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Indian slavery, labor, evangelization, and captivity in the Americas : an annotated bibliography / Russell M. Magnaghi

Author:
Magnaghi, Russell M  Search this
Physical description:
xiii, 557 p. ; 23 cm
Type:
Bibliography
Place:
America
Date:
1998
Topic:
Indians--Social conditions  Search this
Indians, Treatment of  Search this
Slaveholders  Search this
Indians--Missions  Search this
Indian captivities  Search this
Relations with Indians  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_537667

Conference on Women's Culture in American Society

Collection Creator:
Woman's Building (Los Angeles, Calif.)  Search this
Container:
Box 10, Folder 13
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1980-1981
Collection Citation:
Woman's Building records, 1970-1992. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Woman's Building records
Woman's Building records / Series 2: Education Programs / 2.1: Administrative Files
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aaa-womabuil-ref448
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Conference on Women's Culture in American Society, Publicity

Collection Creator:
Woman's Building (Los Angeles, Calif.)  Search this
Container:
Box 10, Folder 15
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1980-1981
Collection Citation:
Woman's Building records, 1970-1992. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Woman's Building records
Woman's Building records / Series 2: Education Programs / 2.1: Administrative Files
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aaa-womabuil-ref450
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19th Century Pamphlet Collection

Names:
United States. Army -- Civil War, 1861-1865  Search this
United States. Army -- Recruiting, enlistment, etc.  Search this
Douglass, Frederick, 1817?-1895  Search this
Extent:
0.5 Linear feet (1 box)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Proceedings
Speeches
Pamphlets
Booklets
Reports
Place:
Washington (D.C.) -- Politics and government
Date:
1838 - 1898
Summary:
This collection, which dates from 1838-1898, contains nine pamphlets and one booklet. The materials cover various subjects relating to African-Americans, including civil rights, education, the Civil War draft and services for freedmen. Several of the pamphlets contain speeches by Frederick Douglass.
Restrictions:
Use of the materials requires an appointment. Please contact the archivist at acmarchives@si.edu.
Topic:
Draft -- United States  Search this
Civil rights -- United States  Search this
School integration  Search this
African Americans -- Social conditions  Search this
Segregation in education  Search this
Genre/Form:
Proceedings
Speeches
Pamphlets
Booklets
Reports
Citation:
19th century pamphlet collection, Anacostia Community Museum Archives, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
ACMA.06-119
See more items in:
19th Century Pamphlet Collection
Archival Repository:
Anacostia Community Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-acma-06-119
Online Media:

Atlanta Interfaith Broadcasters Oral History Collection

Creator:
Atlanta Interfaith Broadcasters  Search this
Names:
Atlanta Interfaith Broadcasters Oral History Collection  Search this
Sixteenth Street Baptist Church (Birmingham, Ala.)  Search this
King, Martin Luther, Jr., 1929-1968  Search this
Extent:
159 Video recordings (U-matic 3/4" video recordings)
1 Video recording (VHS 1/2" video recording)
15 Linear feet (15 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Video recordings
Videocassettes
Place:
United States -- Race relations
United States -- Rural conditions
Date:
1989-1994
Scope and Contents note:
The collection, which dates from 1989 to 1994 and measures 15 linear feet, documents the reminiscences of elderly members of various African-American churches in the Atlanta area, as well as individual church histories, outstanding personalities of the South, religious expression in the South, and styles of singing and worship. The collection is comprised of audiovisual materials.
Biographical/Historical note:
Atlanta Interfaith Broadcasters, Inc. is the nation's largest regional interfaith cable network. AIB has been providing faith-based communities and nonprofit service organizations access to a larger audience since 1969. AIB remains a destination for international dignitaries and media representatives due to its unique programming platform, which promotes dialogue between all faiths, cultures and socioeconomic backgrounds. Seen in over 1,000,000 homes across 19 metro area counties, AIB is a self-supporting organization and does not allow the solicitation of funds or attacks on other faiths. Viewers can find Christians, Jews, Muslims, Buddhists, Hindus and others presenting their views.
Provenance:
Atlanta Interfaith Broadcasters Oral History Collection, Anacostia Community Museum Archives, Smithsonian Institution, gift of Atlanta Interfaith Broadcasters.
Restrictions:
Use of the materials requires an appointment. Some items are not accessible due to obsolete format and playback machinery restrictions. Please contact the archivist to make an appointment: ACMarchives@si.edu.
Topic:
Negro leagues  Search this
Spirituals (Songs)  Search this
Women clergy  Search this
World War, 1939-1945 -- African Americans  Search this
Choirs (Music)  Search this
Civil rights movements -- United States  Search this
African American clergy  Search this
African American churches  Search this
African American journalists  Search this
African American educators  Search this
African American poets  Search this
African American lawyers  Search this
African American soldiers  Search this
African American social reformers  Search this
African Americans -- Religious life  Search this
African Americans -- Music  Search this
African Americans -- Social life and customs  Search this
African Americans -- Social conditions  Search this
Genre/Form:
Video recordings
Videocassettes
Citation:
Atlanta Interfaith Broadcasters oral history collection exhibition records, Anacostia Community Museum Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
ACMA.09-001
See more items in:
Atlanta Interfaith Broadcasters Oral History Collection
Archival Repository:
Anacostia Community Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-acma-09-001

