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Sam Polite repairing a fish net on St. Helena Island, S.C

Creator:
Turner, Lorenzo Dow, 1890-1972  Search this
Collection Creator:
Turner, Lorenzo Dow, 1890-1972  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (photographic print , black and white, 3.5 x 2.5 in.)
Culture:
African American  Search this
Gullahs  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Photographic prints
Place:
South Carolina
United States
United States of America -- South Carolina -- Frogmore
Date:
1932 July
Scope and Contents:
Lorenzo Dow Turner took this image while doing research in the Sea Islands off the coast of South Carolina and Georgia between 1931 and 1933.
Biographical:
Sam Polite was born around 1844 at St. Helena Island, Beaufort Co., South Carolina. His parents were Sam and Molly Polite. The family was enslaved by the Fripp family, which in 1860 owned thousands of acres of land and 20 plantations in St. Helena Island and other nearby islands. When John Fripp, the Polite family owner's son, got married, his father gave him 30 enslaved persons as a wedding gift. Sam Polite was one of them. When the Civil War came to St. Helena Island in November of 1861, the Fripp family and other planters on the island abandoned their plantations. John Fripp was serving in the Confederate Army, and his wife took her children, Sam and his mother, Molly, to Barnwell, South Carolina. When the end of the war came, Sam Polite and his mother returned to St. Helena Island, where the family reunited. It was only then that they learned that they had been freed from enslavement four years before. After working for another African American man, Sam bought 15 acres of land, which he owned for the rest of his life. Sam Polite was married four times and had two children. At the time that Dr. Turner interviewed him, he manufactured fishing nets for income. Sam Polite died at 100 years old on May 2, 1944, of accidental burns when his clothes caught fire while he smoked.
Collection Restrictions:
Use of the materials requires an appointment. Please contact the archivist to make an appointment: ACMarchives@si.edu.
Topic:
African American men  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographic prints
Collection Citation:
Lorenzo Dow Turner papers,Anacostia Community Museum Archives, Smithsonian Institution, gift of Lois Turner Williams.
Identifier:
ACMA.06-017, Item ACMA PH2003.7064.305
See more items in:
Lorenzo Dow Turner Papers
Lorenzo Dow Turner Papers / Series 5: Photographs, circa 1890–1974 / 5.4.3: Research: United States of America / Sea Islands off the coasts of South Carolina and Georgia
Archival Repository:
Anacostia Community Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-acma-06-017-ref1385

Katie Groverner [Grovernor] Brown standing next to her house on Sapelo Island, Ga

Creator:
Turner, Lorenzo Dow, 1890-1972  Search this
Collection Creator:
Turner, Lorenzo Dow, 1890-1972  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (photographic print , black and white, 3.5 x 2.5 inches)
Culture:
African American  Search this
Gullahs  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Photographic prints
Place:
Georgia
United States
United States of America -- Georgia -- Raccon Bluff
Date:
1933 July-August
Scope and Contents:
Lorenzo Dow Turner took this image while doing research in the Sea Islands off the coast of South Carolina and Georgia between 1931 and 1933.
Biographical:
Katie Groverner [Grovernor] Brown was born on Sapelo Island in McIntosh County, Georgia, on June 10, 1853, to John and Corten Groverner [Grover, Grovernor]. Her mother's grandfather was Bilali Muhamad, a Muslim man who was enslaved by the Spalding family. Bilali wrote a famous document in Arabic, which is known as the "Bilali Diary." During the Civil War, the island was abandoned by its white population. In 1865, General William T. Sherman had issued an order that the Sea Islands' lands, including Sapelo, should be given to the recently freed African American population. Nevertheless, the order was never implemented. By 1871 a consortium of three African American men, which included John Groverner, Katie's father, bought 1,000 acres from the former white owner's heirs and created the settlement of Raccoon Bluff. Katie grew up there attending school until fifth grade. She married Ben Brown on August 7, 1877, and had at least four children. Dr. Turner described her as being very intelligent and serious, if somewhat reticent when he interviewed her. Katie Brown passed away on November 19, 1940, and was buried at Behavior Cemetery, Sapelo Island.
Collection Restrictions:
Use of the materials requires an appointment. Please contact the archivist to make an appointment: ACMarchives@si.edu.
Topic:
African American women  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographic prints
Collection Citation:
Lorenzo Dow Turner papers,Anacostia Community Museum Archives, Smithsonian Institution, gift of Lois Turner Williams.
Identifier:
ACMA.06-017, Item ACMA PH2003.7064.309
See more items in:
Lorenzo Dow Turner Papers
Lorenzo Dow Turner Papers / Series 5: Photographs, circa 1890–1974 / 5.4.3: Research: United States of America / Sea Islands off the coasts of South Carolina and Georgia
Archival Repository:
Anacostia Community Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-acma-06-017-ref1389

Bristow McIntosh [Gullah informant]

Creator:
Turner, Lorenzo Dow, 1890-1972  Search this
Collection Creator:
Turner, Lorenzo Dow, 1890-1972  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (photographic print , black and white, 3.5 x 2.5 in.)
Culture:
African American  Search this
Gullahs  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Photographic prints
Place:
Georgia
United States
Date:
circa 1931-1933
Scope and Contents:
Lorenzo Dow Turner took this image while doing research in the Sea Islands off the coast of South Carolina and Georgia between 1931 and 1933.
Historical:
The settlement of Harris Neck, McIntosh County, Georgia, began when on September 2, 1865, Margaret M. Harris donated her land to Robert Dolegal (the name is also spelled as Delegal and Denegal), who she had formerly enslaved. According to Mrs. Harris' will, she had raised Robert and trusted him to take care of her and of her mentally disabled son Bright Harris until their death in exchange for the lands. Mrs. Harris appears in the 1850 Census slave schedule as being the enslaver of 59 individuals. In the 1860 Census slave schedule, she appears as the enslaver of 66 persons.

Robert Dolegal must have sold parcels of his land immediately after he took possession of it. In the Census of 1870, there were 87 African American households and 21 white households in Harris Neck.
Biographical:
Bristow McIntosh appears in the 1870 census as a 14-year old working as a farm laborer and living in the household of Martha Woodruff. According to the interview he gave to Dr. Turner in 1933, beginning in 1866, he had attended school for a few months each year and had been able to learn how to read and write.

By 1880 Bristow McIntosh was married to Nancy King Mctinosh (also known as Annie and Nannie), and they had two children and owned 20 acres of land valued at fifty dollars. The previous year his farm had produced corn, peas, and beans. Bristow also owned milk cows and chickens. The value of his production in 1879 had been $100.

