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Ascension of a Montgolfier Balloon

Artist:
Ethel Rich  Search this
Hugh Barclay Rich  Search this
Medium:
Painting, Oil on Board
Dimensions:
2-D - Unframed (H x W): 76.4 × 101.9cm (2 ft. 6 1/16 in. × 3 ft. 4 1/8 in.)
Type:
ART-Paintings
Country of Origin:
United States of America
Inventory Number:
A19370051000
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
See more items in:
National Air and Space Museum Collection
Data Source:
National Air and Space Museum
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nv91dcea804-90d7-4950-86db-5764a436c20b
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nasm_A19370051000
Online Media:

Paul Garber Aquires Lindbergh's "Spirit of St. Louis"

Creator:
National Air and Space Museum  Search this
Type:
YouTube Videos
Uploaded:
2015-01-06T23:15:48.000Z
YouTube Category:
Education  Search this
Topic:
Aeronautics;Flight;Space Sciences  Search this
See more by:
airandspace
Data Source:
National Air and Space Museum
YouTube Channel:
airandspace
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt_E7VOk2cuD2o

The First Woman in Mission Control

Creator:
National Air and Space Museum  Search this
Type:
YouTube Videos
Uploaded:
2019-10-12T11:00:09.000Z
YouTube Category:
Education  Search this
Topic:
Aeronautics;Flight;Space Sciences  Search this
See more by:
airandspace
Data Source:
National Air and Space Museum
YouTube Channel:
airandspace
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt_tysxzlRVHHg

A Sky Full of Color: Live from the Albuquerque Balloon Fiesta - STEM in 30

Creator:
National Air and Space Museum  Search this
Type:
YouTube Videos
Uploaded:
2016-10-07T00:49:44.000Z
YouTube Category:
Education  Search this
Topic:
Aeronautics;Flight;Space Sciences  Search this
See more by:
airandspace
Data Source:
National Air and Space Museum
YouTube Channel:
airandspace
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt_uuk51Ne-b3Y

Early Aviation Collection [Arango]

Extent:
4.46 Cubic feet
0.641 Gigabytes
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Gigabytes
Catalogs
Diaries
Manuals
Maps
Programs
Photographic postcards
Photographs
Scrapbooks
Date:
1900-1955
bulk 1905-1918
Summary:
Early aviation catalogs, photographs, periodicals, class notes, and scrapbooks as well as other materials collected by Javier Arnago detailing the evolution of early aircrafts built before and during World World I.
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of early aviation materials, collected by Javier Arango, pertaining to the development of early 20th century aircrafts. The bulk of the material consists of air meet programs and memorabilia, engine and aeroplane catalogs, articles and periodicals, maps and charts, postcards and correspondence, class notes and technical manuals, scrapbooks and journals, and a variety of photographs. Materials in English, French, German, and Dutch. Aviators pioneers include: the Wright Brothers, Henry Farman, Louis Bleriot, Hubert Latham, Glenn Curtiss, Louis Paulhan, and other French and American pilots. Aircraft manufacturers represented include: Wright Brothers, Curtiss-Wright, Blériot (France), Antoinette (Société Anonyme Antoinette) (France), Deperdussin (France), Farman, Voisin (France), and other American, French, German, and British inventors prior to World War I.
Arrangement:
Collection organized into eight sections by material type. The first three sections 'Aeroplane Catalogs,' 'Engine Catalongs,' and 'Air meet Programs' are in original order, which is alphabetically arranged by company, aircraft, or engine name and thereunder chronologically by year. The 'Periodicals' section is also alphabetically arranged by title and thereunder chronologically by year. 'Additional Text Materials,' 'Scrapbooks and albums,' and 'Class notes and journals' alphabetically arranged by creator's surname or title. The 'Photographs' section is organized by subjects or event, orginially grouped by Arango, and thereunder alphabetically arranged.
Biographical / Historical:
Javier Arango (1962-2017) was an investment consultant, aircraft collector, avid pilot, and board member of the Smithsonian Institution's National Air and Space Museum. Graduating at Harvard University, he studied the history of science and became an authority of World War I aviation focusing on the progression of warplanes. Establishing his Aeroplane Collection with the construction of a triplane in 1980, he began collecting original materials from the 1900s and 1910s. With a passion for understanding and preserving the history of flight, Arango amassed an exemplary study of the evolution of early aviation.
Provenance:
Javier Arango Living Trust, Gift, 2022, NASM.2022.0033
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Topic:
Aeronautics  Search this
Aeronautics -- Competitions  Search this
Aircraft supplies industry  Search this
Airplanes -- Design and construction  Search this
Airplanes -- Motors  Search this
Antoinette Aircraft Family  Search this
Bleriot Aircraft Family  Search this
Breguet Aircraft Family  Search this
Bristol Aircraft Family  Search this
Burgess Aircraft Family  Search this
Curtiss, General, Aircraft  Search this
Deperdussin Aircraft Family  Search this
Ford Tri-Motor Family  Search this
Gallaudet Type C Military Tractor Biplane Family  Search this
Lockheed Aircraft Family  Search this
Moisant (Monoplane Co) 1914 Bluebird Monoplane  Search this
Nieuport Aircraft Family  Search this
Sloane Aircraft Family  Search this
SPAD Aircraft Family  Search this
Voisin Aircraft Family  Search this
Genre/Form:
Catalogs
Diaries
Manuals
Maps
Programs
Photographic postcards
Photographs
Scrapbooks
Citation:
Javier Arango Early Aviation Collection, NASM.2022.0033, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.2022.0033
See more items in:
Early Aviation Collection [Arango]
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/pg2a7794054-9fbe-430c-8b18-ec5aa5cd48e7
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-2022-0033

Captain H.C. Gray Balloon Basket

Materials:
Wicker, wood, rope, metal
Dimensions:
3-D (Overall basket and ring dimentsions): 143.5 × 100.3 × 220.8cm, 92.5kg (4 ft. 8 1/2 in. × 3 ft. 3 1/2 in. × 7 ft. 2 15/16 in., 204lb.)
3-D (Overall basket with rigging pear ring): 143.5 × 100.3 × 355.4cm (4 ft. 8 1/2 in. × 3 ft. 3 1/2 in. × 11 ft. 7 15/16 in.)
Type:
CRAFT-Balloon
Country of Origin:
United States of America
Date:
1927
Credit Line:
Transferred from the War Department
Inventory Number:
A19280013000
Restrictions & Rights:
CC0
See more items in:
National Air and Space Museum Collection
Data Source:
National Air and Space Museum
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nv9088af853-cd3d-48b4-b6ed-8a39f2e66764
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nasm_A19280013000
Online Media:

Barograph "Spirit of St. Louis", Charles A. Lindbergh, NY-Paris Flight May 1927

Materials:
Wood and metal
Dimensions:
3-D: 19.7 x 10.5 x 13.7cm, 1.2kg (7 3/4 x 4 1/8 x 5 3/8 in., 2 5/8lb.)
Type:
INSTRUMENTS-Scientific
Country of Origin:
United States of America
Date:
1927
Credit Line:
Lent by the National Aeronautic Association
Inventory Number:
A19310028000
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
See more items in:
National Air and Space Museum Collection
Data Source:
National Air and Space Museum
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nv91d549840-ab2c-40c6-b24c-9e5315d0f931
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nasm_A19310028000
Online Media:

Dunkirk Director Christopher Nolan talks Spitfire with Air and Space

Creator:
National Air and Space Museum  Search this
Type:
Conversations and talks
YouTube Videos
Uploaded:
2017-07-28T16:48:02.000Z
YouTube Category:
Education  Search this
Topic:
Aeronautics;Flight;Space Sciences  Search this
See more by:
airandspace
Data Source:
National Air and Space Museum
YouTube Channel:
airandspace
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt_D3rTsXlkx1Q

Telstar 50th Anniversary (Session 1)

Creator:
National Air and Space Museum  Search this
Type:
Symposia
YouTube Videos
Uploaded:
2012-12-05T19:34:40.000Z
YouTube Category:
Education  Search this
Topic:
Aeronautics;Flight;Space Sciences  Search this
See more by:
airandspace
Data Source:
National Air and Space Museum
YouTube Channel:
airandspace
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt_vVsn524ZinE

"Spirit of St. Louis" Cigar Box Label

Names:
Lindbergh, Charles A. (Charles Augustus), 1902-1974  Search this
Extent:
0.05 Cubic feet (1 folder)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Cigar labels
Chromolithographs
Date:
circa 1927
Summary:
This single-item collection consists of an unused Mazer-Cressman cigar box color label (6.5 x 7.75 inches) commemorating Charles A. Lindbergh's solo transatlantic flight in the Ryan NYP Spirit of St. Louis (r/n N-X-211) on May 20-21, 1927.
Scope and Contents:
This single-item collection consists of an unused 5-cent cigar box label (6.5 x 7.75 inches) issued by the Mazer-Cressman Cigar Co. Inc. (Detroit, Michigan) in honor of Charles A. Lindbergh's solo transatlantic flight in the Ryan NYP Spirit of St. Louis (r/n N-X-211) on May 20-21, 1927. The chromolithograph print, produced for Mazer-Cressman by the American Lithographic Co. (New York), features a right side view of the Spirit of St. Louis in flight over the title in a half-circle, with stylized illustrations of the cities of St. Louis and New York (USA) at left and Paris (France) at right.
Arrangement:
Single-item collection.
Biographical / Historical:
On May 20-21, 1927, Charles Lindbergh literally flew into history when he crossed the Atlantic Ocean in his Ryan NYP Spirit of St. Louis, thus becoming the first pilot to fly solo and nonstop from New York to Paris. This flight made Lindbergh a household name and catapulted him into fame and celebrity. Objects of popular culture such as this cigar box label reflect the public adulation for Lindbergh and the powerful commercial response to his celebrity. The Mazer-Cressman Cigar Company Inc. of Detroit, Michigan (once a major United States cigar-making center) filed a trademark for this design with the US Patent Office in July 1927.
Related Materials:
Related artifacts in the Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum collection:

Ryan NYP Spirit of St. Louis, A19280021000.

Cigar Box, Lindbergh, King Collection, A20040295030.
Provenance:
Robert Jaques, gift, 1973, NASM.XXXX.0987
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Topic:
Aeronautics  Search this
Airplanes  Search this
Ryan NYP "Spirit of St. Louis"  Search this
Cigar boxes  Search this
Aeronautics -- Collectibles  Search this
Aeronautics -- Flights  Search this
Aeronautics -- Records  Search this
Genre/Form:
Cigar labels
Chromolithographs
Citation:
"Spirit of St. Louis" Cigar Box Label, Acc. NASM.XXXX.0987, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.XXXX.0987
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/pg2856ebb91-4b5f-4cf6-97f6-fdd786bce6fe
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-xxxx-0987
Online Media:

William L. "Billy" (General) Mitchell Photograph

Names:
Mitchell, William, 1879-1936  Search this
Extent:
0.05 Cubic feet (1 folder)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Date:
1915
Summary:
Autographed formal studio portrait photograph of Captain William Lendrum "Billy" Mitchell (US Army) in full-dress uniform with sword; 1915.
Scope and Contents:
Toned gelatin silver print photograph, 9.1 x 6.5 inches, by unknown photographer. Full-length formal studio portrait of Captain William Lendrum "Billy" Mitchell, US Army, General Staff, in formal full-dress uniform (including cap and cape) with sword; 1915. Autographed at lower edge of print and mount, "To Emelen and Joe, Wm. Mitchell, Capt. G.S. U. S. Army, 1915." Inscribed to Joseph E. Davies and Davies' first wife Mary Emlen (Knight) Davies.
Arrangement:
Single-item collection.
Biographical / Historical:
Brigadier General William "Billy" Mitchell (1879-1936), pilot and aviation and aerial bombing advocate, joined the army as a private and, by the Spanish-American War was the youngest lieutenant involved in the operation. Mitchell saw service in the Philippines, Cuba, and on the Mexican border, and graduated from the Army School of the Line (1908) and Army Staff College (1909) before serving on the Army General Staff (1913-1916). He held a number of command and staff posts in the Air Service in France during World War I (1917-1919) and first soloed in 1917. After a short period as Director of Military Aeronautics (1919) and Chief of Training and Operations (1920), he became Assistant to the Chief of Air Service (1921-1926). During this period, he advocated the creation of an independent Air Service and demonstrated the utility of air power through the famous bomber vs. battleship trials (1921), the group flight to Alaska from the continental US (1923), and Army's Around the World Flight (1924). Unfortunately, Mitchell's public criticism of government policies, in defiance of Army regulations, resulted in his court martial for conduct prejudicial of "good order and military discipline" and insubordination in October-December 1925. Found guilty and suspended for five years, Mitchell resigned his commission in January 1926. He continued to promote aviation and decry government inefficiencies until his death.

The Honorable Joseph E. Davies (1876-1958), who served as best man at Billy Mitchell's first wedding in 1903, also served the US government in a variety of foreign and domestic posts during his career, including as a US Ambassador, as the first Chairman of the Federal Trade Commission in 1915, and as Chairman of the War Relief Control Board during World War II.
Provenance:
Joseph E. Davies, gift, 1959, NASM.XXXX.1164
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Topic:
Aeronautics, Military  Search this
Portraits -- Photographs  Search this
Photography -- United States -- Portraits -- Photographs  Search this
United States. Army -- 1910-1920.  Search this
United States. Army -- Uniforms.  Search this
Citation:
William L. "Billy" (General) Mitchell Photograph, Acc. NASM.XXXX.1164, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.XXXX.1164
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/pg27e058222-2910-4fc0-b529-9b4fc22bc21a
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-xxxx-1164
Online Media:

Helmut von Zborowski Photo Album

Creator:
von Zborowski, Helmut Philip  Search this
Names:
Bayerische Motoren Werke  Search this
Bureau Technique Zborowski  Search this
Societe d'Etudes de la Propulsion par Reaction (SEPR)  Search this
Extent:
0.15 Cubic feet ((1 flatbox))
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Drawings
Photographs
Albums
Date:
1939-1960
Scope and Contents:
This album 10 x 7 inches and contains 88 original photographs, taken from 1939 to 1960, of many of Zborowski's rocket, jet and coleopter projects, as well as 6 printed drawings.
Biographical / Historical:
Helmut Philip von Zborowski was a significant figure in early rocket and jet engine development. A contemporary of Werner von Braun, Zborowski worked on rocket and jet development for BMW during World War II, afterwards going to France and serving as a research engineer for the Société d'Etudes de la Propulsion par Réaction (SEPR). Zborowski later founded his own company, Bureau Technique Zborowski.
General:
NASMrev
Provenance:
Stefan and Sylvia Eihhorn, Purchase, 2001, 2001-0060, unknown
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Topic:
Coanda effect  Search this
Vertically rising aircraft  Search this
World War, 1939-1945  Search this
Aeronautics, Military  Search this
Aeronautics, Commercial  Search this
Aeronautics -- Research  Search this
Aeronautics  Search this
Airplanes -- Rocket engines  Search this
Airplanes -- Jet propulsion  Search this
Airplanes  Search this
Genre/Form:
Drawings
Photographs
Albums
Identifier:
NASM.2001.0060
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/pg28498687e-6b09-4639-b059-f050bcfd5cac
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-2001-0060

Lockheed Vega 5B, Amelia Earhart

Pilot:
Amelia Earhart  Search this
Manufacturer:
Lockheed Aircraft Company  Search this
Materials:
Fuselage: wooden monocoque
Wings: wooden cantilever
Dimensions:
Wingspan: 12.49 m (41ft.)
Length: 8.38 m (27ft. 6in.)
Height: 2.49 m (8ft. 2in.)
Weight: Empty 748kg. (1,650lbs.)
Gross: 1,315-1,450kg. (2,900-3,200lbs.)
Type:
CRAFT-Aircraft
Country of Origin:
United States of America
Date:
1927-1929
Credit Line:
Gift of the Franklin Institute
Inventory Number:
A19670093000
Restrictions & Rights:
CC0
See more items in:
National Air and Space Museum Collection
Data Source:
National Air and Space Museum
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nv908b322a7-9925-4071-b2b2-26a162dc0fce
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nasm_A19670093000

Other Artists, Exhibition Announcements

Collection Creator:
Davidovich, Jaime, 1936-2016  Search this
Container:
Box 2, Folder 35
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
circa 1990
2007-2009
Collection Restrictions:
This collection is open for research. Access to original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C. Research Center.
Collection Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Collection Citation:
Jaime Davidovich papers, 1949-2014. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Jaime Davidovich papers
Jaime Davidovich papers / Series 7: Printed Materials
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/mw9d69f29b9-130c-4c93-8d01-15d4038c351e
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aaa-davijaim-ref7
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  • View Other Artists, Exhibition Announcements digital asset number 1

Margery Durant Air Popularization Tour Collection

Creator:
Durant, Margery.  Search this
Names:
LaJotte, Charles.  Search this
Van Altena, Edward  Search this
Extent:
0.69 Cubic feet ((5 boxes))
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Motion pictures (visual works)
Lantern slides
Manuscripts
Place:
Middle East
Europe
Date:
bulk 1931-1932
Scope and Contents:
The collection includes 188 glass lantern slides that Durant shot during the tours; the slides were hand-colored by the photographer Edward Van Altena. There are thirteen reels of motion picture film, including "A Safari of Twenty Five Thousand Miles through Ten Countries in Silver Wings", a film on Durant's African flights. The collections includes four DVDs: a digitized copy of "A Safari of Twenty Five Thousand Miles ..."; "The Romance of Flight", a short film by Durant's husband Fitzhugh Green; digitized film footage of Paris; and scans of the lantern slides in jpeg format. Also included is a copy of the book "Margery Durant Goes to Africa 1931-2" by Alexander Sanger, Durant's grandson; a short biography of Durant by Mr. Sanger, and photocopied New York Times articles on the tours.
Biographical / Historical:
Margery Durant was born in Flint, Michigan on May 24, 1887, the daughter of Clara Pitt Durant and William C. Durant, founder of General Motors. She attended schools in Flint; in Tarrytown, New York; and at the Mt. Vernon Seminary, Washington, D.C., from 1903 to 1905. Durant settled in Flint, later moving to Detroit and New York City and maintaining residences on Long Island, in Palm Beach, Florida, and in New Zealand. With her husband, Robert W. Daniel, she restored Brandon, an 18th century plantation on the James River, Virginia, now a National Historic Landmark. In 1929, she wrote (with Fitzhugh Green, later her fourth husband) My Father, a biography of William C. Durant. Margery Durant died in Palm Beach on February 3, 1969, at the age of 82.
Though not a pilot, in 1930 Margery Durant conceived of a plan to popularize private air travel by touring Europe, the Middle East and Africa by air. With Charles A. LaJotte (1895-1973) serving as pilot and Everett M. Smith as mechanic and with her Lockheed Vega 5C (named Ariel) stowed on board, Durant sailed to Europe on board the SS Hamburg in April, 1931. Over a three month period, Durant traveled over 12,000 miles, visiting England, France, Italy, Germany, Turkey, Greece, Tunisia, Libya, Egypt, Palestine and the Balkans. On her second tour, from December 1931 through May 1932, Durant visited England, France, Italy, Greece, Egypt, Sudan, Kenya and Uganda in a Sikorsky S-38 Amphibian, the Silver Wings.
Provenance:
Alexander Sanger, Gift, 2011
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Topic:
Lockheed Model 5 Vega  Search this
Travel  Search this
Air travel  Search this
Aeronautics  Search this
Genre/Form:
Motion pictures (visual works)
Lantern slides
Manuscripts
Citation:
Margery Durant Air Popularization Tour Collection, Accession 2011-0023, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.2011.0023
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/pg2b2930f1b-ff7c-4c7c-990e-a8f9fe895b88
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-2011-0023

A. Francis Arcier Collection

Creator:
Arcier, A. Francis, 1890-1969  Search this
Names:
Air Force Museum (U.S.)  Search this
Fokker Aircraft Corp  Search this
GAC (General Airplanes Corp)  Search this
Waco Aircraft Company  Search this
Wittemann Aircraft Corp  Search this
Arcier, A. Francis, 1890-1969  Search this
Extent:
2.97 Cubic feet (7 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Drawings
Correspondence
Photographs
Scrapbooks
Diaries
Financial records
Publications
Date:
Circa 1890-1981
Summary:
A. Francis Arcier, (1890-1969) was an aviator, scientist, designer and engineer whose pioneering work in aviation design spanned six decades and earned him many honors.
Scope and Contents:
The A. Francis Arcier Collection contains approximately 3 cubic feet of material relating to his extraordinary career in aviation. This collection has biographical and professional documents, technical information on aircraft designs, patents, correspondence, newspaper clippings, publications, certificates, photographs, negatives and three scrapbooks.