19th century African-American Literature Collection

Names:
African Methodist Episcopal Church  Search this
First African Baptist Church (Savannah, Ga.)  Search this
Knights of Pythias  Search this
Douglass, Frederick, 1817?-1895  Search this
Garrison, William Lloyd, 1805-1879  Search this
Extent:
3.4 Linear feet ((30 books))
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Books
Date:
circa 1800 - circa 1898
Summary:
This collection, which dates from the 19th century, contains 30 books written by or concerning African-Americans. The books are largely non-fiction and include material relating to African-American churches and evangelists, fraternal organizations, prominent members of the African-American Community, former slaves, education and self-improvement. Also present are several volumes of poetry, a tax ledger and a volume concerning patents.
Formatted Contents note:
Life and times of Frederick Douglass, written by himself -- Duplicate copy of the souvenir from the Afro-American league of Tennessee to Hon. James M. Ashley of Ohio... -- Myrtilla Miner, a memoir -- A narrative of the life and travels of Mrs. Nancy Prince -- A list of patents granted by the United States from April 10, 1790... -- Comly's spelling and reading book -- Poems written during the progress of the abolition question in the United States... -- The Black phalanx -- Progress of a race; or, the remarkable advancement of the Afro-American Negro from the bondage of slavery... -- Africa and America; addresses and discourses -- A discourse, delivered on the death of Capt. Paul Cuffe -- An apology for African Methodism -- History of the Knights of Pythias -- The college of life; or, practical self-educator, a manual of self-improvement for the colored race... -- The Rev. J.W. Loguen, as a slave and as a freeman -- Behind the scenes -- The story of Archer Alexander from slavery to freedom, March 30, 1863 -- From slave cabin to pulpit: the autobiography of Rev. Peter Randolph -- Uncle Tom's story of his life from 1789-1877 -- Poems on various subjects, religious and moral -- Men of mark: eminent, progressive and rising -- [Tax ledger] -- A memorial discourse by Rev. Henry Highland Grant -- My recollections of African M.E. Ministers -- William Lloyd Garrison: the abolitionist -- Annals of the First African church in the United States of America... -- How to get and keep churches out of debt... -- Code and the discipline of the African Methodist Episcopalian Zion Church -- History of the First African Baptist Church -- An autobiography: the story of the Lord's dealings with Mrs. Amanda Smith, the colored evangelist.
Restrictions:
Use of the materials requires an appointment. Please contact the archivist at acmarchives@si.edu.
Topic:
African Americans -- Social conditions  Search this
African American religious leaders  Search this
Slavery -- United States  Search this
Freedmen  Search this
Slaves  Search this
American poetry -- African American authors  Search this
African Americans -- Social life and customs  Search this
Genre/Form:
Books
Citation:
19th century African-American literature collection, Anacostia Community Museum Archives, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
ACMA.06-107
Archival Repository:
Anacostia Community Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-acma-06-107

Seven Thirty Live: Around Town

Creator:
WJLA-TV (Television station : Washington, D.C.)  Search this
Names:
Anacostia Community Museum  Search this
Anacostia Economic Development Corporation  Search this
Anacostia Neighborhood Museum  Search this
EU (Musical group)  Search this
Collection Creator:
Anacostia Community Museum  Search this
Extent:
1 Video recording (open reel, 1/2 inch)
Culture:
African American  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Video recordings
Television programs
Music
Place:
Anacostia (Washington, D.C.)
Washington (D.C.)
United States
Date:
1977
Scope and Contents:
The television news program - Seven Thirty Live: Around Town - explores Anacostia. The program begins with a brief history of Anacostia, coverage of Anacostia Story exhibition at the Anacostia Neighborhood Museum, and explanation of current resources and social conditions in Anacostia. Mrs. Ella Pearis talks about six generations of her family growing up in Anacostia and how the community of Anacostia has changed. Lawrence Bland, president of the Anacostia Economic Development Corporation (AEDC), and Ernest Darling, a neighborhood commissioner, speak about housing conditions in Anacostia and the work of AEDC. The program also includes a cheerlanding performance by students from Savoy Recreation Center and Savoy School; and musical performance by Experience Unlimited.
Television news program. Program begins at 000102. Part of Broadcast Programs. Dated 19770512.
Collection Restrictions:
Use of the materials requires an appointment. Some items are not accessible due to obsolete format and playback machinery restrictions. Please contact the archivist at acmarchives@si.edu.
Topic:
Communities  Search this
African American neighborhoods  Search this
Neighborhoods  Search this
Housing  Search this
Social history  Search this
Blacks -- History  Search this
Music  Search this
Cheerleading  Search this
Students  Search this
African American students  Search this
Genre/Form:
Video recordings
Television programs
Music
Citation:
Seven Thirty Live: Around Town, Record Group 09-037, Anacostia Community Museum Archives, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
ACMA.09-037, Item ACMA AV003098
See more items in:
Broadcast Programs
Archival Repository:
Anacostia Community Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-acma-09-037-ref7

Website Records

Creator::
National Museum of African American History and Culture  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Electronic records
Date:
2017
Descriptive Entry:
This accession consists of the National Museum of African American History and Culture website as it existed on September 22, 2017. It includes information about the museum and its exhibitions, events, and collections. Materials are in electronic format.
Topic:
Web sites  Search this
Museums -- Public relations  Search this
Historical museums  Search this
African Americans -- History  Search this
Special events  Search this
Museum exhibits  Search this
Museums -- Collection management  Search this
African Americans -- Social life and customs  Search this
African Americans -- Social conditions  Search this
Genre/Form:
Electronic records
Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Accession 18-263, National Museum of African American History and Culture, Website Records
Identifier:
Accession 18-263
See more items in:
Website Records
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-sia-fa18-263

Publications

Topic:
IndiVisible: African-Native American Lives in the Americas (Monograph : 2009)
Creator::
National Museum of the American Indian. Office of Education and Museum Programs. Publications Office  Search this
Extent:
0.25 cu. ft. (1 half document box)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Books
Place:
United States -- Ethnic relations
Date:
2009
Descriptive Entry:
This accession consists of the National Museum of the American Indian (NMAI) publication, IndiVisible: African-Native American Lives in the Americas. This publication and associated exhibition were collaborative projects with the National Museum of African American History and Culture (NMAAHC) and the Smithsonian Institution Traveling Exhibition Service. Edited by Gabrielle Tayac, it features a foreword by NMAI Director Kevin Gover and NMAAHC Director, Lonnie G. Bunch, as well as essays by 27 scholars and community culture bearers. IndiVisible: African-Native American Lives in the Americas examines the story of Native American and African American intersections and speaks to the struggles for racial identity and understanding.
Topic:
African Americans -- Relations with Indians  Search this
Indians of North America -- History  Search this
African Americans -- History  Search this
Indians of North America -- Ethnic identity  Search this
African Americans -- Race identity  Search this
African Americans -- Social conditions  Search this
Indians of North America -- Social conditions  Search this
Museum publications  Search this
Genre/Form:
Books
Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Accession 10-028, National Museum of the American Indian. Office of Education and Museum Programs. Publications Office, Publications
Identifier:
Accession 10-028
See more items in:
Publications
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-sia-fa10-028

