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Henry J. Kaufman and Associates Records

Creator:
Luchs, Kenneth J.  Search this
Henry J. Kaufman and Associates (Washington, D.C.)  Search this
Names:
Kaufman, Henry J.  Search this
Extent:
2 Cubic feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Correspondence
Advertisements
Newsletters
Scrapbooks
Photographs
Date:
1930-1980
bulk 1930s-1970s
Summary:
Materials relating to Henry J. Kaufman, including photographs and ID cards; and the records of the Kaufman firm, including six scrapbooks, one for each decade; company newsletters, photographs, and other papers detailing the business history of the company as well as its social and other internal activities.
Scope and Contents note:
This collection consists of various business papers, personal papers, and advertising samples of Henry Kaufman and the Washington, D.C. advertising firm Henry J. Kaufman and Associates. The bulk of the collection consists of seven scrapbooks from the 1930s-1970s that detail the company's social and internal activities as well as business history. Researchers will find this collection particularly valuable for its insight into office culture and the ways in which it changes throughout the decades.

Series 1, Business Papers, 1930s-1980s, contains various business papers, photographs, and advertising samples relating to Henry J. Kaufman and Associates.

Subseries 1.1, Scrapbooks, 1930s-1970s, contains seven scrapbooks put together by Henry J. Kaufman and Associates. The scrapbooks contain press coverage of the firm, newspaper clippings relating to members of the company, information regarding clients and campaigns, photographs of company events, and examples of office humor and culture. Five of the scrapbooks are divided by decade, beginning with the 1930s and ending with the 1970s, but two of the books cover date ranges longer than one decade. The scrapbook contained in Box 5 is dedicated mainly to Kaufman's tenure as president of the Advertising Club of Metropolitan Washington, Incorporated. Several of the scrapbook pages have been disassembled, but there are numbered and photocopied pages to maintain the provenance of the collection. The folders labeled "Material" contain the material originally located on the disassembled scrapbook pages.

Subseries 1.2, Newsletters, 1933, circa 1958, 1968-75, 1978, contains editions of the company newsletter The Kaufman Report, an earlier newsletter entitled Corner Stone, and a direct mail piece.

Subseries 1.3, Advertising Campaigns, circa 1962-1990s, undated, contains an assortment of advertisements sponsored by Henry J. Kaufman and Associates. Highlights are the Porsche Corporation, The Wall Street Journal, and a portfolio of advertising samples from 1977-1979.

Subseries 1.4, Other Materials, 1951-1984, undated, contains a variety of business papers, correspondence, photographs, personnel lists, and press coverage related to the agency. Henry J. Kaufman and Associates relocated to the Canal Street Building in 1963, and a number of the documents and photographs in this subseries are related to the move.

Series 2, Kaufman's Personal Papers, 1950s-1990s, undated, contains information pertaining more to Henry J. Kaufman than to the company. The most substantive parts of the series are photographs of Kaufman and tributes relating to his birthdays and death.
Arrangement:
The collection is divided into two series.

Series 1, Business Papers, 1930s-1980s

Series 2, Kaufman's Personal Papers, 1950s-1990s, undated
Biographical/Historical note:
Henry J. Kaufman (1906-1997) founded his Washington, D.C. based advertising agency in 1929, only months before the stock market crash. Business in some companies was quite poor after the collapse, and many desperate executives were willing to risk money on advertising. The agency Henry J. Kaufman and Associates profited from the risk and grew rapidly, adding public relations and other services and eventually became the largest advertising firm in the Washington, D.C. area. The company had both local and national clients and campaigns, including the Porsche Corporation and the Society of American Florists. In addition to its print media, the agency was especially successful in the field of radio advertising, sponsoring an award in commercial radio announcing as well as regularly winning awards of its own. Kaufman was a member of the Advertising Club of Metropolitan Washington, Incorporated (known as the Ad Club) and served as president in the 1940s. He was considered the founder and "dean" of Washington, D.C. advertising and headed Henry J. Kaufman and Associates for fifty years until he sold it in the late 1970s. He stayed active in consulting work and acted as a mentor to others in the advertising field until his death in 1997. Kaufman and his wife Irma were married sixty-six years.
Related Materials:
Mateials in the Archives Center

NW Ayer Advertising Agency Records (NMAH.AC.0059)

Caroline R. Jones Collection (NMAH.AC.0552)
Provenance:
The collection was donated to the Archives Center in June 2003 by Mr. Kaufman's nephew, Kenneth J. Luchs.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research and access on site by appointment. Unprotected photographs must be handled with gloves.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Advertising agencies  Search this
advertising  Search this
Genre/Form:
Correspondence -- 20th century
Advertisements -- 20th century
Newsletters -- 20th century
Scrapbooks -- 20th century
Photographs -- 20th century
Citation:
Henry J. Kaufman and Associates Records, 1930s-1970s Archives Center, National Museum of American History. Gift of Kenneth J. Luchs.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0843
See more items in:
Henry J. Kaufman and Associates Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0843

