Washington (D.C.) -- African Americans -- 1930-1950
Washington (D.C.) -- 1930-1950 -- Photographs
Scope and Contents:
Scan Number: AC0618.004.0001253.tif
Copy negative of image of the Freedman Hospital building and individual portraits of members of staff and internes mounted with central caption and individual name captions. Ink on negative: caption, "A" and "Scurlock Photo". No edge imprint.
Collection is open for research.
Series 8: Business Records, Subseries 8.1: Studio Session Registers are restricted. Digital copies available for research. See repository for details.
Gloves must be worn when handling unprotected photographs and negatives. Special arrangements required to view negatives due to cold storage. Using negatives requires a three hour waiting period. Contact the Archives Center at 202-633-3270.
When the Museum purchased the collection from the Estate of Robert S. Scurlock, it obtained all rights, including copyright. The earliest photographs in the collection are in the public domain because their term of copyright has expired. The Archives Center will control copyright and the use of the collection for reproduction purposes, which will be handled in accordance with its standard reproduction policy guidelines. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Photographs -- 1930-1940 -- Black-and-white negatives -- Acetate film
Banquet camera photographs -- 1930-1940
Scurlock Studio Records, Archives Center, National Museum of American History. Smithsonian Institution
The collection was acquired with assistance from the Eugene Meyer Foundation. Elihu and Susan Rose and the Save America's Treasures program, provided funds to stabilize, organize, store, and create digital surrogates of some of the negatives. Processing and encoding funded by a grant from the Council on Library and Information Resources.
The collection, which dates from the 1980s and measures 1.42 linear feet, was compiled in the course of preparations for the "Black Women: Achievements Against the Odds" exhibit, which was staged at the Anacostia Museum from February 1976 to December 1976. This collection documents the lives and achievements of African American women in a variety of fields, including law, medicine, education, politics, science and the arts. The collection is comprised of documents, magazine and newspaper clippings, correspondence, photocopies, brochures and pamphlets.
Use of the materials requires an appointment. Please contact the archivist to make an appointment: ACMarchives@si.edu.
The Dr. Matilda A. Evans Collection of documents how she broke boundaries as one of the first African American women physicians to have her own practice. The collection highlights her role as a physician and the great impact she had on the health and welfare of the African American community. The collection is comprised of educational material, business records, photographs, publications, and reference materials collected by and about Evans and her work.
The materials in this collection have been kept at the folder level and separated into five series. The materials have been ordered and organized based on the content. Within each series and subseries, the folders are organized as close to the collection's original order as when it was acquired.
Dr. Matilda A. Evans was born in Aiken, South Carolina on May 13, 1872. Her parents, Anderson and Harriet Evans, were sharecroppers. In order to help her family, Evans and her two siblings did agricultural work for the Schofield family. Martha Schofield was an early advocate of education for African Americans and the founder of the Schofield Normal and Industrial School. Schofield inspired Evans to start her educational career. She excelled at the Schofield Normal School, so much so, that Schofield led a campaign to raise funds for Evans to attend Oberlin College in Oberlin, Ohio. However, Evans left Oberlin College in 1891 to teach at the Haines Institute in Augusta, Georgia before completing her degree. Schofield and Alfred Jones, the Secretary of Executive Committee of the Board of Corporators of Woman's Medical College in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (WMC) helped create the scholarship for Evans to attend WMC. She was the only African American woman in her class. After earning her medical degree, Evan was the first African American woman to be licensed as physician in South Carolina.
Evans' specialties included general surgery, obstetrics, gynecology, pediatrics, and hygienics. For the next fifteen years, Evans created and managed three medical institutions, Taylor Lane, Lady Street, and St. Luke's hospitals, all of which doubled as nurse training schools. She began by caring for patients in her own home at 1007 Lady Street. In 1901, she established the Taylor Lane Hospital at 2027 Taylor Street, Columbia, South Carolina. The hospital was the first African American owned hospital in the city of Columbia. Even rarer, she treated patients regardless of race and was known for her discretion and expertise. Using this to her advantage, she used funds from wealthy white patients to give free or greatly reduced rate care to African American patients. Around 1903, a fire destroyed the building, closing the hospital. She then created St. Luke's Hospital and Evans Sanitorium.
Evans had a special interest in the care and medical needs of African American children. She strongly believed that healthcare should be a right as an American and the responsibility of the government to provide healthcare for all. Evans created a health assessment and examination program that was later adapted and used by all of South Carolina public schools. She petitioned the South Carolina State Board of Health to give free vaccines to African American children.
Continuing her work in health education, in 1916, Evans created the weekly newspaper Negro Health Association of South Carolina and the South Carolina Good Health Association that educated the public on health matters including hygiene and nutrition. In 1918, Evans volunteered to serve in the Medical Service Corps of the United States Army, during World War I, to take care of veterans and their families. As Evans dedicated all her time to the Corps, she closed St. Luke's Hospital. She decided to leave the Corps after a year because of the racism and discrimination she faced daily.
Returning to medicine and breaking more barriers, in 1922, Evans became the only African American woman in America to serve as president of a state medical association, South Carolina's Palmetto Medical Association. She went on to become the regional Vice President of the National Medical Association.
Evans was dedicated not only to the health of African American children but their whole well-being. In 1926, she owned Lindenwood Park, a 20-acre farm. On her property, she created a community health organization, a community center, a swimming pond, dance hall, and café. All her community outreach programs were completely integrated and welcomed all. Evans established a free clinic in 1930 named the Evans Clinic Association of Columbia, S.C. It was incorporated by the Secretary of State in South Carolina. Evans adopted eleven children, seven had been abandoned after their delivery at her hospital. The other five children were her nieces from her sister who passed away.
On November 17, 1935, Dr. Matilda A. Evans passed away in her home in Columbia, South Carolina.
Timeline Dr. Matilda A. Evans
1872 -- Matilda A. Evans was born in Aiken, South Carolina to Anderson and Harriet Evans
c. 1880-1890 -- Evans attended the Schofield Normal and Industrial School
1890-1892 -- Evans attended Oberlin College in Oberlin, Ohio
1892 -- Evans left college early and accepted a teaching position at Haines Institute and the Schofield School in Augusta, Georgia
1893-1897 -- Evans attended the Woman's Medical College (WMC) in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
1897 -- Graduated with a medical degree from WMC and moved to Columbia, South Carolina. She created her own practice in her home on Lady Street
1901 -- Evans established the Taylor Lane Hospital, the first African American owned hospital in Columbia, South Carolina
1903 -- A fire destroyed the building and her practice returned to 1007 Lady Street, the location of her original practice
1914 -- Evans opened St. Luke's Hospital and Evans Sanitorium
1916 -- Evans created the weekly newspaper Negro Health Association of South Carolina
1918 -- Evans volunteered in the Medical Service Corps of the United States Army during World War I. St. Luke's Hospital was closed
1922 -- Evans served as president of the South Carolina's Palmetto Medical Association
1926 -- Evans opened a park and community center on her Lindenwood property for children of all races and ages
1930-1931 -- Evans established a free clinic, Evans Clinic Association of Columbia, S.C. It was incorporated by the secretary of state in South Carolina
1935 -- Evans passed away in Columbia, South Carolina
Aquired as a Gift of Leatrice Trottie Brown in memory of Dr. Matilda A. Evans
Collection is open for research. Access to collection materials requires an appointment.
The NMAAHC Archives can provide reproductions of some materials for research and educational use.
Copyright and right to publicity restrictions apply and limit reproduction for other purposes.