Velma Nesbit manuscript

Creator:
Nesbit, Velma, 1925-2002  Search this
Editor:
Berking, Peter  Search this
Names:
Nesbit, Velma, 1925-2002  Search this
Extent:
0.5 Linear feet (1 box, 6 linear inches)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Audiocassettes
Compact discs
Manuscripts
Oral histories (document genres)
Date:
circa 2000
Scope and Contents:
This collection, which dates from circa 2000, contains a 144-page typescript copy of the unpublished autobiography of Velma Nesbit, the daughter of an Alabama sharecropper. Also present are 14 audiocassettes, one diskette and four compact discs relating to Nesbit's life and career.
Biographical / Historical:
Velma Nesbit (1925-2002) was born in Fayette, Alabama. She was one of five children; her father was a sharecropper. During the 1950s and 1960s, Nesbit was a nightclub singer in and around New York City, sharing the same bill as Redd Foxx, Nipsey Russell and Dinah Washington. From 1966-1968, Nesbit worked as a governess for the Berking Family. Peter Berking recorded and transcribed Nesbit's oral history.
Restrictions:
Certain portions of this collection are restricted. Use of the materials requires an appointment. Please contact the archivist at acmarchives@si.edu for more information.
Topic:
African American women -- Biography  Search this
Children of sharecroppers  Search this
Sharecroppers  Search this
African Americans -- Social conditions  Search this
Genre/Form:
Audiocassettes
Compact discs
Manuscripts
Oral histories (document genres)
Citation:
Velma Nesbit manuscript, Anacostia Community Museum Archives, Smithsonian Institution, gift of Peter Berking.
Identifier:
ACMA.06-127
Archival Repository:
Anacostia Community Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-acma-06-127

Laurence E. Potter Book Collection

Extent:
17.1 Linear feet ((123 books))
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Books
Date:
circa 1885-1969
Summary:
This collection, which dates from circa 1885-1969, contains 123 books written by or concerning African-Americans and African-American history. The books are a mix of fiction and non-fiction; several volumes of the journal American Heritage are also present.
Biographical/Historical note:
Laurence E. Potter (1917-1998) was an American economist and civil rights activist who was involved in a number of community organizations in the Washington, D.C. metropolitan area. He was actively engaged in the efforts to desegregate the National Theater in the 1940s and worked for several decades with the Goodwill of Greater Washington.
Formatted Contents note:
The Negro almanac, 1967 -- Black Genesis -- The magic island -- Black majesty, the life of Christophe, king of Haiti [2 copies] -- Tales of land of death: Igbo folktales -- To make a poet black -- God's trombones; seven Negro sermons in verse -- Uncle Tom's children, five long stories -- Native son [4 copies] -- Welcum hinges -- Wakaima and the clay man and other African folktales -- Black laughter -- Scarlet sister Mary [2 copies] -- Nigger heaven [2 copies] -- Lost morning... [2 copies] -- Bright skin [3 copies] -- The grass is singing -- The peculiar institution: slavery in the ante-bellum South -- The African slave trace, precolonial history 1450 to 1850 -- Polished ebony -- The Negro family in Chicago -- Tell me, Josephine -- Flight-- Twenty-two years of freedom -- Playtime in Dixie -- American Heritage: the magazine of history -- Nigeria in costume -- Before the Mayflower: a history of Black America [2 copies] -- Goodbye to Uncle Tom -- Stars fell on Alabama [2 copies] -- Marching blacks, an interpretive history of the rise of the black common man -- South of freedom -- Black Hamlet -- Folowing the color line: American Negro citizenship in the progressive era -- The impending crisis, 1848 - 1861 -- Lincoln and his party in the secession crisis -- The autobiography of an ex-coloured man -- Little Mr. Thimblefinger -- The classic slave narratives -- Uncle Tom's cabin; or, life among the lowly -- Neighbor Jackson -- Black majesty -- In the land of Jim Crow -- Black boy, a record of childhood and youth [3 copies] --A man called White, the autobiography of Walter White -- The power of black -- And then we heard the thunder -- The book of Negro folklore -- Shop and class at Tuskegee... -- Soul clap and hands sing -- The mark of oppression; explorations in the personality of the American Negro -- Black April [3 copies] -- Black Muslims in America -- Porgy [2 copies] -- Mamba's daughters [6 copies] -- Peter Ashley -- The road to Canaan -- The making of a statesman -- Brown Americans, the story of a tenth of the nation -- Daughter of strangers -- Jim Crow America -- The Negro family in the United States -- Mr. Lincoln and the Negroes; the long road to equality -- Dusk of dawn; an essay toward an autobiography of a race concept -- What the Negro thinks -- Tell me how long the train's been gone -- John Henry [3 copies] -- uncle Remus and his friends: old plantation stories, songs and ballads -- Uncle Remus returns -- Uncle Remus, his songs and his sayings; the folk-lore of the old plantation -- Faubus' folly; the story of segregation -- The uncalled -- Manchild in the promised land -- Black like me -- Desegregation and the law; the meaning and effect of the school segregation cases -- Message to the Black man in America -- Narrative of the life of Frederick Douglass -- Nat Turner's slave rebellion: together with the full text of the so-called "confessions" of Nat Turner -- Black ivory, being the story of Ralph Rudd... -- Mandingo -- The black sun -- Falconhurst fancy -- Drum [3 copies] -- The Southern temper -- Green winter -- The myth of the Negro past -- Readings from Negro authors, for schools and colleges, with a bibliography of Negro literature -- Free Joe, and other Georgian sketches -- From slavery to freedom; a history of American Negroes.
Restrictions:
Use of the materials requires an appointment. Please contact the archivist at acmarchives@si.edu.
Topic:
American literature -- African American authors  Search this
African Americans -- Social conditions  Search this
African Americans -- Religion  Search this
Slavery -- United States  Search this
African Americans -- Fiction  Search this
African Americans -- History  Search this
Genre/Form:
Books
Citation:
Laurence E. Potter book collection, Anacostia Community Museum Archives, Smithsonian Institution, gift of Mr. and Mrs. Terry McGurk.
Identifier:
ACMA.06-106
Archival Repository:
Anacostia Community Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-acma-06-106

Records of the Assistant Commissioner and Subordinate Field Offices for the State of Florida, Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, 1865–1872

Extent:
15 Reels
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Reels
Date:
1865–1872
Summary:
The collection is comprised of digital surrogates previously available on the 15 rolls of microfilm described in the NARA publication M1869. These digital surrogates reproduced the records of the Florida headquarters for the Assistant Commissioner and his staff officers and the subordinate field offices of the Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, 1865–1872. These records consist of 25 bound volumes and approximately 12 linear feet of unbound records, containing materials that include letters and endorsements sent and received, monthly reports, applications of freedmen for rations, and other records relating to freedmen's claims and homesteads.
Records Description:
When Assistant Commissioner Gile became superintendent of education in 1869, he failed to separate completely the records of the new office from those of the old. Consequently, some of his records created in his capacity as superintendent of education are among the records of the Assistant Commissioner.

The volumes reproduced in this microfilm publication were originally arranged by type of record and thereunder by volume number. No numbers were assigned to series consisting of single volumes; later, all volumes were arbitrarily assigned numbers by the Adjutant General's Office (AGO) of the War Department after the records came into its custody. In this microfilm publication, AGO numbers are shown in parentheses to aid in identifying the volumes. The National Archives assigned the volume numbers that do not appear in parentheses.

