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A changing world / Jan Raymaekers

Author:
Raymaekers, Jan  Search this
Smithsonian Libraries African Art Index Project DSI  Search this
Type:
Articles
Place:
Congo (Democratic Republic)
Kongo Central
Date:
2010
Topic:
Yombe (Congolese and Angolan people)--Rites and ceremonies  Search this
Yombe minkisi  Search this
Ethnology  Search this
Call number:
NB1097.C75 M38 2010
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_977286

Cahiers d'études africaines

Author:
École pratique des hautes études (France) Section des sciences économiques et sociales  Search this
École des hautes études en sciences sociales  Search this
Physical description:
v. : ill., maps ; 24 cm
Type:
Periodicals
Place:
Africa
Date:
1960
1960-
Topic:
Ethnology  Search this
Blacks--Periodicals  Search this
Economic conditions  Search this
Social conditions  Search this
Call number:
DT1 .C132
DT1.C132
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_63445

Russell E. Train Africana collection

Creator:
Train, Russell E., 1920-2012  Search this
Russell E. Train Africana Collection (Smithsonian. Libraries)  Search this
Names:
Emin Pasha Relief Expedition (1887-1889)  Search this
Akeley, Carl Ethan, 1864-1926  Search this
Baines, Thomas, 1820-1875  Search this
Baker, Samuel White, Sir, 1821-1893  Search this
Burton, Richard Francis, Sir, 1821-1890  Search this
Du Chaillu, Paul B. (Paul Belloni), 1835-1903  Search this
Dugmore, A. Radclyffe (Arthur Radclyffe), 1870-1955  Search this
Glave, E. J. (Edward James)  Search this
Heller, Edmund, 1875-1939  Search this
Livingstone, David, 1813-1873.  Search this
Nelson, Robert Henry, 1853-1892  Search this
Roosevelt, Theodore, 1858-1919  Search this
Selous, Frederick Courteney, 1851-1917  Search this
Stanley, Henry M. (Henry Morton), 1841-1904.  Search this
Train, Russell E., 1920-2012  Search this
Windsor, Edward, Duke of, 1894-1972  Search this
Extent:
6,500 Items (estimated)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Place:
Africa -- Maps
Africa -- description and travel
Africa -- Discovery and exploration
Africa -- In art
Date:
1663-2004
Summary:
Manuscript and printed textual material, photographic prints and negatives, slides, audio tapes, film, original and reproduction artwork, maps, scrapbooks, and historical and natural artifacts related to the history of African exploration and natural history, dating primarily from the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Includes correspondence, drafts of publications, diaries, account books, ephemera, posters, newsclippings, biographies, memoirs, portraits, and the former personal property of selected explorers, big game hunters, missionaries, pioneers, and naturalists in Africa.
Scope and Contents note:
Manuscript and printed textual material, photographic prints and negatives, slides, audio tapes, film, original and reproduction artwork, maps, scrapbooks, and historical and natural artifacts related to the history of African exploration and natural history, dating primarily from the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Includes correspondence, drafts of publications, diaries, account books, ephemera, posters, newsclippings, biographies, memoirs, portraits, and the former personal property of selected explorers, big game hunters, missionaries, pioneers, and naturalists in Africa. The Train Collection is particularly strong in archival materials on the following topics: the search for the source of the Nile and the progress of other exploring expeditions in Africa; the collecting of specimens of African animals, plants, and ethnological materials for zoos and museums (including a significant body of correspondence and photographs from the Smithsonian African Expedition in 1909-1910, led by President Theodore Roosevelt); and the growth of the African wildlife conservation movement. Besides Roosevelt, the major persons represented in the Collection include the journalist and explorer Henry Morton Stanley and members of his Emin Pasha Relief Expedition (Thomas Heazle Parke, Robert H. Nelson, James S. Jameson, John Rose Troup, William Bonny, William G. Stairs, Edmund Barttelot, and Arthur J. M. Jephson); the medical missionary Dr. David Livingstone and his father-in-law Robert Moffat; taxidermist Carl Akeley; zoologist Edmund Heller; hunter Frederick Courtenay Selous; artist and adventure writer A. Radclyffe Dugmore; explorers Samuel White Baker, Thomas Baines, Richard Francis Burton and E.J. Glave; anthropologist Paul Belloni du Chaillu; and royal traveler Edward VIII (later Duke of Windsor). Consult the finding aid for more specific information on materials relating to these persons and other people and organizations represented in the Collection.
Arrangement note:
Organized into ten series, primarily based on format or creator: I. Artifacts, 1663-1999; II. Works of Art, 1663-1999; III. Books, 1900-1986; IV. Edmund Heller personal papers, 1875-1939; V. Manuscripts, 1663-1992; VI. Maps, 1878; VII. Newspapers, 1888-1987; VIII. Robert Henry Nelson personal papers, 1795-1912; VIII. Photographs, 1874-1963; IX. Posters and broadsides, 1814-1955; X. Russell E. Train personal papers, 1956-2004.
Separated Materials note:
In addition to these archival and non-book materials, the Smithsonian Institution Libraries acquired more than 1500 printed books as part of the Russell E. Train Collection; these books are listed individually in the SIRIS (Smithsonian Institution Research Information System) online catalog.
Provenance:
Originally assembled by the Honorable Russell E. Train, a former judge, top administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency, and a past president of the World Wildlife Fund, this collection was acquired by the Smithsonian Institution Libraries in 2004.
Rights:
The collection is housed in the Joseph F. Cullman 3rd Library of Natural History, which is open to researchers Monday through Friday in the afternoons, from 1:30 to 5:00 p.m.; morning visits are by appointment only. Please call (202) 633-1184 or email AskaLibrarian@si.edu for an appointment.
Topic:
Zoological specimens -- Collection and preservation -- Africa  Search this
Wildlife conservation -- Africa  Search this
Natural history -- Technique  Search this
Natural history -- Africa  Search this
Hunting -- Africa  Search this
Explorers -- Africa  Search this
Identifier:
SIL-CL.XXXX-0014
See more items in:
Russell E. Train Africana collection
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-sil-cl-xxxx-0014
Online Media:

Matthew Williams Stirling and Marion Stirling Pugh papers

Creator:
Stirling, Matthew Williams, 1896-1975  Search this
Stirling, Marion  Search this
Names:
National Geographic Society (U.S.)  Search this
Smithsonian Institution. Bureau of American Ethnology  Search this
Extent:
37.94 Linear feet (84 boxes, 3 map folders)
Culture:
Olmec (archaeological culture)  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Field notes
Photographs
Correspondence
Place:
Papua New Guinea
Mexico
Ecuador
Costa Rica
Panama
Date:
1876-2004, undated
bulk 1921-1975
Summary:
The Matthew Williams Stirling and Marion Stirling Pugh papers, 1876-2004 (bulk 1921-1975), document the professional and personal lives of Matthew Stirling, Smithsonian archaeologist and Chief of the Bureau of American Ethnology (1928-1957), and his wife and constant collaborator, Marion Stirling Pugh. The bulk of the material is professional in nature and includes material from Matthew's early career in the 1920s, the careers of Matthew and Marion together from when they married in 1933 to Matthew's death in 1975, and Marion's life and work from 1975 until her death in 2001.

The majority of the documentation relates to the investigation of the Olmec culture in Mexico by the Stirlings, including the discoveries of eight colossal Olmec heads. In addition, the collection documents their work in Panama, Ecuador, and Costa Rica, looking for connections between Mesoamerica and South America. Materials include field notes, journals, correspondence, photographs, writings, clippings, ephemera, articles, and scrapbooks.
Scope and Contents:
The Matthew Williams Stirling and Marion Stirling Pugh papers, 1876-2004 (bulk 1921-1975), document the professional and personal lives of Matthew Stirling, Smithsonian archaeologist, and Chief of the Bureau of American Ethnology (1928-1957), and his wife and constant collaborator, Marion Stirling Pugh. The bulk of the material is professional in nature and includes material from Matthew's early career in the 1920s, the careers of Matthew and Marion together from when they married in 1933 to Matthew's death in 1975, and Marion's life and work from 1975 until her death in 2001. The majority of the documentation relates to the investigation of the Olmec culture in Mexico by the Stirlings, including the discoveries of eight colossal Olmec heads. In addition, the collection documents their work in Panama, Ecuador, and Costa Rica, looking for connections between Mesoamerica and South America. Materials include field notes, journals, correspondence, photographs, writings, clippings, ephemera, articles, and scrapbooks.

Series 1. Field work, 1921-1998 (bulk 1921-1975) and undated, documents the archaeological expeditions undertaken by Matthew and Marion Stirling over a span of 40 years. This includes expeditions Matthew undertook prior to his marriage and collaboration with Marion to Papua New Guinea, Ecuador, and Florida, and extensive documentation of expeditions they embarked on together to Mexico, Panama, Ecuador, and Costa Rica.

