lydia Magdalena Wriedt and Wilhelm Claus Krogman in Oak Park, Illinois.

He attended the University of Chicago from 1921-1929, where he majored in anthropology, minored in biology and geo-paleontology, and earned his PhD. His postdoctoral work included several fellowships, teaching positions, and summer archeological "digs" through the Archaeological Survey of Illinois.

As a student, Krogman's work caught the attention of Dr. Milo Hellman, an orthodontist and physical anthropologist. At Hellman's suggestion, Krogman submitted a paper to the Chaim Prize Committee's annual Morris L. Chaim Prize of the First District Dental Society of New York City. Krogman's paper, "Anthropological Aspects of the Human Teeth and Dentition," received first prize and was published in its entirety in the Journal of Dental Research in 1927, for which Hellman was on the editorial board. Krogman received additional attention as a student from Dr. Thomas Wingate Todd, an anatomist, physical anthropologist, and director of the Department of Anthropology for Western Reserve University in Ohio. As such, Todd arranged a fellowship for Krogman from 1928-1929.

After receiving his PhD in 1929, Krogman participated as a National Reserve fellow at the Royal College of Surgeons in London from 1930-1931. Afterwards, he returned to Western Reserve University, where he joined the faculty as an associate professor of anatomy and physical anthropology. During this time, Krogman worked under Todd as a researcher for the Brush Foundation and the Bolton Fund, which focused on physical and psychological development in children, and on faciodental growth in children, respectively. It is during this time that Krogman also began his studies in craniology.

In 1938, Krogman returned to Chicago to join the faculty of the University of Chicago as an associate professor of anatomy and physical anthropology.

In 1947, Krogman moved to Pennsylvania to join the faculty of the University of Pennsylvania as a professor of physical anthropology for the Graduate School of Medicine and for the School of Dental Medicine. While teaching, he also served as a curator at the university's museum and was on staff at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia (CHOP). Here, he founded the Philadelphia Center for Research in Child Growth—which would later be renamed the Wilton Marion Krogman Center for Research in Child Growth and Development. The Center carried out a 40-year longitudinal study that documented physical growth and faciodental development in children across age, sex, and race. Additionally, it participated in the Philadelphia portion of the National Collaborative Perinatal Project (1959-1974). (See "Biographical/Historical: Wilton Marion Krogman Center for Research in Child Growth and Development," and collection series/sub-series descriptions for more information on the Center's research.)

While carrying out his child growth studies, Krogman's research contributed greatly to many interests in the field of anthropology, including: osteology, racial studies, genetics, medical anthropology, paleoanthropology, constitutional anthropology, and human engineering. Furthermore, together with Dr. Todd of Western Reserve University, he pioneered the study of forensic anthropology. His 1962 book, The Human Skeleton in Forensic Medicine, which has served as a definitive text for medical and police professionals alike.

In 1970, Krogman published the findings of his growth study through the Society for Research in Child Development.

In 1971, Krogman retired from the University of Pennsylvania becoming emeritus staff. That same year, Krogman became the director of research at the H. K. Cooper Clinic, where he continued to research and publish about oral and facial development and growth until retiring in 1983 due to health concerns.

Over the course of his career, Krogman earned a number of awards and honors, and held prestigious positions, including, but not limited to: chair for Section H of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (1948-1949), president of the Central Section of the American Anthropological Association (1937-1938), president of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists (1942-1949), chair of the Department of Physical Anthropology in the Graduate School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania (1947-1951), the Viking Fund Medal in Physical Anthropology (1950), chair of the Committee on Research in Physical Anthropology of the National Research Council (1955-1971), the Drexel Institute Award (1958), president of the Society for Research in Child Development (1959-1961), president of the International Society of Cranio-Facial Biology (1962-1963), and election to the National Academy of Sciences (1966).

Wilton M. Krogman died on November 4, 1987 at age 84.