Note: The digital images shown for this collection were repurposed from scans made by an outside contractor for a commercial product which did not reproduce all materials found in this collection; some items have not been scanned.
Arrangement:
Every effort was made to provide dates when possible and each series is arranged in chronological order.

The collection is arranged as follows:

Series 1: Biographical and professional material

Series 2: Technical material

Series 3: Publications

Series 4: Photographs

Series 5: Scrapbooks
Biographical/Historical note:
A. Francis Arcier, (1890-1969) was an aviator, scientist, designer and engineer whose pioneering work in aviation design spanned six decades and earned him many honors. Born in London, he studied aeronautics in Passey, France under Sir Gustave Eiffel, the designer of the Eiffel Tower. He served as draftsman for such notable aircraft designers as Gabriel Voisin, Henri Coanda, Frank Barnivell and Gordon England. At the age of 21, he learned to fly and received his international aviator's certificate. He served as a flight instructor at the Hall School of Flying in Hendon, England and during World War I, with Handley Page, Ltd. He designed the first twin engine and the first four engine bombers used by the United States and its Allies. Arcier emigrated to the United States in 1919 and was employed as Chief Engineer at the Witteman Aircraft Corporation, makers of the Barling Bomber designed by Arcier. It was the largest heavier-than-air aircraft of its time. During his years with Witteman, Arcier won the Army Air Service Engineering Divisions' design competition for a bomber aircraft design. That same year, Arcier became Chief Engineer for the Fokker Aircraft Corporation, where among other notable accomplishments, he designed the Fokker Trimotor Transport which was used by Amelia Earhart and by Richard Byrd in his flight over the North Pole and also across the North Atlantic. After Arcier attained his United States citizenship in 1929, he became Vice President of Operations and Director of the General Airplanes Corporation in Buffalo, New York. In 1930 under his leadership, the "Mailplane", one of the first all-metal airplanes, was built. Later in 1930, Arcier became Chief Engineer of the Weaver Aircraft Company, WACO. He worked for WACO for 17 years in various capacities. Arcier and the Waco Aircraft Company made many contributions to the National Defense Program during World War II such as the Model UPF-7. The Waco Company was entrusted with the entire combat and cargo glider Program of the U.S. Army Air Forces. This was initiated in an Army Design Competition which the Company won and resulted in a program involving the design, prototype construction and, in some cases, production construction of some twelve models ranging from Model CG-3A to the CG-15A. These gliders were built by the thousands under Arcier's technical direction by sixteen prime contractors and many hundreds of sub-contractors throughout the nation. In 1948, Arcier became Chief Scientist for U.S. Air Force Intelligence at Wright- Patterson AFB until he retired in 1963. After his retirement, he served as consultant to the Commander, Foreign Technology Division and Special Advisor to the Division's Advisory Group on scientific and technical intelligence matters. Among his honors were the USAF Meritorious Civilian Service Award (1953), and the USAF Distinguished Civilian Service Award (1961.) A. Francis Arcier died on November 21, 1969.
Provenance:
Elizabeth Arcier, gift, 1972, additional material received from Francis Arnoult, 2019, NASM.XXXX.0072.
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Topic:
Aeronautics  Search this
Periodicals  Search this
Aeronautical engineers  Search this
Genre/Form:
Drawings
Correspondence
Photographs
Scrapbooks
Diaries
Financial records
Publications
Citation:
A. Francis Arcier Collection, NASM.XXXX.0072, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.XXXX.0072
See more items in:
A. Francis Arcier Collection
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/pg2a9cd4a53-f5c5-431d-b9b8-8431ee1c2f80
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-xxxx-0072
Online Media:

Victor L. Ochoa Papers

Creator:
Ochoa, Elizabeth V.  Search this
Ochoa, Victor Leaton  Search this
International Airship Co.  Search this
Extent:
0.5 Cubic feet (2 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Patents
Correspondence
Photographs
Clippings
Drawings
Place:
El Paso (Texas)
Texas -- 20th century
Mexico -- 20th century
Date:
circa 1894-1945
Summary:
The papers document Victor L. Ochoa, Mexican American inventor of the Ochoaplane, orinthopter (an aircraft that flies by flapping its wings), a windmill, magnetic brakes, a wrench and a reversible motor. The papers include correspondence, photographs, patents, both U.S. and foreign, drawings and typescripts for a short story, "The Making of an American," and a novel The Cycle of Life or Professor Mimo Abas: The Wise Man of the Land of Moctezuma.
Scope and Contents:
The papers document Victor Leaton Ochoa, Mexican American inventor of the Ochoaplane, orinthopter (an aircraft that flies by flapping its wings), a windmill, magnetic brakes, a wrench and a reversible motor. The papers include correspondence, photographs, patents, both United States and foreign, drawings and typescripts for a short story and a novel.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into seven series.

Series 1: Correspondence, 1895-1945

Series 2: Financial materials, 1911, 1912, undated

Series 3: Patent Materials, 1901-1925

Subseries 3.1: Patent Papers, 1922; 1925

Subseries 3.2: Drawings, undated

Subseries 3.3: Foreign Patents, 1901-1922

Subseries 3.4: United States Patents, 1903-1922

Series 4: Writings, undated

Series 5: Photographs, 1933, undated

Series 6: Newspaper Clippings, circa 1894-1912

Series 7: Miscellaneous Printing Blocks, undated
Biographical / Historical:
Victor Leaton Ochoa (1850-1945?) was born in Ojinaga, Mexico. Ochoa later moved to Presidio del Norte, Texas, (Presidio is on the Rio Grande River) and became a United States citizen in 1889. Ochoa was the son of Juan Ochoa, a customs collector in Presidio.

Victor Ochoa was a journalist/writer, founding (El Hispano-American andEl Correo del Bravo) ; a politician (running unsuccessfully in El Paso); a union leader founding (La Union Occidental Mexicana to help Mexicans in the United States preserve their language); a revolutionary (opposing the Mexican government of President Porfirio Díaz, the President of Mexico from 1876 to 1880 and from 1884 to 1911); a prisoner, corporate president of the International Airship Company and the Ochoa Tool and Machine Company; miner and inventor. Ochoa was bitterly opposed to the dictatorship of President Porfirio Díaz. He became involved in the fight by Mexican rebels in the early 1890s to overthrow Diaz. Some consider Ochoa to be the originator of the revolt, and Díaz ultimately issued a $50,000 reward for Ochoa, "dead or alive." Ochoa's participation in Mexican revolutionary activities led to his arrest in 1894 for supplying and hiring Mexican dissidents in El Paso, Texas, thus violating United States neutrality laws. As a result of his illegal actions, a federal warrant was issued for Ochoa's arrest. The Texas Rangers as well as the U.S. Marshal Service sought Ochoa. In October of 1894, Pecos County Sheriff A. J. Royal and Texas Ranger James W. Fulgham arrested Victor Ochoa while rounding up suspected horse thieves. Ochoa was put in the Pecos County Jail and promptly escaped. He was eventually found and returned to El Paso. Ochoa was ultimately sentenced to two years in federal prison at Kings County Penitentiary in Brooklyn. Ochoa was stripped of his United States citizenship, but it was ultimately restored by Theodore Roosevelt in 1906.