Series 2. Other travels, 1946-1972 is comprised of materials documenting trips the Stirlings took that, for the most part, did not include field work. This includes trips for both business and personal travel, however it was common for the two to overlap.

Series 3. Administrative files, 1924-1980 and undated is partly comprised of materials the Stirlings compiled and organized into an alphabetical filing structure and also of materials that are administrative in nature and did not directly relate to other categories outlined in this finding aid.

Series 4 Writings and lectures, 1925-1990 and undated, consists of articles, papers, drafts, and notes primarily written by Matthew Stirling, with some materials co-written by Marion, and documentation relating to presentations the Stirlings gave regarding their field work and other professional matters. Also included is material relating to films that were made about the Stirling's work.

Series 5. Personal and family materials, 1880-1996 and undated, consists of documents, photographs, and ephemera that are personal in nature. This includes items relating to Matthew Stirling's young life and family history, photographs, correspondence, and clippings relating to his extended family, and photographs of and correspondence from Matt and Marion's children.

Series 6. Anthropological journals, 1876-1959, consists of collections of anthropological journals collected and categorized for reference and research purposes.

Series 7. Marion Stirling Pugh, 1924-2004 (bulk 1948-2002) and undated, consists of materials relating to endeavors Marion undertook without Matthew, primarily relating to her participation in the Society of Women Geographers from 1948-2000 and her life after Matthew died in 1975 until her death in 2001.
Arrangement:
This collection is arranged in 7 series: 1) Field work, 1921-1998 (bulk 1921-1975), undated; 2) Other travels, 1946-1972; 3) Administrative files, 1924-1980, undated; 4) Writings and lectures, 1925-1990, undated; 5) Personal and family materials, 1880-1996, undated; 6) Anthropological journals, 1876-1959; 7) Marion Stirling Pugh, 1924-2004 (bulk 1948-2002), undated.
Biographical note:
MATTHEW WILLIAMS STIRLING:

Matthew Williams Stirling, archaeologist and Director of the Bureau of American Ethnology (1928-1957), was born on August 28, 1896 in Salinas, California. After serving as an Ensign in the Navy from 1917-1919, he graduated with a B.A. in Anthropology in 1920 from the University of California, Berkeley studying under T.T. Waterman, Alfred L. Kroeber, and E.W. Gifford. From 1920-1921 he worked as a teaching fellow at the university, where he taught William Duncan Strong. Stirling's first tenure at the Smithsonian (then the U.S. National Museum (USNM)) was from 1921-1924, first as a museum aide, then as an Assistant Curator of Ethnology. While in the position he took night classes at George Washington University and received his M.A. in 1922. He received an honorary Sc.D. from Tampa University in 1943. In 1924, Stirling resigned his position at the museum and embarked on a journey to South American with his friend Perry Patton. From 1925-1927 he embarked on the Smithsonian sponsored American-Dutch Expedition to Papua New Guinea to explore the previously unknown interior region of Dutch New Guinea. Stirling was appointed Chief of the Bureau of American Ethnology at the Smithsonian Institution in 1928 and married Marion Illig in 1933. They worked together for the next 40 years studying Olmec culture and the connection to greater Mesoamerica and South America. They had two children (Matthew W. Stirling Jr. in 1938 and Ariana Stirling in 1942). Stirling retired as Director of the B.A.E. on December 31, 1957. He died January 23, 1975 in Washington, D.C.

Sources consulted:

Collins, Henry B. "Matthew Williams Stirling, 1896-1975." American Anthropologist, New Series, 78, no. 4 (1976): 886-88.

Coe, Michael D. "Matthew Williams Stirling, 1896-1975." American Antiquity 41, no. 1 (1976): 67-73.

MARION STIRLING PUGH:

Marion Stirling Pugh (nee Illig) was born in Middletown, New York on May 12, 1911. She graduated from Rider College in 1930 and came to Washington D.C. in 1931 where she took a job as a secretary to the Chief of the Bureau of American Ethnology, Matthew Stirling. She attended night school at George Washington University from 1931-1933 where she studied anthropology, geology, and Russian. Marion and Matthew were married on December 11, 1933 and promptly embarked on a honeymoon expedition to Florida where Matthew was in charge of Works Progress Administration (WPA) projects. They worked together for the next 40 years studying Olmec culture and the connection to greater Mesoamerica and South America. They had two children (Matthew W. Stirling Jr. in 1938 and Ariana Stirling in 1942).

Marion was an active member of the Society of Women Geographers and was elected to the executive board in 1954. She served as president of the society from 1960-1963 and 1969-1972. She had a long-time association with the Textile Museum in Washington D.C. and in the 1970s established what would become the Latin American Research Fund to secure Latin American ethnographic textiles for the museum.

After Matthew's death in 1975, Marion married General John Ramsey Pugh in 1977. Pugh died in 1994. Marion continued to travel the world, including making a trip to Antarctica in her 80s, until her death on April 24, 2001 in Tucson, Arizona.

Sources consulted:

"Marion Stirling Pugh, 89." The Washington Post. May 11, 2001. https://www.washingtonpost.com/archive/local/2001/05/11/marion-stirling-pugh-89/01329ba8-f32b-4d66-83fb-9f3c311aaefb/?utm_term=.ab20f25e060b (accessed May 16, 2019).

Conroy, Sarah Booth. "Archaeologist Marion Pugh, Digging Up Memories." The Washington Post. July 8, 1996. https://www.washingtonpost.com/archive/lifestyle/1996/07/08/archaeologist-marion-pugh-digging-up-memories/09f465e7-5900-455e-bcd5-b81828a502d5/?utm_term=.703ff0e84313 (accessed May 16, 2019).

Matthew Williams Stirling and Marion Stirling Pugh Chronology

1896 August 28 -- Matthew Williams Stirling born in Salinas, California to Ariana and John Williams Stirling

1911 May 12 -- Marion Illig born in Middletown, New York

1914-1920 -- Matthew Stirling attended the University of California, Berkeley, receiving his B.A. in Anthropology in 1920. He studied under A.L. Kroeber, T.T. Waterman, and E.W. Gifford.

1917-1919 -- Matthew Stirling served as an ensign in the U.S. Navy during World War I

1920 -- Matthew Stirling's travels to Europe with his parents

1920-1921 -- Matthew Stirling worked as teaching fellow at the University of California, Berkeley and taught William Duncan Strong

1921-1924 -- Matthew Stirling worked at the United States National Museum (USNM), first as a Museum Aide and then as an Assistant Curator of Ethnology

1922 -- Matthew Stirling received Master of Arts degree from George Washington University, studying under Truman Michelson Matthew Stirling went on a trip to the cave country of France and Spain with friend Perry J. Patton

1923 Winter -- Matthew Stirling sent by J. Walter Fewkes to excavate at Weedon (or Weeden) Island, Florida

1924 Spring -- Matthew Stirling resigned from his Smithsonian USNM post

1924 Summer -- Matthew Stirling conducted excavations in Mobridge, South Dakota

1924 July -- Matthew Stirling went on a trip to South America with friend, Perry J. Patton

1924 Winter -- Matthew Stirling continued excavations in Weedon Island, FL

1924-1925 -- Matthew Stirling sold real estate on Weedon Island, Florida to fund the expedition to Papua New Guinea in the winters of 1924 and 1925

1925-1927 -- Matthew Stirling organized and led the American-Dutch Expedition (or Smithsonian Institution-Dutch Colonial Government expedition) to Papua New Guinea

1928 -- Matthew Stirling named Chief of the Bureau of American Ethnology (BAE) at the Smithsonian Institution

1929 March-April -- Matthew Stirling surveyed mounds in Tampa Bay and Calusa areas of Florida

1930s -- Matthew Stirling conducted various archaeological excavations in Georgia and Florida under the Works Progress Administration (WPA)

1930 -- Marion Illig received a Bachelor of Science degree from Rider College From February through April, Mathew Stirling conducted more work on Tampa Bay mounds in Florida In July, Matthew Stirling went to Marfa, Texas to examine pictographs in caves and also went to Deeth, Nevada

1931 September-1932 March -- Matthew Stirling a member of the Latin American Expedition to South and Central America. He studied the Tule/Kuna Indians in Panama and the Jivaro in Ecuador

1931-1933 -- Marion Illig moved to Washington D.C. to attend George Washington University and worked at the BAE as a secretary for Matthew Stirling

1933 December 11 -- Matthew and Marion Stirling married

1933 December-1934 May 5 -- Matthew Stirling supervised Federal Civil Works Administration (or Federal Emergency Relief Administration) projects in Florida, also called Florida Federal Relief (Bradenton, Perico Island, Canaveral Island, and Belle Glade) and BAE excavations in Macon, Georgia

1934 October -- Conducted archaeological work in King, Queen, and Halifax counties in Virginia and Granville City, North Carolina

1935 -- Matthew Stirling acted as the president of the Anthropological Society of Washington Expedition to Guatemala, Honduras, and Yucatan Peninsula to study the Maya and the Quché (or Quiche) Indians from January to February 15, 1935

