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The Campbell Soup Advertising Collection

Interviewee:
Murphy, W.B.  Search this
Norris, Alice  Search this
Norris, E. E.  Search this
Prior, Joseph  Search this
Meehan, Vincenta  Search this
Mercer, Richard  Search this
Meyers, Peter H.  Search this
Mulcahy, Paul  Search this
Welsh, Dick  Search this
White, Richard  Search this
Rindlaub, Jean  Search this
Rombach, Scott  Search this
Shaub, Harold  Search this
Weir, Chris  Search this
Coulson, Zoe  Search this
Gearon, Dan  Search this
Cronin, Betty  Search this
Conill, Alicia  Search this
Conlon, Robert  Search this
Conill, Rafael  Search this
Jordan, James  Search this
McNutt, James  Search this
McGovern, R. Gordon  Search this
Goerke, Donald E.  Search this
Holmes, Martha  Search this
Haber, Bernie  Search this
Jones, Caroline Robinson, 1942-2001 (advertising executive)  Search this
Adams, Anthony  Search this
Baum, Herbert M.  Search this
Bergin, John F.  Search this
Bair, Dean  Search this
Interviewer:
Griffith, Barbara S., Dr.  Search this
Creator:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History  Search this
Campbell Soup Company  Search this
Names:
Batten, Barton, Durstine & Osborn, Inc  Search this
Connill Advertising  Search this
Extent:
12 Cubic feet (25 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Clippings
Audiotapes
Interviews
Commercials
Ephemera
Videotapes
Oral history
Tear sheets
Date:
1904-2015
bulk 1904-1989
Summary:
This collection is the result of a year-long study of Campbell's "Red and White" Soups advertising and marketing, supported in part by a grant from the Campbell Soup Company. Thirty-one oral history interviews were conducted by Dr. Barbara Griffith for the project, and a variety of related materials were gathered by the Center for Advertising History staff. The objective of the project was to create a collection that provides documentation, in print and media, of the history and development of advertising for Campbell's Red and White Soups in the decades following World War II.
Scope and Contents:
This collection is the result of a year-long study of Campbell's "Red and White" Soups advertising and marketing campaigns. Oral histories conducted by Smithsonian Institution staff with individuals involved with the Campbell's Soup Corporation and its advertising campaigns form the core of the collection. Also included are clippings and background research files, abstracts of the oral history interviews, television and radio commercials, company publications, and promotional items and packaging.

A 2015 addition to the collection was born digital and consists of materials from the groundbreaking "Real Life Campaign" which featured inter-racial couples as well as a gay couple. These materials include storyboards, scripts, consumer feedback both postive and negative, focus group material, labels, commercials, supporting documentation on the development and implementation of the campaign. These materials are available in the Smithsonian Institution DIgital Asset Management System (DAMS).
Arrangement:
Collection is organized into nine series.

Series 1, Research Files, 1939-1989

Series 2, Interviewee Files, 1989-1990

Series 3, Oral Histories, 1989-1990

Series 4, Television Commercials, 1957-1990

Series 5, Radio Commercials, 1966-1975

Series 6, Print Advertisements, 1905-1989

Series 7, Promotional Items and Packaging, 1968-1991

Series 8, Company Publications, 1983-1988

Series 9, Real Life Campaign, 2015
Biographical / Historical:
The Campbell Soup Company's "Red and White" advertising campaigns are remarkable not only for their longevity, but for the consistency of the advertising message. Since 1898, when the red and white label was incorporated, the packaging and the message have changed only marginally. When Andy Warhol painted his pop art Campbell Soup cans in the early 1960s, he presented an immediately recognizable image with which all of America could identify.

Campbell's condensed soups, first marketed in 1897, have become a staple of the 20th century American household. The Joseph Campbell Preserve Company, a canning concern which grew out of an 1869 business partnership between a fruit merchant and an ice box manufacturer, was well established by the time Arthur Dorrance succeeded Joseph Campbell as president. When Dorrance's nephew, John T. Dorrance, a chemical engineer and organic chemist trained at MIT, developed a process for making condensed soup, the company was faced with the task of successfully marketing the revolutionary new convenience food. The soup won a gold medallion for excellence at the 1900 Paris Exposition, and the company incorporated the image on its labels and in its advertising.

In the developing consumer culture which began to grow during and after the industrial revolution, women were identified as the primary consumers of household goods and services. Homemakers have been the target of Campbell' s Red & White advertising since its inception, and this focus is reflected both in the content and the placement of the advertising. The identification of a predominately female consumer market was also influential in the creation of a widely recognized and long-lived symbol, the Campbell Kids, created in 1904 by Grace Gebbie Drayton. The Kids were meant to convey a sense of wholesomeness and physical well-being associated with eating Campbell Soups.