During his life, Bristow worked his land, which was valued at $200 in 1930. He also, at some point, ran a store and kept a mail route. By 1930 he was already in his seventies but still working as a family servant.

Bristow and Nancy would have eleven children, and only three survived childhood. Nancy passed away in 1922 after a long illness, and two of her surviving children followed her within a few years. Leonard passed away in 1926 and James in 1928.

Bristow McIntosh was one of Dr. Turner's principal informants when he came to Harris Neck in 1933. He passed away four years later, on November 25, 1937. Thus, Bristow McIntosh was not alive when the Federal government took the land at Harris Neck through eminent domain to build a military airport. The residents were given two weeks to move out. On July 27, 1942, all the community's houses were bulldozed and burned down.
General:
Bristow (also Brister or Bristol); Harris Neck, McIntosh County, Georgia
Collection Restrictions:
Use of the materials requires an appointment. Please contact the archivist to make an appointment: ACMarchives@si.edu.
Topic:
African American men  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographic prints
Collection Citation:
Lorenzo Dow Turner papers,Anacostia Community Museum Archives, Smithsonian Institution, gift of Lois Turner Williams.
Identifier:
ACMA.06-017, Item ACMA PH2003.7064.310
See more items in:
Lorenzo Dow Turner Papers
Lorenzo Dow Turner Papers / Series 5: Photographs, circa 1890–1974 / 5.4.3: Research: United States of America / Sea Islands off the coasts of South Carolina and Georgia
Archival Repository:
Anacostia Community Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-acma-06-017-ref1390

Gullah man riding a bull

Creator:
Turner, Lorenzo Dow, 1890-1972  Search this
Collection Creator:
Turner, Lorenzo Dow, 1890-1972  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (photographic print , black and white, 3.5 x 2.5 in.)
Culture:
African American  Search this
Gullahs  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Photographic prints
Place:
United States
Date:
circa 1931-1933
Scope and Contents:
Lorenzo Dow Turner took this image while doing research in the Sea Islands off the coast of South Carolina and Georgia between 1931 and 1933.
Collection Restrictions:
Use of the materials requires an appointment. Please contact the archivist to make an appointment: ACMarchives@si.edu.
Topic:
African American men  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographic prints
Collection Citation:
Lorenzo Dow Turner papers,Anacostia Community Museum Archives, Smithsonian Institution, gift of Lois Turner Williams.
Identifier:
ACMA.06-017, Item ACMA PH2003.7064.316
See more items in:
Lorenzo Dow Turner Papers
Lorenzo Dow Turner Papers / Series 5: Photographs, circa 1890–1974 / 5.4.3: Research: United States of America / Sea Islands off the coasts of South Carolina and Georgia
Archival Repository:
Anacostia Community Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-acma-06-017-ref1394

Gullah man standing by tree

Creator:
Turner, Lorenzo Dow, 1890-1972  Search this
Collection Creator:
Turner, Lorenzo Dow, 1890-1972  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (photographic print , black and white, 3.5 x 2.5 in.)
Culture:
African American  Search this
Gullahs  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Photographic prints
Place:
United States
Date:
circa 1931-1933
Scope and Contents:
Lorenzo Dow Turner took this image while doing research in the Sea Islands off the coast of South Carolina and Georgia between 1931 and 1933.
Collection Restrictions:
Use of the materials requires an appointment. Please contact the archivist to make an appointment: ACMarchives@si.edu.
Topic:
African American men  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographic prints
Collection Citation:
Lorenzo Dow Turner papers,Anacostia Community Museum Archives, Smithsonian Institution, gift of Lois Turner Williams.
Identifier:
ACMA.06-017, Item ACMA PH2003.7064.317
See more items in:
Lorenzo Dow Turner Papers
Lorenzo Dow Turner Papers / Series 5: Photographs, circa 1890–1974 / 5.4.3: Research: United States of America / Sea Islands off the coasts of South Carolina and Georgia
Archival Repository:
Anacostia Community Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-acma-06-017-ref1395

John (Johnnie) Campbell [Gullah informant]

Creator:
Turner, Lorenzo Dow, 1890-1972  Search this
Collection Creator:
Turner, Lorenzo Dow, 1890-1972  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (photographic print , black and white, 3.5 x 2.5 in.)
Culture:
African American  Search this
Gullahs  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Photographic prints
Place:
Georgia
United States
Date:
1933
Scope and Contents:
Lorenzo Dow Turner took this image while doing research in the Sea Islands off the coast of South Carolina and Georgia between 1931 and 1933.
Historical:
The settlement of Harris Neck, McIntosh County, Georgia, began when on September 2, 1865, Margaret M. Harris donated her land to Robert Dolegal (the name is also spelled as Delegal and Denegal), who she had formerly enslaved. According to Mrs. Harris' will, she had raised Robert and trusted him to take care of her and her mentally disabled son Bright Harris until their death in exchange for the lands. Mrs. Harris appears in the 1850 Census slave schedule as being the enslaver of 59 individuals. In the 1860 Census slave schedule, she appears as the enslaver of 66 persons.

Robert Dolegal must have sold parcels of his land immediately after he took possession of it. In the Census of 1870, there were 87 African American households and 21 white households in Harris Neck.
Biographical:
John Campbell was born about 1877, the son of Isaac Campbell and Rose Bacon Campbell. On December 27, 1900, John married Georgia Stevens.

The couple had at least five children but by 1910 had lost one of them. The surviving children were Ophelia, James, Agnes, and Johnnie. John was working as a boatman for the oyster industry. Georgia worked as a cook for a private family. They owned their house. After appearing in the 1910 population census, both John and Georgia disappear from the record. However, we know that Dr. Lorenzo Dow Turner interviewed John Campbell at Harris Neck in the summer of 1933.