1935-1936 -- Matthew Stirling acted as the vice president of the American Anthropological Association

1936 -- Matthew Stirling and WPA workers conducted archaeological surveys in southern Florida in July 1936 Matthew and Marion Stirling visited an excavation in Macon, Georgia in Fall 1936 Matthew Stirling supervised archaeological projects in Hillsborough and Dade Counties in Florida

1938 January-March -- Matthew and Marion Stirling take first field trip to Mexico, visiting Tres Zapotes

1938 December 24-1939 April 15 -- First Smithsonian Institution/National Geographic Society Expedition to Mexico with C.W. Weiant. Excavated Tres Zapotes and discovered lower portion of Stela C

1939 -- Matthew Stirling received his first Franklyn L. Burr Award from the National Geographic Society

1939 December 26-1940 April 20 -- Second Smithsonian Institution/National Geographic Society Expedition to Mexico with Dr. Philip Drucker. Excavated Cerro de las Mesas and La Venta

1940 December 29-1941 April 30 -- Third Smithsonian Institution/National Geographic Society Expedition to Mexico with Dr. Philip Drucker. Excavated Cerro de las Mesas and Izapa

1941 -- Matthew and Marion Stirling received the Franklyn L. Burr Award from the National Geographic Society (shared with Richard Hewitt Stewart)

1942 April -- Matthew Stirling visited Dr. Philip Drucker at La Venta

1942 April-June -- Fourth Smithsonian Institution/National Geographic Society Expedition to Mexico. Visited Tuxtla Gutierrez, Zoque, Tzotzil and Chamula Indians, and Palenque

1943 -- Fifth Smithsonian Institution/National Geographic Society Expedition to Mexico with Dr. Waldo R. Wedel. Excavated La Venta Matthew Stirling awarded honorary Doctor of Science from Tampa University

1944 January 28-May -- Sixth Smithsonian Institution/National Geographic Society Expedition to Mexico. Visited Michoacán, Jalisco, Uruapan, Tlaquepaque, and Tarascan Indians from Lake Pátzcuaro and conducted archaeological surveys in Southern Veracruz, Tabasco, and Campeche

1945 January 22-May 31 -- Seventh Smithsonian Institution/National Geographic Society Expedition to Mexico. Excavated La Venta, San Lorenzo, Piedra Parada, and Tapachula

1946 January 26-April -- Eighth Smithsonian Institution/National Geographic Society Expedition to Mexico with Dr. Philip Drucker. Excavated San Lorenzo

1947 -- Matthew Stirling becomes Director of the Bureau of American Ethnology (title changed from "Chief")

1947 December-1948 -- First Smithsonian Institution/ National Geographic Society Expeditions to Panama including Cocle, Balboa, Chitre, Parita (Sixto Pinilla Place), Monagrillo, and El Hatillo

1949 -- Second Smithsonian Institution/ National Geographic Society Expedition to Panama

1951 -- Third Smithsonian Institution/ National Geographic Society Expedition to Panama

1953 -- Fourth Smithsonian Institution/ National Geographic Society Expedition to Panama

1954 -- Marion Stirling elected to the executive board of the Society of Women Geographers

1955 -- "Pan Am" (or Inter-American Highway) Road Trip

1956-1957 -- Smithsonian Institution/ National Geographic Society Expedition to Ecuador. Excavated in the ManabÍ Province

1957 December 31 -- Matthew Stirling retired as Director of the Bureau of American Ethnology

1958 -- Matthew Stirling received his third Franklyn L. Burr Award from the National Geographic Society

1960-1963 -- Marion Stirling acted as president for the Society of Women Geographers for the first time

1960-1975 -- Matthew Stirling's membership in the National Geographic Society Committee on Research and Exploration

1961 -- Trip to Mexico Marion Stirling's trip to Peru Matthew Stirling collaborated with Dr. L.S.B. Leakey through the NGS Committee on Research and Exploration

1963 -- Trip to Nicaragua

1964 -- Expedition to Costa Rica Trip to Asia

1967 -- International Tuna Match, Bahamas

1968 -- Trip to New Guinea Attended the Cultural Olympics in Mexico City

1969 -- Trip to Turkey, Bali, Etc.

1969-1972 -- Marion Stirling acted as president for the Society of Women Geographers for the second time

1972 -- Trip to Peru, Ecuador, Galapagos Islands Farmer finds upper portion of Stela C, confirming Matthew Stirling's original date as 31 B.C.

1972-1973 -- Trip to Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico

1974 -- Marion Stirling established the Mexican Research Fund (now the Latin American Research fund) for the Textile Museum

1975 January 23 -- Matthew Williams Stirling died in Washington D.C.

1977 -- Marion Stirling married Major General John Ramsey Pugh

1985 -- Marion Stirling Pugh received the Distinguished Service Medal from the Peruvian Embassy

1994 -- Death of Major General John Ramsey Pugh Marion Stirling Pugh's trip to Spain, Portugal, and Morocco

1995 -- Marion Stirling Pugh's trip to Antarctica and the Falkland Islands

1996 -- Marion Stirling Pugh's trip to China, and separately to Belize and Honduras

2001 April 24 -- Marion Stirling Pugh died in Tucson, Arizona
Separated Materials:
Film materials were transferred to the Human Studies Film Archive (HSFA).
Provenance:
The bulk of these papers were donated to the National Anthropological Archives in 2016 by Matthew and Marion Stirling's grandchildren, Jessica Gronberg and Jeremy Withers.
Restrictions:
The Matthew Williams Stirling and Marion Stirling Pugh papers are open for research.

The scrapbooks listed in Series 1.7 are restricted due to preservation concerns. Please contact the reference archivist for more information.

Access to the Matthew Williams Stirling and Marion Stirling Pugh papers requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Occupation:
Women archaeologists  Search this
Topic:
Archaeology  Search this
Excavations (Archaeology)  Search this
Genre/Form:
Field notes
Photographs
Correspondence
Citation:
Matthew Williams Stirling and Marion Stirling Pugh papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.2016-24
See more items in:
Matthew Williams Stirling and Marion Stirling Pugh papers
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-2016-24

Nigerian Art, Ibo Masquerades Nortern Ibo, age set dance

Photographer:
Jones, G. I., 1904-1995  Search this
Creator:
University of Cambridge. University Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology  Search this
Collection Collector:
National Museum of African Art (U.S.)  Search this
Extent:
1 Postcard (halftone., monochrome, 10.5 x 15 cm.)
Container:
Volume 1
Culture:
Igbo (African people)  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Postcards
Postcards
Picture postcards
Place:
Africa
Nigeria
Date:
[ca. 1988]
Scope and Contents:
Printed caption on verso reads: "Nigerian Art; Ibo Masquerades; No. 1: Northern Ibo. Age Set Dance."
Additonal printed text on verso reads: "Photograph by Dr. G. I. Jones. 1931. © 1988. Cambridge University Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology; The Cavendish Limited."
Local Numbers:
EEPA NR-08-01
General:
Title source: Postcard caption.
Collection Restrictions:
Use of original records requires an appointment. Contact Archives staff for more details.
Collection Rights:
Permission to reproduce images from the Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives must be obtained in advance. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Topic:
Dance  Search this
Costume -- Africa  Search this
Dancers  Search this
Rites and ceremonies -- Africa  Search this
Masquerades  Search this
Genre/Form:
Picture postcards
Collection Citation:
African Postcard collection, EEPA 1985-014, Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives, National Museum of African Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
EEPA.1985-014, Item EEPA NR 2008-018-0009
See more items in:
African Postcard Collection
African Postcard Collection / Series 34: Nigeria (NR)
Archival Repository:
Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives, National Museum of African Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-eepa-1985-014-ref6934