The advertising of the early teens and twenties most often consisted of black and white or two-color depictions of the can and the product, often accompanied by images of the rosy-cheeked Kids. A large portion of the ad was devoted to narrative description of the soups' healthful properties, suggesting that"Campbell Soups Give Vigor and Strength", "I Couldn't Keep House Without Campbell's Tomato Soup", and "If Every Woman Realized How Much Her Husband Likes Soup - She Would Serve It Everyday".

The advertising of the 1930s tended towards idealized illustrations of women and children; the Kids were less visible during the 1930s and 1940s, deemed too "chucklesome" for the Depression years, and too old-fashioned during World War II. Ad copy continued its appeal to women's sense of responsibility for the well-being of husbands and children, with slogans suggesting "It Takes a Bright and Sparkling Flavor to Attract Children", "When a Man Says It's Good, It's Good", and "Wouldn 't I Be Silly to make It Myself?"

Campbell broadened the scope of its advertising by sponsoring radio programming, beginning in 1931 with the "Hollywood Hotel" program on CBS. Later radio sponsorships included the George Burns and Gracie Allen show, "Campbell Playhouse", "Amos and Andy", the "Jack Carson Show", "Hildegarde", and "Edward R. Murrow with the News", among others . The jingle "M'm M'm Good" was first aired during the radio broadcasts of this period, and was reinforced in the print advertising. Beginning in 1950, Campbell began to sponsor television shows, continuing its focus on women and children as primary purchasers and consumers of suop. Most notable among these sponsorships were "The Donna Reed Show" and "Lassie" . Print ads of the 1950s featuring Johnny Carson, Donna Reed, and the cast of the Lassie Show helped to reinforce the Company's sponsorship of these popular shows.

In 1954, Campbell moved its $10 million dollar condensed soup account from Ward Wheelock Company, the Philadelphia firm which had handled the account since 1910, to Batten, Barton, Durstine & Osborn (BBDO) of New York. By 1966, BBDO account executives urged "selective but not major" use of the Kids and the slogan "M'm M'm Good", choosing instead to employ advertising that stressed health claims and fitness issues rather than the wholesome, comforting associations of hot soup. The Kids became more athletic and less rotund.

Reflecting changes in American social and family structures Campbell' s advertising, began to depict the working wife and the busy schedules of a family "on the go". A 1960 ad declares "Good Things Begin to Happen When Working Girls Have Soup and Crackers" or "Somethings Happened to Supper". In light of the women 's movement, which was gaining momentum during this period, Campbell advertising remained decidedly traditional. In the 1970s, "Give Me the Campbell Life" recognized women 's expanded roles as working mothers, but "They Always Eat Better When You Remember the Soup" and "Get Your Campbells Worth" reveal a more conservative pitch to homemakers responsibilities. Other societal changes are suggested in the advertising, for instance, the "Soup is Good Food" and "Health Insurance" campaigns of the 1980s reflected a new emphasis on health and fitness.

In 1981 the company transferred the soup account to another New York firm, Backer Spielvogel and Bates . The 1980s saw a renewed emphasis on network primetime, strategic radio advertising (where ads for hot soup are tagged to reports of rain or snow, or are aired just before the noon lunch hour), and regional marketing of specialized products or packaging designed to appeal to local tastes and changing nutritional standards. These new products have engendered some changes in Campbell' s time-honored red and white label to emphasize the "new and improved" characteristics of the products

In 2015, Campbells developed the "Real Life" campaign. This campaign was groundbreaking in many ways. The commercials portrayed not only inter-racial couples but also a gay couple, two fathers and their son. This campaign had a product tie in with the 2015 release of the new installment in the motion picture franchise, Star Wars. The campaign received commentary from the public both pro and con. Campbells continued the campaign without revising or pulling any of its commercials. While running in selected markets, the campaign made nationwide headlines and pointed up the continuing change in the make-up of the American family.
Provenance:
Paul N. Mulcahy, V.P. Marketing Services, Campbell Soup Company,1990. Made for the National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution by the Center for Advertising History, 1989-1990.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Broadcast advertising  Search this
advertising -- Food  Search this
Soups -- advertising  Search this
Advertising agencies  Search this
Advertising departments  Search this
Advertising campaigns  Search this
Sex role in advertising  Search this
Radio advertising  Search this
Women in advertising  Search this
Television advertising  Search this
Art directors  Search this
Advertising executives  Search this
Genre/Form:
Clippings
Audiotapes -- 1980-1990
Interviews -- 1980-1990
Commercials
Ephemera -- 20th century
Videotapes
Oral history
Tear sheets
Citation:
Campbell Soup Advertising Oral History and Documentation Project, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0367
See more items in:
The Campbell Soup Advertising Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8b769193b-0861-4b41-89d1-8b6c8328534b
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0367
Online Media:

The "Pepsi Generation" Oral History and Documentation Collection

Topic:
Pepsi-Cola World
Pepsi-Cola (soft drink)
Creator:
Ellsworth, Scott, Dr.  Search this
Archives Center, National Museum of American History  Search this
Extent:
7.7 Cubic feet (32 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Audiocassettes
Commercials
Interviews
Oral history
Videotapes
Date:
1938-1986
Summary:
The Pepsi Generation Collection is the result of an oral history and documentation project conducted in 1984 and 1985 by the Center for Advertising History and supported in part by a grant from the Pepsi Cola Company.
Scope and Contents:
At the core of the "Pepsi Generation" Oral History and Documention Collection are oral history interviews with individuals involved with Pepsi-Cola and its advertising campaigns. In addition to the oral histories there are research files which include an almost complete run of Pepsi-Cola World, interview abstracts, print advertising, and television commercials from Pepsi's best-known advertising campaigns.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into five series

Series 1: Research Files, 1943-1985

Series 2: Interviewee Files, 1984-1985

Series 3: Oral History Interviews, 1984-1985

Subseries 3.1: Reference Copies, 1984-1985

Subseries 3.2: Master Tapes,1984-1985

Subseries 3.3: Original Tapes, 1984-1985

Series 4: Pepsi-Cola Video, 1946-1988

Subseries 4.1: Reference videos

Subseries 4.2: Master Copies

Series 5: Pepsi Cola Audio, circa 1970, undated
Biographical / Historical:
In 1983, as part of the 20th anniversary of the "Pepsi Generation" advertising campaign, Pepsi-Cola donated to the Archives Center approximately 200 advertising and promotional items (see collection AC0092). The Archives Center accepted these items and proposed an oral history project to document the "Pepsi Generation" story.

The Archives Center embarked upon this project in the spring of 1983. A professional oral historian, Dr. Scott Ellsworth, conducted twenty-nine interviews during 1984 and 1985 with twenty-six people involved in Pepsi advertising, including bottlers, advertising executives, producers, directors, a songwriter, a performer, a publisher, the president of Pepsi, the chairman of the board, and two former Pepsi presidents.

The interviews focus primarily on the "Come Alive, You're In The Pepsi Generation" advertising campaign, Pepsi's adoption of youth-oriented advertising, campaign execution, television commercial production, background of the idea for the "Think Young" campaign, and the company's response to the "Pepsi Generation"campaign.

The Pepsi Generation Collection is the result of this oral history and documentation project conducted in 1984 and 1985 by the Center for Advertising History and supported in part by a grant from the Pepsi Cola Company.
Related Materials:
Materials in the Archives Center

Warshaw Collection of Business Americana, Beverages

N.W. Ayer Advertising Agency Records

Pepsi-Cola Advertising Collection
Provenance:
Collection donated by Pepsi-Cola Company through Rebecca Madiera in 1983. Interviews made for the Smithsonian Institution in 1984 and 1985.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. One oral history is restricted. Only reference copies of the audiovisual materials may be used. Several reels of television commercials have been digitized and are available in the Smithsonian Institution's Digital Asset Management System (DAMS).
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Advertising agencies  Search this
Ambiguity in advertising  Search this
Marketing  Search this
Music in advertising  Search this
Prize contests in advertising  Search this
Broadcast advertising  Search this
advertising -- Beverages -- 1930-1990  Search this
Advertising writing  Search this
Television advertising  Search this
Product demonstrations  Search this
Youth-oriented advertising  Search this
Slogans  Search this
Genre/Form:
Audiocassettes
Commercials
Interviews -- 1980-2000
Oral history
Videotapes
Citation:
The "Pepsi Generation" Oral History and Documentation Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0111
See more items in:
The "Pepsi Generation" Oral History and Documentation Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8642412ae-81a3-4bd2-8080-c1a3ce4f732f
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0111
Online Media:

Radio Smithsonian Advertising program on Advertising History Collection and "More Bounce to the Ounce."