It is possible that both John and Georgia Campbell were living when the Federal government took the land at Harris Neck through eminent domain to build a military airport. The residents were given two weeks to move out. On July 27, 1942, all the community's houses were bulldozed and burned down.
General:
Summer of 1933 Harris Neck, McIntosh County, Georgia
Collection Restrictions:
Use of the materials requires an appointment. Please contact the archivist to make an appointment: ACMarchives@si.edu.
Topic:
African American men  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographic prints
Collection Citation:
Lorenzo Dow Turner papers,Anacostia Community Museum Archives, Smithsonian Institution, gift of Lois Turner Williams.
Identifier:
ACMA.06-017, Item ACMA PH2003.7064.319
See more items in:
Lorenzo Dow Turner Papers
Lorenzo Dow Turner Papers / Series 5: Photographs, circa 1890–1974 / 5.4.3: Research: United States of America / Sea Islands off the coasts of South Carolina and Georgia
Archival Repository:
Anacostia Community Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-acma-06-017-ref1397

James (Napoleon) Rogers and Adeline (Annie) Rogers [Gullah informants]

Creator:
Turner, Lorenzo Dow, 1890-1972  Search this
Collection Creator:
Turner, Lorenzo Dow, 1890-1972  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (photographic print , black and white, 3.5 x 2.5 in.)
Culture:
African American  Search this
Gullahs  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Photographic prints
Place:
Georgia
United States
United States of America -- Georgia -- Harris Neck
Date:
1933
Scope and Contents:
Lorenzo Dow Turner took this image while doing research in the Sea Islands off the coast of South Carolina and Georgia between 1931 and 1933.
Historical:
The settlement of Harris Neck, McIntosh County, Georgia, began when on September 2, 1865, Margaret M. Harris donated her land to Robert Dolegal (the name is also spelled as Delegal and Denegal), who she had formerly enslaved. According to Mrs. Harris' will, she had raised Robert and trusted him to take care of her and her mentally disabled son Bright Harris until their death in exchange for the lands. Mrs. Harris appears in the 1850 Census slave schedule as being the enslaver of 59 individuals. In the 1860 Census slave schedule, she appears as the enslaver of 66 persons.

Robert Dolegal must have sold parcels of his land immediately after he took possession of it. In the Census of 1870, there were 87 African American households and 21 white households in Harris Neck.
Biographical:
James (Napoleon) Rogers was born in Liberty County, Georgia, around 1859. He was never able to attend school, and thus when Dr. Lorenzo Dow Turner interviewed him in the Summer of 1933 in Harris Neck, Georgia, he informed him that he could neither read nor write. Dr. Turner considered him one of his principal informants in Harris Neck.

By 1880 Rogers had moved to Harris Neck and was working as a laborer living in the household of John J. Curry. On September 30, 1905, Rogers married Adeline (also spelled as Adline) Houston. Adeline was much younger than Rogers. She was 30, being born at Ways Station, Bryan County, on March 15, 1875. Rogers was at least 46 years old. They had two children Anna Lee (also spelled as Analee and Analie) and James.

James Rogers owned his farm, which was worth $500.00 in 1930. He informed Dr. Turner that he had always been a farmer, but around 1910 he was working as a carpenter. Adeline Rogers mainly took care of the family, but around 1910 she was working as a seamstress.

James Rogers passed away between 1933 when he was interviewed by Dr. Turner and 1940 when he disappeared from the record. Adeline Rogers appears in the 1940 census as a widow living with her niece Emma Tate, the cook at the local school. Adeline must have been already sick on April 12, 1940, when the census was taken. A little bit over a month later, on May 25, she passed away from heart failure due to renal and cardiovascular disease. She had gone back to live where she had been born in 1875, Ways Station (today Richmond Hill), Bryan County, Georgia. Her daughter, Anna Lee, was married and living in New York City with the married surname of Callaway and was the person who informed on her mother data for the death certificate.

Thus, neither James nor Adaline Rogers were alive when the Federal government took the land at Harris Neck through eminent domain to build a military airport. The residents were given two weeks to move out. On July 27, 1942, all the community's houses were bulldozed and burned down.
General:
Summer of 1933, Harris Neck, McIntosh County, Georgia
Collection Restrictions:
Use of the materials requires an appointment. Please contact the archivist to make an appointment: ACMarchives@si.edu.
Topic:
African American men  Search this
African American women  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographic prints
Collection Citation:
Lorenzo Dow Turner papers,Anacostia Community Museum Archives, Smithsonian Institution, gift of Lois Turner Williams.
Identifier:
ACMA.06-017, Item ACMA PH2003.7064.337
See more items in:
Lorenzo Dow Turner Papers
Lorenzo Dow Turner Papers / Series 5: Photographs, circa 1890–1974 / 5.4.3: Research: United States of America / Sea Islands off the coasts of South Carolina and Georgia
Archival Repository:
Anacostia Community Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-acma-06-017-ref1399

Katie Groverner [Grovernor] Brown next to her house at Racoon Bluff, Sapelo Island, Georgia

Creator:
Turner, Lorenzo Dow, 1890-1972  Search this
Collection Creator:
Turner, Lorenzo Dow, 1890-1972  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (photographic print , black and white, 3.5 x 2.5 in.)
Culture:
African American  Search this
Gullahs  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Photographic prints
Place:
Georgia
United States
United States of America -- Georgia -- Racoon Bluff
Date:
1933 July - August
Scope and Contents:
Lorenzo Dow Turner took this images while doing research in the Sea Islands off the coast of South Carolina and Georgia between 1931 and 1933.
Biographical:
Katie Groverner [Grovernor] Brown was born on Sapelo Island in McIntosh County, Georgia, on June 10, 1853, to John and Corten Groverner [Grover, Grovernor]. Her mother's grandfather was Bilali Muhamad, a Muslim man who was enslaved by the Spalding family. Bilali wrote a famous document in Arabic, which is known as the "Bilali Diary." During the Civil War, the island was abandoned by its white population. In 1865, General William T. Sherman had issued an order that the Sea Islands' lands, including Sapelo, should be given to the recently freed African American population. Nevertheless, the order was never implemented. By 1871 a consortium of three African American men, which included John Groverner, Katie's father, bought 1,000 acres from the former white owner's heirs and created the settlement of Raccoon Bluff. Katie grew up there attending school until fifth grade. She married Ben Brown on August 7, 1877, and had at least four children. Dr. Turner described her as being very intelligent and serious, if somewhat reticent when he interviewed her. Katie Brown passed away on November 19, 1940, and was buried at Behavior Cemetery, Sapelo Island.
Collection Restrictions:
Use of the materials requires an appointment. Please contact the archivist to make an appointment: ACMarchives@si.edu.
Topic:
African American women  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographic prints
Collection Citation:
Lorenzo Dow Turner papers,Anacostia Community Museum Archives, Smithsonian Institution, gift of Lois Turner Williams.
Identifier:
ACMA.06-017, Item ACMA PH2003.7064.321
See more items in:
Lorenzo Dow Turner Papers
Lorenzo Dow Turner Papers / Series 5: Photographs, circa 1890–1974 / 5.4.3: Research: United States of America / Sea Islands off the coasts of South Carolina and Georgia
Archival Repository:
Anacostia Community Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-acma-06-017-ref1400

