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Climbing Jacob's Ladder

Creator:
Anacostia Museum  Search this
Smith, Edward D.  Search this
Reinckens, Sharon A.  Search this
Nelson, Stanley, 1955-  Search this
Caesar, Shirley, 1938-  Search this
Smithsonian Institution  Search this
Names:
Anacostia Community Museum  Search this
Anacostia Neighborhood Museum  Search this
First African Baptist Church (Savannah, Ga.)  Search this
First Bryan Baptist Church (Savannah, Ga.)  Search this
Johns Island Presbyterian Church (Johns Island, S.C.)  Search this
Mother Bethel African Methodist Episcopal Church (Philadelphia, Pa.)  Search this
Sharp Street Memorial United Methodist Church (Baltimore, Md.)  Search this
Sixth Mount Zion Baptist Church (Richmond, Va.)  Search this
St. George's United Methodist Church (Philadelphia, Pa.)  Search this
St. Thomas' Church (Philadelphia, Pa.)  Search this
Allen, Richard, 1760-1831  Search this
Boyd, Ruby Chappelle  Search this
Collier-Thomas, Bettye  Search this
Dougherty, Dorothy  Search this
Ellis, Edward L., Reverend  Search this
Epps, Annie  Search this
Freeman, Evelynne  Search this
Freeman, Felder  Search this
James, Harry, Deacon  Search this
Jasper, John, 1812-1901  Search this
Jones, Absalom, 1746-1818  Search this
Ross, Benjamin  Search this
Turner, Wesley  Search this
Washington, Alonzo, Reverend  Search this
West, Donald  Search this
Collection Creator:
Smithsonian Institution. Anacostia Community Museum  Search this
Extent:
1 Video recording (open reel, 1 inch)
1 Video recording (MiniDV)
1 Item (film , color interpositive, 16mm)
Culture:
African American  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Video recordings
Documentary films
Place:
United States
Date:
circa 1992
Scope and Contents:
Climbing Jacob's Ladder argues for the importance of documenting and preserving the history of the African American church as explained by church historians, archivists, and curators. The African American church tells the story of African Americans, provides direction and goals for the young, and is the center of African American life. Its history is illustrated through photographs and moving images, which are endangered of being lost and forgotten if preservation measures are not taken. The short documentary also provides an overview of the history of the black church and African American worship from slavery through present day, the role and style of black preachers, black church music and choirs, and clothing worn to religious services.
Short documentary. Part of Climbing Jacob's Ladder Audiovisual Records. AV001152: dated 19920324. AV005160: transferred from VHS, captions burnt into image, dated 1991. AV005350: 16mm Preservation Color Interpositive, no sound, dated 20150317.
Biographical / Historical:
Climbing Jacob's Ladder was based on the Climbing Jacob's Ladder: The Rise of Black Churches in Eastern American Cities, 1740 - 1877 exhibition which explored the growth and central role of African American churches during the 18th- and 19th-centuries in the eastern United States: Boston, Savannah, New York, Philadelphia, Baltimore, Washington, and Richmond. The exhibition was organized by the Anacostia Museum and held there from October 1987 to October 1988.;The African American church provides the spiritual, educational, social, political, and economic center for the African American community. Because the history of the African American church tells the story of African Americans, the church is the largest repository of African American history.
Local Numbers:
ACMA AV005160

ACMA AV005350
General:
Title transcribed from open credits of video recording.
Series Restrictions:
Use of the materials requires an appointment. Some items are not accessible due to obsolete format and playback machinery restrictions. Please contact the archivist at ACMarchives@si.edu.
Topic:
African Americans  Search this
African American history  Search this
African American churches  Search this
Churches  Search this
Church history  Search this
Historic preservation  Search this
Religion  Search this
Preachers  Search this
Church music  Search this
Music  Search this
African American choirs  Search this
Choirs (Music)  Search this
Spirituals (Songs)  Search this
Slavery  Search this
Slaves  Search this
Segregation  Search this
Civil rights movements  Search this
Jacob's ladder (Biblical dream)  Search this
African American youth  Search this
Youth  Search this
Genre/Form:
Video recordings
Documentary films
Citation:
Climbing Jacob's Ladder, Exhibition Records AV03-036, Anacostia Community Museum Archives, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
ACMA.03-036, Item ACMA AV001152
See more items in:
Climbing Jacob's Ladder: the Rise of Black Churches in Eastern American cities, 1740 - 1877 Exhibition Records
Climbing Jacob's Ladder: the Rise of Black Churches in Eastern American cities, 1740 - 1877 Exhibition Records / Series 3: Audiovisual records
Archival Repository:
Anacostia Community Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-acma-03-036-ref886

Jack Mitchell Photography of the Alvin Ailey American Dance Theater Collection

Choreographer:
Ailey, Alvin  Search this
Photographer:
Mitchell, Jack, 1925-  Search this
Dancer:
Allen, Sarita  Search this
Chaya, Masazumi  Search this
DeLavallade, Carmen , 1931-  Search this
DeLoatch, Gary, 1953-1993  Search this
Jamison, Judith  Search this
Roxas, Elizabeth  Search this
Truitte, James  Search this
Tyson, Andre  Search this
Williams, Dudley, 1938-2015  Search this
Wood, Donna, 1954-  Search this
Extent:
16 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Modern dance
Dance photography.
Date:
1961-2004
Summary:
Jack Mitchell (1925- 2013) was an acclaimed photographer who began chronicling the work of the Alvin Ailey American Dance Theater in 1961. Alvin Ailey (1931- 1989), one of the most influential African American choreographers of modern dance, dedicated himself and his dance company to creating ballets that not only accelerated the careers of young African American dancers, but also stole the attention of national and international audiences in displaying the racial perspective of dance in the African American experience. This collection serves as Mitchell's documentation of the dance company's evolution while capturing the true idiosyncrasies and physicality of movement through still images. Through Alvin Ailey and Jack Mitchell's partnership, they were able to collaborate and produce a unique production of art, fusing the meaning and movements of dance and the techniques of photography.
Scope and Contents:
The Jack Mitchell Photography of Alvin Ailey American Dance Theater Collection is comprised of approximately 10,000 black and white prints of solo and ensemble acts, portraits of principle dancers and various associates of the company, color slides and transparencies for private photo sessions and performances, black and white film strips and their corresponding contact sheets, and reference materials.
Arrangement:
The material in this collection has been kept primarily at the folder level in the order that was declared by the initial owner and photographer, Jack Mitchell. Oversize prints were separated and housed in an associated series in the collection. The order of the material has been organized based on the medium of the material. Each subseries has been organized based on the following:

Series I: Black and White Prints Subseries A: Solo and Ensemble Images and Portraits were organized alphabetically by ballet name. Subseries B: Prints for Jack Mitchell Publication were organized by page number in the publication.

Series II: Color Photography Subseries A: Original Slide Boxes were organized numerically based on Jack Mitchell's label assignments. Subseries B: Color Slides were organized numerically based on subseries A's label assignments. Subseries C: Color Transparencies were organized numerically based on subseries A's label assignments.

Series III: Black and White Negatives Subseries A: Black and White Film Strips were organized chronologically by date. Subseries B: Contact Sheets were organized chronologically by date.

Series IV: Reference Material

OVERSIZE Series I: Black and White Prints were organized chronologically by date.
Biographical / Historical:
Jack Mitchell was born on September 13, 1925 in Key West, Florida. Although he was not in the field of photography, Mitchell's father bought him his first camera when Jack was a teenager. His first published photograph was of actress, Veronica Lake, for a War Bond Tour, a tour issued by the government that promoted debt securities to soldiers to finance military operations and expenditures He enlisted in the United States army and became a photographer in Italy at the end of World War II. In 1949, Ted Shawn, a dancer and choreographer who is respected among the dance community as a pioneer of American modern dance, invited Mitchell to Massachusetts photograph his dancers at his dance center, Jacobs's Pillow. It was during this time where Mitchell's interest and appreciation for moving bodies was realized. In the lifespan of his career, Mitchell created over 150 covers for Dance Magazine1, the New York Times, Time, Life, Newsweek, Rolling Stone, Vanity Fair, and Vogue.2

As Jack Mitchell started to photograph the poses and ballets of the American Ballet Theater throughout the late 1950s, Alvin Ailey saw some of Mitchell's photographs. By 1961, Mitchell had established himself as a distinguished photographer of dance, coining the term, "moving stills". His photographs became the benchmark and standard that other dance photographers measured their work. In November 1961, Ailey invited Mitchell to a performance space in Clark Center, NY, and with his dancers, they performed for Mitchell's camera; some of the photographs from that first photo session can be found in this collection.