Chronology: Wilton Marion Krogman

1903 June 28 -- Born in Oak Park, Illinois

1921-1929 -- Student, University of Chicago

1928-1929 -- Research Fellow, Western Reserve University

1929 -- Ph.D., University of Chicago (Anthropology)

1930-1931 -- National Reserve Fellow, Royal College of Surgeons, London

1931-1938 -- Faculty, Western Reserve University Researcher, Western Reserve University (Brush Foundation) Researcher, Western Reserve University (Bolton Fund)

1933-1945 -- Secretary, Section H (Anthropology), American Association for the Advancement of Science

1937–1939 -- President, Central Section, American Anthropological Association

1938-1947 -- Faculty, University of Chicago

1944-1949 -- President, American Association of Physical Anthropologists

1947-1971 -- Faculty, University of Pennsylvania

1947 -- Founder, Philadelphia Center for Research in Child Growth (renamed W. M. Krogman Center for Research in Child Growth and Development)

1947-? -- Curator, Penn Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, University of Pennsylvania

1947-1951 -- Chair, Committee on Research in Physical Anthropology, National Research Council

1947-1971 -- Staff, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia Researcher, Philadelphia Center for Research in Child Growth (renamed W. M. Krogman Center for Research in Child Growth and Development)

1948-1949 -- Chair, Section H (Anthropology), American Association for the Advancement of Science

1949-1950, 1957-59 -- Member, Board of Governors, Society for Research in Child Development

1950 -- Recipient, Viking Fund Medal in Physical Anthropology

1955-1971 -- Chair, Department of Physical Anthropology, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania

1955 -- LL.D., Honorary Degree, Baylor University

1958 -- Recipient, Drexel Institute Award

1959-1961 -- President, Society for Research in Child Development

1962-1963 -- President, International Society of Cranio-Facial Biology

1966 -- Elected to the National Academy of Sciences

1967 -- Recipient, Callahan Award and Medal, Ohio State Dental Association

1969 -- Recipient, Ketcham Award, American Association of Orthodontists

1969 -- D.Sc., Honorary Degree, University of Michigan

1971 -- Krogman retires

1971-1983 -- Faculty, University of Pennsylvania (Professor Emeritus) Director of Research, H. K. Cooper (cleft palate) Clinic, Lancaster

1973 -- Honorary Senior President, Third Inernational Orthodontic Congress, London

1979 -- D.Sc., Honorary Degree, University of Pennsylvania

1982 -- Recipient, Annual Award, American Association of Orthodontists

1983 -- Recipient, Honors Award, American Cleft Palate Association

1987 November 4 -- Died in Lititz, Pennsylvania
Provenance:
The Wilton M. Krogman Center for Research in Child Growth and Development records were donated to the National Anthropological Archives by Solomon Katz in 2017.
Restrictions:
Access to the collection is restricted, due to the presence of personally identifiable information (PII). Access is subject to approval by the Smithsonian Institution's Institutional Review Board (IRB). Please contact the National Anthropological Archives for further information.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Anthropology, physical  Search this
Anthropology, physical -- Anthropologists  Search this
Babies  Search this
Forensic anthropology  Search this
Infants  Search this
Physical anthropologists  Search this
Physical anthropology  Search this
Physical anthropology -- dental anthropology  Search this
Physical anthropology -- growth studies  Search this
Genre/Form:
Patient medical records
Citation:
Wilton M. Krogman Center for Research in Child Growth and Development records, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NAA.2017-20
See more items in:
Wilton M. Krogman Center for Research in Child Growth and Development records, 1947-1989
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-2017-20

American Association of Physical Anthropologists

Collection Creator:
Hrdlička, Aleš, 1869-1943  Search this
Extent:
0.21 Linear feet
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1924-1931
Scope and Contents:
This series includes the American Association of Physical Anthropologists (AAPA) constitution and bylaws, correspondence, and membership documents. Hrdlička persuaded other participants at the Section H (Anthropology) meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science in December, 1928, to found an organization for physical anthropologists. An organizing committee was formed with Hrdlička elected chairman and Dudley Morton secretary. In 1930, at its first meeting in Charlottesville, Virginia, a constitution and bylaws for the AAPA were adopted. Hrdlička served as chairman until 1932.
Collection Restrictions:
The Aleš Hrdlička papers are open for research.