Collection Creator:
Ellsworth, Scott, Dr.  Search this
Archives Center, National Museum of American History  Search this
Container:
Box 28, Reel 5 and 6 combined
Type:
Archival materials
Scope and Contents:
Commercial with James Dean.
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. One oral history is restricted. Only reference copies of the audiovisual materials may be used. Several reels of television commercials have been digitized and are available in the Smithsonian Institution's Digital Asset Management System (DAMS).
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
The "Pepsi Generation" Oral History and Documentation Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
The "Pepsi Generation" Oral History and Documentation Collection
The "Pepsi Generation" Oral History and Documentation Collection / Series 4: Pepsi-Cola Video / 4.1: Reference Videos
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8dcd9b290-dd71-48be-abe8-5f2cf2731004
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0111-ref150

Radio Smithsonian program on Advertising History Collection

Collection Creator:
Ellsworth, Scott, Dr.  Search this
Archives Center, National Museum of American History  Search this
Extent:
1 Videocassettes (U-matic)
Container:
Box 30, Reel 6
Type:
Archival materials
Videocassettes (u-matic)
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. One oral history is restricted. Only reference copies of the audiovisual materials may be used. Several reels of television commercials have been digitized and are available in the Smithsonian Institution's Digital Asset Management System (DAMS).
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
The "Pepsi Generation" Oral History and Documentation Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
The "Pepsi Generation" Oral History and Documentation Collection
The "Pepsi Generation" Oral History and Documentation Collection / Series 4: Pepsi-Cola Video / 4.2: Master Copies
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep81a0c06a9-8f07-4e25-9123-7a21d27074e8
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0111-ref162

Materials gathered by the Center for Advertising History

Collection Creator:
Ellsworth, Scott, Dr.  Search this
Archives Center, National Museum of American History  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1941-1985, undated
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. One oral history is restricted. Only reference copies of the audiovisual materials may be used. Several reels of television commercials have been digitized and are available in the Smithsonian Institution's Digital Asset Management System (DAMS).
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
The "Pepsi Generation" Oral History and Documentation Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0111, Subseries 1.1
See more items in:
The "Pepsi Generation" Oral History and Documentation Collection
The "Pepsi Generation" Oral History and Documentation Collection / Series 1: Research Files
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8a8a24755-fc62-4043-8f17-0cc80410026f
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0111-ref256

Bibliography and trade literature

Collection Creator:
Ellsworth, Scott, Dr.  Search this
Archives Center, National Museum of American History  Search this
Container:
Box 1, Folder 1-8
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1962-1985
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. One oral history is restricted. Only reference copies of the audiovisual materials may be used. Several reels of television commercials have been digitized and are available in the Smithsonian Institution's Digital Asset Management System (DAMS).
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
The "Pepsi Generation" Oral History and Documentation Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
The "Pepsi Generation" Oral History and Documentation Collection
The "Pepsi Generation" Oral History and Documentation Collection / Series 1: Research Files / 1.1: Materials gathered by the Center for Advertising History
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8648dd734-1dee-4f7b-aa3c-ce9a46a9483d
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0111-ref257

Dreyfus, Carol and Thomas Connors. "Oral History and American Advertising: How the 'Pepsi Generation' Came Alive." International Journal of Oral History

Collection Creator:
Ellsworth, Scott, Dr.  Search this
Archives Center, National Museum of American History  Search this
Container:
Box 1, Folder 9
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. One oral history is restricted. Only reference copies of the audiovisual materials may be used. Several reels of television commercials have been digitized and are available in the Smithsonian Institution's Digital Asset Management System (DAMS).
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
The "Pepsi Generation" Oral History and Documentation Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
The "Pepsi Generation" Oral History and Documentation Collection
The "Pepsi Generation" Oral History and Documentation Collection / Series 1: Research Files / 1.1: Materials gathered by the Center for Advertising History
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep873b1ad13-9b3a-41f9-b671-9efe9bba3a69
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0111-ref258

National Soft Drink Association Sales Survey of the Soft Drink Industry,

Collection Creator:
Ellsworth, Scott, Dr.  Search this
Archives Center, National Museum of American History  Search this
Container:
Box 1, Folder 16
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. One oral history is restricted. Only reference copies of the audiovisual materials may be used. Several reels of television commercials have been digitized and are available in the Smithsonian Institution's Digital Asset Management System (DAMS).
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
The "Pepsi Generation" Oral History and Documentation Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
The "Pepsi Generation" Oral History and Documentation Collection
The "Pepsi Generation" Oral History and Documentation Collection / Series 1: Research Files / 1.1: Materials gathered by the Center for Advertising History
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep824d03cd1-87ac-41e1-b9f3-8b91d719c5ad
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0111-ref259

Martin, Milward W. Twelve Full Ounces. New York: Rinehart and Winston Holt,

Collection Creator:
Ellsworth, Scott, Dr.  Search this
Archives Center, National Museum of American History  Search this
Container:
Box 1, Folder 19
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
undated
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. One oral history is restricted. Only reference copies of the audiovisual materials may be used. Several reels of television commercials have been digitized and are available in the Smithsonian Institution's Digital Asset Management System (DAMS).
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
The "Pepsi Generation" Oral History and Documentation Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
The "Pepsi Generation" Oral History and Documentation Collection
The "Pepsi Generation" Oral History and Documentation Collection / Series 1: Research Files / 1.1: Materials gathered by the Center for Advertising History
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8d442e46d-a12a-46f9-8cad-d88bf1ab5734
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0111-ref260