Isabel Norniella Papers

Creator:
Norniella, Isabel, 1938-  Search this
Names:
McCann Erickson  Search this
Ole Television Network  Search this
Publitec  Search this
Extent:
4 Cubic feet (4 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Business records
Advertising
Newsletters
Letters (correspondence)
Photographs
Interviews
Clippings
Articles
Scrapbooks
Advertisements
Awards
Photograph albums
Date:
circa 1969-2005
Scope and Contents:
The papers document Norniella's life and career in the advertising field, and her Ole Television Network, and include business records, photographs, scrapbooks, photograph albums, advertising, clippings and articles, awards, newsletters, and publicity materials.
Arrangement:
Collection is unarranged.
Biographical / Historical:
Isabel Norniella was born in Cuba in 1938. She graduated with a degree in advertising management from the University of Puerto Rico. After working for several advertising firms, including McCann Erickson, she founded her own, Publitec, in 1969. Her firm has been much awarded, and has had clients including Stokely Van Camp, Cutty Sark, Uncle Ben's, and others. She has also done publicity work with several charities. In 1994 she founded the Ole Television Network.
Provenance:
Donated by Isabel Norniella to the Archives Center in 2017.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
advertising -- 20th century  Search this
Minority consumers  Search this
Advertising campaigns  Search this
Minorities in advertising  Search this
Advertising executives  Search this
advertising -- 21st century  Search this
Advertising history  Search this
Advertising agencies -- United States  Search this
Genre/Form:
Business records -- 20th century
Advertising -- 20th century
Newsletters -- 21st century
Letters (correspondence) -- 20th century.
Newsletters -- 20th century
Letters (correspondence) -- 21st century
Photographs -- 20th century
Interviews -- 21st century
Business records -- 21st century
Clippings -- 21st century
Clippings -- 20th century
Articles -- 20th century
Scrapbooks -- 20th century
Articles -- 21st century
Advertisements -- 21st century
Awards
Photographs -- 21st century
Advertisements -- 20th century
Photograph albums -- 20th century
Citation:
Isabel Norniella Papers, ca. 1969-2005, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1417
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1417
Online Media:

Charles Sheldon Papers

Vendor:
Kuenzig Books  Search this
Creator:
Sheldon, Charles Gates, 1899-1960  Search this
Breck Company.  Search this
Extent:
3.5 Cubic feet (3 boxes, 1 oversize folder)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Pastels (visual works)
Drawings
Business records
Advertisements
Photographs,
Appointment books
Newsletters
Yearbooks
Magazines (periodicals)
Theater programs
Date:
1902-1959
Scope and Contents:
The collection documents the work of Charles G. Sheldon, the illustrator who created beautiful images of women for the "Breck Girls" advertising campaign from 1936-1957. Includes photographs of sitters, Breck advertising materials, Breck Company internal publications and newsletters, magazines with cover illustrations by Sheldon, a high school yearbook, internal papers from the Breck Company relating to the Breck Girls campaign, theater programs for which Sheldon designed the covers, prints of the advertisements, and an original pastel drawing by Sheldon.
Arrangement:
Collection is unarranged.
Biographical / Historical:
Portrait artist, best known for his illustrations of women in the "Breck Girls" advertising campaign. He also created cover illustrations for magazines such as Radio Digest and Photoplay.
Provenance:
Purchased by the Archives Center in 2017 from Kuenzig Books of Topsfield, Mass. Mr. Kuenzig recently purchased the collection from a Massachusetts dealer who had purchased it directly from the Sheldon family around 1997.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Commercial art  Search this
Beauty culture  Search this
Feminine beauty (Aesthetics)  Search this
advertising  Search this
Genre/Form:
Pastels (visual works)
Drawings
Business records -- 20th century
Advertisements -- 20th century
Photographs, -- Black-and-white photoprints -- 1930-1960
Appointment books -- 1930-1940
Newsletters -- 20th century
Yearbooks -- 20th century
Magazines (periodicals) -- 20th century
Theater programs -- 20th century
Citation:
Charles Sheldon Papers, 1902-1959, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1423
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1423