Alvin Ailey was born on January 5, 1931 in in Rodgers, Texas, during the Great Depression. As his repertory reflected, the beginning of his life was defined by a tight-knit, predominantly African American folk culture. At age 12, Ailey and his mother, Lula Cooper, moved Los Angeles, California. It is here that he was exposed to the Ballet Russe de Monte Carlo, which led him to study under the Lester Horton Dance Theater, where he danced with Carmen DeLavallade, James Truitte, and Joyce Trisler. After 3 years of performing and training, he was positioned as a choreographer and later became the director of the company when Lester Horton suddenly died in 1953. His influence from Lester Horton, Martha Graham, and Katherine Dunham help to establish his philosophy that "Everything in dancing is style, allusion, the essence of many thoughts and feelings, the abstraction of many moments. Each movement is the sum total of moments and experiences".3 After Horton's death, Ailey went to perform at Ted Shawn's Jacob's Pillow Dance Festival, and then on to New York with his longtime schoolmate and fellow dancer, Carmen DeLavallade, to perform in the 1954 Broadway production of "House of Flowers". The Alvin Ailey American Dance Theater Company was established in 1958.

From the beginning of his journey as a dancer and choreographer, Ailey wanted to show African American experience in his performances. He embedded folk culture in his early works "Revelations" and "Blue Suites". In reflection, before his first South Asian Tour, Alvin expressed, "The cultural heritage of the American Negro is one of America's richest treasures. From his roots as a slave, the American Negro- sometimes sorrowing, sometimes jubilant but always hopeful -has touched, illuminated, and influenced the most preserved of world civilization. I and my dance theater celebrate this trembling beauty."4 "Revelations" was well- received by national and international audiences, Ailey recognized by the dance community as a choreographer with promise and his company and ballets he created were highly anticipated. By 1965, Ailey went from being a dancer to being the company's choreographer. From the onset, Ailey embraced diversity and invited interracial and interdisciplinary perspectives at of the company. He also created ballets for other notable companies including the American Ballet Theatre, Royal Danish Ballet, London Festival Ballet, the Joffrey Ballet, Paris Opera Ballet, and LaScala Opera Ballet.5 He was invited to choreograph Samuel Barber's Anthony and Cleopatra for the Metropolitan Opera at Lincoln Center in 19666, and Leonard Bernstein's Mass for the Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts in 1971.7

As the company embraced racial diversity, Ailey never lost his sense of obligation to the African American community. In 1969, he established the Alvin Ailey American Dance Center, which became the Ailey School, formed the Alvin Ailey Repertory Ensemble, and pioneered programs promoting arts in education, particularly those that benefitted deprived communities. Among his numerous distinctions were the Dance Magazine Award (1975), the NAACP Spingarn Medal (1976), given for "the highest and noblest achievement by an American Negro during the previous year or years"8 , the Samuel H. Scripps American Dance Festival Award (1987), the most prestigious award for modern dance for a lifetime contribution to the field, the Kennedy Center Award (1988) and Honorary Doctorates from Princeton University (1972)9 , Bard College (1977)10 , and Adelphi University (1977). President Barack Obama posthumously awarded Ailey the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 2014, the country's highest civilian honor, in recognition of his contributions and commitments to civil rights and dance in America.11

Through Jack Mitchell and Alvin Ailey's work, they were able to collaborate and create something "rich in historical connotations, the liveliest kind of permanent record of the works of important creators and creations that formed the nucleus of Ailey's remarkable vision of American dance and what it could be"12. Alvin Ailey's reputation for creating eclectic dance methods produced movements and poses that are still studied and idolized today. Mitchell was able to pay homage to many of the world's best dance artists from James Truitte, Carmen DeLavallade, Dudley Williams, Donna Wood, Renee Robinson, Gary DeLoatch, as well as Ailey, through his photography. With Ailey's longstanding and established stature within the dance community, and Mitchell's pronouncement of the detailed through his use of lighting in his photographs, this collection highlights the incredible collaboration between Ailey and Mitchell, and serves as a unique document of one of the world's most renowned American dance company's.

Alvin Ailey's vision for a dance company was dedicated to enriching the American modern dance heritage and preserving African American culture. In a 1989 interview with Dance Magazine, shortly before his death, Ailey discussed how he took pride in knowing that "No other company around [today] does what we do, requires the same range, and challenges both the dancers and the audience to the same degree." Ailey searched for a collaborator that would help him display the value of communicative movement; he found his match in Mitchell. Ailey's influence went beyond the stage and Jack Mitchell's images in this collection document that evolution. With Alvin Ailey's passing in 1989 at age 58 and Jack Mitchell's death in 2013 at age 88, these photographs of Alvin Ailey American Dance Theater Collection serves as one of the few sources of this dynamic dance company, from its early days to an internationally recognized troupe.

Footnotes

2. Jack Mitchell. Alvin Ailey American Dance Theater: Jack Mitchell Photographs. (Kansas City: Andrews and McMeel, 1993), viii

3. Bruce Weber, "Jack Mitchell, Photographer of the Arts, Dies at 88", The New York Times Obituaries (November 9, 2013): -- http://www.nytimes.com/2013/11/10/arts/jack-mitchell-photographer-of-the-arts-dies-at-88.html

4. Jennifer Dunning, Alvin Ailey: A Life in Dance. (New York; Addison- Wesley, 1996), 123

5. Ibid, 146.

6. Alvin Ailey, Revelations: The Autobiography of Alvin Ailey. (New York: Birch Lane, 1995), 6-7.

7. Alvin Ailey, Revelations: The Autobiography of Alvin Ailey. (New York; Birch Lane, 1995), 7.

8. Ibid.

9. Ibid.

10. Dunning, Jennifer. -- Alvin Ailey: A Life in Dance -- . (New York: Addison-Wesley, 1996), 286.

11. "Bard College Catalogue 2016-17: Honorary Degrees": -- https://www.bard.edu/catalogue/index.php?aid=1205177%26sid=670501

12. Office of the Press Secretary, "President Obama Names Recipients of the Presidential Medal of Freedom" (November 10, 2014): -- https://www.whitehouse.gov/the-press-office/2014/11/10/president-obama-names-recipients-presidential-medal-freedom

13. Jack Mitchell. Alvin Ailey American Dance Theater: Jack Mitchell Photographs. (Kansas City: Andrews and McMeel, 1993), ix.
General:
COLLECTION LIST OF FEATURED REPERTORY