Briefing Book

Collection Creator:
Ellsworth, Scott, Dr.  Search this
Archives Center, National Museum of American History  Search this
Container:
Box 1, Folder 20
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1984
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. One oral history is restricted. Only reference copies of the audiovisual materials may be used. Several reels of television commercials have been digitized and are available in the Smithsonian Institution's Digital Asset Management System (DAMS).
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
The "Pepsi Generation" Oral History and Documentation Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
The "Pepsi Generation" Oral History and Documentation Collection
The "Pepsi Generation" Oral History and Documentation Collection / Series 1: Research Files / 1.1: Materials gathered by the Center for Advertising History
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep896538fe5-b6d3-4965-b038-4798f5c50cd9
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0111-ref261

Mack, Walter. No Time Lost: The Autobiography of Walter Mack with Peter Buckley. New York: Atheneum,

Collection Creator:
Ellsworth, Scott, Dr.  Search this
Archives Center, National Museum of American History  Search this
Container:
Box 1, Folder 21
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. One oral history is restricted. Only reference copies of the audiovisual materials may be used. Several reels of television commercials have been digitized and are available in the Smithsonian Institution's Digital Asset Management System (DAMS).
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
The "Pepsi Generation" Oral History and Documentation Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
The "Pepsi Generation" Oral History and Documentation Collection
The "Pepsi Generation" Oral History and Documentation Collection / Series 1: Research Files / 1.1: Materials gathered by the Center for Advertising History
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep80b80f4e1-3409-4bf2-b24b-9aa5cbca64e4
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0111-ref262

The Federal Express Advertising History Collection

Interviewer:
Ellsworth, Scott, Dr.  Search this
Creator:
Smithsonian Institution  Search this
Fallon McElligott Advertising Agency  Search this
Federal Express Corporation  Search this
Names:
Ally & Gargano, Inc.  Search this
Collector:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History  Search this
Interviewee:
Ally, Carl  Search this
Altenburg, Nancy  Search this
Burnham, Patrick  Search this
Frazier, Sharon  Search this
Gargano, Amil  Search this
Kelly, Patrick  Search this
Miller, William B.  Search this
Moschitta, John (actor)  Search this
Oliver, Tom  Search this
Presley, Carol  Search this
Sedelmaier, Joe (filmmaker)  Search this
Smith, Fred  Search this
Tesch, Mike  Search this
Williams, Carl  Search this
Extent:
6.6 Cubic feet (20 boxes)
Container:
Map-folder 5
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Interviews
Oral history
Commercials
Videotapes
Clippings
Storyboards
Posters
Audiocassettes
Abstracts
Advertisements
Audiotapes
Place:
Memphis (Tenn.)
Minneapolis (Minn.)
Chicago (Ill.)
Hollywood (Los Angeles, Calif.)
Date:
1972-1989
Summary:
Created in 1971, the Federal Express Corporation, an overnight air freight delivery system was an innovative company known for its memorable advertising campaigns. The core of the Federal Express Advertising History Collection is a series of interviews conducted in 1988 by Dr. Scott Ellsworth. Twenty-five individuals associated with Federal Express advertising were interviewed about the company and its award-winning advertising.
Scope and Contents:
The Federal Express Advertising Collection documents the dvelopment of the overnight air freight delivery company with particular emphasis on the innovative advertising campaigns used to introduce and promote the company's services. The oral histories with individuals associated with both Federal Express Corporation and the advertising agencies form the core of the collection. Abstracts that provide biographical information and summaries of the interviews supplement the oral histories. Research files and company publications provide background information. Television commercials and print advertising contain examples, particularly illustrating the campaigns discussed in the interviews.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into eight series.

