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Grace F. Thorpe Collection

Creator:
Thorpe, Grace F.  Search this
Names:
National Congress of American Indians  Search this
United States Indian School (Carlisle, Pa.)  Search this
Abourezk, James G., 1931-  Search this
Seely, Dagmar  Search this
Thorpe, Charlotte  Search this
Thorpe, Jim, 1887-1953  Search this
Extent:
3.5 Linear feet
2,175 Photographic prints
166 Negatives (photographic)
27 Nitrate negatives
113 Slides (photographs)
5 Contact sheets
Culture:
Sac and Fox (Sauk & Fox)  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographic prints
Negatives (photographic)
Nitrate negatives
Slides (photographs)
Contact sheets
Place:
Oklahoma
Arizona
Japan -- 1940-1950
Pearl River (N.Y.)
Jim Thorpe (Pa.)
Date:
1900-2008
Scope and Contents:
The Grace F. Thorpe Collection (1900-2008) includes documents, photographic prints, slides, negatives and other materials that encapsulate the breadth of Grace Thorpe's life and work as a WWII veteran, Native rights activist, and dedicated daughter, mother and family member. This includes material from her personal, military and professional life. Series 1: Early Life and Family History (1921-1940) includes materials related to the Thorpe family including photographs of Grace's parents, Jim and Iva at the Carlisle Indian School as well as letters and photographs from Grace as a young girl. Series 2: Military Career and Life in Japan (1943-1950) includes documents, photographic prints and negatives from Grace's time as a Corporal in the Women's Army Corps and her life as a wife and mother in Japan following the war. This series also includes the medals Grace received for her service in WWII. Series 3: Pearl River, New York and Business (1950-1967) contains documents and photographs from Grace's time as a mother and business woman in Pearl River, New York. Series 4: Working on Behalf of Native Americans and Activism (1968-1977) includes documents, photographic prints and negatives from Grace's work with various Native American organizations on economic and civil rights issues following her move to Arizona in 1967. Series 5: Jim Thorpe and His Legacy (1912-1984) includes documents, photographic prints and negatives regarding Jim Thorpe and the work by the Thorpe family to restore Jim's Olympic record and keep his legacy alive. Series 6: Later Years (1979-2007) includes documents, photographic prints and negatives from Grace's life in Oklahoma, her work as an environmental activist, and other activities later in her life.
Arrangement:
This collection has been arranged in six series chronologically based on how the collection was received with minor changes. The Series' include--Series 1: Early Life and Family History (1921-1940), Series 2: Military Career and Life in Japan (1943-1950), Series 3: Pearl River, New York and Business (1950-1967), Series 4: Working on Behalf of Native Americans and Activism (1968-1977), Series 5: Jim Thorpe and His Legacy (1912-1984), and Series 6: Later Years (1979-2007). There is some chronological crossover between Series 5: Jim Thorpe and His Legacy and the rest of the collection.

The physical arrangement of the materials was determined by storage needs.
Biographical / Historical:
Grace Frances Thorpe was born in Yale, Oklahoma on December 10, 1921 to parents James (Jim) Francis Thorpe (Sac and Fox (Sauk)) and Iva Margaret Miller Thorpe. Jim, already a famed athelete and olympic medalist, had met Iva as students at Carlisle Indian School and were married in 1913. Grace was the youngest of four, Gail Margaret, James and Charlotte Marie though her brother James died from polio at a young age. When Iva and Jim divorced in 1923, Iva and the girls moved to Chicago while Jim moved to California to pursue work in the movies. For school, Grace attended St. Mary's Academy, Sacred Heart, in Oklahoma and Haskell Institute in Kansas, which was where her father had attended school.

In 1943 Grace worked briefly at the Ford Motor Company before enlisting in the Women's Army Corps (WAC) during WWII. After attending training and graduating from the WAAC Training Center in Ft. Oglethorpe, Georgia, Thorpe attained the rank of Corporal, and served as a Recruiter for the Women's Army Corps stationed in Tucson and Camp White in Oregon before being assigned overseas to the New Guinea Campaign. From 1944-1945 Corporal Thorpe was stationed in New Guinea, Philippines and Japan. Following an Honorable Discharge in 1945, Grace remained in Japan during the occupation with her husband Lieutenant Fred W. Seely (1918-2008) whom she married in June 1946. She became employed at General MacArthur Headquarters as Chief of the Recruitment Section, Department of Army Civilians, Tokyo, Japan. Both of her children, Dagmar (1946-) and Paul Thorpe (1948-1964) were born during this time in Japan.