Gullah man in front of his house

Creator:
Turner, Lorenzo Dow, 1890-1972  Search this
Collection Creator:
Turner, Lorenzo Dow, 1890-1972  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (photographic print , black and white, 3.5 x 2.5 in.)
Culture:
African American  Search this
Gullahs  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Photographic prints
Place:
United States
Date:
circa 1931-1933
Scope and Contents:
Lorenzo Dow Turner took this image while doing research in the Sea Islands off the coast of South Carolina and Georgia between 1931 and 1933.
Collection Restrictions:
Use of the materials requires an appointment. Please contact the archivist to make an appointment: ACMarchives@si.edu.
Topic:
African American men  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographic prints
Collection Citation:
Lorenzo Dow Turner papers,Anacostia Community Museum Archives, Smithsonian Institution, gift of Lois Turner Williams.
Identifier:
ACMA.06-017, Item ACMA PH2003.7064.325
See more items in:
Lorenzo Dow Turner Papers
Lorenzo Dow Turner Papers / Series 5: Photographs, circa 1890–1974 / 5.4.3: Research: United States of America / Sea Islands off the coasts of South Carolina and Georgia
Archival Repository:
Anacostia Community Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-acma-06-017-ref1404

Sandy Grant [Gullah Informant]

Creator:
Turner, Lorenzo Dow, 1890-1972  Search this
Collection Creator:
Turner, Lorenzo Dow, 1890-1972  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (photographic print , black and white, 3.5 x 2.5 in.)
Culture:
African American  Search this
Gullahs  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Photographic prints
Place:
United States
Georgia
Date:
1933
Scope and Contents:
Lorenzo Dow Turner took this image while doing research in the Sea Islands off the coast of South Carolina and Georgia between 1932 and 1933.
Historical:
The settlement of Harris Neck, McIntosh County, Georgia, began when on September 2, 1865, Margaret M. Harris donated her land to Robert Dolegal (the name is also spelled as Delegal and Denegal), who she had formerly enslaved. According to Mrs. Harris' will, she had raised Robert and trusted him to take care of her and her mentally disabled son Bright Harris until their death in exchange for the lands. Mrs. Harris appears in the 1850 Census slave schedule as being the enslaver of 59 individuals. In the 1860 Census slave schedule, she appears as the enslaver of 66 persons.

Robert Dolegal must have sold parcels of his land immediately after he took possession of it. In the Census of 1870, there were 87 African American households and 21 white households in Harris Neck.
Biographical:
Sandy Grant was born at Harris Neck around 1876, the son of Alexander (Sandy) and Frances (Fannie) Grant. Alexander was an early settler of Harris Neck. Sandy Grant married Lizzie McIntosh on January 21, 1902. They had at least one son named Harry and later in life raised several nephews and nieces.

Sandy Grant owned his farm at Harris Neck, which was worth $200.00 in 1930. Both Sandy and Lizzie had been able to attend two years of school when they were children.

We have no information about Lizzie's passing. Sandy died in 1961 in his 80s. Thus he was alive and most likely witnessed when Harris Neck was destroyed to build a military airport. The residents were given two weeks to move out. On July 27, 1942, all the community's houses were bulldozed and burned down.
General:
Summer of 1933, Harris Neck, McIntosh County, Georgia
Collection Restrictions:
Use of the materials requires an appointment. Please contact the archivist to make an appointment: ACMarchives@si.edu.
Topic:
African American men  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographic prints
Collection Citation:
Lorenzo Dow Turner papers,Anacostia Community Museum Archives, Smithsonian Institution, gift of Lois Turner Williams.
Identifier:
ACMA.06-017, Item ACMA PH2003.7064.326
See more items in:
Lorenzo Dow Turner Papers
Lorenzo Dow Turner Papers / Series 5: Photographs, circa 1890–1974 / 5.4.3: Research: United States of America / Sea Islands off the coasts of South Carolina and Georgia
Archival Repository:
Anacostia Community Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-acma-06-017-ref1405

Bristow McIntosh [Gullah Informant]

Creator:
Turner, Lorenzo Dow, 1890-1972  Search this
Collection Creator:
Turner, Lorenzo Dow, 1890-1972  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (photographic print , black and white, 3.5 x 2.5 in.)
Culture:
African American  Search this
Gullahs  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Photographic prints
Place:
United States
Georgia
Date:
circa 1931-1933
Scope and Contents:
Lorenzo Dow Turner took this image while doing research in the Sea Islands off the coast of South Carolina and Georgia between 1931 and 1933.
Historical:
The settlement of Harris Neck, McIntosh County, Georgia, began when on September 2, 1865, Margaret M. Harris donated her land to Robert Dolegal (the name is also spelled as Delegal and Denegal), who she had formerly enslaved. According to Mrs. Harris' will, she had raised Robert and trusted him to take care of her and of her mentally disabled son Bright Harris until their death in exchange for the lands. Mrs. Harris appears in the 1850 Census slave schedule as being the enslaver of 59 individuals. In the 1860 Census slave schedule, she appears as the enslaver of 66 persons.

Robert Dolegal must have sold parcels of his land immediately after he took possession of it. In the Census of 1870, there were 87 African American households and 21 white households in Harris Neck.
Biographical:
Bristow McIntosh appears in the 1870 census as a 14-year old working as a farm laborer and living in the household of Martha Woodruff. According to the interview he gave to Dr. Turner in 1933, beginning in 1866, he had attended school for a few months each year and had been able to learn how to read and write.

By 1880 Bristow McIntosh was married to Nancy King Mctinosh (also known as Annie and Nannie), and they had two children and owned 20 acres of land valued at fifty dollars. The previous year his farm had produced corn, peas, and beans. Bristow also owned milk cows and chickens. The value of his production in 1879 had been $100.

During his life, Bristow worked his land, which was valued at $200 in 1930. He also, at some point, ran a store and kept a mail route. By 1930 he was already in his seventies but still working as a family servant.

Bristow and Nancy would have eleven children, and only three survived childhood. Nancy passed away in 1922 after a long illness, and two of her surviving children followed her within a few years. Leonard passed away in 1926 and James in 1928.