Series 1, Research Files, 1972-1988

Subseries 1.1, Federal Express Clippings Files

Subseries 1.2, Federal Express Research Reports

Subseries 1.3, Research Files

Series 2, Interviewee Files, 1988

Series 3, Oral History Interviews, 1988

Subseries 3.1, Original Interviews

Subseries 3.2, Researcher Copies

Subseries 3.3, Masters

Series 4, Television Advertising, 1973-1989

Subseries 4.1, Television Commercials

Subseries 4.2, Storyboards

Subseries 4.3, Slides and Photographs

Series 5, Print Advertising, 1972-1988

Subseries 5.1, Federal Express Print Advertising

Subseries 5.2, Federal Express Mechanicals

Subseries 5.3, Slides of Mechanicals and International Marketing

Subseries 5.4, Federal Express Posters

Subseries 5.5, Print Reference Materials

Series 6, Public Relations Materials, 1973-1988

Series 7, Company Publications, 1973-1988

Series 8, Miscellaneous, Undated
Biographical / Historical:
In 1971, Fred Smith of Memphis, Tennessee created the Federal Express Corporation, an overnight air freight delivery system. He based his idea for a new approach to the air freight delivery service on the "hub and spoke system." According to Smith's innovative model, a fleet of airplanes would fly packages from cities across the nation each evening to a central "hub" in Memphis, where the parcels would be unloaded, sorted, and re-loaded onto other planes for travel to their final destinations. Smith's objective was two-fold: to expedite delivery of the parcels and to ensure their security in the process.

In 1977, Congress passed the Air Cargo Deregulation Act. This enabled Federal Express to fly much larger planes and to expand its business without substantial capital investment. During its first decade of existence, the corporation achieved remarkable success, enjoying its first billion-dollar revenue in 1981.

Federal Express originally employed two advertising agencies: Ally & Gargano, Inc. of New York City (1974-1987) and Fallon McElligott of Minneapolis (1987 - 1994). In its early years, Federal Express was attracted to Ally & Gargano due to the agency's small size and its entrepreneurial spirit. Fred Smith believed these traits would foster the creativity necessary for original and effective advertising to introduce Federal Express. It was the responsibility of the agency to convince customers not only to abandon such incumbants in the industry as Emery, United Parcel Service and the U.S. Postal Service, but also to trust Federal Express, a newcomer.

Ally & Gargano targeted the professional community and the general public through print advertisements and television commercials. Especially in the latter medium, the agency used humor as its primary marketing technique, emphasizing competitors' "slowness" and "unreliability." In 1981, the agency launched a series of widely acclaimed ads with John Moschitta as the "Fast Talking Man." The slogan "When it absolutely, positively has to be there overnight" seen at the close of most commercials served as a practical reminder of Federal Express' function.

Federal Express moved its account from Ally & Gargano to Fallon McElligott in 1987. Fallon McElligott's first television campaign used the phrase "It's more than just a package -- it's your business" and depicted scenes of different work environments. The campaign stressed the seriousness with which Federal Express handled its customers' parcels. In 1988, Federal Express was a sponsor of the Winter Olympics.
Related Materials:
Materials in the Archives Center

Ally and Gargano, Inc. Print Advertisements (AC0938)
Provenance:
Made by the Smithsonian Institution and donated by the Federal Express Corporation, 1988.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Television advertising  Search this
Advertising campaigns  Search this
advertising -- History  Search this
Broadcast advertising  Search this
Service industries  Search this
Overnight delivery service  Search this
Aeronautics, Commercial -- Freight  Search this
Business -- History  Search this
Genre/Form:
Interviews -- 1970-1990
Oral history
Commercials
Videotapes
Clippings
Storyboards
Posters
Audiocassettes
Abstracts
Advertisements
Audiotapes
Citation:
The Federal Express Advertising History Collection, 1972-1989, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smiithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0306
See more items in:
The Federal Express Advertising History Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep86973c74c-876d-4304-bf50-71019342f829
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0306

Alka-Seltzer Documentation and Oral History Project

Creator:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History  Search this
Doyle Dane Bernbach.  Search this
Jack Tinker & Associates.  Search this
Manufacturer:
Alka-Seltzer  Search this
Names:
Miles Laboratories, Inc.  Search this
Miles, Franklin, Dr.  Search this
Interviewee:
Beals, Richard  Search this
Case, Eugene  Search this
Chaplin, Charles  Search this
Lawrence, Mary Wells  Search this
Interviewer:
Griffith, Barbara S., Dr.  Search this
Extent:
7 Cubic feet (17 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Videotapes
Audiocassettes
Publications
Commercials
Motion pictures (visual works)
Audiotapes
Business records
Place:
Elkhart (Ind.) -- 1950-1990
Date:
1953-1987
Summary:
The Alka-Seltzer Oral History and Documentation Project is a result of a one year effort supported, in part, by Miles Laboratories, Incorporated. Twenty-four oral history interviews and a variety of related materials were gathered to document Alka- Seltzer advertising, primarily from the mid-1950s to the 1980s. The project covers "Speedy" Alka-Seltzer, "Oh what a relief it is," "The Blahs," "Alka Seltzer on the rocks," and "I can't believe I ate the whole thing" campaigns
Scope and Contents:
Oral histories with individuals associated with Alka-Seltzer and its advertising campaigns are at the core of the Alka-Seltzer Documenation and Oral History Project. Conducted by Smithsonian Institution staff, the oral histories primarily examine Alka-Seltzer's innovative and memorable print and television commercials. Abstracts exist for each interview.The collection also includes background information, archival materials from Miles Laboratories, Inc., television commercials, storyboards, and company publications.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged in 8 series.