Aleš Hrdlička papers

Creator:
Hrdlička, Aleš, 1869-1943  Search this
Correspondent:
American Association of Physical Anthropologists  Search this
Names:
American Journal of Physical Anthropology  Search this
Army Medical Museum (U.S.)  Search this
Hyde Exploring Expedition (1902-1903)  Search this
Institute of Population  Search this
International Congress of Americanists  Search this
Panama-California Exposition (1915 : San Diego, Calif.)  Search this
Smithsonian Institution. Department of Anthropology. Division of Physical Anthropology  Search this
Extent:
206.71 Linear feet (294 boxes, 138 folders, 9 rolled items, and 4 folios)
Culture:
Indians of North America  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Place:
Saint Lawrence Island (Alaska) -- Archaeology
Australia
Alaska -- Archaeology
Mexico -- Anthropology
Florida -- Archaeology
Egypt -- Archaeology
Czechoslovakia
Peru -- Physical anthropology
Kodiak Island (Alaska)
Date:
1875-1966
bulk 1903-1943
Summary:
The papers of Aleš Hrdlička, curator in the Division of Physical Anthropology, Department of Anthropology, United States National Museum of the Smithsonian Institution, offer considerable insight into the development of physical anthropology in the first half of this century. The papers include honors bestowed on Hrdlička, autobiographical notes, correspondence with many of the leading anthropologists of the day, anthropometric and osteometric measurements and observations (forming most of the collection), extensive photographs of Hrdlička's field work, manuscripts, research materials, and "My Journeys" (essentially a diary Hrdlička kept of his field work). In addition, there is material of a personal nature. The papers date from 1875 to 1966, but the bulk of the materials date from 1903 to 1943, the time of Hrdlička's career at the USNM.
Scope and Contents:
This collection is comprised of both professional and personal materials. The professional material includes honors bestowed on Hrdlička, autobiographical notes, correspondence with many of the leading anthropologists of the day, anthropometric and osteometric measurements and observations (forming most of the collection), extensive photographs of Hrdlička's field work, manuscripts, research materials, and "My Journeys" (essentially a diary Hrdlička kept of his field work). The personal material primarily consists of correspondence with his first wife (Marie Dieudonnée Strickler) and other family members, but there are also financial records. The papers date from 1875 to 1966, but the bulk of the materials date from 1903 to 1943, the time of Hrdlička's career at the United States National Museum of the Smithsonian Institution. Hrdlička investigated all major questions confronting physical anthropologists of his day (the fossil record of early humans, the arrival of humans in the Americas, human variation, evolution, and eugenics) and made valuable contributions in all these areas. Hrdlička's interests in the establishment of physical anthropology as a distinct and important field, the welfare of the Czech people, early hominids, and variation within the human species are all documented in the collection as are the services he performed for various United States government agencies. He pursued field studies in many different parts of the world, but there are relatively few field notes as such among his papers. There is instead the edited journal "My Journeys," photographs, and physical anthropological forms. There is also relatively little material on his administrative involvement in the USNM. There is no material from Hrdlička's time at the Pathological Institution of the New York State Hospitals; after he resigned, fire destroyed the anthropological records Hrdlička collected as a member of the staff. There are materials in the collection which contradict, or at least complicate, many long-held criticisms of Hrdlička, particularly claims that he was racist and opposed feminist ideas. The collection contains materials of interest to genetic research, including anthropometric measurements, hair clippings and fingerprints.

There are a few items in the collection which are dated earlier than the collection's date span. These are publication dates, and the folders containing the items have been dated accordingly, but they have not affected the dates of the series or collection. There are also a few items which are dated after Hrdlička's death. These dates reflect the fact that the collection was added to by the Department of Physical Anthropology after Hrdlička's death and have been taken into account when formulating dates for the series and collection.

Please note that the contents of the collection and the language and terminology used reflect the context and culture of the time of its creation. As an historical document, its contents may be at odds with contemporary views and terminology and considered offensive today. The information within this collection does not reflect the views of the Smithsonian Institution or National Anthropological Archives, but is available in its original form to facilitate research.
Arrangement:
This collection is arranged in 37 series:

(1) Miscellaneous Personal Papers, 1875-1940

(2) Early Personal Correspondence, 1883-1919

(3) Correspondence, 1885-1953

(4) News Clippings and Printed Matter, 1893-1953

(5) Financial Papers, 1910-1943

(6) Journeys to the Southwestern United States and Mexican Indians, 1898-1919

(7) Journeys to the Dakota, Chippewa, Kickapoo, and Shawnee, 1916-1917

(8) Florida Survey, 1918, 1918-1927

(9) Alaska Archeological Expeditions, 1912-1938 (bulk 1926-1938)

(10) Panama-California Exposition Expeditions, 1912-1914

(11) Journey to Egypt, Europe, and Russia, 1908-1909

(12) Journey to South America, 1910, 1910-1912

(13) Journey to the Far East, 1920, 1900-1930

(14) Journey to Australia, Java, India, South Africa, and Europe, 1924-1925

(15) Anthropometric Measurements of Indians Taken at the United States National Museum, 1904-1905, most undated

(16) Bone Studies, 1893-1929, most undated

(17) Old Americans, 1914-1930

(18) Children Who Run on All Fours, 1928-1936

(19) Early Man Studies, 1906-1930

(20) European Ethnic History, 1908-1938

(21) Miscellaneous Research Notes, 1887-1930

(22) Manuscripts of Writings, 1901-1944, most undated

(23) Writings by Other Authors, 1877-1942

(24) Anthropometry, undated

(25) "From My Journeys", 1898-1938

(26) -- American Journal of Physical Anthropology -- , 1918-1931

(27) American Association of Physical Anthropologists, 1924-1931

(28) International Congress of Americanists, 1900-1928

(29) Institute of Population, 1942

(30) Department of Anthropology, 1914-1943

(31) Lecture Notes, 1920-1932

(32) Maps and Charts, 1900-1932

(33) Miscellany, 1895-1954

(34) Index Cards, 1899-1948

(35) Bibliographic Index, undated

(36) Physical Anthropology Folios, undated

(37) Photographs, 1887-1944
Biographical Note:
Aleš Hrdlička was born in Bohemia in 1869 and came to America when he was thirteen. As a young man, he was trained in medicine at New York's Eclectic Medical College and the New York Homeopathic Medical College, receiving degrees from each. His first professional work was as a private practitioner, but he gave that up in 1894 when he joined the staff of the New York State Hospital for the Insane at Middletown. There, in addition to other duties, he began studies of the physical characteristics of inmates. This set in motion developments that would eventually lead him to become one of the world's most prominent anthropologists who has sometimes been referred to as "the founder of physical anthropology in America."

In 1896, in preparation for a research appointment with the Department of Anthropology in the Pathological Institute of the New York State Hospitals, Hrdlička went to Paris and studied with Leon Manouvrier. After his return to America, he worked for a short period with the Pathological Institute and came into contact with G.S. Huntington of the College of Physicians and Surgeons in New York. Hrdlička arranged and studied Huntington's large collection of skeletal material, thus gaining knowledge of a well-documented collection representing largely normal persons of European ancestry. He came to the attention of Frederic Ward Putnam, of the American Museum of Natural History, who arranged for his first anthropological field studies.

It was thus that Hrdlička became a member of the Hyde Expeditions to the American Southwest and northern Mexico. In 1898, he traveled to Mexico with Carl Lumholtz to study the Tarahumaras, Huichols, and neighboring tribes. In subsequent years, he returned to Mexico and the Southwest alone and studied physical characteristics and medical conditions of several American Indian tribes. With this experience and examinations of the Trenton and Lansing skeletal material for Putnam, Hrdlička came fully into the world of anthropology. In 1903, he was appointed head of the newly formed Division of Physical Anthropology in the United States National Museum.

While in his position at the Smithsonian, Hrdlička returned to the Southwest for studies of Pima and Apache children in 1905 and, in the following year, traveled to Florida to examine allegedly ancient remains of man. In 1908, he worked among a number of Indian tribes, including the Menominee, Oglala Dakota, Quinailt, Hupa, and Mohave, in a study of tuberculosis among them. In 1909, he traveled to Egypt with an expedition of the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York in order to study living Egyptians and to examine remains of Egypt's past population. The following year took him to Argentina, Peru, and Mexico. In the first of these, he again examined allegedly ancient remains of man. In Peru, he made a large collection of skeletal material near Trujillo, at Pachamac, and in the Chicama Valley.

From 1912-1914, Hrdlicka undertook a physical anthropological exhibit for the Panama-California Exposition in San Diego and, for this, traveled to eastern Siberia, Mongolia, Peru, and Florida. He also examined fossil remains of man in Europe and directed field work of other anthropologists in South and East Africa, St. Lawrence Island in Alaska, the Philippines, eastern Siberia, and the Ukraine. In 1915, for the Department of Justice, he assessed the racial makeup of Chippewas on the Leech Lake and White Earth reservations in Minnesota and also studied Dakota Indians. In 1917, his field work was directed toward white American families with longtime residence in the United States. In 1918, he carried out a survey of ancient sites in eastern Florida for the Bureau of American Ethnology. In 1920, he traveled to Hawaii, Japan, Korea, and Manchuria in connection with an appointment to lecture at the Peking Union Medical College. As director of the American School for Prehistoric Studies in France, he again studied fossil remains of man in Europe in 1922 and 1923. In 1925, he carried out work in India, Ceylon, Java, Australia, South Africa, and Europe. In 1927, he was again in Europe to deliver the Huxley Memorial Lecture before the Royal Anthropological Society in Great Britain. Between 1929 and 1938, he traveled frequently to Alaska to carry on an anthropological survey. In 1939, he traveled to Russia and Siberia.