Access to the Aleš Hrdlička papers requires an appointment.
Collection Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Collection Citation:
Aleš Hrdlička papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.1974-31, Series 27
See more items in:
Aleš Hrdlička papers
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-1974-31-ref3546

Constitution and bylaws

Collection Creator:
Hrdlička, Aleš, 1869-1943  Search this
Container:
Box 173
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
undated
Collection Restrictions:
The Aleš Hrdlička papers are open for research.

Access to the Aleš Hrdlička papers requires an appointment.
Collection Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Collection Citation:
Aleš Hrdlička papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Aleš Hrdlička papers
Aleš Hrdlička papers / Series 27: American Association of Physical Anthropologists
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-1974-31-ref3915

Correspondence A-Z

Collection Creator:
Hrdlička, Aleš, 1869-1943  Search this
Container:
Box 173
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1924-1930
Scope and Contents:
Includes correspondence with R. Bennett Bean, Franz Boas, Earnest A. Hooton, George Grant MacCurdy, Adolph Schultz, R.J. Terry, T. Wingate Todd, and Alfred M. Tozzer. Under the letter A is a galley proof of an announcement in Science of the creation of the AAPA.
Collection Restrictions:
The Aleš Hrdlička papers are open for research.

Access to the Aleš Hrdlička papers requires an appointment.
Collection Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Collection Citation:
Aleš Hrdlička papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Aleš Hrdlička papers
Aleš Hrdlička papers / Series 27: American Association of Physical Anthropologists
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-1974-31-ref3916

Dudley Morton, Secretary-Treasurer of the AAPA

Collection Creator:
Hrdlička, Aleš, 1869-1943  Search this
Container:
Box 173
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1929-1931
Arrangement:
Arranged chronologically.
Collection Restrictions:
The Aleš Hrdlička papers are open for research.

Access to the Aleš Hrdlička papers requires an appointment.
Collection Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Collection Citation:
Aleš Hrdlička papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Aleš Hrdlička papers
Aleš Hrdlička papers / Series 27: American Association of Physical Anthropologists
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-1974-31-ref3917

Miscellany

Collection Creator:
Hrdlička, Aleš, 1869-1943  Search this
Container:
Box 173
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
undated
Scope and Contents:
Includes letterhead, announcement for the establishment of the organization, application for membership, and membership lists.
Collection Restrictions:
The Aleš Hrdlička papers are open for research.

Access to the Aleš Hrdlička papers requires an appointment.
Collection Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Collection Citation:
Aleš Hrdlička papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Aleš Hrdlička papers
Aleš Hrdlička papers / Series 27: American Association of Physical Anthropologists
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-1974-31-ref3918

Correspondence

Collection Creator:
Hrdlička, Aleš, 1869-1943  Search this
Extent:
26.5 Linear feet
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1885-1953
Scope and Contents:
This series includes responses to inquiries, business of the Smithsonian Department of Anthropology and various organizations, discussions of scientific findings, responses to questions of heredity, letters on behalf of the Czech people, and correspondence with family members. Other materials include manuscripts of Hrdlička's articles, lectures, and radio talks; reports; information Hrdlička collected on particular subjects; anthropometric and osteometric data; articles by other researchers; and photographs. Of special interest are letters concerning Hrdlička's appointment to the United States National Museum, the founding of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists and the American Journal of Physical Anthropology, Hrdlička's assistance to law enforcement agencies, his interest in the welfare of Czechoslovakia, and his advice to political leaders of the United States and foreign countries. Some letters are from important anthropologists, and some correspondence with particular individuals is extensive. T. Dale Stewart and other Department of Anthropology staff members answered some letters after Hrdlička's death. This series does not include any of Hrdlička's correspondence with either of his wives. There is also correspondence in many other series.
Arrangement:
Arranged alphabetically. At the beginning of each letter of the alphabet are folders labeled as miscellaneous correspondence. Researchers should be aware that the date range listed on the folder of an individual's correspondence is usually not inclusive, and they should be alert for inconsistencies in filing. For example, there are papers filed "Department of Justice" and "Justice, Department of." It may be necessary to search all of the correspondence to find all relevant documents on a given subject.
Collection Restrictions:
The Aleš Hrdlička papers are open for research.