The volumes consist of letters and endorsements sent and received, press copies of letters sent, registers of letters received, letters and orders received, registers of freedmen issued rations, special orders and circulars issued, register of bounty claimants, and monthly reports forwarded to the assistant commissioner. The unbound documents consist of letters and orders received, unregistered letters and narrative reports received, special orders and circulars issued, and general orders and circulars received. The unbound records also contain monthly reports; oaths of office; applications of freedmen for rations; and records relating to claims, court trials, property restoration, and homesteads.
Historical Note:
[The following is reproduced from the original NARA descriptive pamphlet for M1869.]

HISTORY AND ORGANIZATION

The Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, also known as the Freedmen's Bureau, was established in the War Department by an act of Congress on March 3, 1865 (13 Stat. 507). The life of the Bureau was extended twice by acts of July 16, 1866 (14 Stat. 173), and July 6, 1868 (15 Stat. 83). The Bureau was responsible for the supervision and management of all matters relating to refugees and freedmen, and of lands abandoned or seized during the Civil War. In May 1865, President Andrew Johnson appointed Maj. Gen. Oliver Otis Howard as Commissioner of the Bureau, and Howard served in that position until June 30, 1872, when activities of the Bureau were terminated in accordance with an act of June 10, 1872 (17 Stat. 366). While a major part of the Bureau's early activities involved the supervision of abandoned and confiscated property, its mission was to provide relief and help freedmen become self-sufficient. Bureau officials issued rations and clothing, operated hospitals and refugee camps, and supervised labor contracts. In addition, the Bureau managed apprenticeship disputes and complaints, assisted benevolent societies in the establishment of schools, helped freedmen in legalizing marriages entered into during slavery, and provided transportation to refugees and freedmen who were attempting to reunite with their family or relocate to other parts of the country. The Bureau also helped black soldiers, sailors, and their heirs collect bounty claims, pensions, and back pay.

The act of March 3, 1865, authorized the appointment of Assistant Commissioners to aid the Commissioner in supervising the work of the Bureau in the former Confederate states, the border states, and the District of Columbia. In June 1865, Bvt. Maj. Gen. Rufus Saxton was appointed Assistant Commissioner for South Carolina, Georgia, and Florida. Several months after Saxton assumed his duties, however, Howard appointed Bvt. Col. T. W. Osborn as the first Assistant Commissioner of Florida. Osborn established his headquarters at Tallahassee in September 1865. In May 1867, the headquarters moved to Jacksonville, where it remained until it was relocated to St. Augustine in August 1868. It moved back to Jacksonville in November 1868, and remained there until July 1870. Records relating to Florida that were created during Saxton's tenure may be included among the files of the Assistant Commissioner of South Carolina.

Several military officers succeeded Osborn as either Assistant Commissioner or Acting Assistant Commissioner for the State of Florida. Maj. Gen. J. G. Foster served as Assistant Commissioner and Commander of the Department of Florida from June through December 1866. He was replaced in December by Bvt. Brig. Gen. John T. Sprague, who served as both Assistant Commissioner and Commander of the District of Florida until November 1868, when he was replaced by Bvt. Lt. Col. George W. Gile. Beginning in January 1869, Gile served as both Assistant Commissioner and superintendent of education.

While the work performed by Assistant Commissioners in each state was similar, the organizational structure of staff officers varied from state to state. At various times, the staff could consist of a superintendent of education, an assistant adjutant general, an assistant inspector general, a disbursing officer, a chief officer, a chief quartermaster, and a commissary of subsistence. Subordinate to these officers were the assistant superintendents, or subassistant commissioners as they later became known, who commanded the subdistricts. The major subordinate field offices for the Bureau at Florida, for example, included those with headquarters at Barancas, Fernandina, Jacksonville, Key West, Monticello, Ocala, Pensacola, Quincy, and Tallahassee. Under the direct supervision of the subassistant commissioners were the civilian and military agents. Occasionally, the Bureau retained military officers in a civilian capacity after the termination of their military service. For a list of known Florida subordinate field office personnel and their dates of service, see the Appendix.

The Assistant Commissioner corresponded extensively with both his superior in the Washington Bureau headquarters and his subordinate officers in the subdistricts. Based upon reports submitted to him by the subassistant commissioners and other subordinate staff officers, he prepared reports that he sent to the Commissioner concerning Bureau activities in areas under his jurisdiction. The Assistant Commissioner also received letters from freedmen, local white citizens, state officials, and other non-Bureau personnel. These letters varied in nature from complaints to applications for jobs in the Bureau. Because the assistant adjutant general handled much of the mail for the Assistant Commissioner's office, it was often addressed to him instead of to the Assistant Commissioner.

In a circular issued by Commissioner Howard in July 1865, the Assistant Commissioners were instructed to designate one officer in each state to serve as "general Superintendents of Schools." These officials were to "take cognizance of all that is being done to educate refugees and freedmen, secure proper protection to schools and teachers, promote method and efficiency, correspond with the benevolent agencies which are supplying his field, and aid the Assistant Commissioner in making his required reports." In October 1865, a degree of centralized control was established over Bureau educational activities in the states when Rev. John W. Alvord was appointed Inspector of Finances and Schools. In January 1867, Alvord was divested of his financial responsibilities, and he was appointed General Superintendent of Education.

An act of Congress, approved July 25, 1868 (15 Stat. 193), ordered that the Commissioner of the Bureau "shall, on the first day of January next, cause the said bureau to be withdrawn from the several States within which said bureau has acted and its operation shall be discontinued." Consequently, in early 1869, with the exception of the superintendents of education and the claims agents, the Assistant Commissioners and their subordinate officers were withdrawn from the states.

For the next year and a half the Bureau continued to pursue its education work and to process claims. In the summer of 1870 the superintendents of education were withdrawn from the states, and the headquarters staff was greatly reduced. From that time until the Bureau was abolished by an act of Congress approved June 10, 1872 (17 Stat. 366), effective June 30, 1872, the Bureau's functions related almost exclusively to the disposition of claims. The Bureau's records and remaining functions were then transferred to the Freedmen's Branch in the office of the Adjutant General. The records of this branch are among the Bureau's files.

Constrained by limited resources, Southern opposition, and the politics of Reconstruction, the Bureau faced an enormous challenge in its efforts to assist the freedmen and refugees. Its relief efforts, without question, saved thousands of southerners from starvation. Its attempts to assist freedmen to become self-sufficient, to provide public education, administer justice, and, to a lesser degree, to provide land, all worked with varying degrees of success to lessen the difficulties during the transition from slavery to freedom. One of the Bureau's greatest legacies is the body of records it created and received during the course of its operations. These records are arguably some of the most important documents available for the study of the Federal Government's policies, efforts to reconstruct the South, and Southern social history and genealogy.