Hector and Norma Orcí Advertising Agency Records

Creator:
Orci, Hector  Search this
Orci, Norma  Search this
Orci Advertising Agency  Search this
Names:
McCann Erickson  Search this
Extent:
3.5 Cubic feet (10 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Letters (correspondence)
Born digital
Newsletters
Business records
Clippings
Photographs
Training manuals
Slides (photographs)
Programs
Reports
Advertisements
Awards
Oral history
Advertising
Date:
1979-2016, undated
Summary:
The Hector and Norma Orcí Advertising Agency Records document the history, educational, and creative output produced by Hector and Norma Orcí throughout their extensive career in advertising. The Orcís founded their own independent agency in 1986 in Los Angeles. The Orcí Advertising Agency successfully introduced various products to Latinos in the United States and developed a reputation as one of the top advertising agencies to understand the US Latino market. The collection showcases the agency's history and awards, advertising and marketing campaigns, and its role in educating advertising agencies on the importance of the US Latino market.
Scope and Contents:
The collection documents the Orcí Advertising Agency and its work in helping clients market their products to U.S. Latinos, its marketing methods and creative philosophy, and its role in educating other advertising companies about the Latino consumer market in the United States. The collection includes the founding and history of the agency, business records, awards and press clippings, training materials for staff, reports on the US Latino market for various products, training and curriculum materials for a UCLA Extension course on advertising in the US Latino market, account reports, conference materials, slides and photographs, and campaigns and advertising materials developed for clients such as Allstate, Honda, and Pepsi. Video footage of Spanish-language commercials developed by the Orcí Advertising Agency is also part of the collection.
Arrangement:
The collection is divided into five series.

Series 1: Background Materials, 1979-2010, undated

Series 2: Advertising and Marketing Materials, 1986-2003, undated

Series 3: Teaching Materials, 1985-2012, undated

Series 4: Conference Materials, 1984-1999, undated

Series 5: Audiovisual Materials, 1986-2016
Biographical / Historical:
Once employees of La Agencía de McCann-Erickson advertising company, Hector and Norma Orcí founded their own independent agency in 1986. The Orcí Advertising Agency, also known as La Agencía de Orcí & Asociados, is based in Los Angeles. Since its inception, the Orcí Advertising Agency has devoted itself to US Latino marketing and teaching other advertising agencies how to effectively advertise and sell products to US Latinos. The Orcís quickly developed an impressive roster of successful campaigns for major clients and continue to be a well-respected agency in the advertising sector.
Separated Materials:
The Division of Work and Industry holds the following artifacts related to this collection:

Virgin of Guadalupe Painting, Accession #: 2015.0306.01

INS Eagle Painting, Accession #: 2015.0306.02

Don Quixote Figurine, Accession #: 2015.0306.03
Provenance:
Collection donated by Hector and Norma Orcí, 2016.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Hispanic American businesspeople  Search this
Hispanic American leadership  Search this
Hispanic American consumers  Search this
Mexican American leadership  Search this
mexican Americans and mass media  Search this
advertising -- Beer -- 1950-2000  Search this
Mexican American business enterprises  Search this
advertising -- 21st century  Search this
Advertising campaigns  Search this
Hispanic American business enterprises  Search this
advertising -- Beverages  Search this
Hispanic American capitalists and financiers  Search this
Advertising history  Search this
advertising -- Soft drinks  Search this
Advertising executives  Search this
Hispanic Americans and mass media  Search this
Advertising agencies -- United States  Search this
Minority consumers  Search this
advertising -- Automobiles  Search this
Hispanic American businesswomen  Search this
Minorities in advertising  Search this
Latinos in American society and culture  Search this
Hispanic Americans -- Press coverage  Search this
Genre/Form:
Letters (correspondence) -- 20th century.
Letters (correspondence) -- 21st century
Letters (correspondence) -- 21st century
Born digital
Newsletters -- 21st century
Business records -- 21st century
Clippings -- 20th century
Photographs -- 20th century
Training manuals -- 21st century
Slides (photographs) -- 20th century
Programs -- 20th century
Clippings -- 21st century
Newsletters -- 20th century
Programs -- 21st century
Reports -- 21st century
Slides (photographs) -- 21st century
Reports -- 20th century
Advertisements -- 21st century
Training manuals -- 20th century
Awards
Business records -- 20th century
Oral history -- 2010-2020
Advertising -- 20th century
Photographs -- 21st century
Advertisements -- 20th century
Citation:
Hector and Norma Orcí Advertising Agency Records, 1979-2016, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1384
See more items in:
Hector and Norma Orcí Advertising Agency Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1384
Online Media:

Alka-Seltzer Documentation and Oral History Project

Creator:
Archives Center, NMAH, SI.  Search this
Doyle Dane Bernbach.  Search this
Jack Tinker & Associates.  Search this
Manufacturer:
Alka-Seltzer  Search this
Names:
Miles Laboratories, Inc.  Search this
Miles, Franklin, Dr.  Search this
Interviewee:
Beals, Richard  Search this
Case, Eugene  Search this
Chaplin, Charles  Search this
Lawrence, Mary Wells  Search this
Interviewer:
Griffith, Barbara S., Dr.  Search this
Extent:
16 Boxes
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Videotapes
Audiocassettes
Publications
Commercials
Motion pictures (visual works)
Audiotapes
Business records
Place:
Elkhart (Ind.) -- 1950-1990
Date:
1953-1987
Summary:
The Alka-Seltzer Oral History and Documentation Project is a result of a one year effort supported, in part, by Miles Laboratories, Incorporated. Twenty-four oral history interviews and a variety of related materials were gathered to document Alka- Seltzer advertising, primarily from the mid-1950s to the 1980s. The project covers "Speedy" Alka-Seltzer, "Oh what a relief it is," "The Blahs," "Alka Seltzer on the rocks," and "I can't believe I ate the whole thing" campaigns
Scope and Contents:
Oral histories with individuals associated with Alka-Seltzer and its advertising campaigns are at the core of the Alka-Seltzer Documenation and Oral History Project. Conducted by Smithsonian Institution staff, the oral histories primarily examine Alka-Seltzer's innovative and memorable print and television commercials. Abstracts exist for each interview.The collection also includes background information, archival materials from Miles Laboratories, Inc., television commercials, storyboards, and company publications.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged in 8 series.