After Eden, Archipelago, Been Here and Gone, Black Belt, Blues Suite, Butterfly, Caravan, Carmina Burana, Caverna Magica, Chelsea's Bells, Come and Get the Beauty of It Hot, Concert in F, Congo Tango Palace, Crossword, Cry, Dance at the Gym, District Storyville, Divining, Episodes, Escargot, Facets, Fever Swamp, Flowers, Folkdance, Fontessa and Friends, For Bird – with Love, Forgotten Time, Frames, Gazelle, Hermit Songs, Hidden Rites, Hobo Sapiens, How to Walk an Elephant, Hymn, Icarus, Journey, Jukebox for Alvin, Lament, Landscape, Mary Lou's Mass, Masekela Langage, Memoria, N. Y. Export, Op. Jazz, Night Creature, North Star, Opus McShann, Pas de Duke, Passage, Pigs 'n Fishes, Portrait of Billie, Prodigal Prince, Quintet, Rainbow 'round my Shoulder, Revelations, Rift, Roots of the Blues, Sarong Paramaribo , Satyriade, Seven Journeys, Shards, Shelter, Spectrum, Speeds, Speeds, Streams, Suite Otis, The Beloved, The Lark Ascending, The Letter, The Mooche, The River, The Road of the Phoebe Snow, The Stack-Up, The Winter in Lisbon, Three Black Kings, Tilt, Toccata, Treading, Variegations, Vespers
Separated Materials:
There were 3 inscribed copies of "Alvin Ailey American Dance Theater: Jack Mitchell Photographs" originally stored in the collection. One copy of this text can be found in Series IV: Reference Materials with the publication draft, another copy is housed in the National Museum of African American History and Culture Library, and the last copy has been designated to serve as an archival reference text.
Provenance:
Acquired from the Alvin Ailey Dance Foundation, Inc. in 2013.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Access to collection materials requires an appointment.
Rights:
Jack Mitchell Photography of the Alvin Ailey American Dance Theatre Collection is jointly owned by the National Museum of African American History and Culture, Smithsonian Institution, and the Alvin Ailey Dance Foundation. Permission for commercial use or publication of the digital images may be requested from the Smithsonian Institution.
Occupation:
Dancers -- Photographs  Search this
Topic:
Alvin Ailey American Dance Theater  Search this
Choreography -- United States  Search this
Dance  Search this
Dance schools -- United States  Search this
Dance -- Production and direction  Search this
Dance companies  Search this
Dance -- North America  Search this
Genre/Form:
Modern dance -- United States -- 20th century
Dance photography.
Citation:
Photography by Jack Mitchell © Alvin Ailey Dance Foundation, Inc. and Smithsonian Institution, All rights reserved.
Identifier:
NMAAHC.A2013.245
See more items in:
Jack Mitchell Photography of the Alvin Ailey American Dance Theater Collection
Archival Repository:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmaahc-a2013-245
Online Media:

Scottsboro Mothers [acetate film photonegative with contact proof print and 2 exhibition-quality enlargements]

Photographer:
Scurlock, Addison N., 1883-1964  Search this
Printer:
Scurlock, Robert S. (Saunders), 1917-1994  Search this
Names:
Y.W.C.A.  Search this
Bates, Ruby  Search this
Hamilton, Julia West  Search this
Subseries Creator:
Scurlock Studio (Washington, D.C.)  Search this
Scurlock, Robert S. (Saunders), 1917-1994  Search this
Custom Craft  Search this
Scurlock, Addison N., 1883-1964  Search this
Scurlock, George H. (Hardison), 1919-2005  Search this
Extent:
4 Items
Container:
Box 5
Culture:
African Americans  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Later prints
Contact prints
Photographs
Date:
[1934]
Scope and Contents:
Six women standing in room.
Negative: Edge marked "E Scottsborough [sic] Mothers". Negative slightly warped.
Contact print: Single-weight Kodak paper. Marked on verso: "A 183 / 'Scottsboro Case' Mothers / 5. w/ Julia West Hamilton." Also marked with studio rubber stamp (zip code 20009).
Enlarged print: Double-weight, warm-tone paper; studio stamp with zip code on verso. marked: "'Scottsboro' mothers, photographed on a visit to 'Phyliss Wheatley' [sic]--Y.W.C.A. 9th & Rhode Island Av. N.W. / greeted by Mrs. Julia West Hamilton, president of 'Y' / Photo by Addison N. Scurlock"
Enlarged print, framed: Cat. No. 1998.0011.096, approx. 11" x 14".
Biographical / Historical:
A version of this photograph was printed in the national edition of the Afro American on May 19, 1934 with the caption, "Four of the Alabama mothers who were greeted by Mrs. Julia West Hamilton (center) chairman of the board of directors of the Phyllis Wheatley Y.W.C.A., as they arrived at the D.C. Y where they stayed until arrangements were made to see Marvin H. McIntyre, secretary to President Roosevelt. Left to right, Ruby Bates, white, Mrs. Mayme Williams, Mrs. Viola Montgomery, Mrs. Julia W. Hamilton, Mrs. Janie Patterson and Mrs. Ida Norris. The mothers are seeking the aid of President Roosevelt in an effort to save their sons lives." The image was taken May 13, 1934 at the Phyllis Wheatley YWCA, 901 Rhode Island Ave. N.W., Washington. Bates was an accuser of the "Scottsboro Boys" who recanted, Williams, Montgomery, Patterson and Norris were mothers to five of the accused. Prints probably made by Robert S. Scurlock much later, ca. 1960s-1970s? Caption and reproduction of photograph from the Baltimore Afro American provided by Craig Simpson after Pro Quest search.
General:
2 prints: In Box 80. Framed print stored separately.
Negative: In freezer storage, box no. 1.
Exhibitions Note:
Corcoran Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.: "The Historical Photographs of Addison N. Scurlock," 1976. (Catalog published.)
Subseries Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.

Gloves must be worn when handling unprotected photographs and negatives. Special arrangements required to view negatives due to cold storage. Using negatives requires a three hour waiting period. Contact the Archives Center at 202-633-3270.
Subseries Rights:
When the Museum purchased the collection from the Estate of Robert S. Scurlock, it obtained all rights, including copyright. The earliest photographs in the collection are in the public domain because their term of copyright has expired. The Archives Center will control copyright and the use of the collection for reproduction purposes, which will be handled in accordance with its standard reproduction policy guidelines. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Mothers  Search this
Civil rights  Search this
Scottsoro boys case  Search this
African American women  Search this
Scottsboro Trial, Scottsboro, Ala., 1931  Search this
Genre/Form:
Later prints
Contact prints -- 1950-2000
Photographs -- 1930-1940 -- Black-and-white photoprints -- Silver gelatin
Subseries Citation:
Scurlock Studio Records, Archives Center, National Museum of American History. Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Scurlock Studio Records, Subseries 4.1: Black-and-White Silver Gelatin Negatives
Scurlock Studio Records, Subseries 4.1: Black-and-White Silver Gelatin Negatives / 4.1: Black-and-White Silver Gelatin negatives
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0618-s04-01-ref155
Online Media:

Reverend Divine [acetate film photo negative]

Photographer:
Scurlock, Addison N., 1883-1964  Search this
Names:
Divine, Father, or Rev. (George Baker), ca. 1882-1965  Search this
Subseries Creator:
Scurlock Studio (Washington, D.C.)  Search this
Scurlock, Robert S. (Saunders), 1917-1994  Search this
Custom Craft  Search this
Scurlock, Addison N., 1883-1964  Search this
Scurlock, George H. (Hardison), 1919-2005  Search this
Extent:
1 Item
Container:
Box 1
Culture:
African Americans  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Date:
undated
Scope and Contents:
Job Number: 25695
Group portrait of Divine with three other men and two women. Ink ident. on film edge. Signed "Scurlock / Photo" in ink, bottom right.
Biographical / Historical:
African-American religious leader, founder of the Peace Mission movement, b. probably near Savannah, Ga. and named George Baker. After preaching in the South, he moved to Harlem (1915) in New York City, became one of the neighborhood's biggest landlords, acquired wealth through other businesses, including restaurants and grocery stores, and began styling himself Major M. J. Divine, later Father Divine. Although once dismissed as a cult leader, he built the largest religious movement in northern ghettos during the Great Depression. His role as an early civil rights activist — he led anti-lynching campaigns, instituted economic cooperatives, and organized political action against racial discrimination — has come to be more appreciated. The movement spread beyond New York City to other places in the United States and abroad, sometimes after the group sent whites to purchase property in segregated areas. During the 1940s, his health and influence declined, but his movement symbolized the progressive spirit in the black church and helped define the church's active role in the civil rights movement. See Sara Harris, Father Divine (rev. ed. 1971); Kenneth E. Burnham, God Comes to America (1979); Robert Weisbrot, Father Divine (1984); Jill Watts, God, Harlem U.S.A. (1992). The Columbia Encyclopedia, Fifth Edition Copyright ©1994, 1995 Columbia University Press.
General:
#150 on original envelope? From box D.
Subseries Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.