Grace and her children left Japan and arrived in San Francisco on April 20, 1950. They lived in Pearl River, New York from late 1950 to the mid 1960s. She first became employed as a Hostess with Welcome Wagon upon completing training in July of 1951 and later became a supervisor, business machine salesperson, and territorial account executive for the Yellow Pages with the Reuben H. Donnelly Corp. earning recognition in Distinguished Sales Performance. She completed a course in effective speaking and human relations conducted by the Dale Carnegie Institute and won a Best Speech Award. In 1967, Grace moved to Arizona where she became involved with American Indian tribes. Grace was appointed Economic Development Conference Coordinator for the National Congress of American Indians (NCAI)'s 1968 and 1969 conferences. In 1969-1970, Grace joined Native American Activists at the occupation of Alcatraz Island for three months and managed their publicity. She then served as a Congressional Intern from 1974-1975 for Senator James Abourezk. Grace was later appointed Legislative Assistant with the Senate Select Committee on Indian Affairs and as a Task Force Program and Planning Analyst for the American Indian Policy Review Commission. During this time period she attended—The Antioch School of Law, Washington DC; Massachusetts Institute of Technology (Research Fellow), Boston, Massachusetts; University of Tennessee, Knoxville and Northeastern University, Tahlequah, Oklahoma. During this time she also began working on the restoration of her father's 1912 Olympic titles as well as other projects to recognize and honor her father.

After returning to her tribal homeland in Oklahoma she became active in tribal affairs and in 1983 successfully restored her father's Olympic record. She also conducted genealogical research on the Thorpe family. Her article "The Jim Thorpe Family' was published as a two-part series in the Chronicles of Oklahoma in 1981. In later years, Grace served her tribe as a tribal judge, health commissioner, and became an environmental activist opposing nuclear waste on tribal lands. She remained active in Native American issues, a matriarch of the Thorpe family, and involved with her granddaughter, Tena Malotte, and her great-grandchildren, Aspen and Huna.

Biographical note provided by Dagmar Seely, daughter to Grace Thorpe, with additions by Rachel Menyuk, Processing Archivist.
Separated Materials:
27 nitrate negatives have been moved offsite and are being housed at the National Anthropological Archives.
Provenance:
Donated by Dr. Dagmar Seely and Tena Malotte, 2015.
Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiphotos@si.edu. For personal or classroom use, users are invited users to download, print, photocopy, and distribute the images that are available online without prior written permission, provided that the files are not changed, the Smithsonian Institution copyright notice (where applicable) is included, and the source of the image is identified as the National Museum of the American Indian.
Topic:
Yellow pages  Search this
United States. Army. Women's Army Corps  Search this
World War, 1939-1945 -- New Guinea.  Search this
World War, 1939-1945 -- Japan.  Search this
World War, 1939-1945 -- Philippines.  Search this
Alcatraz Island (Calif.) -- History -- Indian occupation, 1969-1971.  Search this
Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Grace F. Thorpe Collection, Box and Folder Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.085
See more items in:
Grace F. Thorpe Collection
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sv40c1b8318-3394-45f2-8ac1-45348543fb36
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmai-ac-085
Online Media:

A journey to freedom : Richard Oakes, Alcatraz, and the Red Power movement / Kent Blansett

Author:
Blansett, Kent  Search this
Subject:
American Indian Movement History  Search this
Physical description:
xiii, 392 pages : illustrations, maps ; 25 cm
Type:
Biography
History
Biographies
Place:
Alcatraz Island (Calif.)
Date:
2018
Indian occupation, 1969-1971
Topic:
History  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_1107451