Series 1: Research Files, circa 1930-1986

Series 2: Interviewee Files, 1986-1987

Series 3: Oral Histories, 1986-1987

Subseries 3.1: Original Interviews

Subseries 3.2: Reference Cassettes

Subseries 3.3: Master Audio Tapes

Series 4: Miles Archives Materials, 1931-1980

Subseries 4.1: Marketing Research and Sales Data

Subseries 4.2: Alka-Seltzer Storyboards and History (Photocopies)

Subseries 4:3: Miles Advertising History and Oral History Program(photocopies)

Series 5: Company Publications, 1960-1986

Series 6: Photographs, circa 1950-1985

Series 7: Alka-Seltzer Posters, 1967-1986

Series 8: Audiovisual Materials

Subseries 8.1: Original Masters

Subseries 8.2: Reference Videos
Biographical / Historical:
The Alka-Seltzer Oral History and Documentation Project is a result of a one year effort supported, in part, by Miles Laboratories, Incorporated Twenty-four oral history interviews and a variety of related materials were gathered to document Alka- Seltzer advertising, primarily from the mid-1950s to the 1980s. The project covers "Speedy" Alka-Seltzer, "Oh what a relief it is," "The Blahs," "Alka Seltzer on the rocks," and "I can't believe I ate the whole thing" campaigns.

Miles Laboratories, Incorporated, the maker of Alka-Seltzer, and Wade Advertising of Chicago established a light-hearted advertising approach with the iconic puppet "Speedy", which had a tablet for a body and a smaller one for a hat. Speedy came to life through stop motion animation, a technique in which each of the puppet's movements was captured on a separate frame of film. The voice of Richard Beals made "Speedy" a distinctive character.

"Speedy" was a mainstay of Alka Seltzer advertising until 1964, when Miles,Incorporated took the account to Jack Tinker & Partners in New York. The agency's work for Alka-Seltzer embodied what came to be called advertising's "creative revolution," replacing the "talking heads" and "hard sell" of earlier advertising with humor, wit, and engaging storylines, even within the limits of a 30 second television spot. In 1969, the Alka Seltzer account went to Doyle, Dane, Bernbach, an agency which changed the look of print advertising during the early years of the "creative revolution." In 1970, Alka-Seltzer moved agencies to Wells, Rich, Greene, where the product's advertising came under the direction of Mary Wells Lawrence. Ms. Lawrence had worked on the Alka Seltzer account while at Tinker and continued Alka Seltzer's reputation for innovative and captivating work. In 1984 they shifted to McCann Erickson.
Provenance:
Collection donated by Miles Laboratories in 1988 and created by the Smithsonian Institution in 1986 and 1987.
Restrictions:
Researchers may use reference copies only. The interview with Charles Chaplin is restricted and may not be copied or quoted until his death.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
advertising -- History -- 1950-1990  Search this
Pharmaceutical industry -- 1950-1990  Search this
Television advertising  Search this
Medicine  Search this
Broadcast advertising  Search this
Business -- History  Search this
Genre/Form:
Videotapes
Audiocassettes
Publications -- Business
Commercials
Motion pictures (visual works) -- 20th century
Audiotapes -- 1950-2000
Business records -- 1950-2000
Citation:
Alka-Seltzer Oral History and Documentation Project, 1953-1987, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0184
See more items in:
Alka-Seltzer Documentation and Oral History Project
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0184
Online Media:

Breck Girls Collection

Creator:
Williams, Ralph William  Search this
Breck Company.  Search this
Dial Corporation.  Search this
American Cyanamid Company  Search this
Sheldon, Charles  Search this
Names:
Basinger, Kim  Search this
Gray, Erin  Search this
Hamill, Joan  Search this
Shields, Brooke  Search this
Tiegs, Cheryl  Search this
Extent:
6.5 Cubic feet (16 boxes, 188 pieces of original artwork)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Pastels (visual works)
Advertisements
Business records
Date:
circa 1936-1995
Summary:
The collection documents the development and evolution of the Breck Girl, a highly successful and long-lived advertising campaign whose hallmark was its vision of idealized American womanhood through correspondence, photographs, paintings, and print advertisements.
Scope and Contents:
188 pieces of original advertising art (mostly pastel drawings), and photographs, correspondence, and business records, documenting the development and evolution of the Breck Girls advertising campaign. Original advertising art includes portraits of famous models, such as Cheryl Tiegs, Brooke Shields, Kim Basinger, and Erin Gray. Artists represented include Charles Sheldon and Ralph William Williams. The 2006 addendum consists of approximately one sixth of one cubic foot of papers relating to Cynthia Brown's selection as a Breck Girl, 1988 and her induction into the Breck Hall of Fame.
Arrangement:
Collection divided into four series.