THE FREEDMEN'S BUREAU IN FLORIDA

The Freedmen's Bureau activities in Florida generally resembled those conducted in other states. The Bureau issued rations to both freedmen and white refugees, supervised labor contracts between planters and freedmen, administered justice, worked with benevolent societies in the establishment of schools, and assisted freedmen in locating land. This last service contributed to an important, distinctive success in the Florida Bureau's program: more freedmen secured homesteads there than in any other Southern public–land state.

The Florida Bureau regularly assessed the need for services in the state. The resulting reports appear in these records and are valuable for learning about social conditions. In November 1865, for example, Asst. Comm. Osborn sent Capt. George Thompson on an inspection tour of southern Florida. During the following 4 months, Thompson toured the lower part of the state. His 47–page report includes living conditions of the populace, agricultural possibilities, and geographical information. He discusses how the Bureau can assist freedmen in education and land ownership.1

To prevent widespread starvation and destitution, the Florida Bureau issued more than 25,000 rations in its first year to some 22,000 blacks and nearly 4,000 whites.2 By December 1868, the Bureau had issued more than 760,000 rations, at a cost of $102,669.45.3 In addition to its general distribution of rations to those in dire need, the Florida Bureau also utilized a relief system similar to one in use in Louisiana and South Carolina that provided planters with food for their laborers. Under this system, blacks who rented and cultivated at least 10 acres of land on a crop–sharing basis were issued rations. This allowed planters to produce a crop without having to feed their workers during growing season.

Of genealogical interest are the applications of freedmen for rations. These printed documents give the number of acres of rented land. They list the first and last name and age of the freedman renting the property, of family members, and of any others who will live and work the named property. Included in the information are the location of the property and the name of the owner. In some cases the relationship of those living with the freedman is given (e.g., stepson or nephew).4

The regulation of written labor contracts between planters and freedmen was a major part of the Bureau's operation in Florida. Between 1865 and 1868 thousands of freedmen entered into contract agreements for either wages or a share of the crops in virtually every part of the state. Contracts generally stipulated the hours and days of work, types of rations to be provided, and the amount of wage or crop to be paid. Nearly half of the freedmen on plantations in Florida worked for a third of the crop plus rations. Those who worked for wages also received rations and were paid at a rate of $12 per month for men, $9 for women, and $5 for children. Bureau officials generally witnessed the contracts and were paid a small fee by the planter.

Safeguarding the rights and securing justice for freedmen was of great concern to the Freedmen's Bureau as well. Following the Civil War, several Southern states enacted a series of laws commonly known as "black codes," which restricted the rights and legal status of freedmen. Freedmen were often given harsh sentences for petty crimes and in some instances were unable to get their cases heard in state courts. In a circular issued by Commissioner Howard in May 1865, Assistant Commissioners were directed to adjudicate all difficulties occurring between blacks and whites in places where the civil courts were interrupted or where blacks were not allowed to testify.5 On November 15, 1865, in response to Howard's order, Florida Assistant Commissioner Osborn issued a circular ordering that freedmen be allowed to testify in court and that corporal punishment be restricted and personal violence be reported to military commanders.6 In Florida, Bureau officials, for the most part, supervised state courts until a new government was established under the military reconstruction act of March 2, 1867 (14 Stat. 428).

Bureau educational activity in Florida officially began with the appointment of E. B. Duncan as inspector and superintendent of schools in November 1866. Duncan served until June 1867, when he was replaced by C. T. Chase. Chase, who served from June 1867 to March 1868, was succeeded by Charles Foster, formerly Assistant Commissioner, who served from March through December 1868. In January 1869, in accordance with an act of July 25, 1868 (15 Stat. 193), Bureau operations in Florida, as in other states, were terminated except for the educational functions and the collection of claims. George W. Gile, who was the Assistant Commissioner at the time, became the superintendent of education and served in that capacity until August 1870, when the remaining Bureau activities in Florida were also terminated.

The schools maintained by the Bureau in Florida included day schools for children, night schools for adults, and Sabbath schools. Rudimentary education including reading, writing, arithmetic, and geography received primary emphasis in most Bureau schools. Teachers were recruited from the local white population, from among the freedmen themselves, and from the North by freedmen's aid societies. No single policy of assigning responsibilities in the maintenance of the schools was followed consistently. The Bureau generally supplied buildings for schools and transportation for teachers and relied on the aid societies and freedmen to pay for textbooks and teachers' salaries, although at times teachers were paid from Bureau funds.

The Freedmen's Bureau in Florida sought, with a mixed degree of success, to secure land for African Americans. The Southern Homestead Act, approved by Congress on June 21, 1866, made available for public settlement 46 million acres of public lands in Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Louisiana, and Mississippi. Nineteen million acres of this Federal land was located in Florida. Because the Act specified that persons who applied could not be discriminated against because of race, it offered an opportunity for many Florida freedmen to become landowners. The land office opened on August 25, 1866. The Freedmen's Bureau, through "locating agents," assisted interested freedmen in finding plots, and provided them with 1–month subsistence, free transportation to their prospective tracts of land, and seeds for the initial planting.7 By October 1866, in spite of the poor quality of much of the land, the absence of basic necessities, and white opposition, freedmen had made land entry transactions ("entered") for 32,000 acres of public land. One year later, they had secured more than 2,000 homesteads, totaling 160,960 acres, and by 1868 freedmen entered over 3,000 homesteads, more than in any other Southern public land state.8

ENDNOTES

1 See Microfilm Roll 15, Subordinate Field Offices, Tallahassee, Letters Received, Apr. 1866–Feb. 1868.

2 House Ex. Doc. 1, 39th Cong., 2nd Sess., p. 740.

3 Joe M. Richardson, "An Evaluation of the Freedmen's Bureau in Florida," The Florida Historical Quarterly XLI, No. 3 (January 1963): 224.

4 See Microfilm Rolls 11 and 12, Office of Assistant Commissioner, Other Records, "Applications of Freedmen for Rations."

5 Richardson, "An Evaluation of the Freedmen's Bureau in Florida," pp. 228 – 229; House Ex. Doc. No. 11, 39th Cong., 1st Sess., p. 45.

6 House Ex. Doc. 70, 39th Cong., 1st Sess., p. 87; Richardson, "An Evaluation of the Freedmen's Bureau in Florida," p. 228.