The life of Meta-wa-wakee, Lonewalker / told by "Indian Joe" Morris

Title:
Alcatraz Indian occupation diary, Nov. 20, 1969-June 11, 1971: also early life on Blackfeet reservation and Linda C. Morris' tragic love story
Early life on Blackfeet reservation
Linda C. Morris' tragic love story
Tragic love story
Author:
Morris, Indian Joe  Search this
Morris, Linda C  Search this
Subject:
Morris, Indian Joe  Search this
Morris, Linda C  Search this
Physical description:
x, 254 p. : ill., ports., music ; 22 cm
Type:
Books
Place:
Alcatraz Island (Calif.)
Date:
2001
C2001
Indian occupation, 1969-1971
Topic:
Land tenure  Search this
Politics and government  Search this
History  Search this
Call number:
E78.C15 M67 2001
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_803462

Alcatraz is not an island. Edited by Peter Blue Cloud

Author:
Indians of All Tribes, Inc  Search this
Blue Cloud, Peter  Search this
Physical description:
107 p. illus. 26 cm
Type:
Books
Place:
Alcatraz Island (Calif.)
Date:
1972
Indian occupation, 1969-1971
Topic:
History  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_815246

We hold the rock : the Indian occupation of Alcatraz, 1969 to 1971 / Troy R. Johnson ; quotes by the veterans of the occupation

Author:
Johnson, Troy R  Search this
Physical description:
vii, 56 p. : ill., map ; 28 cm
Type:
Books
Place:
Alcatraz Island (Calif.)
Date:
1997
C1997
Indian occupation, 1969-1971
Topic:
Politics and government  Search this
Civil rights  Search this
History  Search this
Call number:
E78.C15 J62 1997
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_796957

American Indian activism : Alcatraz to the longest walk / edited by Troy Johnson, Joane Nagel, and Duane Champagne

Author:
Johnson, Troy R  Search this
Nagel, Joane  Search this
Champagne, Duane  Search this
Physical description:
297 p. : ill. ; 24 cm
Type:
Books
Place:
Alcatraz Island (Calif.)
Date:
1997
C1997
1934-
Indian occupation, 1969-1971
Topic:
Government relations  Search this
History  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_604575

Alcatraz! Alcatraz! : the Indian occupation of 1969-1971 / Adam Fortunate Eagle ; foreword by Vine Deloria, Jr. ; photo essays by Ilka Hartmann

Author:
Fortunate Eagle, Adam, 1929-  Search this
Golden Gate National Park Association  Search this
Physical description:
155 p. : ill., maps ; 23 cm
Type:
Biography
Place:
California
Alcatraz Island
Alcatraz Island (Calif.)
Date:
1992
C1992
20th century
Indian occupation, 1969-1971
Topic:
Land tenure  Search this
Government relations  Search this
History  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_612981

Heart of the rock : the Indian invasion of Alcatraz / by Adam Fortunate Eagle in collaboration with Tim Findley ; foreword by Vine Deloria, Jr. ; photographs by Vincent Maggiora, Brooks Townes, and Ilka Hartmann ; photoediting by Llka Hartmann

Author:
Fortunate Eagle, Adam, 1929-  Search this
Findley, Tim  Search this
Physical description:
xiii, 215 p. : ill. ; 24 cm
Type:
Books
Place:
Alcatraz Island (Calif.)
Date:
2002
C2002
Indian occupation, 1969-1971
Topic:
Government relations  Search this
Urban residence  Search this
Ethnic identity  Search this
History  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_677297

You are on Indian land! : Alcatraz Island, 1969-1971 / edited by Troy R. Johnson

Author:
Johnson, Troy R  Search this
University of California, Los Angeles American Indian Studies Center  Search this
Physical description:
ii, 152 p. : chiefly ill. (some col.) ; 28 cm
Type:
Books
Place:
Alcatraz Island (Calif.)
Date:
1995
C1995
Indian occupation, 1969-1971
Topic:
Land tenure--Pictorial works  Search this
Politics and government--Pictorial works  Search this
History  Search this
Pictorial works  Search this
Call number:
F868.S156 Y68 1995
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_514206

Like a hurricane : the Indian movement from Alcatraz to Wounded Knee / Paul Chaat Smith & Robert Allen Warrior