Series 1: Company history, 1946-1990

Series 2: Photographs, 1960-1995

Series 3: Print ads, 1946-1980

Series 4: Original artwork, 1936-1994
Biographical / Historical:
Dr. John Breck is credited with developing one of the first liquid shampoos in the United States, in Springfield Massachusetts in 1908; Breck is also credited with introducing the first ph-balanced shampoo, in 1930. During the early years of the business, distribution remained localized in New England, and the product was sold exclusively to beauty salons until 1946. Advertising for the brand began in 1932, but appeared only in trade publications, such as Modern Beauty Shop.

Edward Breck, son of the founder, assumed management of the company in 1936. Breck became acquainted with Charles Sheldon, an illustrator and portrait painter who is believed to have studied in Paris under Alphonse Mucha, an artist noted for his contributions to Art Nouveau style. Sheldon had achieved some measure of fame for his paintings of movie stars for the cover of Photoplay magazine in the 1920s, and had also done idealized pastel portraits for the cover of Parents magazine. He created his first pastel portraits for Breck in 1936, launching what would become one of America's longest running ad campaigns. When the company began national advertising (and mass distribution) in 1946, the campaign featured Sheldon's 1937 painting of seventeen-year old Roma Whitney, a spirited blonde. Ms. Whitney's profile was registered as Breck's trademark in 1951. When he retired in 1957, Sheldon had created 107 oil paintings and pastels for the company. Sheldon was known to favor ordinary women over professional models, and in the early years of the campaign, the Breck Girls were Breck family members, neighbors or residents of the community in which he worked; company lore holds that nineteen Breck Girls were employees of the advertising agency he founded in 1940. A Breck advertising manager later described Sheldon's illustrations as, "illusions, depicting the quality and beauty of true womanhood using real women as models." The paintings and pastels form a coherent, if derivative, body of work which celebrates an idealized vision of American girlhood and womanhood, an ideal in which fair skin, beauty and purity are co-equal.

Ralph William Williams was hired to continue the Breck Girls campaign after Sheldon's retirement. Between 1957 and his death in 1976, Williams modified the Breck Girl look somewhat through the use of brighter colors and a somewhat heightened sense of movement and individuality. The advertising manager during his tenure recalled that Aat first Williams continued in Sheldon' manner, but in later years, as women became more independent, he would take care to integrate each girl' particular personality; he studied each girl and learned her special qualities. During these years, Breck Girls were identified through the company's sponsorship of America's Junior Miss contests. Williams work includes pastels of celebrities Cybil Shepard (1968 Junior Miss from Tennessee), Cheryl Tiegs (1968), Jaclyn Smith (1971, 1973), Kim Basinger (1972, 1974) and Brooke Shields (1974) very early in their careers.

By the 1960s, at the height of its success, Breck held about a twenty percent share of the shampoo market and enjoyed a reputation for quality and elegance. Ownership of the company changed several times (American Cyanamid in 1963; Dial Corporation in 1990). The corresponding fluctuations in management of the company and in advertising expenditures tended to undermine the coherence of the national advertising campaign. In addition, despite William's modifications, the image had become dated. Attempts to update the image misfired, further limiting the brand's coherence and effectiveness. Finally, increased competition and an absence of brand loyalty among consumers through the 1970s and 1980s helped push Breck from its number one position into the bargain bin. The Breck Girl campaign was discontinued around 1978, although there have been at least two minor revivals, first in 1992 with the Breck Girls Hall of Fame, and again in 1995 when a search was begun to identify three new Breck Women. Scope and Content: The 188 pieces of original advertising art (62 oil paintings on board, 2 pencil sketches on paper, and 124 pastels on paper) and related photographs, correspondence and business files in this collection document the development and evolution of the Breck Girl, a highly successful and long-lived advertising campaign whose hallmark was its vision of idealized American womanhood. The collection is a perfect fit with other 20th century Archives Center collections documenting the efforts of American business to reach the female consumer market. The Estelle Ellis Collection (advertising and promotions for Seventeen, Charm, Glamour and House & Garden and many other clients) the Cover Girl Collection (make-up), the Maidenform Collection (brassieres), and the Tupperware Collections offer a prodigious body of evidence for understanding the role women were expected to play as consumers in the 20th century.