Gloves must be worn when handling unprotected photographs and negatives. Special arrangements required to view negatives due to cold storage. Using negatives requires a three hour waiting period. Contact the Archives Center at 202-633-3270.
Subseries Rights:
When the Museum purchased the collection from the Estate of Robert S. Scurlock, it obtained all rights, including copyright. The earliest photographs in the collection are in the public domain because their term of copyright has expired. The Archives Center will control copyright and the use of the collection for reproduction purposes, which will be handled in accordance with its standard reproduction policy guidelines. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Portraits, Group -- African Americans  Search this
African American clergy  Search this
Cults and nonconventional religious groups  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- 1930-1940 -- Black-and-white negatives -- Acetate film
Subseries Citation:
Scurlock Studio Records, Archives Center, National Museum of American History. Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Scurlock Studio Records, Subseries 4.1: Black-and-White Silver Gelatin Negatives
Scurlock Studio Records, Subseries 4.1: Black-and-White Silver Gelatin Negatives / 4.1: Black-and-White Silver Gelatin negatives
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0618-s04-01-ref16

Father Divine "George" Baker [?] : [acetate film photonegative]

Photographer:
Scurlock, Addison N., 1883-1964  Search this
Names:
Divine, Father, or Rev. (George Baker), ca. 1882-1965  Search this
Subseries Creator:
Scurlock Studio (Washington, D.C.)  Search this
Scurlock, Robert S. (Saunders), 1917-1994  Search this
Custom Craft  Search this
Scurlock, Addison N., 1883-1964  Search this
Scurlock, George H. (Hardison), 1919-2005  Search this
Extent:
1 Item
Container:
Box 54
Culture:
African Americans  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Portraits
Photographs
Date:
[undated]
Scope and Contents:
Fr. Divine standing behind his desk in the front of a row house living room. Signed in the negative, "Scurlock / Wash. D.C." Similar (but not identical) to 10" x 8" image, SIRIS bib. # 289384, Scan no. AC0618.00.0002500.tif. Signed in the (original) negative: "Scurlock / Wash. D.C."
Biographical / Historical:
African-American religious leader, founder of the Peace Mission movement, b. probably near Savannah, Ga. and named George Baker. After preaching in the South, he moved to Harlem (1915) in New York City, became one of the neighborhood's biggest landlords, acquired wealth through other businesses, including restaurants and grocery stores, and began styling himself Major M. J. Divine, later Father Divine. Although once dismissed as a cult leader, he built the largest religious movement in northern ghettos during the Great Depression. His role as an early civil rights activist&#x2014he led anti-lynching campaigns, instituted economic cooperatives, and organized political action against racial discrimination&#x2014has come to be more appreciated. The movement spread beyond New York City to other places in the United States and abroad, sometimes after the group sent whites to purchase property in segregated areas. During the 1940s, his health and influence declined, but his movement symbolized the progressive spirit in the black church and helped define the church's active role in the civil rights movement. See Sara Harris, Father Divine (rev. ed. 1971); Kenneth E. Burnham, God Comes to America (1979); Robert Weisbrot, Father Divine (1984); Jill Watts, God, Harlem U.S.A. (1992). The Columbia Encyclopedia, Fifth Edition Copyright ©1994, 1995 Columbia University Press.
Addison Scurlock probably photographed Father Divine in 1932, according to research by Professor Leonard Primiano, Cabrini College (e-mail Aug. 6, 2010).
General:
Probably a copy negative.
Subseries Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.

Gloves must be worn when handling unprotected photographs and negatives. Special arrangements required to view negatives due to cold storage. Using negatives requires a three hour waiting period. Contact the Archives Center at 202-633-3270.
Subseries Rights:
When the Museum purchased the collection from the Estate of Robert S. Scurlock, it obtained all rights, including copyright. The earliest photographs in the collection are in the public domain because their term of copyright has expired. The Archives Center will control copyright and the use of the collection for reproduction purposes, which will be handled in accordance with its standard reproduction policy guidelines. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
African American clergy  Search this
Cults and nonconventional religious groups  Search this
Genre/Form:
Portraits -- African American men
Photographs -- Black-and-white negatives -- Acetate film
Subseries Citation:
Scurlock Studio Records, Archives Center, National Museum of American History. Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Scurlock Studio Records, Subseries 4.1: Black-and-White Silver Gelatin Negatives
Scurlock Studio Records, Subseries 4.1: Black-and-White Silver Gelatin Negatives / 4.1: Black-and-White Silver Gelatin negatives
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0618-s04-01-ref1685

[Marian Anderson and crowd at Lincoln Memorial, from steps looking at Washington Monument : acetate film photonegative,]

Photographer:
Scurlock, Robert S. (Saunders), 1917-1994  Search this
Creator:
Scurlock Studio (Washington, D.C.)  Search this
Names:
Anderson, Marian, 1897-1993  Search this
Subseries Creator:
Scurlock Studio (Washington, D.C.)  Search this
Scurlock, Robert S. (Saunders), 1917-1994  Search this
Custom Craft  Search this
Scurlock, Addison N., 1883-1964  Search this
Scurlock, George H. (Hardison), 1919-2005  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (3-1/4" x 4-1/4"..)
Container:
Box 55
Culture:
African Americans -- Washington (D.C.)  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Place:
Washington (D.C.) -- African Americans
Date:
April 9, 1939
Scope and Contents:
No. 144 and "1 - 8x10 GL" on original envelope. No ink on negative edge. No manufacturer's mark on film edge. Probably a film pack negative.
General:
In a lecture at George Washington University, 10/19/01, Jeff Fearing attributed the Anderson documentation to Robert Scurlock, and Vivian Scurlock corroborated this on 6/26/02.
From negative Box C.
Subseries Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.

Gloves must be worn when handling unprotected photographs and negatives. Special arrangements required to view negatives due to cold storage. Using negatives requires a three hour waiting period. Contact the Archives Center at 202-633-3270.
Subseries Rights:
When the Museum purchased the collection from the Estate of Robert S. Scurlock, it obtained all rights, including copyright. The earliest photographs in the collection are in the public domain because their term of copyright has expired. The Archives Center will control copyright and the use of the collection for reproduction purposes, which will be handled in accordance with its standard reproduction policy guidelines. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Civil rights  Search this
Concerts  Search this
African American singers -- 1930-1940  Search this
Documentary photography  Search this
Memorials  Search this
Singers -- 1930-1950  Search this
Lincoln Memorial (Washington, D.C.)  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- 1930-1940 -- Black-and-white negatives -- Acetate film
Subseries Citation:
Scurlock Studio Records, Archives Center, National Museum of American History. Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Scurlock Studio Records, Subseries 4.1: Black-and-White Silver Gelatin Negatives
Scurlock Studio Records, Subseries 4.1: Black-and-White Silver Gelatin Negatives / 4.1: Black-and-White Silver Gelatin negatives
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0618-s04-01-ref1799
Online Media:

Reverend Divine [acetate film photonegative]

Photographer:
Scurlock, Addison N., 1883-1964  Search this
Names:
Divine, Father, or Rev. (George Baker), ca. 1882-1965  Search this
Subseries Creator:
Scurlock Studio (Washington, D.C.)  Search this
Scurlock, Robert S. (Saunders), 1917-1994  Search this
Custom Craft  Search this
Scurlock, Addison N., 1883-1964  Search this
Scurlock, George H. (Hardison), 1919-2005  Search this
Extent:
1 Item
Container:
Box 1
Culture:
African Americans  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Date:
undated
Scope and Contents:
Job Number: 25695
Group portrait of Divine with fourteen other men and women, seated around a table; man in left foreground is writing on a pad and a woman is writing on the table. A sign on the wall behind them reads simply, "Abundance." Ink ident. on film edge, plus "15- Prints". Signed "Scurlock / Wash. D.C." in ink, bottom left.
Biographical / Historical:
African-American religious leader, founder of the Peace Mission movement, b. probably near Savannah, Ga. and named George Baker. After preaching in the South, he moved to Harlem (1915) in New York City, became one of the neighborhood's biggest landlords, acquired wealth through other businesses, including restaurants and grocery stores, and began styling himself Major M. J. Divine, later Father Divine. Although once dismissed as a cult leader, he built the largest religious movement in northern ghettos during the Great Depression. His role as an early civil rights activist — he led anti-lynching campaigns, instituted economic cooperatives, and organized political action against racial discrimination — has come to be more appreciated. The movement spread beyond New York City to other places in the United States and abroad, sometimes after the group sent whites to purchase property in segregated areas. During the 1940s, his health and influence declined, but his movement symbolized the progressive spirit in the black church and helped define the church's active role in the civil rights movement. See Sara Harris, Father Divine (rev. ed. 1971); Kenneth E. Burnham, God Comes to America (1979); Robert Weisbrot, Father Divine (1984); Jill Watts, God, Harlem U.S.A. (1992). -- The Columbia Encyclopedia, Fifth Edition Copyright ©1994, 1995 Columbia University Press.
Addison Scurlock probably photographed Father Divine in 1932, according to research by Professor Leonard Primiano, Cabrini College (e-mail Aug. 6, 2010).
General:
#151 on original envelope, from box D.
Subseries Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.