Bristow McIntosh was one of Dr. Turner's principal informants when he came to Harris Neck in 1933. He passed away four years later, on November 25, 1937. Thus, Bristow McIntosh was not alive when the Federal government took the land at Harris Neck through eminent domain to build a military airport. The residents were given two weeks to move out. On July 27, 1942, all the community's houses were bulldozed and burned down.
General:
Bristow (also Brister or Bristol); Harris Neck, McIntosh County, Georgia
Collection Restrictions:
Use of the materials requires an appointment. Please contact the archivist to make an appointment: ACMarchives@si.edu.
Topic:
African American men  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographic prints
Collection Citation:
Lorenzo Dow Turner papers,Anacostia Community Museum Archives, Smithsonian Institution, gift of Lois Turner Williams.
Identifier:
ACMA.06-017, Item ACMA PH2003.7064.330
See more items in:
Lorenzo Dow Turner Papers
Lorenzo Dow Turner Papers / Series 5: Photographs, circa 1890–1974 / 5.4.3: Research: United States of America / Sea Islands off the coasts of South Carolina and Georgia
Archival Repository:
Anacostia Community Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-acma-06-017-ref1409

Gullah man standing in front of his house

Creator:
Turner, Lorenzo Dow, 1890-1972  Search this
Collection Creator:
Turner, Lorenzo Dow, 1890-1972  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (photographic print , black and white, 3.5 x 2.5 in.)
Culture:
African American  Search this
Gullahs  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Photographic prints
Place:
United States
Date:
circa 1931-1933
Scope and Contents:
Lorenzo Dow Turner took this image while doing research in the Sea Islands off the coast of South Carolina and Georgia between 1931 and 1933.
Collection Restrictions:
Use of the materials requires an appointment. Please contact the archivist to make an appointment: ACMarchives@si.edu.
Topic:
African American men  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographic prints
Collection Citation:
Lorenzo Dow Turner papers,Anacostia Community Museum Archives, Smithsonian Institution, gift of Lois Turner Williams.
Identifier:
ACMA.06-017, Item ACMA PH2003.7064.331
See more items in:
Lorenzo Dow Turner Papers
Lorenzo Dow Turner Papers / Series 5: Photographs, circa 1890–1974 / 5.4.3: Research: United States of America / Sea Islands off the coasts of South Carolina and Georgia
Archival Repository:
Anacostia Community Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-acma-06-017-ref1410

David (Davey) Grant [Gullah informant]

Creator:
Turner, Lorenzo Dow, 1890-1972  Search this
Collection Creator:
Turner, Lorenzo Dow, 1890-1972  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (photographic print , black and white, 3.5 x 2.5 in.)
Culture:
African American  Search this
Gullahs  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Photographic prints
Place:
United States
Georgia
Date:
1933
Scope and Contents:
Lorenzo Dow Turner took this image while doing research in the Sea Islands off the coast of South Carolina and Georgia between 1931 and 1933.
Historical:
The settlement of Harris Neck, McIntosh County, Georgia, began when on September 2, 1865, Margaret M. Harris donated her land to Robert Dolegal (the name is also spelled as Delegal and Denegal), who she had formerly enslaved. According to Mrs. Harris' will, she had raised Robert and trusted him to take care of her and her mentally disabled son Bright Harris until their death in exchange for the lands. Mrs. Harris appears in the 1850 Census slave schedule as being the enslaver of 59 individuals. In the 1860 Census slave schedule, she appears as the enslaver of 66 persons.

Robert Dolegal must have sold parcels of his land immediately after he took possession of it. In the Census of 1870, there were 87 African American households and 21 white households in Harris Neck.
Biographical:
David (Davey) Grant was born around 1874, the son of Alexander (Sandy) Grant and Frances (Fannie) Grant and the older brother of Sandy Grant, another of Dr. Lorenzo Dow Turner's informants, by two years.

Around 1901 David married a woman named Amanda (Manda). They had one child, a boy named Roan.

Sometime before 1910, the family moved from Harris Neck to Brunswick, a coastal town in Glynn County, Georgia, where David went to work as a dockhand and Amanda as a washerwoman.

By 1920 the family was back at Harris Neck, living on South Harris Neck Road at a locality named Warboo. David was renting the place where they lived and was not working. Amanda was working at a farm.

We do not know what happened to Amanda, but David Grant lived until 1947. He died on April 11, 1947. Thus, he was alive and most likely witnessed when Harris Neck was destroyed to build a military airport. The residents were given two weeks to move out. On July 27, 1942, all the community's houses were bulldozed and burned down.
General:
Summer of 1933, Harris Neck, McIntosh County, Georgia
Collection Restrictions:
Use of the materials requires an appointment. Please contact the archivist to make an appointment: ACMarchives@si.edu.
Topic:
African American men  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographic prints
Collection Citation:
Lorenzo Dow Turner papers,Anacostia Community Museum Archives, Smithsonian Institution, gift of Lois Turner Williams.
Identifier:
ACMA.06-017, Item ACMA PH2003.7064.336
See more items in:
Lorenzo Dow Turner Papers
Lorenzo Dow Turner Papers / Series 5: Photographs, circa 1890–1974 / 5.4.3: Research: United States of America / Sea Islands off the coasts of South Carolina and Georgia
Archival Repository:
Anacostia Community Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-acma-06-017-ref1415

Mary Hall [Gullah informant] in front of her house on Racoon Bluff, Sapelo Island, Ga

Creator:
Turner, Lorenzo Dow, 1890-1972  Search this
Collection Creator:
Turner, Lorenzo Dow, 1890-1972  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (photographic print , black and white, 3.5 x 2.5 in.)
Culture:
African American  Search this
Gullahs  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Photographic prints
Place:
United States
Georgia
Date:
1933 July-August
Scope and Contents:
Lorenzo Dow Turner took this image in Raccoon Bluff, Sapelo Island, McIntosh County, Georgia while doing research in the Sea Islands off the coast of South Carolina and Georgia between 1931 and 1933.
Biographical:
Mary Bell was born on May 22, 1887, at Raccoon Bluff, Sapelo Island, to William Bell and Chloe Handy. Her family was part of the group that moved to the Raccoon Bluff settlement in Sapelo Island when it was developed by three African American men in 1871. She married her first husband, William Green, on March 4, 1905, when she was 18 years old. She had five children from this first marriage: Alfonzo and Nellie, born 1907; Clara, born 1908; Thomas, born 1912 and Lula, born 1915. Her husband William worked as a longshoreman in Savannah, Georgia, and passed away there on February 23, 1922.

Around 1924-25 she married Eddie [Edward] Hall. Her daughter Mary L. Hall was born on November 17, 1925. Mary passed away on September 3, 1958. She was buried at Behavior Cemetery in Sapelo Island.