These advertising images also offer fertile ground for research into the evolution of popular images of American girlhood and womanhood. The research uses of the collection derive primarily from its value as an extensive visual catalog of the ideal types of American women and girls, arising and coalescing during a period in which 19th century ideals of womanhood were being revisited (the depression, the war years, the immediate post-war period) and continuing, with slight modifications and revisions, through several decades during which those historical ideals were being challenged and revised.
Related Materials:
Several items of packaging, 1930s-1980s are held in the former Division of Home and Community Life; an 18k gold Breck insignia pin is in the former. See Accession #:
Provenance:
The Dial Corporation through Jane Owens, Senior Vice President, Gift, June 1998.
Restrictions:
Original artwork stored at an off-site facility. Contact the Archives Center staff for access.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Shampoos -- advertising  Search this
Hair -- Shampooing  Search this
advertising -- 20th century  Search this
Feminine beauty (Aesthetics)  Search this
Beauty contestants  Search this
Beauty culture  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- Black-and-white photoprints -- Silver gelatin -- 1950-2000
Pastels (visual works)
Advertisements -- 20th century
Business records -- 20th century
Citation:
Breck Girls Collection, ca. 1936-1995, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0651
See more items in:
Breck Girls Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0651
Online Media:

Cover Girl Advertising Oral History and Documentation Project

Creator:
Bunting, George L., Jr.  Search this
Brinkley, Christie  Search this
Ellsworth, Scott, Dr.  Search this
Colonel, Sheri  Search this
Giordano, Lynn  Search this
Ford, Eileen  Search this
Hall, L. C. "Bates"  Search this
Grathwohl, Geraldine  Search this
Huebner, Dick  Search this
Harrison, Fran  Search this
Lindsay, Robert  Search this
Hunt, William D.  Search this
McIver, Karen  Search this
MacDougall, Malcolm  Search this
Noble, Stan  Search this
Nash, Helen  Search this
Noxell Corporation.  Search this
Bergin, John  Search this
O'Neill, Jennifer  Search this
Oelbaum, Carol  Search this
Pelligrino, Nick  Search this
Poris, George  Search this
Roberts, F. Stone  Search this
Tiegs, Cheryl  Search this
Troup, Peter  Search this
Weithas, Art  Search this
Witt, Norbert  Search this
Names:
Noxzema Chemical Company  Search this
Extent:
15.5 Cubic feet (30 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Interviews
Business records
Audiotapes
Bumper stickers
Annual reports
Oral history
Photographs
Press releases
Scrapbooks
Television scripts
Videotapes
Tear sheets
Place:
Hunt Valley (Maryland)
Baltimore (Md.)
Maryland
Date:
1959-1990
Summary:
The Cover Girl Make-Up Advertising Oral History and Documentation Project, 1923-1991, is the result of a year-long study in 1990, which examined the advertising created for Noxell Corporation's Cover Girl make-up products from 1959 to 1990. The objective of the project was to document, in print and electronic media, the history of Cover Girl make-up advertising since its inception in 1959.
Scope and Contents:
Twenty-two oral history interviews (conducted by Dr. Scott Ellsworth for the Archives Center) and a variety of print and television advertisements, photographs, scrapbooks, personal papers, business records and related materials were gathered by the Center for Advertising History staff. The objective was to create a collection that provides documentation, in print and electronic media, of the history and development of advertising for Cover Girl make-up since its inception in 1959.

Collection also includes earlier material related to other Noxell products, including Noxzema, with no direct connection to the Cover Girl campaign.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into eight series.

Series 1: Research Files

Series 2: Interviewee Files

Series 3: Oral History Interviews

Series 4: Television Advertising Materials

Series 5: Print Advertising Materials

Series 6: Company Publications and Promotional Literature

Series 7: Photographs

Series 8: Scrapbooks
Biographical / Historical:
George Avery Bunting founded the Noxzema Chemical Company in Baltimore, Maryland in 1917. In the 1890s, he left behind a teaching job on Maryland's Eastern shore to move to Baltimore, where he hoped to pursue a career as a pharmacist. He landed a job as errand boy and soda jerk at a local drugstore, where he worked while attending classes at the University Of Maryland College of Pharmacy. Valedictorian of the Class of 1899, Bunting was promoted to manager of the drugstore, which he purchased. Bunting began to experiment with the formulation of medicated pastes and compounds, which he marketed to his customers. In 1909, he began refining a medicated vanishing cream, which he introduced in 1914. "Dr. Bunting's Sunburn Remedy," an aromatic skin cream containing clove oil, eucalyptus oil, lime water, menthol and camphor, was mixed by hand at his pharmacy. Marketed locally as a greaseless, medicated cream for the treatment of a variety of skin conditions, including sunburn, eczema, and acne, the product was renamed "Noxzema" for its reputed ability to "knock eczema." By 1917, the Noxzema Chemical Company was formed. During the 1920s, distribution of the product was expanded to include New York, Chicago, and the Midwest and, by 1926, the first Noxzema manufactory was built in northwest Baltimore to accommodate the demand for nearly a million jars a year.