Ochoa was as committed to inventing as he was to his revolutionary ideals. He was known to reside in the New York City and the Patterson, New Jersey area in the late 1890s. Ochoa's issued patents list him at New York, New Jersey, and Texas addresses. He also worked with Watson E. Coleman, a solicitor of patents in Washington, D.C. Coleman helped Ochoa file for and obtain patents in other countries such as Czechoslovakia, France, Germany, Great Britain, Japan, Mexico, Netherlands, Poland, and Spain. Ochoa's patents include: a magnetic brake (US Patent No. 867,147); a reversible motor (US Patent No. 718,508); a rail magnetic brake (US Patent No. 873,587); a windmill (US Patent No. 1,319,174); and a wrench (US Patent No. 1,417,196 and 1,454,333).

Ochoa had a strong interest in aviation. He created the "Ochoaplane," circa 1908-1911. He designed it with an automobile in mind, and it included collapsible wings so that it could be housed in a garage or barn. He also incorporated the International Airship Company in Patterson, New Jersey, presumably to manufacture his "airships." Ochoa was imprisoned at the United States Penitentiary in Leavenworth, Kansas on February 18, 1917 and was released on May 1, 1918 upon completion of his sentence. In a September 17, 1917, letter written from Leavenworth, Ochoa asks the Naval Consulting Board to consider the use of metal wings constructed in such a manner that they fold back and over the body of the airship. Ochoa called this his fluttering wing machine. Ochoa's letter is deliberate, and he writes, "There was no desire on my part of abandoning this and three other patents that at this time went to issue. At that time I was taken sick with consumption and my struggle for life then became my sole purpose and then there arose other circumstances, over which I had no control, to prevent my taking them out."

Ochoa married Amanda Cole, granddaughter of Thomas Cole, the American painter, whose most famous painting isThe Last of the Mohicans . They had one son, Stephen Ochoa. Victor Ochoa returned to Sinaloa, Mexico, in 1936, and it is believed he died there in 1945.

Source Romo, David Dorado. Ringside Seat to a Revolution: An Underground Cultural History of El Paso and Juarez: 1893-1923. El Paso, Texas: Cinco Puntos Press, 2005.
Related Materials:
Record Group 129, Records of the Bureau of Prisons held by the National Archives, Central Plains Division, Kansas City, Missouri (http://www.archives.gov/central-plains/kansas-city/), contains a 54 page file on Victor L. Ochoa's imprisonment.
Provenance:
This collection was donated by Elizabeth Victoria Ochoa on May 17, 1997.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use. Researchers must handle unprotected photographs with gloves.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Reproduction permission from Archives Center: reproduction fees may apply.
Topic:
Airplanes  Search this
Inventors -- 1890-1960  Search this
Inventions -- 20th century  Search this
Aeronautics  Search this
Genre/Form:
Patents
Correspondence -- 1930-1950
Photographs -- 20th century
Clippings
Drawings
Citation:
Victor L. Ochoa Papers, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0590
See more items in:
Victor L. Ochoa Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep821026f6e-2248-4c72-842f-abdcba59aea1
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0590
Online Media:

William J. Hammer Collection

Creator:
Hammer, William J. (William Joseph), 1858-1934 (electrical engineer)  Search this
Names:
Hudson-Fulton Celebration (1909)  Search this
Curtiss, Glenn Hammond, 1878-1930  Search this
Hammer, William J. (William Joseph), 1858-1934 (electrical engineer)  Search this
Wright, Wilbur, 1867-1912  Search this
Extent:
5.66 Cubic feet (13 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Drawings
Scrapbooks
Publications
Manuscripts
Correspondence
Photographs
Date:
1881-1934
bulk 1905-1915
Summary:
The collection is the result of Major Hammer's passion for amassing material related to aeronautics and technology, and it is arranged into eleven series: articles, clippings, correspondence, drawings and blueprints, leaflets, legislation, minutes, miscellaneous, photographs, programs and publications. Housed in 23 folders, the correspondence is the most comprehensive series, reflecting the original order which grouped the letters into series by topic. Much of the correspondence concerns the planning of the Hudson-Fulton Celebration of 1909, and the involvement of Wilbur Wright and Glenn Curtiss. There is also a scrapbook of black and white photographs providing front and side views of specified airplanes. Each page has 3 photos showing different views of the same plane accompanied by a label with additional information. (See written copy for details. Also, please see information written on 8x11 notebook paper.)
Scope and Contents:
The William J. Hammer Collection reflects Hammer's great interest in aeronautics --a passion he cultivated for several decades by accumulating a veritable storehouse of materials. Hammer's important contributions to the early development of aviation are also evident in this collection.

The collection of materials listed in the finding aid is arranged into two series. The first series includes correspondence, reports, handbooks, drawings, brochures, programs, leaflets, magazines, articles, newspaper clippings and miscellaneous materials. The second series is comprised of photographs of various sizes, scrapbooks, scrapbook pages and miscellaneous materials (the front pages of newspapers, certificates, posters, etc.).

Hammer's papers are arranged both chronologically and alphabetically. Correspondence, drawings, brochures, programs, leaflets, miscellaneous materials, scrapbook pages, articles and newspaper clippings are organized by the former method. Reports, handbooks, magazines and booklets are grouped alphabetically by either title of publication or author. Photographs are arranged either by subject or chronologically.

The reader should note that at some point, Hammer produced a series of large format photographs. These mounted photographs are duplicates. Due to the very fragile condition of these particular images, the photographs and are not available to researchers.

Additional photographic material regarding Hammer Collection photographs can be found in the NASM Archives Images database. An Archives staff member will assist you with research using this database.

Box 13 of the William J. Hammer Collection has not been scanned.