Gloves must be worn when handling unprotected photographs and negatives. Special arrangements required to view negatives due to cold storage. Using negatives requires a three hour waiting period. Contact the Archives Center at 202-633-3270.
Subseries Rights:
When the Museum purchased the collection from the Estate of Robert S. Scurlock, it obtained all rights, including copyright. The earliest photographs in the collection are in the public domain because their term of copyright has expired. The Archives Center will control copyright and the use of the collection for reproduction purposes, which will be handled in accordance with its standard reproduction policy guidelines. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Portraits, Group -- African Americans  Search this
African American clergy  Search this
Cults and nonconventional religious groups  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- 1930-1940 -- Black-and-white negatives -- Acetate film
Subseries Citation:
Scurlock Studio Records, Archives Center, National Museum of American History. Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Scurlock Studio Records, Subseries 4.1: Black-and-White Silver Gelatin Negatives
Scurlock Studio Records, Subseries 4.1: Black-and-White Silver Gelatin Negatives / 4.1: Black-and-White Silver Gelatin negatives
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0618-s04-01-ref21

Group of civil rights strategists: Atty. Chas. Houston, J. Finley Wilson, and John P. Davis [cellulose acatate photonegatives]

Photographer:
Scurlock Studio (Washington, D.C.)  Search this
Names:
Ku Klux Klan (1915- )  Search this
Davis, John Preston  Search this
Houston, Charles Hamilton, Dr., 1895-1950  Search this
Wilson, J. Finley  Search this
Subseries Creator:
Scurlock Studio (Washington, D.C.)  Search this
Scurlock, Robert S. (Saunders), 1917-1994  Search this
Custom Craft  Search this
Scurlock, Addison N., 1883-1964  Search this
Scurlock, George H. (Hardison), 1919-2005  Search this
Extent:
1 Item
Container:
Box 77
Culture:
African Americans -- Washington (D.C.)  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Place:
Washington (D.C.) -- African Americans
Date:
ca. 1940
Scope and Contents:
No Ink on negative. Ink on enclosure: "Group of civil rights strategists: Atty. Chas. Houston, J. Finley Wilson, and John P. Davis." Five men in a room; two standing, one with hands on hips; one sitting on the back of a chair with hat in hand; one sitting with legs crossed and a hat; and one sitting with elbows on knees. "Agfa Safety Film" edge imprint. No Scurlock number. Similar to AC0618.004.0001023.tif. According to Craig Simpson in an e-mail (13 Nov. 2012): "...This appears to be a delegation that called on O. John Rogge, first assistant attorney general of US, to demand Department of Justice action in Georgia peonage cases and South Carolina cases of mob violence by the Ku Klux Klan. Left to right: Louis Colman, New York, assistant national secretary of the International Labor Defense; William L. Patterson, Chicago, vice president of the International Labor Defense; Charles H. Houston, counsel for the National Association for Advancement of Colored People; J. Finley Wilson, grand exalted ruler of the Elks; and John P. Davis, executive secretary of the National Negro Congress. See April 27, 1940 of Chicago Defender, page 4, "National Negro Congress Girds for Third Conference" for photo of what seem to be the same people in the same room (window is the same, shade drawn to the same length and desk is slightly visible, bottom of frame of photo visible in Scurlock photo is also visible in Defender image)."
General:
CORRECTION NEEDED FOR IMAGE ORIENTATION.
Subseries Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.

Gloves must be worn when handling unprotected photographs and negatives. Special arrangements required to view negatives due to cold storage. Using negatives requires a three hour waiting period. Contact the Archives Center at 202-633-3270.
Subseries Rights:
When the Museum purchased the collection from the Estate of Robert S. Scurlock, it obtained all rights, including copyright. The earliest photographs in the collection are in the public domain because their term of copyright has expired. The Archives Center will control copyright and the use of the collection for reproduction purposes, which will be handled in accordance with its standard reproduction policy guidelines. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Civil rights  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- 1940-1950 -- Black-and-white negatives -- Acetate film
Subseries Citation:
Scurlock Studio Records, Archives Center, National Museum of American History. Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Scurlock Studio Records, Subseries 4.1: Black-and-White Silver Gelatin Negatives
Scurlock Studio Records, Subseries 4.1: Black-and-White Silver Gelatin Negatives / 4.1: Black-and-White Silver Gelatin negatives
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0618-s04-01-ref2630
Online Media:

Imhotep Medical Meeting at 15th St. Presbyterian Church, May 1960 [cellulose acetate photonegative]

Photographer:
Scurlock Studio (Washington, D.C.)  Search this
Creator:
Eastman Kodak Company (film manufacturer)  Search this
Names:
Fifteenth Street Presbyterian Church (Washington, D.C.)  Search this
Imhotep National Conference on Hospital Integration  Search this
Cobb, W. Montague (William Montague), 1904-1990  Search this
Subseries Creator:
Scurlock Studio (Washington, D.C.)  Search this
Scurlock, Robert S. (Saunders), 1917-1994  Search this
Custom Craft  Search this
Scurlock, Addison N., 1883-1964  Search this
Scurlock, George H. (Hardison), 1919-2005  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (Silver gelatin on cellulose acetate film sheet., [4" x 5"].)
Container:
Box 109
Culture:
African Americans -- Washington (D.C.)  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Place:
Washington (D.C.) -- African Americans
Washington (D.C.) -- 1960-1970 -- Photographs
Date:
May 1960
Scope and Contents:
Posed group of men and two women standing in rows on the exterior steps of 15th St. Presbyterian Church. The men wear pin badge, possible name badges. The man on the left on the top row is thought to be William Montague Cobb. No ink on negative. Ink on envelope: caption and "C/o Dr. Cobb". "KODAK - SAFETY -- FILM" edge imprint. Retouching on faces with New Coccine.
Biographical / Historical:
"William Montague Cobb co-founded the Imhotep National Conference on Hospital Integration, sponsored by the National Medical Association's Council on Medical Education and Hospitals, the NAACP's National Health Committee, and the Medico-Chirurgical Society of the District of Columbia. Named for the early Egyptian physician Imhotep, the conference met annually between 1957 and 1963 to support surveys, publications, and other conferences on the health status of American blacks and to lobby for the passage of legislation, including national health insurance and the Civil Rights Act of 1964" taken from www.answers.com/topic/w-montague-cobb.
Subseries Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.

Gloves must be worn when handling unprotected photographs and negatives. Special arrangements required to view negatives due to cold storage. Using negatives requires a three hour waiting period. Contact the Archives Center at 202-633-3270.
Subseries Rights:
When the Museum purchased the collection from the Estate of Robert S. Scurlock, it obtained all rights, including copyright. The earliest photographs in the collection are in the public domain because their term of copyright has expired. The Archives Center will control copyright and the use of the collection for reproduction purposes, which will be handled in accordance with its standard reproduction policy guidelines. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
African American churches -- 1960-1970 -- Washington (D.C.).  Search this
African American physicians  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- 1960-1970 -- Black-and-white negatives -- Acetate film
Subseries Citation:
Scurlock Studio Records, Archives Center, National Museum of American History. Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Scurlock Studio Records, Subseries 4.1: Black-and-White Silver Gelatin Negatives
Scurlock Studio Records, Subseries 4.1: Black-and-White Silver Gelatin Negatives / 4.1: Black-and-White Silver Gelatin negatives
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0618-s04-01-ref3459
Online Media:

Civil Rights Conference at H.U. [Howard University], Nov[ember] 1963 [cellulose acetate photonegative]

Photographer:
Scurlock Studio (Washington, D.C.)  Search this
Creator:
Eastman Kodak Company (film manufacturer)  Search this
Names:
Howard University -- 1960-1970  Search this
Subseries Creator:
Scurlock Studio (Washington, D.C.)  Search this
Scurlock, Robert S. (Saunders), 1917-1994  Search this
Custom Craft  Search this
Scurlock, Addison N., 1883-1964  Search this
Scurlock, George H. (Hardison), 1919-2005  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (Silver gelatin on cellulose acetate film sheet., 4" x 5".)
Container:
Box 110
Culture:
African Americans -- Washington (D.C.)  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
New coccine (or crocein scarlet) dye
Retouching
Place:
Washington (D.C.) -- African Americans
Washington (D.C.) -- 1960-1970 -- Photographs
Date:
November 1963
Scope and Contents:
Man standing at lectern with several microphones on a stage. Two other men and a woman sit on chairs at the side of the stage. No ink on negative. Ink on envelope: caption and "8 glossy ea". "KODAK - SAFETY -- FILM" edge imprint. Retouching on face with New Coccine.
Subseries Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.