Beginning with much of the skeletal collection of the Army Medical Museum, which had been transferred to the Smithsonian in 1898 before he was appointed there, Hrdlička amassed a bone collection that included, among many other specimens, the Huntington collection, casts of fossil remains of man, and a large and diverse North American collection. He also gathered a large collection of human brains. Over three hundred publications resulted from his study of this material, his field work, and his study of specimens in other museums. In addition, he was involved in many other activities. For United States government agencies, he provided services ranging from examinations of human remains for law enforcement officials to providing information and opinions concerning national origins and traits that were needed to interpret laws and form foreign policy. During World War II, he also advised government officials on policies to be pursued with certain national groups following the war.

In 1918, Hrdlička founded the American Journal of Physical Anthropology and remained its editor until 1942. In 1928, he was the major force behind the organization of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists and served as its president from 1928 to 1932. He was also president of the Anthropological Society of Washington in 1907, the American Anthroplogical Association from 1925 to 1927, and the Washington Academy of Sciences from 1928 to 1929. He was chairman of Section H of the American Association for the Advancement of Science in 1918 and secretary of the Committee on Anthropology of the National Research Council in 1917. From the 1920s to the 1940s Hrdlicka was a member of the American Eugenics Society and prepared exhibits for various eugenics congresses. In addition, Hrdlička was a member of the American Philosophical Society and the National Academy of Sciences. He represented the Smithsonian at several international gatherings of scholars, including meetings of the International Congress of Americanists.

Chronology

1869 March 29 -- Alois Ferdinand Hrdlička (Aleš Hrdlička) born in Humpolec, Bohemia

1882 September -- Emigrated to New York City

1888 -- While stricken with typhoid, met M. Rosenbleuth, a physician who arranged for Hrdlička to enroll at the Eclectic Medical College of New York City

1892 -- Enrolled in the New York Homeopathic Medical College and Hospital Published first article, "Scheme of Examination (Medical)," Publications of the Eclectic Medical College Graduated first in his class from the Eclectic Medical College

1894 -- Graduated first from his class from the Homeopathic Medical College Became research intern at the State Homeopathic Hospital for the Insane in Middletown, New York, where he began his studies in physical anthropology Passed state board examination (allopathic)

1895 -- Joined staff of the Pathological Institute of the New York State Hospitals as associate in anthropology

1896 -- Studied anthropology under Leon Manouvrier in Paris

1896 August 6 -- Married Marie Stickler (Dieudonnée)

1898 March-July(?) -- Accompanied Carl Lumholtz on his expedition to northern Mexico, sponsored by the American Museum of Natural History (AMNH), and visited the Tarahumara, Huichol, and Tepecan Indians

1899 Spring -- Resigned from the Pathological Institute to take charge of physical and medical anthropological research on the Hyde Expeditions of the AMNH to the southwestern United States

1899 August -- Hyde expedition for the AMNH to Chaco Canyon, New Mexico, to excavate the site of Pueblo Bonito and to conduct somatological surveys among the Indians; visited Grand Gulch caves in southern Utah; included visits to the Navahos and southern Utes

1900 -- Hyde expedition for the AMNH to New Mexico, Arizona, and southern Colorado to conduct somatological surveys among the Indians; included visits to the Apaches, Yumas, and Pueblo Indians

1902 January-September -- Hyde expeditions for AMNH to southwestern Arizona, New Mexico, and northern Mexico to conduct somatological surveys; included visits to the Tepecanos, Papagos, Opatas, Pimas, Yaquis, Mayos, Huichols, Otomis, Tepehuanes, Maricopas, Yumas, Yavapais, Paiutes, Walapais, and Havasupais

1902 October-December -- Hyde expedition for the AMNH to Mexico for Hrdlička to complete his somatological investigations; included visits to the Tepehuanes, Coras, Huichols, "Nahuas," "Aztecs," and Tarascans

1903 May 1 -- Became assistant curator in charge of the new Division of Physical Anthropology, Department of Anthropology, at the United States National Museum, Smithsonian Institution

1905 -- Expedition under the auspices of the Bureau of American Ethnology to Arizona and New Mexico to complete the observations on the tribes of this region; Hrdlička especially studied Apache and Pima Indian children

1906 February -- Expedition to western Florida to investigate remains of alleged ancient man

1907 -- President of the Anthropological Society of Washington

1908 -- Expedition to Indian schools and reservations in Wisconsin, Washington, California, Arizona, and South Dakota to study tuberculosis for a report to the International Congress of Tuberculosis

1908 December - 1909 May -- Traveled to Egypt, Greece, Turkey, Hungary, Bohemia, Russia, Poland, and Germany to examine human skeletal remains from an excavation in Egypt by the Metropolitan Museum of Art and to study peoples of the Near East

1910 March 28 -- Promoted to curator in the Division of Physical Anthropology

1910 April-September -- Attended the 17th International Congress of Americanists in Buenos Aires and Mexico City Traveled to Argentina, Brazil, Peru, Mexico, and Panama

1912 -- Planned and directed seven expeditions for the physical anthropology exhibit at the Panama-California Exposition held at San Diego in 1915; expeditions included Hrdlička to Siberia and Mongolia and later to Peru; Riley D. Moore to St. Lawrence Island, Alaska; Philip Newton to the Philippine Islands; Vojtech Suk to Africa; Stanislaw Poniatowski to eastern Siberia; Kazimir Stolyhwo to the Birusa caves in Siberia and to the Ukraine; and Jindřich Matiegka to Bohemia

1912 May-Summer -- Traveled to London to attend 18th International Congress of Americanists Traveled to Siberia and Mongolia for the Panama-California Exposition

1912 September -- Traveled to Geneva for the 14th International Congress of Prehistoric Anthropology and Archaeology

1913 January-April -- Expedition to Peru as part the effort for the Panama-California Exposition

1914 November 18 - 1915 January 18 -- Attended Panama-California Exposition

1915 May -- Research for the Department of Justice at the White Earth and Leech Lake reservations in Minnesota to determine non-Indian mixture among Chippewas

1915 December -- Served as General Secretary for the 19th International Congress of Americanists held in Washington

1916 Fall -- Traveled to Florida to examine remains of supposed ancient man

1917 March-July -- Served as Secretary on the Committee on Anthropology of the National Research Council

1917 Summer -- "Old American" research at Yale University, Harvard University, and the University of Virginia and in Tennessee

1917 August -- Sponsored by the American Association for the Advancement of Science, traveled to Oklahoma to visit the Shawnee Agency in eastern Oklahoma and the Kickapoo Indians in McCloud to search for adequate samples of pure blood Indians

1918 -- Elected to the American Philosophical Society Served as Chairman of Section H of the American Association for the Advancement of Science Founded the American Journal of Physical Anthropology and became its long-time editor Surveyed prehistoric sites on the southwest coast of Florida

1918 October 8 -- Death of his wife Marie

1920 -- Anthropometry published by the Wistar Institute Elected an honorary fellow of the Royal Anthropological Society of Great Britain

1920 Summer -- Married Mina (Vilemina) Mansfield

1920 January-May -- Visited Japan, Korea, Manchuria, northern China, Mongolia, and Hawaii Lectured at Peking Union Medical College in China

1920 Fall -- Visited Minnesota Chippewa (at the White Earth Reservation?) to help the Department of Justice setter the question of mixed and pure bloods among the Chippewa

1921 -- Elected to the National Academy of Sciences

1922 -- Visited Spain, France, Germany, Moravia, and England Awarded honorary Sc.D. degree from the University of Prague Chairman of the American delegation to the 20th International Congress of Americanists in Rio de Janiero

1923 -- Served three and one-half months as Director of the American School in France for Prehistoric Studies Visited England, Holland, Belgium, France, Germany, Bohemia, Austria, Croatia, and Italy

1925 -- The Old Americans published by Williams and Wilkins Co.

1925 March-October -- Traveled to Australia, Java, India, South Africa, and Europe on a trip sponsored by the Buffalo [New York] Society of Natural Science to obtain cranial measurements of Australian aborigines and Tasmanians, to investigate the Rhodesian Man site in South Africa, to survey the field of early man, and to collect data to support his hypothesis about the peopling of the Earth

1925-1926 -- President of the American Anthropological Association

1926 -- Awarded honorary Sc.D. degree from University of Brno and D.Nat.Sc. degree from Brunn University

1926 May-September -- First fieldwork in Alaska: reconnaissance down the Yukon River to its mouth, around the Bering Sea and through the Bering Strait along the Alaskan coast to Point Barrow

1927 -- Received Huxley Memorial Medal and gave Huxley Lecture on "the Neanderthal Phase of Man" before the Royal Anthropological Society of Great Britain

1928 -- Helped found the American Association of Physical Anthropologists (AAPA)

1928-1929 -- President of the Washington Academy of Sciences

1928-1932 -- Served as first president of the AAPA

1929 -- Fieldwork in Alaska: surveyed the Yukon River from Tanana to its mouth, to St. Lawrence and the Diomede Islands, to Cape Prince of Wales, up to Point Barrow and back to Unalaska Awarded honorary Sc.D. degree from Charles University, Prague

1930 -- Published The Skeletal Remains of Early Man, Vol. 83 Smithsonian Miscellaneous collections Published "Anthropological Survey in Alaska," Forty-sixth Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology, pp. 21-374

1930 Summer -- Fieldwork in Alaska: surveyed the Kuskokwim River from Bethel down river to Apogak and up river to Stony River

1931 -- Children Who Run on All Fours published by McGraw-Hill Book Co.