Mary E. Hall spent her life taking care of the family and working on the family farm. She passed away on February 7, 1959, at 71 years of age. She was also buried at Behavior Cemetery in Sapelo Island. Eddie Hall would survive his wife for almost ten years, dying on January 29, 1968, in Savannah, Georgia.

When Curator Alcione Amos was at Sapelo Island in 2011 researching to identify photographs taken in the Island by Dr. Turner in 1933, she was surprised when she saw how Mrs. Hall was dressed. She was by far the best-dressed person in the photographs Ms. Amos had seen. Mrs. Cornelia Bailey, who knew Mrs. Hall, as a child, explained that her daughters had migrated to New York and would send her packages of clothes, shoes, and other gifts. Mrs. Bailey remembered that the arrival of these packages was a time of great excitement for the children.
General:
Mary E. Hall [aka Mary Bell and Mary Green].
Collection Restrictions:
Use of the materials requires an appointment. Please contact the archivist to make an appointment: ACMarchives@si.edu.
Topic:
African American women  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographic prints
Collection Citation:
Lorenzo Dow Turner papers,Anacostia Community Museum Archives, Smithsonian Institution, gift of Lois Turner Williams.
Identifier:
ACMA.06-017, Item ACMA PH2003.7064.338
See more items in:
Lorenzo Dow Turner Papers
Lorenzo Dow Turner Papers / Series 5: Photographs, circa 1890–1974 / 5.4.3: Research: United States of America / Sea Islands off the coasts of South Carolina and Georgia
Archival Repository:
Anacostia Community Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-acma-06-017-ref1416

Gullah man standing in front of tree

Creator:
Turner, Lorenzo Dow, 1890-1972  Search this
Collection Creator:
Turner, Lorenzo Dow, 1890-1972  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (photographic print , black and white, 3.5 x 2.5 in.)
Culture:
African American  Search this
Gullahs  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Photographic prints
Place:
United States
Date:
circa 1931-1933
Scope and Contents:
Lorenzo Dow Turner took this image while doing research in the Sea Islands off the coast of South Carolina and Georgia between 1931 and 1933.
Collection Restrictions:
Use of the materials requires an appointment. Please contact the archivist to make an appointment: ACMarchives@si.edu.
Topic:
African American men  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographic prints
Collection Citation:
Lorenzo Dow Turner papers,Anacostia Community Museum Archives, Smithsonian Institution, gift of Lois Turner Williams.
Identifier:
ACMA.06-017, Item ACMA PH2003.7064.340
See more items in:
Lorenzo Dow Turner Papers
Lorenzo Dow Turner Papers / Series 5: Photographs, circa 1890–1974 / 5.4.3: Research: United States of America / Sea Islands off the coasts of South Carolina and Georgia
Archival Repository:
Anacostia Community Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-acma-06-017-ref1418

James (Napoleon) Rogers [Gullah informant]

Creator:
Turner, Lorenzo Dow, 1890-1972  Search this
Collection Creator:
Turner, Lorenzo Dow, 1890-1972  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (photographic print , black and white, 3.5 x 2.5 in.)
Culture:
African American  Search this
Gullahs  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Photographic prints
Place:
United States
Georgia
Date:
1933
Scope and Contents:
Lorenzo Dow Turner took this image while doing research in the Sea Islands off the coast of South Carolina and Georgia between 1931 and 1933.
Historical:
The settlement of Harris Neck, McIntosh County, Georgia, began when on September 2, 1865, Margaret M. Harris donated her land to Robert Dolegal (the name is also spelled as Delegal and Denegal), who she had formerly enslaved. According to Mrs. Harris' will, she had raised Robert and trusted him to take care of her and her mentally disabled son Bright Harris until their death in exchange for the lands. Mrs. Harris appears in the 1850 Census slave schedule as being the enslaver of 59 individuals. In the 1860 Census slave schedule, she appears as the enslaver of 66 persons.

Robert Dolegal must have sold parcels of his land immediately after he took possession of it. In the Census of 1870, there were 87 African American households and 21 white households in Harris Neck.
Biographical:
James (Napoleon) Rogers was born in Liberty County, Georgia, around 1859. He was never able to attend school, and thus when Dr. Lorenzo Dow Turner interviewed him in the Summer of 1933 in Harris Neck, Georgia, he informed him that he could neither read nor write. Dr. Turner considered him one of his principal informants in Harris Neck.

By 1880 Rogers had moved to Harris Neck and was working as a laborer living in the household of John J. Curry. On September 30, 1905, Rogers married Adeline (also spelled as Adline) Houston. Adeline was much younger than Rogers. She was 30, being born at Ways Station, Bryan County, on March 15, 1875. Rogers was at least 46 years old. They had two children Anna Lee (also spelled as Analee and Analie) and James.

James Rogers owned his farm, which was worth $500.00 in 1930. He informed Dr. Turner that he had always been a farmer, but around 1910 he was working as a carpenter. Adeline Rogers mainly took care of the family, but around 1910 she was working as a seamstress.

James Rogers passed away between 1933 when he was interviewed by Dr. Turner and 1940 when he disappeared from the record. Adeline Rogers appears in the 1940 census as a widow living with her niece Emma Tate, the cook at the local school. Adeline must have been already sick on April 12, 1940, when the census was taken. A little bit over a month later, on May 25, she passed away from heart failure due to renal and cardiovascular disease. She had gone back to live where she had been born in 1875, Ways Station (today Richmond Hill), Bryan County, Georgia. Her daughter, Anna Lee, was married and living in New York City with the married surname of Callaway and was the person who informed on her mother data for the death certificate.