Gloves must be worn when handling unprotected photographs and negatives. Special arrangements required to view negatives due to cold storage. Using negatives requires a three hour waiting period. Contact the Archives Center at 202-633-3270.
Subseries Rights:
When the Museum purchased the collection from the Estate of Robert S. Scurlock, it obtained all rights, including copyright. The earliest photographs in the collection are in the public domain because their term of copyright has expired. The Archives Center will control copyright and the use of the collection for reproduction purposes, which will be handled in accordance with its standard reproduction policy guidelines. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Civil rights  Search this
Public speaking  Search this
Microphone  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- 1960-1970 -- Black-and-white negatives -- Acetate film
New Coccine (or Crocein Scarlet) dye
Retouching -- Dye
Subseries Citation:
Scurlock Studio Records, Archives Center, National Museum of American History. Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Scurlock Studio Records, Subseries 4.1: Black-and-White Silver Gelatin Negatives
Scurlock Studio Records, Subseries 4.1: Black-and-White Silver Gelatin Negatives / 4.1: Black-and-White Silver Gelatin negatives
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0618-s04-01-ref3687
Online Media:

A.K.A. [Alpha Kappa Alpha] Sorority delegates to Civil Rights Bill, May 1964 [cellulose acetate photonegative]

Photographer:
Scurlock Studio (Washington, D.C.)  Search this
Creator:
Ansco (film manufacturer)  Search this
Names:
Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority  Search this
Kappa Omega  Search this
Subseries Creator:
Scurlock Studio (Washington, D.C.)  Search this
Scurlock, Robert S. (Saunders), 1917-1994  Search this
Custom Craft  Search this
Scurlock, Addison N., 1883-1964  Search this
Scurlock, George H. (Hardison), 1919-2005  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (Silver gelatin on cellulose acetate film sheet., 4" x 5")
Container:
Box 110
Culture:
African Americans -- Washington (D.C.)  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
New coccine (or crocein scarlet) dye
Retouching
Place:
Washington (D.C.) -- African Americans
Washington (D.C.) -- 1960-1970 -- Photographs
Date:
May 1964
Scope and Contents:
Group of eight women holding two signs which read, "Kappa Omega Atlanta, GA" and "AKA South Atlantic Region says Pass Civil Rights Bill". The group are standing indoors in front of a window with drapes. They wear coats, hats and gloves. No ink on negative. Ink on envelope: caption and "c/o Mrs. Deadmond 4 of ea." "ANSCO SAFETY FILM 5" edge imprint. Retouching on faces with New Coccine.
Subseries Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.

Gloves must be worn when handling unprotected photographs and negatives. Special arrangements required to view negatives due to cold storage. Using negatives requires a three hour waiting period. Contact the Archives Center at 202-633-3270.
Subseries Rights:
When the Museum purchased the collection from the Estate of Robert S. Scurlock, it obtained all rights, including copyright. The earliest photographs in the collection are in the public domain because their term of copyright has expired. The Archives Center will control copyright and the use of the collection for reproduction purposes, which will be handled in accordance with its standard reproduction policy guidelines. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
African American women -- 1960-1970  Search this
Civil rights demonstrations -- 1960-1970  Search this
Signs and signboards  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- 1960-1970 -- Black-and-white negatives -- Acetate film
New Coccine (or Crocein Scarlet) dye
Retouching -- Dye
Subseries Citation:
Scurlock Studio Records, Archives Center, National Museum of American History. Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Scurlock Studio Records, Subseries 4.1: Black-and-White Silver Gelatin Negatives
Scurlock Studio Records, Subseries 4.1: Black-and-White Silver Gelatin Negatives / 4.1: Black-and-White Silver Gelatin negatives
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0618-s04-01-ref3717
Online Media:

A.K.A. [Alpha Kappa Alpha] Sorority delegates to Civil Rights Bill, May 1964 [cellulose acetate photonegative]

Photographer:
Scurlock Studio (Washington, D.C.)  Search this
Creator:
Ansco (film manufacturer)  Search this
Names:
Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority  Search this
Subseries Creator:
Scurlock Studio (Washington, D.C.)  Search this
Scurlock, Robert S. (Saunders), 1917-1994  Search this
Custom Craft  Search this
Scurlock, Addison N., 1883-1964  Search this
Scurlock, George H. (Hardison), 1919-2005  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (Silver gelatin on cellulose acetate film sheet., 4" x 5")
Container:
Box 110
Culture:
African Americans -- Washington (D.C.)  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
New coccine (or crocein scarlet) dye
Retouching
Place:
Washington (D.C.) -- African Americans
Washington (D.C.) -- 1960-1970 -- Photographs
Date:
May 1964
Scope and Contents:
Group of women seated and standing around a table. There are copies of the "Congressional Record" on the table and a written petition. Many of the women wear badge reading, "Leadership Conference on Civil Rights". No ink on negative. Ink on envelope: caption and "c/o Mrs. Deadmond 4 of ea." "ANSCO SAFETY FILM 5" edge imprint. Retouching on faces with New Coccine.
Subseries Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.

Gloves must be worn when handling unprotected photographs and negatives. Special arrangements required to view negatives due to cold storage. Using negatives requires a three hour waiting period. Contact the Archives Center at 202-633-3270.
Subseries Rights:
When the Museum purchased the collection from the Estate of Robert S. Scurlock, it obtained all rights, including copyright. The earliest photographs in the collection are in the public domain because their term of copyright has expired. The Archives Center will control copyright and the use of the collection for reproduction purposes, which will be handled in accordance with its standard reproduction policy guidelines. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
African American women -- 1960-1970  Search this
Civil rights demonstrations -- 1960-1970  Search this
Petitions  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- 1960-1970 -- Black-and-white negatives -- Acetate film
New Coccine (or Crocein Scarlet) dye
Retouching -- Dye
Subseries Citation:
Scurlock Studio Records, Archives Center, National Museum of American History. Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Scurlock Studio Records, Subseries 4.1: Black-and-White Silver Gelatin Negatives
Scurlock Studio Records, Subseries 4.1: Black-and-White Silver Gelatin Negatives / 4.1: Black-and-White Silver Gelatin negatives
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0618-s04-01-ref3719
Online Media:

A.K.A. [Alpha Kappa Alpha] Sorority delegates to Civil Rights Bill, May 1964 [cellulose acetate photonegative]

Photographer:
Scurlock Studio (Washington, D.C.)  Search this
Creator:
Ansco (film manufacturer)  Search this
Names:
Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority  Search this
Subseries Creator:
Scurlock Studio (Washington, D.C.)  Search this
Scurlock, Robert S. (Saunders), 1917-1994  Search this
Custom Craft  Search this
Scurlock, Addison N., 1883-1964  Search this
Scurlock, George H. (Hardison), 1919-2005  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (Silver gelatin on cellulose acetate film sheet., 4" x 5")
Container:
Box 110
Culture:
African Americans -- Washington (D.C.)  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
New coccine (or crocein scarlet) dye
Retouching
Place:
Washington (D.C.) -- African Americans
Washington (D.C.) -- 1960-1970 -- Photographs
Date:
May 1964
Scope and Contents:
Posed group of women standing on the exterior steps of a building. Sign on the window above the doorway reads, "Mills Building 704". Many of the women wear badge which read, "Leadership Conference on Civil Rights". One of the women holds a copy of the "Congressional Record". No ink on negative. Ink on envelope: caption and "c/o Mrs. Deadmond 4 of ea." "ANSCO SAFETY FILM 5" edge imprint. Retouching on faces with New Coccine.
Subseries Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.