1931 Summer -- Fieldwork in Alaska: excavated at Our (Jones) point site, trial excavations at Chief's Point and other sites, and a survey of Kodiak Island

1932 -- Kober Foundation lecturer of Georgetown University

1932 Summer -- Fieldwork in Alaska: excavated at Our (Jones) Point site, trial excavations at Chief's Point and other sites, and a survey of Kodiak Island

1934 Summer -- Fieldwork in Alaska: excavated at Our (Jones) Point site and surveyed Cooks Inlet sites and the mainland opposite the Our Point site

1935 Summer -- Fieldwork in Alaska: excavated at Our (Jones) Point site

1936 Summer -- Fieldwork in Alaska: excavated at Our (Jones) Point site and surveyed the Dutch Harbor caves, some of the Aleutian Islands, and the mummy cave on Kagamil Island

1937 Summer -- Fieldwork in Alaska: surveyed the Aleutian Islands and Commander Islands

1938 Summer -- Fieldwork in Alaska: surveyed the Aleutian Islands, Dutch Harbor caves, and Commander Islands

1939 April 4 -- Testimonial dinner given by the American Association of Physical Anthropologists in honor of his 70th birthday

1939 April-June -- Recuperated in London hospital after suffering a coronary occlusion

1942 March 31 -- Retired from curatorship at United States National Museum, becoming an associate in anthropology

1942 December -- Resigned as editor of the American Journal of Physical Anthropology

1943 -- Alaska Diary published by Cattell Press

1943 September 5 -- Died of heart attack

1944 -- Anthropology of Kodiak Island published by Wistar Institute

1945 -- The Aleutian and Commander Islands and Their Inhabitants published by Wistar Institute

1969 -- Tenth Anthropological Congress of the Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences dedicated to Hrdlička in the 100th anniversary year of his birth

Selected Bibliography

1908 -- Hrdlička, Aleš. Physiological and Medical Observations Among the Indians of Southwestern United States and Northern Mexico. Bulletin 34, Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1908.

1912 -- Hrdlička, Aleš. Early Man in South America. Bulletin 52, Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1912.

1919 -- Hrdlička, Aleš. Physical Anthropology: Its Scope and Aims. Philadelphia: The Wistar Institute of Anatomy and Biology, 1919.

1920 -- Hrdlička, Aleš. Anthropometry. Philadelphia: The Wistar Institute of Anatomy and Biology, 1920.

1925 -- Hrdlička, Aleš. The Old Americans. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins Co., 1925.

1930 -- Hrdlička, Aleš. The Skeletal Remains of Early Man. Vol. 83, Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections. City of Washington: The Smithsonian Institution, 1930. Hrdlička, Aleš. Anthropological Survey in Alaska. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1930.

1931 -- Hrdlička, Aleš. Children Who Run on All Fours, and Other Animal-like Behaviors in the Human Child. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., 1931.

1943 -- Hrdlička, Aleš. Alaska Diary, 1926-1931. Lancaster, PA: The Jacques Cattell Press, 1943.

1944 -- Hrdlička, Aleš. Anthropology of Kodiak Island. Philadelphia: The Wistar Institute of Anatomy and Biology, 1944.

1945 -- Hrdlička, Aleš. The Aleutian and Commander Islands and Their Inhabitants. Philadelphia: The Wistar Institute of Anatomy and Biology, 1945.
Related Materials:
Additional material in the National Anthropological Archives relating to Aleš Hrdlička can be found in the papers of William Louis Abbott, Henry Bascom Collins, Herbert William Krieger, and Frank Spencer; records of the American Anthropological Association, Bureau of American Ethnology, Department of Anthropology of the United States National Museum (National Museum of Natural History), Science Service, Anthropological Society of Washington, and the United States Army Medical Museum (anatomical section, records relating to specimens transferred to the Smithsonian Institution); and glass negatives of Indians collected by the Bureau of American Ethnology, Smithsonian Institution illustrations.

Additional related photographs can be found in Photo Lot 8, Division of Physical Anthropology collection; Photo Lot 9, Photographs of Indians for the Panama-California Exposition, San Diego; Photo Lot 24, Bureau of American Ethnology, United States National Museum photographs of American Indians; Photo Lot 70, Department of Anthropology portrait file; Photo Lot 78, Miscellaneous negatives; Photo Lot 97, Division of Ethnology collection ("USNM" Collection); Photo Lot 73-26B, Aleš Hrdlička photographs relating to the Panama-California Exhibition; Photo Lot 73-26G, Miscellany; Photo Lot 77-48, Group portraits of International Congress; Photo Lot 79-38, Division of World Archeology collection; Photo Lot 83-41, Division of Physical Anthropology collection of photographs of human bones; and Photo Lot 92-46, Anthropology lantern slides.

Related films can be found in the Human Studies Film Archive under the accession numbers HSFA 1982.2.1, 1982.2.2, 1986.12.1, and 2015.13.1.

Hrdlička's extensive collection of reprints is maintained in the Division of Physical Anthropology.

Frank Spencer's doctoral dissertation "Aleš Hrdlička, M.D., 1869-1943: A Chronicle of the Life and Work of an American Physical Anthropologist" (1979) is the only book length biography of Hrdlička. The Frank Spencer papers, 1836-1999, are available at the NAA and contain original correspondence between Hrdlička and his first wife, Marie Strickler; his childhood report card from 1869; copies of family photos obtained from Lucy Miller, Hrdlička's niece; and an audio recording of Hrdlička speaking at Wistar Institute.

Further material may be found in the Smithsonian Institution Archives.

The University of Alaska Anchorage holds diaries relating to Hrdlička's Expeditions to Alaska in 1936, 1937, and 1938 in the Alan G. May papers. The finding aid for this collection is avialable online at https://archives.consortiumlibrary.org/collections/specialcollections/hmc-0690/ and a trascription of May's diaries from the expeditions is available online at https://scholarworks.alaska.edu/handle/11122/11850
Provenance:
Hrdlička bequeathed his papers to the Smithsonian Institution. The Division of Physical Anthropology maintained them until they were deposited in the National Anthropological Archives in the 1960s. Some papers have come into the collection since then, most recently in 2018. These new accretions came to the collection through Donald Ortner, David Hunt, T. Dale Stewart, the Department of Anthropology, and the University of Alaska.
Restrictions:
The Aleš Hrdlička papers are open for research.

Access to the Aleš Hrdlička papers requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Human evolution  Search this
Physical anthropology  Search this
Children -- Physical anthropology  Search this
anthropometry  Search this
Ethnology  Search this
Fossil hominids  Search this
Citation:
Aleš Hrdlička papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.1974-31
See more items in:
Aleš Hrdlička papers
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-1974-31
Online Media:

Le noir de Bondoukou Koulangos--Dyoulas--Abrons--etc. par L. Tauxier

Author:
Tauxier, Louis 1871-1942  Search this
Physical description:
xii, 770 pages, [23] leaves of plates illustrations 26 cm
Type:
Books
Place:
Africa, Sub-Saharan
Sub-Saharan Africa
Date:
1921
Topic:
Ethnology  Search this
Civilization  Search this
Grupos Etnicos (Africa)  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_1026137

Jon Breslar papers

Creator:
Cidey, Guy  Search this
Breslar, Jon, 1949-2005  Search this
Extent:
7.2 Linear feet (16 boxes, 21 cassette tapes, 12 audio reels, 1 map drawer )
Culture:
Mahorais  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Field notes
Sound recordings
Botanical specimens
Slides (photographs)
Photographic prints
Place:
Mayotte
Date:
1870-1984
bulk 1971-1982
Summary:
These papers document Jon Breslar's fieldwork on Mayotte, Comoro Islands for his dissertation as well as his work developing a new housing policy for Mayotte. The collection contains his professional correspondence, field notes, research notes, his writings, writings by others, newspaper clippings, teaching materials for his Shimaore language course, photographs, maps, plant specimens, and sound recordings.
Scope and Content note:
These papers document Jon Breslar's fieldwork on Mayotte, Comoro Islands for his dissertation as well as his work developing a new housing policy for Mayotte. The collection contains his professional correspondence, notes, writings, research materials, photographs, maps, plant specimens, and sound recordings.

Among his correspondents in the collection are Georges and Genevieve Boulinier, Michael Lambek, Paul Ottino, and Alexander Spoehr. The collection also contains his correspondence relating to arrangements for his trip to Mayotte as well as his fieldwork progress reports sent to the Social Science Research Council, which funded his research.