Thus, neither James nor Adaline Rogers were alive when the Federal government took the land at Harris Neck through eminent domain to build a military airport. The residents were given two weeks to move out. On July 27, 1942, all the community's houses were bulldozed and burned down.
General:
Summer of 1933, Harris Neck, McIntosh County, Georgia
Collection Restrictions:
Use of the materials requires an appointment. Please contact the archivist to make an appointment: ACMarchives@si.edu.
Topic:
African American men  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographic prints
Collection Citation:
Lorenzo Dow Turner papers,Anacostia Community Museum Archives, Smithsonian Institution, gift of Lois Turner Williams.
Identifier:
ACMA.06-017, Item ACMA PH2003.7064.342
See more items in:
Lorenzo Dow Turner Papers
Lorenzo Dow Turner Papers / Series 5: Photographs, circa 1890–1974 / 5.4.3: Research: United States of America / Sea Islands off the coasts of South Carolina and Georgia
Archival Repository:
Anacostia Community Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-acma-06-017-ref1420

Parris Capers [Gullah informant] in front of his house in St. Helena Island, S.C

Creator:
Turner, Lorenzo Dow, 1890-1972  Search this
Collection Creator:
Turner, Lorenzo Dow, 1890-1972  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (photographic print , black and white, 3.5 x 2.5 in.)
Culture:
African American  Search this
Gullahs  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Photographic prints
Place:
United States
South Carolina
Date:
1932 July
Scope and Contents:
Lorenzo Dow Turner took this image in Fripp's Point, Frogmore, St. Helena Island, Beaufort County, South Carolina while doing research in the Sea Islands off the coast of South Carolina and Georgia between 1931 and 1933.
Biographical:
Parris Capers was born on December 1, 1872, to Josiah and Susan (Susanna) Capers at William Fripp's old plantation, renamed Fripp's Point, in St. Helena Island, SC. William Fripp held 326 enslaved people on his plantation on October 24, 1860. A little over a year later, on November 7, 1861, upon the Union forces' arrival, all the owners and their families left, leaving the plantations abandoned and in the enslaved people's hands. Eventually, the plantations were sold to pay taxes, which allowed many newly freed people to acquire properties. Josiah Capers was one of those who bought land. In 1880 he owned a farm valued at $1,000 where he planted corn, peas, and sweet potatoes and tended to chickens which produced 300 eggs in 1879.

Josiah's relative prosperity allowed young Parris to attend eight years of school at the Penn Center. The school was created in 1862 by Quaker and Unitarian missionaries to teach the children in St. Helena Island. His studies allowed Parris to proudly inform Dr. Turner in 1932 that he was able to read and write.

Parris remained on his father's farm and probably inherited the parcel of 66 acres of land he owned in 1932 when his father passed away. He also worked as a trapper during the winter and at one point owned a store. In 1932 Dr. Turner described him as having "a good physique" and being very industrious and intelligent.

Parris Capers married Rose [Rosa] Mungin around 1894. Rose was the oldest daughter of Arthur and Charity Mungin and was born in St. Helena Island around 1876. They had at least seven children, one who died very early in their marriage and then Lizzie, Evans, Manley, Charity, Sarah, and Rosa Lee.

Tragedy struck the family within the year after Dr. Turner visited them. Manley (Mannie) Capers died on November 12, 1932, after being interned in a mental hospital in Columbia, SC, for eight months. Evans Capers died March 23, 1933, of accidental drowning. He worked as a fisherman.

Parris Capers lived a long life and passed away in June 1970 at 97 years of age.
Collection Restrictions:
Use of the materials requires an appointment. Please contact the archivist to make an appointment: ACMarchives@si.edu.
Topic:
African American men  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographic prints
Collection Citation:
Lorenzo Dow Turner papers,Anacostia Community Museum Archives, Smithsonian Institution, gift of Lois Turner Williams.
Identifier:
ACMA.06-017, Item ACMA PH2003.7064.343
See more items in:
Lorenzo Dow Turner Papers
Lorenzo Dow Turner Papers / Series 5: Photographs, circa 1890–1974 / 5.4.3: Research: United States of America / Sea Islands off the coasts of South Carolina and Georgia
Archival Repository:
Anacostia Community Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-acma-06-017-ref1421

Mitch Rogers (Rodgers) [Gullah informant]

Creator:
Turner, Lorenzo Dow, 1890-1972  Search this
Collection Creator:
Turner, Lorenzo Dow, 1890-1972  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (photographic print , black and white, 3.5 x 2.5 in.)
Culture:
African American  Search this
Gullahs  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Photographic prints
Place:
United States
Georgia
Date:
1933
Scope and Contents:
Lorenzo Dow Turner took this image while doing research in the Sea Islands off the coast of South Carolina and Georgia between 1931 and 1933.
Historical:
The settlement of Harris Neck, McIntosh County, Georgia, began when on September 2, 1865, Margaret M. Harris donated her land to Robert Dolegal (the name is also spelled as Delegal and Denegal), who she had formerly enslaved. According to Mrs. Harris' will, she had raised Robert and trusted him to take care of her and her mentally disabled son Bright Harris until their death in exchange for the lands. Mrs. Harris appears in the 1850 Census slave schedule as being the enslaver of 59 individuals. In the 1860 Census slave schedule, she appears as the enslaver of 66 persons.

Robert Dolegal must have sold parcels of his land immediately after he took possession of it. In the Census of 1870, there were 87 African American households and 21 white households in Harris Neck.
Biographical:
Mitchell Rogers was born on August 15, 1880. On August 22, 1906, he married Nancy Holmes, with whom he had three children but only one daughter, Ella, survived. By 1910 the family lived on Harris Neck Road with Jonesville Road, and Mitchell was working at odd jobs while Nancy worked as a cook for a private family.

By 1920 Mitchell and Nancy lived at South Harris Neck Road at Warbo, a locality at Harris Neck. He owned the farm in which he worked. Nancy was housekeeping. Ella was no longer living with them.

Ten years later, things had turned to worst in Mitchell's life. He was divorced from Nancy and no longer owned his farm. He was renting a home for $2 a month and working at odd jobs to survive. After that, he disappears from the record, except that we know he was interviewed and photographed by Dr. Turner in the summer of 1933.

Mitchell Rogers might not have survived to see the destruction of Harris Neck to build a military airport in 1942. The residents were given two weeks to move out. On July 27, 1942, all the community's houses were bulldozed and burned down.
General:
Summer of 1933, Harris Neck, McIntosh County, Georgia
Collection Restrictions:
Use of the materials requires an appointment. Please contact the archivist to make an appointment: ACMarchives@si.edu.
Topic:
African American men  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographic prints
Collection Citation:
Lorenzo Dow Turner papers,Anacostia Community Museum Archives, Smithsonian Institution, gift of Lois Turner Williams.
Identifier:
ACMA.06-017, Item ACMA PH2003.7064.344
See more items in:
Lorenzo Dow Turner Papers
Lorenzo Dow Turner Papers / Series 5: Photographs, circa 1890–1974 / 5.4.3: Research: United States of America / Sea Islands off the coasts of South Carolina and Georgia
Archival Repository:
Anacostia Community Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-acma-06-017-ref1422

Mitch Rogers (Rodgers) [Gullah informant]

Creator:
Turner, Lorenzo Dow, 1890-1972  Search this
Collection Creator:
Turner, Lorenzo Dow, 1890-1972  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (photographic print , black and white, 3.5 x 2.5 in.)
Culture:
African American  Search this
Gullahs  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Photographic prints
Place:
United States
Georgia
Date:
1933
Scope and Contents:
Lorenzo Dow Turner took this image while doing research in the Sea Islands off the coast of South Carolina and Georgia between 1931 and 1933.
Historical:
The settlement of Harris Neck, McIntosh County, Georgia, began when on September 2, 1865, Margaret M. Harris donated her land to Robert Dolegal (the name is also spelled as Delegal and Denegal), who she had formerly enslaved. According to Mrs. Harris' will, she had raised Robert and trusted him to take care of her and her mentally disabled son Bright Harris until their death in exchange for the lands. Mrs. Harris appears in the 1850 Census slave schedule as being the enslaver of 59 individuals. In the 1860 Census slave schedule, she appears as the enslaver of 66 persons.