Note: The digital images in this finding aid were repurposed from scans made by an outside contractor for a commercial product and may show irregular cropping and orientation in addition to color variations resulting from damage to and deterioration of the original objects.
Arrangement:
The William J. Hammer Collection is arranged by content type.
Biographical/Historical note:
William J. Hammer was born in Cressona, Pennsylvania, on February 26, 1858, was an associate of Thomas Edison and an early aviation supporter and enthusiast. He began his career as an assistant to Edward Weston of the Weston Malleable Nickel Company. In 1879, he moved on to a new position as laboratory assistant to Thomas Edison at Menlo Park, New Jersey. His duties ranged from aiding in conducting experiments on such devices as the phonograph, telephone and ore separator to acting as Edison's key person in further developing the incandescent electric lamp. By 1880, he was made chief engineer of the Edison Lamp Works. A year later, Edison dispatched Hammer to London to be chief engineer of the English Electric Light Company. In this position, he helped construct the Holborn Viaduct Central Electric Light Station in London. This was the first central station ever built for incandescent electric lighting. In 1883, Hammer became chief engineer for the German Edison Company. This task included planning and supervising the construction of all Edison plants in Germany. He returned to the United States late in the following year and acted as chief inspector of central stations of the parent Edison Electric Light Company. In 1886-87, Hammer was general manager and chief engineer of the Boston Edison Electric Illuminating Company. In 1888, he worked as an independent engineer and supervised the completion of the then-largest isolated electric lighting plant, located at the Ponce de Leon Hotel in St. Augustine, Florida. During that year, Hammer also was chosen as consulting electrical engineer to the Cincinnati Centennial Exposition. Subsequently, Edison selected him as his personal representative to the Paris Exposition of 1889. This assignment rounded out Hammer's eleven years with Edison. During his time as one of Edison's most trusted and important employees, Hammer devised a number of innovations to the incandescent electric lamp. He designed and built the first electric sign, which spelled out the name "Edison". While in Germany, he invented the automatic motor-driven flashing electric lamp sign. This particular sign flashed the word "Edison" letter by letter and then all at once. At the International Electrical Exhibition, held in Philadelphia in 1884, Hammer also constructed the first flashing column of electric lights.

Upon his return to the U.S. in 1890, Hammer worked as an independent consulting electrical engineer by assisting in a variety of electrical projects, carrying out tests, giving lectures and providing expert testimony in patent disputes. He based this modest enterprise in an office in New York City and continued in this occupation until 1925. His career as an electrical engineering consultant was interrupted by World War I. In June 1918, he was commissioned a major in the U.S. Army. He was assigned to the Inventions Section of the War Plans Division of the General Staff in charge of Aeronautical and Electrical Inventions at the Army War College, Washington, D.C.. By December of that year, he was attached to the Operations Division General Staff at the War Department (Inventions Section). During the war and on into 1919, Hammer also worked for the U.S. Patent Office by identifying any aviation-related patents likely to convey too much information to potential enemies. In conjunction with his War Department duties, he acted as a member of the Advisory Board of Experts affiliated with the Alien Property Commission.

Busy as he was with his private consulting work, Hammer also immersed himself in other scientific activities. He took a particular interest in radium after visiting Pierre and Marie Curie in Paris in 1902. The two discoverers of radium gave him some samples of this substance. Soon after returning to the United States, Hammer experimented with radium. His research yielded numerous useful applications for this material such as radium-luminous powders and paints that were used to coat everything from watch and clock dials to aeronautical instruments, switches and toys. Hammer also advocated the use of radium for cancer and tumor treatment. Beyond his interest in this material, he invented selenium light-sensitive cells and recommended many practical uses for them. He also conducted a great deal of laboratory work on X-rays, ultraviolet and cathode rays, phosphorescence and wireless communications. Accordingly, he lectured and published extensively on many of these fields of research and study.

Hand in hand with his overall interest in science and technology, Hammer had a particular passion for aeronautics. Beyond paying careful attention to the rapid progress made in this field at the turn of the twentieth century, he also played an active role as participant and supporter. He made his first balloon flight over France during the Paris Exposition of 1889. His last lighter-than-air journey took place in 1931 aboard the U.S. Navy dirigible Los Angeles. Moreover, he attended and officiated over many balloon, airship and airplane exhibitions and races. Hammer was a member of the Aero Club of America and a director of the Aeronautical Society. This latter group made the first ever purchase of an airplane in January 1909. He served as expert and secretary of the Aeronautics Committee on the Hudson-Fulton Celebration Commission of 1909 and wrote the contracts for Wilbur Wright and Glenn Curtiss to fly their airplanes for this event. This occasion in New York was important as it marked the first time a large gathering of people in the U.S. witnessed heavier-than-air powered flight. As a friend of the Wright brothers, Hammer testified as an expert witness on their behalf during various patent litigation suits. His contact with aviation pioneers went beyond the Wrights and Curtiss. He also knew and interacted with, among others, Samuel Langley, Alberto Santos-Dumont, Henri Farman and Count Ferdinand von Zeppelin. Even his work with radium had applications for aviation. Hammer developed radium-based luminous compounds and used them on aircraft instruments so pilots could more easily view their cockpits' dials and gauges.

Hammer's last years were filled with serving as Historian General of the Military Order of the World War, as well as participating in many scientific, engineering and aeronautical committees and societies. During this time, he was the recipient of numerous honors and awards, including the Elliott Cresson Gold Medal, John Scott Medal from the Franklin Institute and the Cross of the Legion of Honor from France. Up until his death on March 24, 1934, he also labored in his efforts to organize a vast personal collection of rare and valuable scientific artifacts, photographs and other materials accumulated since his days with Edison. Following Hammer's death, this important collection was left in the care of his daughter Mabel (his wife of twelve years, Alice, having died in 1906). Some years later, International Business Machines (IBM) acquired it. In 1962, IBM donated the William J. Hammer Scientific Collection to the Smithsonian Institution. The bulk of the collection resides with the National Museum of American History's Archives Center. In the mid 1980s, the aeronautical portion of this collection was transferred to the National Air and Space Museum (NASM) Archives.
Provenance:
IBM (Mr. William J. Hammer Collection), gift, 1961, XXXX-0074, not NASM
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Topic:
Aeronautics -- Exhibitions  Search this
Aeronautics -- 1903-1916  Search this
Periodicals  Search this
Aeronautics  Search this
Genre/Form:
Drawings
Scrapbooks
Publications
Manuscripts
Correspondence
Photographs
Citation:
William J. Hammer Collection, Acc. NASM.XXXX.0074, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.XXXX.0074
See more items in:
William J. Hammer Collection
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/pg2b19d3684-d8df-43fc-ba10-9da9e20ed7c2
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-xxxx-0074
Online Media:

Arthur Raymond Brooks Collection

Creator:
Brooks, Arthur Raymond, 1895-1991  Search this
Names:
Bell Telephone Laboratories  Search this
Florida Airways Corp  Search this
United States. Army. Air Service. 22nd Pursuit Group  Search this
United States. Department of Commerce. Aeronautics Branch  Search this
Brooks, Arthur Raymond, 1895-1991  Search this
Extent:
13.72 Cubic feet (31 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Correspondence
Financial records
Diaries
Drawings
Publications
Photographs
Videotapes
Date:
1910-1988
Summary:
This collection consists of the personal papers and memorabilia of Arthur Raymond Brooks. It includes photographs, correspondence, documents, and certificates relating to Brooks' aviation career, as well as personal correspondence, photographs, and diaries (1907-87).
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of the personal papers of Arthur Raymond Brooks. These papers relate to his military career with the U.S. Army Air Service (1917-22), his years in both civilian government service and the private sector (1923-60), as well as a lifetime's involvement in numerous military, academic, aeronautical, and professional associations and organizations. Additionally, there are examples of correspondence and autographed photographs from such aerospace notables as Eddie Rickenbacker, Jimmy Doolittle, Billy Mitchell, Clayton Bissell, Reed Chambers, and Michael Collins.