Series 1: Research Files, circa 1930-1986

Series 2: Interviewee Files, 1986-1987

Series 3: Oral Histories, 1986-1987

Subseries 3.1: Original Interviews

Subseries 3.2: Reference Cassettes

Subseries 3.3: Master Audio Tapes

Series 4: Miles Archives Materials, 1931-1980

Subseries 4.1: Marketing Research and Sales Data

Subseries 4.2: Alka-Seltzer Storyboards and History (Photocopies)

Subseries 4:3: Miles Advertising History and Oral History Program(photocopies)

Series 5: Company Publications, 1960-1986

Series 6: Photographs, circa 1950-1985

Series 7: Alka-Seltzer Posters, 1967-1986

Series 8: Audiovisual Materials

Subseries 8.1: Original Masters

Subseries 8.2: Reference Videos
Biographical / Historical:
The Alka-Seltzer Oral History and Documentation Project is a result of a one year effort supported, in part, by Miles Laboratories, Incorporated Twenty-four oral history interviews and a variety of related materials were gathered to document Alka- Seltzer advertising, primarily from the mid-1950s to the 1980s. The project covers "Speedy" Alka-Seltzer, "Oh what a relief it is," "The Blahs," "Alka Seltzer on the rocks," and "I can't believe I ate the whole thing" campaigns.

Miles Laboratories, Incorporated, the maker of Alka-Seltzer, and Wade Advertising of Chicago established a light-hearted advertising approach with the iconic puppet "Speedy", which had a tablet for a body and a smaller one for a hat. Speedy came to life through stop motion animation, a technique in which each of the puppet's movements was captured on a separate frame of film. The voice of Richard Beals made "Speedy" a distinctive character.

"Speedy" was a mainstay of Alka Seltzer advertising until 1964, when Miles,Incorporated took the account to Jack Tinker & Partners in New York. The agency's work for Alka-Seltzer embodied what came to be called advertising's "creative revolution," replacing the "talking heads" and "hard sell" of earlier advertising with humor, wit, and engaging storylines, even within the limits of a 30 second television spot. In 1969, the Alka Seltzer account went to Doyle, Dane, Bernbach, an agency which changed the look of print advertising during the early years of the "creative revolution." In 1970, Alka-Seltzer moved agencies to Wells, Rich, Greene, where the product's advertising came under the direction of Mary Wells Lawrence. Ms. Lawrence had worked on the Alka Seltzer account while at Tinker and continued Alka Seltzer's reputation for innovative and captivating work. In 1984 they shifted to McCann Erickson.
Provenance:
Collection donated by Miles Laboratories in 1988 and created by the Smithsonian Institution in 1986 and 1987.
Restrictions:
Researchers may use reference copies only. The interview with Charles Chaplin is restricted and may not be copied or quoted until his death.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
advertising -- History -- 1950-1990  Search this
Pharmaceutical industry -- 1950-1990  Search this
Television advertising  Search this
Medicine  Search this
Broadcast advertising  Search this
Business -- History  Search this
Genre/Form:
Videotapes
Audiocassettes
Publications -- Business
Commercials
Motion pictures (visual works) -- 20th century
Audiotapes -- 1950-2000
Business records -- 1950-2000
Citation:
Alka-Seltzer Oral History and Documentation Project, 1953-1987, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0184
See more items in:
Alka-Seltzer Documentation and Oral History Project
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8e8d1c49b-5195-455a-8b65-8d475f101290
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0184
Online Media:

Miles Archives Material

Collection Creator:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1931-1980
Scope and Contents:
The series is divided into three subseries which are Marketing Research and Sales Data, Alka Seltzer Storyboards, and Miles Advertising/Oral History Program.

The first subseries, Marketing Research and Sale Data, contains various marketing research and sale reports produced by Miles Laboratories.

The second subseries, Alka Seltzer Storyboards, contains advertising storyboards dating from 1952 to 1983. Also included is a two part history of Alka Seltzer advertising.