7 Paul A. Cimbala and Randall M. Miller, The Freedmen's Bureau and Reconstruction: Reconsiderations (1999), pp. 67 – 83.

8 Richardson, "An Evaluation of the Freedmen's Bureau in Florida," pp. 230 – 231. In spite of these entries, only 1,073 freedmen are listed on the 1870 Federal census as landowners.
Freedmen's Bureau Personnel in Florida:
This list provides the names and dates of service of known Freedmen's Bureau personnel at selected subordinate field offices in Florida. Additional information regarding persons assigned to various field offices might be found among the Bureau's Washington headquarters station books and rosters of military officers and civilians on duty in the states and other appointment–related records.

BARANCAS

unknown -- Subassistant Commissioner L. L. Zalousky

FERNANDINA

January–August 1866 -- Subassistant Commissioner Thomas Leddy

August 1866–July 1867 -- Subassistant Commissioner A. A. Cole

July 1867–December 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner D. A. Hammond (Subassistant Commissioner and Post Commander)

KEY WEST

December 1867–Janurary 1869 -- Subassistant Commissioner J. B. Rawles

MONTICELLO

May 1866–May 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner A. B. Grumwell

OCALA

June 1866–November 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner J. A. Remley

PENSACOLA

February–August 1866 -- Subassistant Commissioner F. M. Cole

October 1866–January 1867 -- Subassistant Commissioner J. R. Brinckle
Related Materials:
See also Freedmen's Bureau Digital Collection
Provenance:
Acquired from FamilySearch International in 2015.
Restrictions:
Freedmen's Bureau Digital Collection, 1865–1872, is a product of and owned by the National Museum of African American History and Culture, Smithsonian Institution. Copyright for digital images is retained by the donor, FamilySearch International; permission for commercial use of the digital images may be requested from FamilySearch International, Intellectual Property Office, at: cor-intellectualproperty@ldschurch.org.
Topic:
American South  Search this
Freedmen's Bureau  Search this
Reconstruction, U.S. history, 1865-1877  Search this
Slaves -- Emancipation  Search this
Citation:
Courtesy of the U. S. National Archives and Records Administration, FamilySearch International, and the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture.
Identifier:
NMAAHC.FB.M1869
See more items in:
Records of the Assistant Commissioner and Subordinate Field Offices for the State of Florida, Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, 1865–1872
Archival Repository:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmaahc-fb-m1869
Online Media:

The Crisis, Vol. 2, No. 4

Edited by:
W.E.B. Du Bois, American, 1868 - 1963  Search this
Subject of:
The Crisis, American, founded 1910  Search this
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, American, founded 1909  Search this
Illustrated by:
John Henry Adams Jr., American, 1880 - 1944  Search this
Medium:
ink on paper with metal
Dimensions:
H x W: 9 3/4 × 6 7/8 in. (24.8 × 17.5 cm)
H x W (Open): 9 3/4 × 13 5/8 in. (24.8 × 34.6 cm)
Type:
magazines (periodicals)
Place printed:
New York City, New York, United States, North and Central America
Place depicted:
Mali, West Africa, Africa
Ethiopia, East Africa, Africa
Europe
Okema, Okfuskee County, Oklahoma, United States, North and Central America
Date:
August 1911
Topic:
African American  Search this
Advertising  Search this
Africa  Search this
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Business  Search this
Civil Rights  Search this
Colonialism  Search this
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French colonialism  Search this
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Lynching  Search this
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Social life and customs  Search this
Social reform  Search this
Travel  Search this
U.S. History, 1865-1921  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture
Object number:
2015.97.14.1
Restrictions & Rights:
Public domain
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Documents and Published Materials-Published Works
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http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/fd5d1a31b3f-4025-4ffb-8eda-5497427ffefa
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The Crisis, Vol. 5, No. 6

Edited by:
W.E.B. Du Bois, American, 1868 - 1963  Search this
Subject of:
The Crisis, American, founded 1910  Search this
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, American, founded 1909  Search this
Written by:
Jacob Riis, Danish American, 1849 - 1914  Search this
Harry H. Pace, American, 1884 - 1943  Search this
Medium:
ink on paper with metal
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H x W: 9 3/4 × 6 7/8 in. (24.8 × 17.5 cm)
H x W (Open): 9 3/4 × 13 5/8 in. (24.8 × 34.6 cm)
Type:
magazines (periodicals)
Place printed:
New York City, New York, United States, North and Central America
Place depicted:
Kowaliga, Elmore County, Alabama, United States, North and Central America
Date:
April 1913
Topic:
African American  Search this
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Education  Search this
Holidays and festivals  Search this
Labor  Search this
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Social life and customs  Search this
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U.S. History, 1865-1921  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture
Object number:
2015.97.14.6
Restrictions & Rights:
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Classification:
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Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
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EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2015.97.14.6
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  • View <I>The Crisis, Vol. 5, No. 6</I> digital asset number 2

The Crisis, Vol. 14, No. 1

Edited by:
W.E.B. Du Bois, American, 1868 - 1963  Search this
Subject of:
The Crisis, American, founded 1910  Search this
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, American, founded 1909  Search this
Written by:
Georgia Douglas Johnson, American, 1880 - 1966  Search this
Jessie Redmon Fauset, American, 1882 - 1961  Search this
Medium:
ink on paper with metal
Dimensions:
H x W: 10 × 6 3/4 in. (25.4 × 17.1 cm)
H x W (Open): 10 × 13 1/2 in. (25.4 × 34.3 cm)
Type:
magazines (periodicals)
Place printed:
New York City, New York, United States, North and Central America
Place depicted:
France, Europe
Boston, Suffolk County, Massachusetts, United States, North and Central America
Date:
May 1917
Topic:
African American  Search this
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Great Migration  Search this
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U.S. History, 1865-1921  Search this
World War I  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture
Object number:
2015.97.15.2
Restrictions & Rights:
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National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Classification:
Documents and Published Materials-Published Works
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/fd5d2cccb24-1186-4d2b-9984-9f4bd5936038
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2015.97.15.2
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  • View <I>The Crisis, Vol. 14, No. 1</I> digital asset number 1