The collection is arranged into two broad series. First, is the material relating to his professional life. This includes Brooks' official military documents (U.S. Army commission, discharge papers, etc.), correspondence, reports, photographs (mostly from his time spent as an Air Service officer in France and the U.S.), handbooks, manuals, brochures, programs, speeches, magazines, newsletters, newspaper clippings, and articles. The second series contains items pertaining mainly to his personal life. Included here are personal documents such as income tax receipts, last will and testament, correspondence, photographs (both largely from and of family and friends), diaries, biographical notes, transcripts from audio tape cassettes, logbooks, travel guides, and books. Miscellaneous materials retained by Brooks such as a commemorative medallion, prints, posters, publications, a stamp album, photograph albums, newspapers, and address books are also found in this series.

Brooks' papers are arranged both chronologically and alphabetically. Official military and personal documents, correspondence, reports, photographs, brochures, programs, newspaper clippings and articles, diaries and day timers, biographical notes, transcriptions, logbooks, travel guides, maps, atlases, timetables, and newspapers are organized by the former method. Handbooks, instructions, manuals, magazines, and newsletters are grouped alphabetically by title. The books are arranged alphabetically by author.
Arrangement:
Series 1: Professional material

1.1 Official military documents

1.2 Correspondence

1.3 Reports

1.4 Handbooks, instructions, and manuals

1.5 Photographs

1.6 Brochures

1.7 Programs

1.8 Magazines

1.9 Newsletters

1.10 Newspaper clippings and articles

Series 2: Personal materials

2.1 Personal documents

2.2 Correspondence

2.3 Diaries and day-timers

2.4 Photographs

2.5 Biographical notes

2.6 Transcripts

2.7 Logbooks

2.8 Travel guides, maps, atlases, and train/airline timetables

2.9 Books

2.10 Miscellaneous materials

2.11 Oversized materials

2.12 Posters, prints and maps

2.13 Newspapers and newspaper supplements
Biographical/Historical note:
Arthur Raymond Brooks (1895-1991) was a fighter pilot for the U.S. Army Air Service during World War I and later, a civil aviation pioneer. Born in Framingham, Massachusetts on November 1, 1895, Brooks graduated from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in 1917 with a Bachelor of Science degree in electrochemical engineering. In July of that year, he enlisted in the Aviation Section of the U.S. Army Signal Corps. His flight training was provided by the Royal Flying Corps' School of Military Aeronautics in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. He was then sent for further flight training to Fort Worth, Texas where he flew with the 139th Squadron, 2nd Pursuit Group. In March 1918, Brooks left for France and completed pursuit training at the 3rd Aviation Instruction Center, American Expeditionary Force (AEF), at Issoudun. The 139th was placed at the Vaucouleurs Aerodrome, Toul sector, where the squadron was equipped with SPAD VII aircraft. Brooks was eventually made its flight commander. By early August, he was assigned as flight commander of the 22nd Aero Squadron, 2nd Pursuit Group. His new squadron was supplied with SPAD XIII pursuit craft. Altogether, he flew 120 missions in four different aircraft. He named each of the aircraft Smith in honor of his fiancée (Ruth Connery) who was attending Smith College in Massachusetts. The final plane he flew in combat, the Smith IV, is on display at the Smithsonian Institution's National Air and Space Museum.

On July 29, 1918, Brooks achieved his first confirmed aerial victory by downing a German Fokker aircraft. Later, he destroyed two more Fokkers while flying over enemy lines on September 14. On that day, Brooks single-handedly engaged eight enemy aircraft in combat thus, earning him the Distinguished Service Cross. By the war's end, he had six confirmed kills to his credit.

Following the armistice of November 11, 1918, Brooks remained in France as the 22nd Squadron's commanding officer. His squadron was kept in reserve for possible German occupation duty. Upon his return to the United States in July 1919, Brooks was promoted to Captain. He decided to stay in the Air Service and was subsequently assigned as commanding officer for the 95th Pursuit Squadron, stationed at Kelly Field, Texas. From May 1920 to August 1921, he was put in charge of the 1st Pursuit Group at Ellington Field, Texas. Following that assignment, Brooks attended Air Service Field Officer's School, Langley Field, Virginia. After graduation, he stayed on duty at Langley Field until his resignation from the U.S. Army Air Service in December 1922. This action was spurred both by Brooks' frustration with being on the Army's stagnant promotion list and an interest in entering the private sector. During 1920-21, while in the service, he was involved in a failed Framingham-based commercial aviation business called the Brooks, Banks and Smith Corporation. Also in 1920, Brooks married Ruth. Their only child, Peter, was born in 1929.

Brooks' first job after his honorable discharge from the Air Service was as secretary for the National Automobile Association during 1923-24. During 1924-25, he worked in advertising sales for the financial magazine, United States Investor. Once again, his desire to be engaged in commercial aviation compelled him to become involved in establishing and organizing the Florida Airways Corporation from late 1925 into 1926. In time, Florida Airways became Eastern Airways. Brooks left this financially struggling enterprise and joined the Department of Commerce's Aeronautics Branch in August 1926. For the next seventeen months, he worked as an airway extension superintendent and associate airways engineer. His main task with the Aeronautics Branch was to survey air routes and supervise the installation of beacons to assist air mail pilots navigate the Appalachian Mountains from Virginia to Pennsylvania. He left government service in early 1928 and was hired by Bell Telephone Laboratories. He spent the next few decades working as a scientist, engineer and chief pilot for the company at Hadley Field, New Jersey. There, Brooks and his staff conducted pioneering research on ground-to-air radiotelephone communications and electronic aviation navigation equipment. During much of this period, he piloted a Fairchild FC2-W Wasp and a Ford Tri-Motor that operated as flying laboratories for the team's communications research. He was Bell's publications manager for New Jersey operations at the time of his retirement in 1960.

Brooks stayed active in aviation for the remainder of his life. Even in his nineties, he enjoyed flying all sorts of aircraft, including ultralights, gliders and hot-air balloons. He belonged to many aviation-related and professional associations and organizations such as the American Legion, Military Order of the World Wars, Combat Pilots Association, Order of Daedalians, OX-5 Aviation Pioneers Association, Telephone Pioneers of America, Cross and Cockade, Associate Fellow of the American Institute for Aeronautics and Astronautics, Quiet Birdmen, WWI Overseas Flyers and the American Fighter Aces Association. Brooks also remained involved with the alumni affairs of his alma mater – MIT. He attended numerous air shows and reunions, including the sixty-fifth, and final reunion, held for the Lafayette Flying Corps in Paris, France in 1983. In 1980, he was inducted into the Aviation Hall of Fame of New Jersey. Brooks lived long enough to see his Smith IV restored by the National Air and Space Museum during the 1980s. Brooks, the last surviving American World War I ace, died in Summit, New Jersey, on July 17, 1991.
General note:
Other materials: medals and memorabilia transferred to NASM Aeronautics Division.
Provenance:
A. Raymond Brooks, Gift, 1989, NASM.1989.0104
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Topic:
Fighter pilots  Search this
Works of art  Search this
SPAD XIII (S.13) "Smith IV"  Search this
Aeronautics  Search this
Periodicals  Search this
Aeronautics, Military  Search this
Genre/Form:
Correspondence
Financial records
Diaries
Drawings
Publications
Photographs
Videotapes
Citation:
Arthur Raymond Brooks Collection, NASM.1989.0104, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.1989.0104
See more items in:
Arthur Raymond Brooks Collection
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/pg21ce64706-6071-4c10-ac68-41c02098b251
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-1989-0104
Online Media:

Marion Sanford and Cornelia Chapin papers

Creator:
Sanford, Marion  Search this
Names:
Chapin, Cornelia, 1893-1972  Search this
Hernández, Mateo, 1884-1949  Search this
Extent:
2.5 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Sound recordings
Photographs
Motion pictures (visual works)
Scrapbooks
Video recordings
Interviews
Drawings
Date:
1929-1988
Summary:
The papers of sculptors and close companions Marion Sanford and Cornelia Chapin measure 2.5 linear feet and date from 1929-1988. The papers include scattered materials created by and about both women, including biographical materials, one folder of correspondence for each woman, a few writings and essays, newsclippings, exhibition catalogs, other printed materials, and four scrapbooks (three about Chapin and one about Sanford). Photographs are of Chapin only and of artwork of both women. There is also one phonograph album transferred onto cassette of a radio interview with Chapin and several motion picture films of Chapin's home movies shot in upstate New York and Paris.
Scope and Content Note:
The papers of sculptors Marion Sanford and Cornelia Chapin measure 2.5 linear feet and date from 1929-1988. Sanford and Chapin were close companions and shared a studio in New York City. The papers include scattered materials created by and about both women, including biographical materials, one folder of correspondence for each woman, a few writings and essays, newsclippings, exhibition catalogs, other printed materials, and four scrapbooks (three about Chapin and one about Sanford). Photographs are of Chapin only and of artwork of both women. There is also one sound recording of a radio interview with Chapin and several motion picture films of Chapin's home movies shot in upstate New York and Paris.

Biographical material consists of scattered items documenting the careers of Marion Sanford and Cornelia Chapin. Included are a small amount of correspondence of both women, membership certificates, an index card file of Sanford's artwork, Chapin's written description of her sculpting process, and writings by others about Chapin. The sound recording is a radio interview of Chapin after she sculpted a bear for the National Zoo. Films include several home movies of Chapin from 1932-1936, showing Chapin at a summer home in Harpursville, NY, working in her studio, and working in Paris with teacher Mateo Hernandez.

Printed material includes exhibition announcements and catalogs for many group and solo shows of both women, news clippings about Chapin and Sanford, and a few reproductions of their artwork. Source files consist of postcards and clippings of various images that were most probably used as references or inspiration for their artwork.

The collection includes four scrapbooks compiled by Sanford and Chapin documenting their careers through news clippings, a few exhibition materials, and photographs of their artwork. There are three scrapbooks about Chapin, and one about Sanford. Also found are two additional scrapbooks on the subject of bas-relief and sculpture. Photographs include several of Cornelia Chapin in her studio and with her teacher Mateo Hernandez. There are numerous photographs of artwork by Chapin and Sanford. Artwork includes drawings of animals, architectural elements, coins, and people, by either Sanford or Chapin.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into 6 series:

Missing Title

Series 1: Biographical Material, 1930-1986 (Box 1, 6, 8; 0.8 linear feet)

Series 2: Printed Material, 1931-1972 (Box 1-2; 0.5 linear feet)

Series 3: Source Files, 1940s-1960s (Box 2-3; 0.4 linear feet)

Series 4: Scrapbooks, 1932-1949 (Box 3-7; 1.0 linear foot)

Series 5: Photographs, circa 1930-1962 (Box 4, 7; 0.2 linear feet)

Series 6: Artwork, 1929-circa 1960s (Box 4; 5 folders)
Biographical Note:
Marion Sanford was born in 1904 in Ontario, Canada and was raised in Warren, Pennsylvania. She studied painting at the Pratt Institute in New York, and worked for a period of time as a stage and costume designer. She developed an interest in sculpture, and studied the direct-carving method briefly at the Art Students League, but was largely self-taught. In 1937 she had her first exhibition of sculptures depicting women performing household chores and everyday tasks. She later created a series called "Women at Work" and her imagery of women would be the subject for which she would become best known, although she also completed bronze portraits and bas-reliefs. In 1941 and 1943 she worked as a Guggenheim Fellow, and became a member of the National Academy of Design, National Sculpture Society, and the National Association of Women Artists. Sanford won many awards and medals for her works and also created sculptures on commission, including a carved altar panel for the First Methodist Church in Warren, Pennsylvania. Marion Sanford died in 1987.

Cornelia Van Auken Chapin was born in 1893 in Waterford, Connecticut. After exploring other interests, including aeronautics, she decided to become a sculptor in the 1920s. She studied with Gail Corbett and in the early 1930s began exhibiting her sculptures of animals. In 1934 she moved to Paris, France and studied with Mateo Hernandez as his only student. Under Hernandez, she learned the technique of direct-carving from life in stone and wood and won the 2nd grand prize at the Paris Exposition in 1937. In 1936, Chapin was the only foreign and woman sculptor elected to the Societaire Salon d'Automne in Paris. The threat of World War II brought her back to the United States in 1939. Chapin won many awards for her sculptures and became a member of the National Academy of Design in 1945 and the National Sculpture Society. She was also one of the founding members of Artists' for Victory, Inc. and a participant in the women's artist group known as "The Philadelphia Ten," a unique and progressive group of women painters and sculptors who often exhibited together in the Philadelphia area.

In the late 1930s Chapin purchased a studio in New York City which had formally belonged to sculptor Gutzon Borglum. She shared the studio with her fellow sculptor Marion Sanford, and often modeled for Sanford's work. Sanford and Chapin remained close companions until Chapin's death in 1972.
Related Material:
Harvard University Library houses the the bulk of Cornelia Van Auken Chapin's papers, 1877-1959.
Provenance:
A portion of the Marion Sanford and Cornelia Chapin papers were donated by Marion Sanford in 1974. Additional materials were donated by Sanford's caretaker, Brenda Brenwell-Lejeune, in 1999.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C. Research Center. Contact Reference Services for more information.
Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Occupation:
Sculptors -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Topic:
Sculpture, Modern -- 20th century  Search this
Sculpture -- Technique  Search this
Bas-relief  Search this
Sculpture, American -- 20th century  Search this
Artists' studios  Search this
Women artists  Search this
Women sculptors  Search this
Genre/Form:
Sound recordings
Photographs
Motion pictures (visual works)
Scrapbooks
Video recordings
Interviews
Drawings
Citation:
Marion Sanford and Cornelia Chapin papers, 1929-1988. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.sanfmari
See more items in:
Marion Sanford and Cornelia Chapin papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/mw93be7e8e5-5614-4fa3-89a8-bc4648207c0c
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-sanfmari
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