Gloves must be worn when handling unprotected photographs and negatives. Special arrangements required to view negatives due to cold storage. Using negatives requires a three hour waiting period. Contact the Archives Center at 202-633-3270.
Subseries Rights:
When the Museum purchased the collection from the Estate of Robert S. Scurlock, it obtained all rights, including copyright. The earliest photographs in the collection are in the public domain because their term of copyright has expired. The Archives Center will control copyright and the use of the collection for reproduction purposes, which will be handled in accordance with its standard reproduction policy guidelines. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
African American women -- 1960-1970  Search this
Civil rights demonstrations -- 1960-1970  Search this
Buildings -- Washington (D.C) -- 1960-1970.  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- 1960-1970 -- Black-and-white negatives -- Acetate film
New Coccine (or Crocein Scarlet) dye
Retouching -- Dye
Subseries Citation:
Scurlock Studio Records, Archives Center, National Museum of American History. Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Scurlock Studio Records, Subseries 4.1: Black-and-White Silver Gelatin Negatives
Scurlock Studio Records, Subseries 4.1: Black-and-White Silver Gelatin Negatives / 4.1: Black-and-White Silver Gelatin negatives
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0618-s04-01-ref3721
Online Media:

Marian Anderson recital at Lincoln Memorial [copy of composite image : acetate film photonegative,]

Photographer:
Scurlock, Robert S. (Saunders), 1917-1994  Search this
Creator:
Scurlock Studio (Washington, D.C.)  Search this
Names:
Anderson, Marian, 1897-1993  Search this
Subseries Creator:
Scurlock Studio (Washington, D.C.)  Search this
Scurlock, Robert S. (Saunders), 1917-1994  Search this
Custom Craft  Search this
Scurlock, Addison N., 1883-1964  Search this
Scurlock, George H. (Hardison), 1919-2005  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (8" x 10".)
Container:
Box 34
Culture:
African Americans -- Washington (D.C.)  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Copy negatives
Composite photographs
Reproductions
Photographs
Place:
Washington (D.C.) -- African Americans
Date:
April 9, 1939
Scope and Contents:
Copy of an exhibit or assemblage composed of 7 Scurlock images of the recital, with a label.
General:
In a lecture at George Washington University, 10/19/01, Jeff Fearing attributed the Anderson documentation to Robert Scurlock, and Vivian Scurlock corroborated this on 6/26/02.
Subseries Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.

Gloves must be worn when handling unprotected photographs and negatives. Special arrangements required to view negatives due to cold storage. Using negatives requires a three hour waiting period. Contact the Archives Center at 202-633-3270.
Subseries Rights:
When the Museum purchased the collection from the Estate of Robert S. Scurlock, it obtained all rights, including copyright. The earliest photographs in the collection are in the public domain because their term of copyright has expired. The Archives Center will control copyright and the use of the collection for reproduction purposes, which will be handled in accordance with its standard reproduction policy guidelines. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Concerts  Search this
Civil rights  Search this
African American singers -- 1930-1940  Search this
Portraits, Group -- 1930-1940 -- Washington (D.C.).  Search this
Singers -- 1930-1950  Search this
Lincoln Memorial (Washington, D.C.)  Search this
Genre/Form:
Copy negatives
Composite photographs
Reproductions
Photographs -- 1930-1940 -- Black-and-white negatives -- Acetate film
Subseries Citation:
Scurlock Studio Records, Archives Center, National Museum of American History. Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Scurlock Studio Records, Subseries 4.1: Black-and-White Silver Gelatin Negatives
Scurlock Studio Records, Subseries 4.1: Black-and-White Silver Gelatin Negatives / 4.1: Black-and-White Silver Gelatin negatives
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0618-s04-01-ref788

To Achieve These Rights Exhibition Display 1: Charles Miner narration

Creator:
Anacostia Museum  Search this
Names:
Anacostia Community Museum  Search this
Anacostia Neighborhood Museum  Search this
Miner, Charles, 1780-1865  Search this
Collection Creator:
Smithsonian Institution. Anacostia Community Museum  Search this
Extent:
1 Sound recording (cartridge, 1/4 inch)
Culture:
African American  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Sound recordings
Narration
Place:
Washington (D.C.)
United States
Date:
1992
Scope and Contents:
Narration that weaves together excerpts of a speech by Charles Miner to U.S. House of Representatives on January 6 and 7, 1829. Miner spoke of the neglect of slave laws in Washington, D.C. and consequences of the neglect. Despite Miner's plea for the House to remedy the situation, slave trade continued to exist in Washington, D.C. until 1850.
Narration for one of four displays used in exhibition: To Achieve These Rights: The Struggle for Equality and Self-Determination in the District of Columbia, 1791-1978. Part of To Achieve These Rights: The Struggle for Equality and Self-Determination in the District of Columbia, 1791-1978 Audiovisual Records. Dated 19920101.
Collection Restrictions:
Use of the materials requires an appointment. Please contact the archivist to make an appointment: ACMarchives@si.edu.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
African Americans  Search this
Slavery  Search this
Slave trade  Search this
Antislavery movements  Search this
Slavery -- Law and legislation  Search this
Civil rights  Search this
Civil rights leaders  Search this
Activists  Search this
Abolitionists  Search this
Genre/Form:
Sound recordings
Narration
Collection Citation:
To achieve these rights: the struggle for equality and self-determination in the District of Columbia, 1791–1978 exhibition records, Anacostia Community Museum Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
ACMA.03-033, Item ACMA AV003331
See more items in:
To achieve these rights: the struggle for equality and self-determination in the District of Columbia, 1791–1978 exhibition records
To achieve these rights: the struggle for equality and self-determination in the District of Columbia, 1791–1978 exhibition records / Series 2: AudioVisual Materials
Archival Repository:
Anacostia Community Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-acma-03-033-ref505

To Achieve These Rights Exhibition Display 2: Frederick Douglass narration

Creator:
Anacostia Museum  Search this
Names:
Anacostia Community Museum  Search this
Anacostia Neighborhood Museum  Search this
Douglass, Frederick, 1817?-1895  Search this
Collection Creator:
Smithsonian Institution. Anacostia Community Museum  Search this
Extent:
2 Sound recordings (cartridge, 1/4 inch)
Culture:
African American  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Sound recordings
Narration
Place:
Washington (D.C.)
United States
Date:
1992
Scope and Contents:
Narration that weaves together excerpts from a speech by Frederick Douglass from April 1883 on the anniversary of Emancipation in Washington, D.C. Douglass speaks about Emancipation, status and future of the negro, and prejudice despite freedom. He also states that negroes should be American citizens to the fullest extent, including the right to a fair trial, vote, serve on a jury, and attend public schools.
Local Numbers:
ACMA AV003340
Collection Restrictions:
Use of the materials requires an appointment. Please contact the archivist to make an appointment: ACMarchives@si.edu.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
African Americans  Search this
African American abolitionists  Search this
Abolitionists  Search this
Slavery  Search this
Slave trade  Search this
Antislavery movements  Search this
Slavery -- Law and legislation  Search this
Civil rights  Search this
Civil rights leaders  Search this
Activists  Search this
Genre/Form:
Sound recordings
Narration
Collection Citation:
To achieve these rights: the struggle for equality and self-determination in the District of Columbia, 1791–1978 exhibition records, Anacostia Community Museum Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
ACMA.03-033, Item ACMA AV003339
See more items in:
To achieve these rights: the struggle for equality and self-determination in the District of Columbia, 1791–1978 exhibition records
To achieve these rights: the struggle for equality and self-determination in the District of Columbia, 1791–1978 exhibition records / Series 2: AudioVisual Materials
Archival Repository:
Anacostia Community Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-acma-03-033-ref506

To Achieve These Rights Exhibition Display 3: Clips of Marian Anderson's Lincoln Memorial concert