The third subseries, Miles Advertising/Oral History Program, contains the Miles advertising history and three notebooks containing transcripts from the Miles Oral History Program.
Collection Restrictions:
Researchers may use reference copies only. The interview with Charles Chaplin is restricted and may not be copied or quoted until his death.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Alka-Seltzer Oral History and Documentation Project, 1953-1987, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0184, Series 4
See more items in:
Alka-Seltzer Documentation and Oral History Project
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8ff490352-a6e5-4031-b16a-4b94e8509092
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0184-ref235

Miles Advertising History and Oral History Program (photocopies)

Collection Creator:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Restrictions:
Researchers may use reference copies only. The interview with Charles Chaplin is restricted and may not be copied or quoted until his death.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Alka-Seltzer Oral History and Documentation Project, 1953-1987, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0184, Subseries 5.3
See more items in:
Alka-Seltzer Documentation and Oral History Project
Alka-Seltzer Documentation and Oral History Project / Series 4: Miles Archives Material
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep807698c64-d3bb-4cfd-ad87-3fccdf2a4151
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0184-ref269

Miles Advertising History compilation

Collection Creator:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History  Search this
Container:
Box 11, Folder 1
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Restrictions:
Researchers may use reference copies only. The interview with Charles Chaplin is restricted and may not be copied or quoted until his death.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Alka-Seltzer Oral History and Documentation Project, 1953-1987, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Alka-Seltzer Documentation and Oral History Project
Alka-Seltzer Documentation and Oral History Project / Series 4: Miles Archives Material / 5.3: Miles Advertising History and Oral History Program (photocopies)
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep862d3df9d-d27c-43f1-a18d-c2cc9db58a6d
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0184-ref270

Miles Oral History Program I (selected transcripts)

Collection Creator:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History  Search this
Container:
Box 11, Folder 2
Type:
Archival materials
Scope and Contents:
Walter A. Compton, M.D.; William E. Koerting; Walter R. Lerner; Edward L. Miles
Collection Restrictions:
Researchers may use reference copies only. The interview with Charles Chaplin is restricted and may not be copied or quoted until his death.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Alka-Seltzer Oral History and Documentation Project, 1953-1987, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Alka-Seltzer Documentation and Oral History Project
Alka-Seltzer Documentation and Oral History Project / Series 4: Miles Archives Material / 5.3: Miles Advertising History and Oral History Program (photocopies)
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8a7c719d7-3bda-4d39-9142-0b84994a0d1c
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0184-ref271

Miles Oral History Program II (selected transcripts)

Collection Creator:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History  Search this
Container:
Box 11, Folder 3
Type:
Archival materials
Scope and Contents:
Manuel J. Perez
Collection Restrictions:
Researchers may use reference copies only. The interview with Charles Chaplin is restricted and may not be copied or quoted until his death.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Alka-Seltzer Oral History and Documentation Project, 1953-1987, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Alka-Seltzer Documentation and Oral History Project
Alka-Seltzer Documentation and Oral History Project / Series 4: Miles Archives Material / 5.3: Miles Advertising History and Oral History Program (photocopies)
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8183ab78b-2504-4b0b-b441-5574a848cc89
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0184-ref272

Miles Oral History Program III (selected transcripts)

Collection Creator:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History  Search this
Container:
Box 11, Folder 4
Type:
Archival materials
Scope and Contents:
Dick Beals; Harold Beeby; Perry Shupert; Henry Schmidt;A. G. (Jeff) Wade; and Treva Van Solinger
Collection Restrictions:
Researchers may use reference copies only. The interview with Charles Chaplin is restricted and may not be copied or quoted until his death.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Alka-Seltzer Oral History and Documentation Project, 1953-1987, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Alka-Seltzer Documentation and Oral History Project
Alka-Seltzer Documentation and Oral History Project / Series 4: Miles Archives Material / 5.3: Miles Advertising History and Oral History Program (photocopies)
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8936cca82-e73c-4022-8a19-82c25ad9f61d
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0184-ref273

[Alka-Seltzer Commercial Classics: b & w photoprint]

Creator:
Miles Laboratories, Inc.  Search this
Collection Creator:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (Silver gelatin on paper., 10.0" x 8.1")
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Date:
Circa 1980
Scope and Contents:
Frames from twelve classic commercials.
Arrangement:
In Center for Advertising History Collection black copy photo notebook page 317. Original color poster exists.
Local Numbers:
AC0184-0000002 (AC Scan No.)
Restrictions:
Unrestricted research use on site by appointment. Photographs must be handled with cotton gloves.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
advertising  Search this
Television advertising  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- 1950-2000 -- Color photoprints
Collection Citation:
Alka-Seltzer Oral History and Documentation Project, 1953-1987, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Alka-Seltzer Documentation and Oral History Project
Alka-Seltzer Documentation and Oral History Project / Series 7: Alka-Seltzer Posters / Alka Seltzer Commercial Classics
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8bff29d2b-c929-44e0-a4c7-45523f0fc850
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0184-ref824

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