The Crisis, Vol. 14, No. 4

Edited by:
W.E.B. Du Bois, American, 1868 - 1963  Search this
Subject of:
The Crisis, American, founded 1910  Search this
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, American, founded 1909  Search this
Ell Persons, American, died 1917  Search this
Frederick Douglass, American, 1818 - 1895  Search this
Illustrated by:
William McKnight Farrow, American, 1885 - 1967  Search this
Written by:
Mary Burnett Talbert, American, 1866 - 1923  Search this
Lucian B. Watkins, American, 1878 - 1920  Search this
Georgia Douglas Johnson, American, 1880 - 1966  Search this
Medium:
ink on paper with metal
Dimensions:
H x W: 10 × 6 3/4 in. (25.4 × 17.1 cm)
H x W (Open): 10 × 13 1/2 in. (25.4 × 34.3 cm)
Type:
magazines (periodicals)
Place printed:
New York City, New York, United States, North and Central America
Place depicted:
France, Europe
South Africa, Southern Africa, Africa
East Saint Louis, St. Clair County, Illinois, United States, North and Central America
Memphis, Shelby County, Tennessee, United States, North and Central America
Idlewild, Lake County, Michigan, United States, North and Central America
Anacostia, Washington, District of Columbia, United States, North and Central America
Date:
August 1917
Topic:
African American  Search this
Advertising  Search this
Associations and institutions  Search this
British colonialism  Search this
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Civil Rights  Search this
Colonialism  Search this
Education  Search this
Labor  Search this
Literature  Search this
Lynching  Search this
Mass media  Search this
Military  Search this
Poetry  Search this
Race relations  Search this
Race riots  Search this
Recreation  Search this
Social life and customs  Search this
Social reform  Search this
Travel  Search this
U.S. History, 1865-1921  Search this
World War I  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture
Object number:
2015.97.15.4
Restrictions & Rights:
Public domain
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Classification:
Documents and Published Materials-Published Works
Movement:
Anti-Lynching Movement
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/fd595dd871c-44a5-4991-90d6-78d666cf3e94
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2015.97.15.4
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  • View <I>The Crisis, Vol. 14, No. 4</I> digital asset number 1

The Liberator, Vol. XXVII, No. 11

Created by:
The Liberator, American, 1831 - 1865  Search this
Edited by:
William Lloyd Garrison, American, 1805 - 1879  Search this
Published by:
Isaac Knapp, American, 1808 - 1858  Search this
Printed by:
J.B. Yerrington & Son, American  Search this
Medium:
ink on paper
Dimensions:
H x W (closed): 25 1/2 × 18 1/4 in. (64.8 × 46.4 cm)
Type:
newspapers
Place printed:
Boston, Suffolk County, Massachusetts, United States, North and Central America
Date:
March 13, 1857
Topic:
African American  Search this
Activism  Search this
Antislavery  Search this
Journalism  Search this
Mass media  Search this
Resistance  Search this
Slavery  Search this
Social reform  Search this
Societies  Search this
U.S. History, 1815-1861  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture, Gift from the Liljenquist Family Collection
Object number:
2016.166.41.11
Restrictions & Rights:
No Known Copyright Restrictions
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Collection title:
Liljenquist Family Collection
Classification:
Slavery and Freedom Objects
Documents and Published Materials-Published Works
Movement:
Abolitionist movement
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/fd564308f3b-39c4-49f0-b8aa-71d2fdc43fae
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2016.166.41.11
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The Liberator, Vol. XXVII, No. 25

Created by:
The Liberator, American, 1831 - 1865  Search this
Edited by:
William Lloyd Garrison, American, 1805 - 1879  Search this
Published by:
Isaac Knapp, American, 1808 - 1858  Search this
Printed by:
J.B. Yerrington & Son, American  Search this
Medium:
ink on paper
Dimensions:
H x W (closed): 24 13/16 × 18 3/8 in. (63 × 46.7 cm)
Type:
newspapers
Place printed:
Boston, Suffolk County, Massachusetts, United States, North and Central America
Date:
June 19, 1857
Topic:
African American  Search this
Activism  Search this
Antislavery  Search this
Journalism  Search this
Mass media  Search this
Resistance  Search this
Slavery  Search this
Social reform  Search this
Societies  Search this
U.S. History, 1815-1861  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture, Gift from the Liljenquist Family Collection
Object number:
2016.166.41.14
Restrictions & Rights:
No Known Copyright Restrictions
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Collection title:
Liljenquist Family Collection
Classification:
Slavery and Freedom Objects
Documents and Published Materials-Published Works
Movement:
Abolitionist movement
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/fd5cf260cd7-c506-48f7-9d4e-8afb139714fb
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2016.166.41.14
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  • View <I>The Liberator, Vol. XXVII, No. 25</I> digital asset number 1
Online Media:

Delegate

Published by:
MelPat Associates, American, 1965 - 1986  Search this
Created by:
C. Melvin Patrick, American, died 1985  Search this
Subject of:
Crispus Attucks, American, 1723 - 1770  Search this
Sojourner Truth, American, 1797 - 1883  Search this
Harriet Tubman, American, 1822 - 1913  Search this
Sarah C. Roberts, American, born 1844  Search this
Susan McKinney Steward, American, 1847 - 1918  Search this
Dred Scott, American, ca 1800 - 1858  Search this
Frederick Douglass, American, 1818 - 1895  Search this
Booker T. Washington, American, 1856 - 1915  Search this
George Washington Carver, American, 1860s - 1943  Search this
W.E.B. Du Bois, American, 1868 - 1963  Search this
Scott Joplin, American, 1867 - 1917  Search this
Marcus Garvey, Jamaican, 1887 - 1940  Search this
James Weldon Johnson, American, 1871 - 1938  Search this
Father Divine, American, ca. 1876 - 1965  Search this
A. Philip Randolph, American, 1889 - 1979  Search this
Adam Clayton Powell Jr., American, 1908 - 1972  Search this
Rosa Parks, American, 1913 - 2005  Search this
Medgar Evers, American, 1925 - 1963  Search this
Dr. Martin Luther King Jr., American, 1929 - 1968  Search this
President Lyndon Baines Johnson, American, 1908 - 1973  Search this
Mary McLeod Bethune, American, 1875 - 1955  Search this
National Association of Black Social Workers, American, founded 1968  Search this
Congressional Black Caucus, American, founded 1971  Search this
Prince Hall Freemasonry, founded 1784  Search this
National Newspaper Publishers Association, American, founded 1827  Search this
Chi Delta Mu Fraternity, Inc., American, founded 1913  Search this
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, American, founded 1909  Search this
Lambda Kappa Mu Sorority, Inc., American, founded 1937  Search this
Shriners International, American, founded 1870  Search this
National Pan-Hellenic Council, American, founded 1930  Search this
National Dental Association, American, founded 1913  Search this
Improved Benevolent and Protective Order of the Elks of the World, American, founded 1898  Search this
Democratic Party, American, founded 1828  Search this
Republican Party, American, founded 1854  Search this
Chi Eta Phi Sorority, Inc., American, founded 1932  Search this
Zeta Phi Beta Sorority, American, founded 1920  Search this
National Association of Negro Business and Professional Women's Clubs, Inc., American, founded 1935  Search this
National United Church Ushers Association of America, Inc., American, founded 1919  Search this
Eta Phi Beta Sorority, Inc., American, founded 1943  Search this
Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Inc., American, founded 1906  Search this
National Urban League, American, founded 1910  Search this
Sigma Gamma Rho Sorority, Inc., founded 1922  Search this
National Medical Association, American, founded 1895  Search this
Kappa Alpha Psi Fraternity, Inc., American, founded 1911  Search this
National Council of Negro Women, founded 1935  Search this
Daughters of Isis, American, founded 1910  Search this
Omega Psi Phi Fraternity, Inc., American, founded 1911  Search this
369th Veterans Association, American  Search this
Phi Beta Sigma Fraternity, American, founded 1914  Search this
Langston Hughes, American, 1902 - 1967  Search this
Paul Robeson, American, 1898 - 1976  Search this
Ezzard Mack Charles, American, 1921 - 1975  Search this
Medium:
ink on paper
Dimensions:
H x W x D: 10 13/16 × 8 7/16 × 3/8 in. (27.5 × 21.4 × 1 cm)
Type:
magazines (periodicals)
Place made:
Harlem, New York City, New York, United States, North and Central America
Date:
1976
Topic:
African American  Search this
Advertising  Search this
Associations and institutions  Search this
Business  Search this
Communities  Search this
Fraternal organizations  Search this
Fraternities  Search this
Government  Search this
HBCUs (Historically Black Colleges and Universities)  Search this
Journalism  Search this
Labor  Search this
Mass media  Search this
Men  Search this
Political organizations  Search this
Politics  Search this
Professional organizations  Search this
Religious groups  Search this
Social life and customs  Search this
Sororities  Search this
U.S. History, 1969-2001  Search this
U.S. History, Colonial period, 1600-1775  Search this
United States History  Search this
Urban life  Search this
Women  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture, Gift of Anne B. Patrick and the family of Hilda E. Stokely
Object number:
2012.167.10
Restrictions & Rights:
Public domain
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
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National Museum of African American History and Culture
GUID:
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EDAN-URL:
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  • View <I>Delegate</I> digital asset number 1