Access to the Aleš Hrdlička papers requires an appointment.
Collection Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Collection Citation:
Aleš Hrdlička papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.1974-31, Series 3
See more items in:
Aleš Hrdlička papers
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-1974-31-ref62

American Association of Physical Anthropologists

Collection Creator:
Hrdlička, Aleš, 1869-1943  Search this
Container:
Box 7
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1932-1942
Scope and Contents:
Includes Earl W. Count, Harold Cummins, William K. Gregory, W.W. Howells, Wilton Marion Krogman, R.J. Terry, and Clark Wissler.
Collection Restrictions:
The Aleš Hrdlička papers are open for research.

Access to the Aleš Hrdlička papers requires an appointment.
Collection Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Collection Citation:
Aleš Hrdlička papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Aleš Hrdlička papers
Aleš Hrdlička papers / Series 3: Correspondence
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-1974-31-ref88

Thomas Dale Stewart Papers

Creator:
Stewart, T. D. (Thomas Dale), 1901-1997  Search this
Names:
American Association of Physical Anthropologists  Search this
Department of Anthropology, National Museum of Natural History  Search this
National Academy of Sciences (U.S.)  Search this
National Geographic Society (U.S.)  Search this
Angel, J. Lawrence (John Lawrence)  Search this
Collins, Henry B. (Henry Bascom), 1899-1987  Search this
Hrdlička, Aleš, 1869-1943  Search this
McKern, T. W.  Search this
Extent:
65 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Place:
Alaska
Shanidar Cave (Iraq)
Virginia
Maryland
Delaware
Mexico
Peru
Guatemala
Chaco Canyon (N.M.) -- Archeology
Date:
1875-1991, bulk 1931-1991
bulk 1927-1991
Summary:
Thomas Dale Stewart was a physical and forensic anthropologist and worked at the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History from 1931 until his death in 1997. He worked under Ales Hrdlicka until 1943, became the head curator in 1960, director of the museum in 1962, and retired in 1971. Stewart's research interests included physical and forensic anthropology and archaeology, mostly in North and South America. He also worked with the F.B.I. frequently to aid in homicide investigations, and worked extensively with the U.S. Army to identify skeletal remains from the Korean War in Operation Glory. The Thomas Dale Stewart Papers primarily deal with his life and career at the Smithsonian, particularly his research projects and publications between 1931 and 1991. Materials consist mainly of correspondence, photographic material, dossiers based on writings and research projects, and administrative files.
Scope and Contents:
The Thomas Dale Stewart Papers document his research and professional activities from 1931 to 1991 and primarily deal with his anthropological and archaeological research in North and South America. There is also significant material related to ancient human skeletal remains found in Egypt and the Middle East, Stewart's work identifying skeletal remains for the U.S. Army (Operation Glory), and the history of physical and forensic anthropology. Material documenting Stewart's work with Ales Hrdlicka and other colleagues are also represented in this collection. The collection consists of correspondence, writings and research files, project data, skeletal data punch cards, photographic and illustration materials, and administrative and financial papers.

Please note that the contents of the collection and the language and terminology used reflect the context and culture of the time of its creation. As an historical document, its contents may be at odds with contemporary views and terminology and considered offensive today. The information within this collection does not reflect the views of the Smithsonian Institution or National Anthropological Archives, but is available in its original form to facilitate research.
Arrangement:
This collection is arranged in 9 series: Series 1. Biographical and Background, 1937-1983; Series 2. Correspondence, 1931-1990; Series 3. Writings and Research, 1875, 1902-1990; Series 4. Operation Glory, 1954-1957; Series 5. Professional Organizations, 1930-1990; Series 6. Trip Files, 1945-1985; Series 7. Teaching and Lectures, 1950-1970; Series 8. Exhibit Material, 1961-1969; Series 9. Photographs, 1928-1979.
Biographical note:
Thomas Dale Stewart was a curator of physical anthropology at the Smithsonian specializing in anthropometry, early man, and forensic anthropology. He worked in the Department of Anthropology for over seventy years. Born in Delta, Pennsylvania in 1901, Stewart moved to Washington, D.C. to pursue a degree at George Washington University. While attending school, he also began working at the Smithsonian in 1924 as a temporary substitute for John Baer, a family friend from Delta. After Baer died during conducting research in Panama, Stewart was invited to stay on as assistant to Ales Hrdlicka, curator of physical anthropology. Hrdlicka was impressed by Stewart's abilities and quickly took him on as a student. Promised that he would succeed Hrdlicka one day if he obtained an M.D., Stewart enrolled at The Johns Hopkins University and graduated in 1931. After graduating, Stewart was rehired by the Smithsonian as an assistant curator.