Creator:
Anacostia Museum  Search this
National Broadcasting Company  Search this
Howard University  Search this
Names:
Anacostia Community Museum  Search this
Anacostia Neighborhood Museum  Search this
Daughters of the American Revolution  Search this
Anderson, Marian, 1897-1993  Search this
Ickes, Harold L. (Harold LeClair), 1874-1952  Search this
Collection Creator:
Smithsonian Institution. Anacostia Community Museum  Search this
Extent:
1 Sound recording (cartridge, 1/4 inch)
Culture:
African American  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Sound recordings
Narration
Place:
Washington (D.C.)
United States
Date:
1992
Scope and Contents:
Clips of Marian Anderson's outdoor concert on the steps of the Lincoln Memorial in Washington, D.C. on April 9, 1939. Howard L. Ickes introduced Marian Anderson's performance. Narration between clips of radio broadcast provides context for historical event, including its significance in sparking D.C.'s modern civil rights movements.
Collection Restrictions:
Use of the materials requires an appointment. Please contact the archivist to make an appointment: ACMarchives@si.edu.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
African Americans  Search this
African American singers  Search this
Singers  Search this
Race discrimination  Search this
Civil rights movements  Search this
Civil rights  Search this
Civil rights leaders  Search this
Lincoln Memorial (Washington, D.C.)  Search this
Genre/Form:
Sound recordings
Narration
Collection Citation:
To achieve these rights: the struggle for equality and self-determination in the District of Columbia, 1791–1978 exhibition records, Anacostia Community Museum Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
ACMA.03-033, Item ACMA AV003343
See more items in:
To achieve these rights: the struggle for equality and self-determination in the District of Columbia, 1791–1978 exhibition records
To achieve these rights: the struggle for equality and self-determination in the District of Columbia, 1791–1978 exhibition records / Series 2: AudioVisual Materials
Archival Repository:
Anacostia Community Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-acma-03-033-ref507

To Achieve These Rights Exhibition Display 4: Clip of Mary Church Terrell on Americans All radio program

Creator:
Anacostia Museum  Search this
Whitehead, Henry P., 1917-2002  Search this
Institute on Race Relations (Washington, D.C.)  Search this
Names:
Anacostia Community Museum  Search this
Anacostia Neighborhood Museum  Search this
Douglass, Frederick, 1817?-1895  Search this
Terrell, Mary Church, 1863-1954  Search this
Todd, Tomlinson  Search this
Collection Creator:
Smithsonian Institution. Anacostia Community Museum  Search this
Extent:
2 Sound recordings (cartridge, 1/4 inch)
Culture:
African American  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Sound recordings
Narration
Place:
Washington (D.C.)
United States
Date:
1992
Scope and Contents:
A clip from "Americans All" radio program broadcasted on February 12, 1950 in celebration of Frederick Douglass' birthday. Tomlinson Todd, leader of Institute on Race Relations, interviewed Mary Church Terrell, civil rights activist and friend of Douglass. Terrell spoke of her friendship with Douglass - how they met and visiting World's Fair in Chicago with Douglass. She proposed February 14 as Frederick Douglass day. Narration and radio program provides brief description of Todd, Terrell, Institute on Race Relations, and "Americans All."
Narration and radio broadcast clip for one of four displays used in exhibition: To Achieve These Rights: The Struggle for Equality and Self-Determination in the District of Columbia, 1791-1978. Part of To Achieve These Rights: The Struggle for Equality and Self-Determination in the District of Columbia, 1791-1978 Audiovisual Records. Dated 19920101.
Local Numbers:
ACMA AV003342
Collection Restrictions:
Use of the materials requires an appointment. Please contact the archivist to make an appointment: ACMarchives@si.edu.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
African Americans  Search this
African American abolitionists  Search this
Abolitionists  Search this
Civil rights  Search this
Civil rights leaders  Search this
Activists  Search this
Genre/Form:
Sound recordings
Narration
Collection Citation:
To achieve these rights: the struggle for equality and self-determination in the District of Columbia, 1791–1978 exhibition records, Anacostia Community Museum Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
ACMA.03-033, Item ACMA AV003341
See more items in:
To achieve these rights: the struggle for equality and self-determination in the District of Columbia, 1791–1978 exhibition records
To achieve these rights: the struggle for equality and self-determination in the District of Columbia, 1791–1978 exhibition records / Series 2: AudioVisual Materials
Archival Repository:
Anacostia Community Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-acma-03-033-ref508

Around Town: To Achieve These Rights

Creator:
WETA-TV (Television station : Washington, D.C.)  Search this
Names:
Anacostia Community Museum  Search this
Anacostia Neighborhood Museum  Search this
Collection Creator:
Smithsonian Institution. Anacostia Community Museum  Search this
Extent:
1 Video recording (VHS)
Culture:
African American  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Video recordings
Place:
Anacostia (Washington, D.C.)
Washington (D.C.)
United States
Date:
1992
Scope and Contents:
Around Town, which presented video segments of events happening around Washington, D.C. on public television station WETA, profiled the Anacostia Museum's exhibition 'To Achieve These Rights: The Struggle for Equality and Self-Determination in the District of Columbia, 1791-1978.' Other topics included in this episode: new feature film 'Daughters of the Dust,' new adaption of 'Frankenstein' by the Washington Shakespeare Company, and an international art exhibition and auction at the 'Very Special Arts' gallery. After brief clips or description of each topic, there was a short roundtable discussion.
News program with roundtable discussion. Related to exhibition 'To Achieve These Rights: The Struggle for Equality and Self-Determination in the District of Columbia, 1791-1978.' Dated 19920227.
Collection Restrictions:
Use of the materials requires an appointment. Please contact the archivist to make an appointment: ACMarchives@si.edu.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
African Americans  Search this
Slavery  Search this
Slave trade  Search this
Antislavery movements  Search this
Slaves -- Emancipation  Search this
Slavery -- Law and legislation  Search this
Civil rights  Search this
Home rule  Search this
Museum exhibits  Search this
Genre/Form:
Video recordings
Citation:
Around Town: To Achieve These Rights, Anacostia Community Museum Archives, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
ACMA.03-033, Item ACMA AV002641
See more items in:
To achieve these rights: the struggle for equality and self-determination in the District of Columbia, 1791–1978 exhibition records
To achieve these rights: the struggle for equality and self-determination in the District of Columbia, 1791–1978 exhibition records / Series 2: AudioVisual Materials
Archival Repository:
Anacostia Community Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-acma-03-033-ref509

To Achieve These Rights: Self Guided Audio Tour

Creator:
Anacostia Museum  Search this
Names:
Anacostia Community Museum  Search this
Anacostia Neighborhood Museum  Search this
Collection Creator:
Smithsonian Institution. Anacostia Community Museum  Search this
Extent:
1 Sound recording (audio cassette)
Culture:
African American  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Sound recordings
Place:
Anacostia (Washington, D.C.)
Washington (D.C.)
United States
Date:
circa 1992
Scope and Contents:
Recording of the self guided audio tour for the exhibition 'To Achieve These Rights: The Struggle for Equality and Self-Determination in the District of Columbia, 1791-1978' which was held at the Anacostia Museum from January 1992 to November 1992. People, organizations, and laws which have made their mark on racial equality in the District of Columbia featured in the audio tour.
Local Numbers:
ACMA AV001051_B
Collection Restrictions:
Use of the materials requires an appointment. Please contact the archivist to make an appointment: ACMarchives@si.edu.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
African Americans  Search this
Slavery  Search this
Antislavery movements  Search this
Segregation  Search this
Civil rights  Search this
Civil rights leaders  Search this
Civil rights movements  Search this
Activists  Search this
Abolitionists  Search this
Home rule  Search this
Museum exhibits  Search this
Genre/Form:
Sound recordings
Collection Citation:
To achieve these rights: the struggle for equality and self-determination in the District of Columbia, 1791–1978 exhibition records, Anacostia Community Museum Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
ACMA.03-033, Item ACMA AV001051_A
See more items in:
To achieve these rights: the struggle for equality and self-determination in the District of Columbia, 1791–1978 exhibition records
To achieve these rights: the struggle for equality and self-determination in the District of Columbia, 1791–1978 exhibition records / Series 2: AudioVisual Materials
Archival Repository:
Anacostia Community Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-acma-03-033-ref511

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