Delegate

Published by:
MelPat Associates, American, 1965 - 1986  Search this
Created by:
C. Melvin Patrick, American, died 1985  Search this
Subject of:
Charles Rangel, American, born 1930  Search this
The Links, Incorporated, American, founded 1946  Search this
Avon, founded 1886  Search this
Vice President Nelson Aldrich Rockefeller, American, 1908 - 1979  Search this
National Urban League, American, founded 1910  Search this
National Association of Black Social Workers, American, founded 1968  Search this
Interracial Council for Business Opportunity, American, founded 1963  Search this
Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite of Freemasonry  Search this
National Association of Market Developers, American, founded 1953  Search this
National Medical Association, American, founded 1895  Search this
Prince Hall Freemasonry, founded 1784  Search this
National Association of Negro Musicians, Inc., founded 1919  Search this
Opportunities Industrialization Center of America, Inc., American, founded 1964  Search this
Chi Delta Mu Fraternity, Inc., American, founded 1913  Search this
National Newspaper Publishers Association, American, founded 1827  Search this
Sovereign Military Order of Malta, founded 1099  Search this
Chi Eta Phi Sorority, Inc., American, founded 1932  Search this
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, American, founded 1909  Search this
Universal Network Television, American, founded 1950  Search this
Freedom National Bank, American, 1964 - 1990  Search this
Jarobin Gilbert Jr., American, born 1946  Search this
Lambda Kappa Mu Sorority, Inc., American, founded 1937  Search this
National United Church Ushers Association of America, Inc., American, founded 1919  Search this
National Association of Negro Business and Professional Women's Clubs, Inc., American, founded 1935  Search this
National Dental Association, American, founded 1913  Search this
National Sorority of Phi Delta Kappa, Inc., American, founded 1906  Search this
Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Inc., American, founded 1906  Search this
National Pharmaceutical Association, American, founded 1947  Search this
Omega Psi Phi Fraternity, Inc., American, founded 1911  Search this
Iota Phi Lambda Sorority, Inc., American, founded 1929  Search this
Delta Sigma Theta Sorority, American, founded 1913  Search this
Shriners International, American, founded 1870  Search this
Daughters of Isis, American, founded 1910  Search this
Roscoe C. Brown, American, 1922 - 2016  Search this
Young Men's Christian Association (YMCA), International, founded 1844  Search this
New York Yankees, American, founded 1901  Search this
Reggie Jackson, American, born 1946  Search this
The Doll League, Inc., American, founded 1958  Search this
National Urban League Guild, American, founded 1946  Search this
Morehouse Alumni Association, American, founded 1900  Search this
Congressional Black Caucus, American, founded 1971  Search this
National Bar Association, American, founded 1925  Search this
National Business League, American, founded 1900  Search this
National Bankers Association, American, founded 1927  Search this
Alliance for Women in Media, American, founded 1951  Search this
369th Veterans Association, American  Search this
Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite of Freemasonry  Search this
The Salvation Army, American, founded 1865  Search this
Phi Beta Sigma Fraternity, American, founded 1914  Search this
One Hundred Black Men, Inc., American, founded 1963  Search this
Improved Benevolent and Protective Order of the Elks of the World, American, founded 1898  Search this
Written by:
Anti-Bakke Decision Coalition, American, founded 1977  Search this
Medium:
ink on paper
Dimensions:
H x W x D: 10 13/16 × 8 7/16 × 7/16 in. (27.5 × 21.4 × 1.1 cm)
Type:
magazines (periodicals)
Place made:
Harlem, New York City, New York, United States, North and Central America
Place depicted:
Sag Harbor, Southampton, Suffolk County, New York, United States, North and Central America
Martha's Vineyard, Oak Bluffs, Dukes County, Massachusetts, United States, North and Central America
Date:
1979
Topic:
African American  Search this
Advertising  Search this
Associations and institutions  Search this
Business  Search this
Communities  Search this
Fraternal organizations  Search this
Fraternities  Search this
Government  Search this
HBCUs (Historically Black Colleges and Universities)  Search this
Journalism  Search this
Labor  Search this
Mass media  Search this
Men  Search this
Political organizations  Search this
Politics  Search this
Professional organizations  Search this
Radio  Search this
Religious groups  Search this
Social life and customs  Search this
Sororities  Search this
Television  Search this
U.S. History, 1969-2001  Search this
Urban life  Search this
Women  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture, Gift of Anne B. Patrick and the family of Hilda E. Stokely
Object number:
2012.167.13
Restrictions & Rights:
Public domain
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Classification:
Documents and Published Materials-Published Works
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/fd5cc6b172d-2d13-4670-95ea-2e52493801a5
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2012.167.13
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