Stewart rose through the ranks of the Department of Anthropology quickly, being promoted to associate curator in 1939 and curator in 1943 after the death of his mentor Hrdlicka. Stewart was appointed head curator of the department in 1960 and director of the Natural History Museum in 1962. He continued to work at the Smithsonian well after he retired in 1971, conducting research and producing a stream of publications well into his 90s. He died in 1997 at the age of 96. Many of Stewart's early research interests matched those of his mentor: a focus on dental caries, separate neural arch and spondylolisthesis, ossuary excavation, cranial deformations, and other examinations of archaeological remains throughout North America. While Hrdlicka was alive, Stewart provided support for many of his research projects and publications. After Hrdlicka died, Stewart expanded his interests to include forensic topics and analysis of other archaeological remains.

Anthropometry was prominent in a great deal of his work. He was the first to describe Tepexpan Man from Mexico and Midland Man from Texas. He also studied the remains of Neanderthal specimens that Ralph S. Solecki, of the Bureau of American Ethnology, had uncovered at Shanidar Cave in Iraq. In forensic work, as Hrdlicka's heir, Stewart assumed work for the Federal Bureau of Investigation and other law enforcement officials. Moreover, Stewart devised new methods and published books and articles concerning forensic analysis, including his Essentials of Forensic Anthropology. In closely related work during 1954-1955, the United States Army engaged Stewart to go to Japan to examine skeletal remains repatriated after the Korean War in a project called "Operation Glory."

In terms of his areal specialization, Stewart was essentially an Americanist. In North America, he worked in Alaska with Henry B. Collins in 1927, and in subsequent years he excavated several ossuaries and other sites in the Washington, D.C., vicinity. These included a site on Potomac Creek in Virginia, Piscataway sites in Maryland, and the Townsend site in Delaware. He also carried out laboratory studies and prepared reports on skeletal remains uncovered by Smithsonian colleagues. In the 1940s and 1950s, Stewart conducted field work at archaeological sites in Mexico, Guatemala, and Peru.

He was awarded the Viking Medal in Physical Anthropology in 1953, the Joseph Henry Medal of the Smithsonian Institution in 1967, and an award from the physical anthropology section of the American Academy of Forensic Sciences in 1981.

Sources: Ubelaker, Douglas H. "Thomas Dale Stewart, A Biographer Memoir," National Academy of Sciences, 2006.

Pace, Eric. "T. Dale Stewart Dies at 96; Anthropologist at Smithsonian," The New York Times, 1997.

Chronology

1901 -- Born in Delta, Pennsylvania.

1922-1927 -- Moved to Washington, D.C. and attended George Washington University.

1924 -- Began working at the Smithsonian Institution.

1927 -- Sent by Ales Hrdlicka to Alaska to collect skeletal remains with Henry Collins.

1931 -- Graduated from The Johns Hopkins University with an M.D.

1931 -- Appointed assistant curator at the Smithsonian under Hrdlicka.

1939 -- Promoted to associate curator.

1939 -- Field work in Mexico.

1941 -- Field work in Peru.

1943 -- Taught at the Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis.

1943 -- Promoted to curator after Hrdlicka dies.

1943 -- Began working on forensic cases for the F.B.I.

1945 -- Field work in Mexico.

1949 -- Field work in Peru.