A copy of Breslar's dissertation can be found in the collection along with his field notes; maps; sound recordings of ceremonies and interviews with informants; plant specimens used for medicine; photographic prints; and 35 mm slides. Materials relating to his work on the Mayotte housing project consist of his research notes, photographs, and the L'Habitat publications produced from the project.

Michael Lambek and Breslar both conducted fieldwork on Mayotte at around the same time and collaborated on two papers: "Death and Politics in Mayotte" (presented at the 1977 76th American Anthropological Association meeting) and "Funerals and Social Change in Mayotte" (1986). A draft of the first paper can be found filed with Lambek's correspondence while a copy of the second paper is under Series 4. Writings.

In addition to Breslar's writings, the collection contains monographs, articles, and theses on the Comoro Islands and Madagascar by other authors. Most of the writings are in French and English, but there are also photocopies and photographic prints of a manuscript in Arabic.

Other materials that may be of interest are Breslar's teaching materials for his course on Shimaore. While in Mayotte, Breslar became fluent in Shimaore and offered a course on the language.
Arrangement:
Arranged into 8 series: (1) Correspondence, 1971-1989 [Bulk 1971-1978]; (2) Research, 1975-1980; (3) Language, 1979-1982; (4) Writings, 1870-1984 [Bulk 1959-1984]; (5) Photographs, circa 1975-1982; (6) Maps, 1955-1956; (7) Botanical Specimens, circa 1975-1982; (8) Sound Recordings, 1976
Biographical Note:
Jon Haskell Breslar, a sociocultural and applied anthropologist, was born on June 22, 1949 in Ware, Massachusetts. He received a B.A. in Anthropology and French in 1971 from Franklin & Marshall College and his Ph.D. in Anthropology from the University of Pittsburgh in 1981.

As a doctoral student, Breslar originally planned to study ethnic identities and relationships in the Lac Alaotra region of Northeast Madgascar. His plans came to a halt, however, when officials from the Malagasy Embassy informed him that westerners were no longer allowed to conduct long term ethnological research in Madagascar. As a result, he decided to carry out his research in Mayotte, Comoro Islands. From 1975 to 1976, Breslar conducted fieldwork in the villages of Sada and M'Zouazia, which led to his dissertation, "An Ethnography of the Mahorais (Mayotte, Comoro Islands)." He still had not completed his dissertation when, upon the invitation of the French government, he returned to Mayotte for four months from November, 1977 to February, 1978 to develop a new housing policy for the Mahorais as a contractor for Société Immobilière de Mayotte. He returned to Mayotte again in September, 1978 to January, 1982, this time with his family, to continue work on the project. A pilot study was conducted and published in a three-volume set, one of which was Breslar's L'Habitat Mahorais: Une Perspective Ethnologique (1979-1982). The project resulted in the construction of more durable housing using low-cost materials.

In 1983, he joined the US Agency for International Development (USAID). During the course of his career at USAID, he was assigned to Nepal, Mali, and Lebanon (where he served as director). He rose to the diplomatic rank of Minister Counselor and was a recipient of the Presidential Rank Award and the Administrator's Award for Distinguished Career Service.

Breslar passed away at the age of 56, from lung cancer, on September 3, 2005.

Sources Consulted

Lambek, Michael. "Jon Haskell Breslar." Anthropology News 47.2 (2006): 35.

Chronology

1949 -- Born June 22 in Ware, Massachusetts

1971 -- Earns B.A. from Franklin & Marshall College in Anthropology and French

1975-1976 -- Conducts ethnological fieldwork in Mayotte, Comoro Islands.

1977-1978 -- Returns to Mayotte for four months to help develop new housing policy for the Mahorais as a contractor for Société Immobilière de Mayotte

1978-1982 -- Continues work on Mayotte housing project

1981 -- Earns Ph.D. in Anthropology from the University of Pittsburgh

1983 -- Joins USAID

1985-1989 -- Serves as USAID Rural Development Officer in Nepal

1989-1993 -- Serves as USAID Program Officer in Mali

1997 -- Visits Mayotte

2000-2002 -- Serves as Mission Director in Lebanon

2005 -- Dies on September 3 at the age of 56.

Selected Bibliography

1981 -- Ph.D. dissertation. "An Ethnography of the Mahorais (Mayotte, Comoro Islands)." University of Pittsburgh.

1979 -- L'Habitat Mahorais: Une Perspective Ethnologique. Paris: Editions A.G.G.

1986 -- with Michael Lambek. "Funerals and Social Change in Mayotte." Madagascar: Society and History. Durham: Carolina Academic Press.
Separated Materials:
Four 8mm film reels received with the papers of Jon Breslar have been transferred to the Human Studies Film Archives. The reels contain footage of a circumcision and other Mayotte rituals and ceremonies.
Provenance:
These papers were donated to the National Anthropological Archives by Jon Breslar's wife, Bonnie. A copy of Breslar's dissertation was obtained by his wife and added to the collection at a later date.
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Rights:
Contact repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Housing  Search this
Language and languages -- Documentation  Search this
Applied anthropology  Search this
Genre/Form:
Field notes
Sound recordings
Botanical specimens
Slides (photographs)
Photographic prints
Citation:
Jon H. Breslar papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.2007-04
See more items in:
Jon Breslar papers
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-2007-04
Online Media:

Ethel Mary Albert Papers

Creator:
Albert, Ethel Mary, 1918-1989  Search this
Extent:
8.33 Linear feet (24 boxes)
8 Sound tape reels
Culture:
Burundians  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Sound tape reels
Slides (photographs)
Place:
Burundi
Date:
1940s-1960s
Summary:
Ethel M. Albert was an ethnologist whose research focused on communication and speech, and values and ethics. She pursued these themes cross-culturally across a wide spectrum of social classes, ethnic groups and locations. She received a PhD in philosophy from the University of Wisconsin in 1949 and taught a several institutions of higher learning before becoming a faculty member of Northwestern University in 1966. The Ethel Mary Albert papers consist of writings, photographs and sound recordings produced during the course of Albert's ethnological studies as Ford Fellow in Burundi in the late 1950s; field research among the Navaho; and materials related to a later cross cultural study of fatalism.
Scope and Contents:
This collection is mainly comprised of Albert's papers produced in the course of her ethnological studies as Ford Fellow in Burundi in the late 1950s; field research among the Navaho; and materials related to a later cross cultural study of fatalism.

Among her field notes and extensive personal journals produced during her stay in Burundi are collections of Kirundi texts, including fables and stories, many of which were produced in direct cooperation with (and in a few cases authored by) some of her more literate informants. She also collected a wide spectrum of biographies. During her time in Central Africa, she interviewed many people from both major ethnic groups (Tutsi and Hutu) and accumulated photographic portraits of many of her biographical subjects.

Her collection of photographic slides number more than 300. They depict a wide range of the activities of village life (such as traditional dances, dress, children, cows, and agricultural activities) as well as portraits of the King and Queen of Urundi.

Albert also conducted ethnographic fieldwork among the Navaho. From that period, her papers include material relating to a study of values in five cultures; these appear in Vogt and Albert's People of Rimrock (1967).

Another important group of materials consists of manuscripts and notes relating to Albert's study of fatalism. In these notes and manuscripts she relates her previous 5 ethnographic studies to her philosophical knowledge in the production of a cross-cultural study of the values and life ways associated with fatalism, resignation and determinism.

This collection contains many of her completed essays and articles, both published and unpublished. Albert also produced sound recordings related to her field work in Burundi.
Arrangement note:
The collection is arranged in 14 series: (1) Rundi Projects Reports and Journals; (2) Rundi Ethnography; Rough Notes; (3) Rundi Biographies; (4) Rundi Texts; (5) Photographic Slides; (6) Study of Fatalism; (7) Study of Values in Five Cultures; (8) Miscellaneous Notes; (9) Unpublished Writings; (10) Published Articles; (11) Bibliography; (12) Unpublished Drafts of Manuscripts; (13) Miscellany; (14) Sound Recordings
Biographical/Historical note:
Ethel M. Albert was born on March 28, 1918. She received her B.A. from Brooklyn College in 1942 and her M.A. from Columbia University in 1947. She was awarded a PhD in philosophy from the University of Wisconsin in 1949. She taught philosophy at Brooklyn College (1946-1947) and Syracuse University (1949-1952). She later taught speech at the University of California at Berkeley (1958-1966) and anthropology and speech at Northwestern University (1966-1977). From 1958-66, she served as chair of the committee for African Studies (a part of the Institute of International Studies). She was chair of the anthropology department at Northwestern University from 1972-73.

Albert's ethnographic research focused on communication and speech, and values and ethics. She pursued these themes cross-culturally across a wide spectrum of social classes, ethnic groups and locations. She carried out work among the Navaho while serving as a research associate with the Laboratory of Social Relations at Harvard University (1953-1955). As a Ford Foundation fellow (1955-1957), she carried out ethnographic studies of the Tutsi, Hutu and Twa peoples of Burundi, from which she produced numerous notes and writings. Albert died at the age of 71 in October of 1989, in Sarasota, Florida.