Title:
Hurricane
Author:
Smith, Paul Chaat  Search this
Warrior, Robert Allen  Search this
Physical description:
xiii, 343 p. : ill. ; 25 cm
Type:
Books
Place:
Alcatraz Island (Calif.)
Wounded Knee (S.D.)
Date:
1996
C1996
1934-
Indian occupation, 1969-1971
Indian occupation, 1973
Topic:
Government relations  Search this
Trail of Broken Treaties, 1972  Search this
History  Search this
Call number:
E93 .S65 1996
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_515027

The occupation of Alcatraz Island : Indian self-determination and the rise of Indian activism / Troy R. Johnson ; foreword by Donald L. Fixico

Author:
Johnson, Troy R  Search this
Physical description:
xii, 273 p. : ill. ; 24 cm
Type:
Books
Place:
California
Alcatraz Island (Calif.)
Date:
1996
C1996
Indian occupation, 1969-1971
Topic:
Government relations  Search this
Politics and government  Search this
History  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_543366

Alcatraz, Indian land forever / edited by Troy R. Johnson

Author:
Johnson, Troy R  Search this
Physical description:
ix, 134 p. : ill. (some col.) ; 26 cm
Type:
Books
Place:
Alcatraz Island (Calif.)
Date:
1994
C1994
Indian occupation, 1969-1971
Topic:
Land tenure  Search this
Politics and government  Search this
History  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_916202

The American Indian occupation of Alcatraz Island : red power and self-determination / Troy R. Johnson ; foreword by Donald L. Fixico ; with a new afterword by the author

Author:
Johnson, Troy R  Search this
Physical description:
xii, 283 p., [16] p. of plates : ill ; 23 cm
Type:
Books
Place:
Alcatraz Island (Calif.)
Date:
2008
1996
C2008
Indian occupation, 1969-1971
Topic:
Government relations  Search this
Politics and government  Search this
History  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_924388

Alcatraz revisited : the 25th anniversary of the occupation, 1969-1971 / [Guest editors: Troy R. Johnson and Joane Nagel]

Author:
Johnson, Troy R  Search this
Nagel, Joane  Search this
University of California, Los Angeles American Indian Studies Center  Search this
Physical description:
vi, 320 p. ; 23 cm
Type:
Books
Place:
Alcatraz Island (Calif.)
Date:
1994
Indian occupation, 1969-1971
Topic:
History  Search this
Call number:
E75.A1 A511 v.18 no.4
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_932021

Performing cultural empowerment : Native American activism on Alcatraz Island / by Isis L. Golden

Author:
Golden, Isis Lee-Marie  Search this
Physical description:
ix, 322 p
Type:
Electronic resources
Place:
California
Alcatraz Island (Calif.)
Date:
2009
Indian occupation, 1969-1971
Topic:
Politics and government  Search this
Historiography  Search this
History  Search this
Call number:
E78.C15 G65 2009a
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_973931

The rhetoric of Red Power and the American Indian occupation of Alcatraz Island (1969-1971) / by Casey Ryan Kelly

Author:
Kelly, Casey Ryan  Search this
Physical description:
viii, 336 p
Type:
Books
Place:
Alcatraz Island (Calif.)
Date:
2009
©2009
Indian occupation, 1969-1971
Topic:
Land tenure  Search this
Civil rights  Search this
History  Search this
Call number:
E78.C15 K44 2009a
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_973964

Hippies, Indians, and the fight for red power / Sherry L. Smith

Author:
Smith, Sherry L (Sherry Lynn) 1951-  Search this
Physical description:
xiv, 265 p. : ill. ; 25 cm
Type:
Books
Place:
United States
Alcatraz Island (Calif.)
Wounded Knee (S.D.)
Date:
2012
C2012
1934-
20th century
Indian occupation, 1969-1971
Indian occupation, 1973
Topic:
Politics and government  Search this
Government relations  Search this
Indian activists--History  Search this
Church work with Indians--History  Search this
Counterculture--History  Search this
Social movements--History  Search this
Protest movements--History  Search this
History  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_991001

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