1947, 1949 -- Field work in Guatemala.

1954-1955 -- Traveled to Japan to assist in the identification of skeletal remains from the Korean War (Operation Glory).

1957-1967 -- Taught at the George Washington University School of Medicine.

1960-1962 -- Served as head curator of the Department of Anthropology.

1962-1965 -- Served as the director of the National Museum of Natural History.

1964 -- Assisted in the production of Smithsonian exhibits on physical anthropology.

1966 -- Retired from administrative duties and appointed senior scientist.

1971 -- Retired from the Smithsonian.

1997 -- Died in Bethesda, Maryland.
Related Materials:
The following manuscripts related to Stewart and his work can be found at the NAA:

NAA MS 1615- Excavations in Mancos Canyon, Colorado September 1943.

NAA MS 4669- The Townsend Site Near Lewes, Delaware 1962 by Henri Omwake.

NAA MS 4843- Report by T. Dale Stewart on Human Skeletal Material Excavated by W.M. Walker at Cedar Grove Cave, Arkansas and Natchitoches, Louisiana.

NAA MS 7025- A Tentative Closing Report on the Willin Site, Eldorado, Maryland September 1, 1952.

NAA MS 7121- "Memories from Half a Century at the Smithsonian January 11, 1978" recording.

NAA MS 7223- The Townsend Site January 1950.

NAA MS 7264- Documents Concerning Preserved Paleolithic Human Remains Found in the Vicinity of Cueva, Spain 1969-1972.

NAA MS 7357- Material Relating to Dermatoglyphics of Mayan Groups ca. 1947-1949.

NAA MS 7358- Personal Identification in Mass Disasters December 9-11 1968.

NAA MS 7359- T. Dale Stewart on the Identification of Human Remains April 6, 1970.

NAA MS 7474- Sketches of Burials at Ossuary 2, Juhle Site ca. 1971-1972.

Additional material T. Dale Stewart created while assisting Ales Hrdlicka is located at the National Anthropological Archives, The Papers of Ales Hrdlicka, ca. 1887-1943.

Many objects and artifact materials collected by T. Dale Stewart throughout his career are also held by the Smithsonian Department of Anthropology. These include skeletal remains and other materials from the Shanidar Cave in Iraq, forensic anthropological material including bone casts from Operation Glory, archaelogical materials from excavations in Maryland and Virginia including the Nanjemoy and Potomac Creek sites, and skeletal remains and other related materials from Stewart's 1927 expedition to Alaska with Henry Collins. Contact Anthropological Collections for more information.
Provenance:
Materials were transferred from T. Dale Stewart to the National Anthropological Archives in multiple accretions between 1975 and 2000 under accessions 1981-52, 1981-59, 1986-04, 1988-15, 1988-33, 1995-04, 1998-61, and 2000-46.The bulk of materials in this collection were transferred to the NAA from the Department of Anthropology in 1994 (1995-04).
Restrictions:
The Thomas Dale Stewart papers are open for research.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Physical anthropology  Search this
Operation Glory  Search this
anthropometry  Search this
Anthropology, physical -- Eskimo  Search this
Anthropology, physical -- American Indian  Search this
Americans  Search this
Aging  Search this
Anthropology -- Exhibits  Search this
Fossil hominids  Search this
Early man -- Neanderthal  Search this
George Washington University  Search this
Forensic anthropology  Search this
Anthropology, history of  Search this
Archaeology  Search this
Physical anthropology -- Early man  Search this
Primates  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Citation:
Thomas Dale Stewart Papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NAA.1988-33
See more items in:
Thomas Dale Stewart Papers
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-1988-33

American Association of Physical Anthropologists

Collection Creator:
Stewart, T. D. (Thomas Dale), 1901-1997  Search this
Container:
Box 2a
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1966-1983
Collection Restrictions:
The Thomas Dale Stewart papers are open for research.
Collection Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Collection Citation:
Thomas Dale Stewart Papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Thomas Dale Stewart Papers
Thomas Dale Stewart Papers / Series 2: Correspondence
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-1988-33-ref29

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