Chronology of the life of Ethel Mary Albert

1918 -- Born on the 28th of March in New Britain, CT.; daughter of Zundel and Dorothy (Eisenstadt) Sokolsky

1942 -- Receives her B.A. from Brooklyn College

1947 -- Receives her M.A. from Columbia University

1946-1947 -- Instructor of philosophy at Brooklyn College

1949 -- Awarded a PhD in philosophy from the University of Wisconsin

1949-1952 -- Instructor of philosophy at Syracuse University

1953-1955 -- Research associate with the Laboratory of Social Relations at Harvard University; carries out work among the Navahos

1955-1957 -- Carries out an ethnographic study of the Rundi Culture in central Africa as a Ford Foundation Fellow in the Overseas African Program

1957-1958 -- Fellow at the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences, Stanford, California

1958-1966 -- Instructor of speech at the University of California at Berkeley

1960,1961 -- Assistant Director for ethnology, National Science Foundation Project on Educational Resources in Anthropology

1963-1965 -- Chairman of committee for African studies (Institute of International Studies), University of California at Berkeley

1964-1965 -- Appointed vice-chairman of the speech department at the University of California at Berkeley

1966-1977 -- Professor of anthropology and speech at Northwestern University

1973 -- Chairman of anthropology and speech department, Northwestern University
Provenance:
These papers were bequeathed to the National Anthropological Archives by Ethel Mary Albert and were accessioned in 1990.
Restrictions:
The Ethel Mary Albert papers are open for reaearch.
Rights:
Contact the Repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Ethnologies  Search this
Rundi language  Search this
Genre/Form:
Slides (photographs)
Citation:
Ethel Mary Albert Papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.1990-30
See more items in:
Ethel Mary Albert Papers
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-1990-30
Online Media:

Wooden Ladle

Collector:
Elwood L. Haines  Search this
Donor Name:
Connie H. Polk  Search this
Length:
44 cm
Maximum Width:
14.75 cm
Minimum Width:
4.5 cm
Culture:
Gola  Search this
Object Type:
Ladle
Place:
Liberia, Africa
Accession Date:
3 Nov 2014
Collection Date:
1920 to 1923
Topic:
Ethnology  Search this
Accession Number:
2070691
USNM Number:
E433545-0
See more items in:
Anthropology
Data Source:
NMNH - Anthropology Dept.
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/3af5dad03-540d-49ad-a4f7-c3ba4db969ea
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhanthropology_11504606

Wooden Mask

Collector:
Elwood L. Haines  Search this
Donor Name:
Connie H. Polk  Search this
Length:
23 cm
Maximum Width:
14.5 cm
Height:
8.5 cm
Culture:
Gola  Search this
Object Type:
Mask
Place:
Liberia, Africa
Accession Date:
3 Nov 2014
Collection Date:
1920 to 1923
Topic:
Ethnology  Search this
Accession Number:
2070691
USNM Number:
E433546-0
See more items in:
Anthropology
Data Source:
NMNH - Anthropology Dept.
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/3b87263a0-03ac-47cc-9cb5-9d2a9b9d6821
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhanthropology_11504627

Metal armband

Collector:
Elwood L. Haines  Search this
Donor Name:
Connie H. Polk  Search this
Length:
16 cm
Maximum Width:
7.5 cm
Height:
8.5 cm
Culture:
Gola  Search this
Object Type:
Armband
Place:
Liberia, Africa
Accession Date:
3 Nov 2014
Collection Date:
1920 to 1923
Topic:
Ethnology  Search this
Accession Number:
2070691
USNM Number:
E433547-0
See more items in:
Anthropology
Data Source:
NMNH - Anthropology Dept.
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/33b56c335-4d20-4e40-84ba-5c6d4c511877
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhanthropology_11504631

Whip

Collector:
Elwood L. Haines  Search this
Donor Name:
Connie H. Polk  Search this
Length:
22 cm
Circumference:
7 cm
Culture:
Gola  Search this
Object Type:
Whip
Place:
Liberia, Africa
Accession Date:
3 Nov 2014
Collection Date:
1920 to 1923
Topic:
Ethnology  Search this
Accession Number:
2070691
USNM Number:
E433548-0
See more items in:
Anthropology
Data Source:
NMNH - Anthropology Dept.
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/392c728dd-dc35-4bc3-b24c-d70d25116163
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhanthropology_11504635

Bracelets

Collector:
Elwood L. Haines  Search this
Donor Name:
Connie H. Polk  Search this
Diameter:
9 cm
Height:
1.5 cm
Culture:
Gola  Search this
Object Type:
Bracelet
Place:
Liberia, Africa
Accession Date:
3 Nov 2014
Collection Date:
1920 to 1923
Topic:
Ethnology  Search this
Accession Number:
2070691
USNM Number:
E433549-0
See more items in:
Anthropology
Data Source:
NMNH - Anthropology Dept.
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/34f54a466-67a9-4fe9-8368-3f3cc2bb0660
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhanthropology_11504639

Charm

Collector:
Elwood L. Haines  Search this
Donor Name:
Connie H. Polk  Search this
Length:
14 cm
Maximum Width:
5 cm
Height:
3.5 cm
Culture:
Gola  Search this
Object Type:
Charm
Place:
Liberia, Africa
Accession Date:
3 Nov 2014
Collection Date:
1920 to 1923
Topic:
Ethnology  Search this
Accession Number:
2070691
USNM Number:
E433550-0
See more items in:
Anthropology
Data Source:
NMNH - Anthropology Dept.
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/3294c0adb-edc4-443d-8279-2d989b6902ce
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhanthropology_11504640

Painted tube

Collector:
Elwood L. Haines  Search this
Donor Name:
Connie H. Polk  Search this
Length:
10.75 cm
Circumference:
10 cm
Height:
1.5 cm
Culture:
Gola  Search this
Object Type:
Tube
Place:
Liberia, Africa
Accession Date:
3 Nov 2014
Collection Date:
1920 to 1923
Topic:
Ethnology  Search this
Accession Number:
2070691
USNM Number:
E433551-0
See more items in:
Anthropology
Data Source:
NMNH - Anthropology Dept.
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/3a490845f-4dd7-49eb-8a8b-03646a4702dd
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhanthropology_11504641

Powder Horn

Collector:
Elwood L. Haines  Search this
Donor Name:
Connie H. Polk  Search this
Length - Horn:
40 cm
Circumference - Horn:
24 cm
Diameter - Horn:
8.5 cm
Length - Sheath:
26.5 cm
Circumference - Sheath:
20 cm
Culture:
Gola  Search this
Object Type:
Powder Horn
Place:
Liberia, Africa
Accession Date:
3 Nov 2014
Collection Date:
1920 to 1923
Topic:
Ethnology  Search this
Accession Number:
2070691
USNM Number:
E433552-0
See more items in:
Anthropology
Data Source:
NMNH - Anthropology Dept.
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/37e00ceca-655e-4ed8-b015-b51d5ac40e45
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhanthropology_11504982

Drumstick

Collector:
Elwood L. Haines  Search this
Donor Name:
Connie H. Polk  Search this
Length:
32.5 cm
Circumference:
4.5 cm
Diameter:
1.5 cm
Culture:
Gola  Search this
Object Type:
Drumstick
Place:
Liberia, Africa
Accession Date:
3 Nov 2014
Collection Date:
1920 to 1923
Topic:
Ethnology  Search this
Accession Number:
2070691
USNM Number:
E433553-0
See more items in:
Anthropology
Data Source:
NMNH - Anthropology Dept.
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/37ee5439d-3ad0-4a05-bf57-707079aa73e3
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhanthropology_11505081

Long Metal Tool

Collector:
Elwood L. Haines  Search this
Donor Name:
Connie H. Polk  Search this
Length:
49 cm
Culture:
Gola  Search this
Object Type:
Tool
Place:
Liberia, Africa
Accession Date:
3 Nov 2014
Collection Date:
1920 to 1923
Topic:
Ethnology  Search this
Accession Number:
2070691
USNM Number:
E433554-0
See more items in:
Anthropology
Data Source:
NMNH - Anthropology Dept.
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/3d1c248f4-9edd-4704-8736-2b5657970786
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhanthropology_11505134

Iron Money "Kissi Pennies"

Collector:
Elwood L. Haines  Search this
Donor Name:
Connie H. Polk  Search this
Length:
47.5 cm
Culture:
Gola  Search this
Object Type:
Money
Place:
Liberia, Africa
Accession Date:
3 Nov 2014
Collection Date:
1920 to 1923
Topic:
Ethnology  Search this
Accession Number:
2070691
USNM Number:
E433555-0
See more items in:
Anthropology
Data Source:
NMNH - Anthropology Dept.
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/3c2594435-dd6e-4ca8-a84c-200fa6a1544a
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhanthropology_11505170

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