Robert Dolegal must have sold parcels of his land immediately after he took possession of it. In the Census of 1870, there were 87 African American households and 21 white households in Harris Neck.
Biographical:
Mitchell Rogers was born on August 15, 1880. On August 22, 1906, he married Nancy Holmes, with whom he had three children but only one daughter, Ella, survived. By 1910 the family lived on Harris Neck Road with Jonesville Road, and Mitchell was working at odd jobs while Nancy worked as a cook for a private family.

By 1920 Mitchell and Nancy lived at South Harris Neck Road at Warbo, a locality at Harris Neck. He owned the farm in which he worked. Nancy was housekeeping. Ella was no longer living with them.

Ten years later, things had turned to worst in Mitchell's life. He was divorced from Nancy and no longer owned his farm. He was renting a home for $2 a month and working at odd jobs to survive. After that, he disappears from the record, except that we know he was interviewed and photographed by Dr. Turner in the summer of 1933.

Mitchell Rogers might not have survived to see the destruction of Harris Neck to build a military airport in 1942. The residents were given two weeks to move out. On July 27, 1942, all the community's houses were bulldozed and burned down.
General:
Summer of 1933, Harris Neck, McIntosh County, Georgia
Collection Restrictions:
Use of the materials requires an appointment. Please contact the archivist to make an appointment: ACMarchives@si.edu.
Topic:
African American men  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographic prints
Collection Citation:
Lorenzo Dow Turner papers,Anacostia Community Museum Archives, Smithsonian Institution, gift of Lois Turner Williams.
Identifier:
ACMA.06-017, Item ACMA PH2003.7064.345
See more items in:
Lorenzo Dow Turner Papers
Lorenzo Dow Turner Papers / Series 5: Photographs, circa 1890–1974 / 5.4.3: Research: United States of America / Sea Islands off the coasts of South Carolina and Georgia
Archival Repository:
Anacostia Community Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-acma-06-017-ref1423

James (Napoleon) Rogers [Gullah informant]

Creator:
Turner, Lorenzo Dow, 1890-1972  Search this
Collection Creator:
Turner, Lorenzo Dow, 1890-1972  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (photographic print , black and white, 3.5 x 2.5 in.)
Culture:
African American  Search this
Gullahs  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Photographic prints
Place:
United States
Georgia
Date:
1933
Scope and Contents:
Lorenzo Dow Turner took this image while doing research in the Sea Islands off the coast of South Carolina and Georgia between 1931 and 1933.
Historical:
The settlement of Harris Neck, McIntosh County, Georgia, began when on September 2, 1865, Margaret M. Harris donated her land to Robert Dolegal (the name is also spelled as Delegal and Denegal), who she had formerly enslaved. According to Mrs. Harris' will, she had raised Robert and trusted him to take care of her and her mentally disabled son Bright Harris until their death in exchange for the lands. Mrs. Harris appears in the 1850 Census slave schedule as being the enslaver of 59 individuals. In the 1860 Census slave schedule, she appears as the enslaver of 66 persons.

Robert Dolegal must have sold parcels of his land immediately after he took possession of it. In the Census of 1870, there were 87 African American households and 21 white households in Harris Neck.
Biographical:
James (Napoleon) Rogers was born in Liberty County, Georgia, around 1859. He was never able to attend school, and thus when Dr. Lorenzo Dow Turner interviewed him in the Summer of 1933 in Harris Neck, Georgia, he informed him that he could neither read nor write. Dr. Turner considered him one of his principal informants in Harris Neck.

By 1880 Rogers had moved to Harris Neck and was working as a laborer living in the household of John J. Curry. On September 30, 1905, Rogers married Adeline (also spelled as Adline) Houston. Adeline was much younger than Rogers. She was 30, being born at Ways Station, Bryan County, on March 15, 1875. Rogers was at least 46 years old. They had two children Anna Lee (also spelled as Analee and Analie) and James.

James Rogers owned his farm, which was worth $500.00 in 1930. He informed Dr. Turner that he had always been a farmer, but around 1910 he was working as a carpenter. Adeline Rogers mainly took care of the family, but around 1910 she was working as a seamstress.

James Rogers passed away between 1933 when he was interviewed by Dr. Turner and 1940 when he disappeared from the record. Adeline Rogers appears in the 1940 census as a widow living with her niece Emma Tate, the cook at the local school. Adeline must have been already sick on April 12, 1940, when the census was taken. A little bit over a month later, on May 25, she passed away from heart failure due to renal and cardiovascular disease. She had gone back to live where she had been born in 1875, Ways Station (today Richmond Hill), Bryan County, Georgia. Her daughter, Anna Lee, was married and living in New York City with the married surname of Callaway and was the person who informed on her mother data for the death certificate.

Thus, neither James nor Adaline Rogers were alive when the Federal government took the land at Harris Neck through eminent domain to build a military airport. The residents were given two weeks to move out. On July 27, 1942, all the community's houses were bulldozed and burned down.
Collection Restrictions:
Use of the materials requires an appointment. Please contact the archivist to make an appointment: ACMarchives@si.edu.
Topic:
African American men  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographic prints
Collection Citation:
Lorenzo Dow Turner papers,Anacostia Community Museum Archives, Smithsonian Institution, gift of Lois Turner Williams.
Identifier:
ACMA.06-017, Item ACMA PH2003.7064.346
See more items in:
Lorenzo Dow Turner Papers
Lorenzo Dow Turner Papers / Series 5: Photographs, circa 1890–1974 / 5.4.3: Research: United States of America / Sea Islands off the coasts of South Carolina and Georgia
Archival Repository:
Anacostia Community Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-acma-06-017-ref1424

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