Having achieved a national market by 1938, Noxzema Chemical Company executives pursued product diversification as a means to maintain the corporate growth of the early years. In the 1930s and 1940s, line extensions included shaving cream, suntan lotion and cold cream, all with the distinctive "medicated" Noxzema aroma.

In the late 1950s, Bill Hunt, director of product development at Noxzema, suggested a line extension into medicated make-up. Creatives at Sullivan, Stauffer, Colwell & Bayles, Incorporated (SSC&B), Noxzema's advertising agency since 1946, suggested that the advertising for the new product focus on beauty and glamour with some reference to the medicated claims made for other Noxzema products. In contrast to other cosmetics, which were sold at specialized department store counters, Noxzema's medicated make-up would be marketed alongside other Noxzema products in grocery stores and other mass distribution outlets. After experimenting with names that suggested both glamour and the medicated claims (including Thera-Blem and Blema-Glow), Bill Grathwohl, Noxell's advertising director, selected Carolyn Oelbaum's "Cover Girl," which conveyed the product's usefulness as a blemish cover-up, while invoking the glamorous image of fashion models. These three elements of the advertising, wholesome glamour, mass marketing, and medicated make-up, remain central to Cover Girl advertising nearly a half-century later.

Beginning with the national launch in 1961, American and international fashion models were featured in the ads. The target audience was identified as women between eighteen and fifty-four and, initially, the "glamour" ads were targeted at women's magazines, while the "medicated" claims were reserved for teen magazines. Television ads featured both elements. Cover Girl advertising always featured beautiful women -- especially Caucasian women, but the Cover Girl image has evolved over time to conform to changing notions of beauty. In the late 1950s and 1960s, the Cover Girl was refined and aloof, a fashion conscious sophisticate. By the 1970s, a new social emphasis on looking and dressing "naturally" and the introduction of the "Clean Make-up" campaign created a new advertising focus on the wholesome glamour of the "girl next door," a blue-eyed, blonde all-American image. In the 1980s, the Cover Girl look was updated to include African-American, Hispanic and working women.

In January 1970, SSC&B bought 49% of the Lintas Worldwide advertising network. After SSC&B was acquired by the Interpublic Group of Companies in 1979, the entire Lintas operation was consolidated under the name SSC&B/Lintas in 1981. With the Procter & Gamble buy-out of the Noxell Corporation in September 1989, the cosmetics account was moved to long-time P&G agency Grey Advertising, in order to circumvent a possible conflict of interest between P&G competitor Unilever, another Lintas account. In 1989 SSC&B/Lintas, Cover Girl's agency since its launch in 1961, lost the account it helped to create and define, but the brand continues to dominate mass-marketed cosmetics.

This project is the result of a year-long study of advertising created for the Noxell Corporation's Cover Girl make-up products, 1959-1990. The effort was supported in part by a grant from the Noxell Corporation. The target audience was identified as women 18-54, and initially, the "glamour" ads were targeted at women's magazines, while the "medicated" claims were reserved for teen magazines. Television ads featured both elements. Cover Girl advertising has always featured beautiful women (especially Caucasian women), but the Cover Girl image evolved over time to conform with changing notions of beauty. In the late 1950s-1960s, the Cover Girl was refined and aloof, a fashion conscious sophisticate. By the 1970s, a new social emphasis on looking and dressing "naturally" and the introduction of the "Clean Make-up" campaign created a new advertising focus on the wholesome glamour of the "girl next door," a blue-eyed, blonde all-American image. Through the 1980s, the Cover Girl look was updated to include African-American and Hispanic models and images of women at work.
Related Materials:
Materials in the Archives Center

Warshaw Collection of Business Americana (AC0060)

N W Ayer Advertising Agency Records (AC0059)
Separated Materials:
The Division of Home and Community Life, Costume Collection holds eighty-six cosmetic items and one computer that were also donated by the Noxell Corporation in 1990 in conjunction with the oral history project. These artifacts include lipstick, manicure sets, brushes, make-up, eye shadow, blush, powder puffs, eyelash curler, nail polish, and mascara. See accession number 1990.0193.
Provenance:
Most of the materials in the collection were donated to the Center for Advertising History by the Noxell Corporation, 1990. All storyboards and videoscripts, and a large collection of business records and proofsheets were donated by George Poris in June 1990. All mechanicals were donated by Art Weithas in June 1990. (These contributions are noted in the finding aid).
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Researchers must handle unprotected photographs with gloves. Researchers must use reference copies of audio-visual materials. When no reference copy exists, the Archives Center staff will produce reference copies on an "as needed" basis, as resources allow.
Rights:
Copyright and trademark restrictions.
Topic:
Women in advertising  Search this
advertising -- 1930-1940 -- California  Search this
Cosmetics -- advertising  Search this
Endorsements in advertising  Search this
Beauty culture  Search this
advertising -- 1950-2000  Search this
African American women -- Beauty culture  Search this
Modelling -- 1950-1990  Search this
Sex role in advertising  Search this
Radio advertising  Search this
Television advertising  Search this
Genre/Form:
Interviews -- 1950-2000
Business records -- 20th century
Audiotapes
Bumper stickers
Annual reports
Oral history -- 1990-2000
Photographs -- Black-and-white photoprints -- Silver gelatin -- 1950-2000
Press releases
Scrapbooks -- 20th century
Television scripts
Videotapes
Tear sheets
Citation:
Cover Girl Advertising Oral History & Documentation Project, 1959-1990, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0374
See more items in:
Cover Girl Advertising Oral History and Documentation Project
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0374
Online Media:

Andy Granatelli Collection

Creator:
Granatelli, Andy, 1923-2013  Search this
Grancor Automotive Specialists  Search this
Hurricane Hot Rod Association  Search this
Studebaker Corporation  Search this
Donor:
Granatelli, Vincent  Search this
Names:
Indianapolis Speedway Race  Search this
Extent:
66 Cubic feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Advertisements
Business records
Clippings
Correspondence
Design drawings
Drawings
Financial records
Legal records
Minutes
Photographs
Scrapbooks
Speeches
Date:
1940s-1990s
Scope and Contents:
The collection documents Granatelli's lifelong involvement with automobiles, from his youth through his career as an auto industry executive, and as a racing car owner, designer and promoter. The collection consists primarily of files, photographs, scrapbooks, and drawings. Some of the earliest files relate to Grancor, a company founded by Granatelli and his two brothers in 1945, which customized cars for clients. Other things contained in the files include meeting minutes, articles of association, business and financial records, legal records and profit and loss statements. Also included in the files are papers relating to an organization he started called the Hurricane Hot Rod Association. A large portion of the files relate to Granatelli's term as President of STP, a division of the Studebaker Corporation, from 1961-1974. These files detail the internal workings of the company during this period, and include papers relating to such things as strategic planning, sales, marketing, advertising and competitors' products. Additionally, this portion contains STP's Board of Directors' minutes, documents on policies and procedures, papers documenting advertising campaigns, comparative sales figures, sales manuals, and Granatelli's business correspondence. The largest part of the files relates to the Indianapolis 500 race. There are detailed files on the drivers and race teams he assembled for the annual race, but these files also include design drawings, specifications, test data, lap logs, performance statistics, and reports documenting the implementation of design changes. The scrapbooks in the collection contain clippings, biographical materials, and other documents relating to auto racing in America and especially the Indianapolis 500. Finally, the collection contains a large number of photographs covering all aspects of Granatelli's career.
Arrangement:
Collection is unarranged.
Biographical / Historical:
Andy Granatelli (1923-2013) was an automobile racing promoter, a race car engine designer and an automotive innovator. Two of his cars, a 1967 turbine engine race car and the 1969 Indy 500 winner, are in NMAH's Work & Industry collection. More than any other racing figure, Granatelli bridged the realms of garage tinkerers and professional motorsports, and he stimulated public interest in auto racing on a national level. His STP Corporation became a high-profile sponsor of Indianapolis 500 and NASCAR race cars, with Granatelli appearing in ads and commercials. His larger-than-life personality and flair for the dramatic made him an American cultural phenomenon. His career is well summed up in the profile written for his 2003 induction into the Automotive Hall of Fame:

Racer, entrepreneur, engineer, promoter, business executive. This is how one begins to describe the career of Andy Granatelli. But the title Mister 500 is the one that befits him most, for it describes a lifelong dream to conquer the famous 500-mile race in Indianapolis.

It was a preposterous dream for the scrappy kid growing up in the slums of Chicago, whose mother had died when he was twelve, and two years later, at the age of fourteen, dropped out of school to help his father feed the family. Andy Granatelli began his quest for Indy 500 fame at the age of 20 in 1943, when he and his brother pooled their meager, hard-earned money and purchased a Texaco gas station on the north side of Chicago, which he called Andy's Super Service. Andy, always the promoter, needed a gimmick to set himself apart from other service stations. His gimmick? Granatelli initiated the first pit stop service station, utilizing four or five mechanics to work on a car at one time.

Customers appreciated the true super service experience and would often wait in line for this unique treatment. With this unique service and Andy's P.T. Barnum style it was no wonder that the station was prosperous, and just two years later, in 1945, he formed the Granatelli Corporation, known as Grancor Automotive Specialists. As the head of Grancor, Andy Granatelli pioneered the concept of mass merchandising performance products and power and speed equipment to a generation of Americans who were discovering the joys of hot rodding.

Andy quickly learned that if you give the customer what he needs, you can make a living; give him what he wants, and you can make a fortune! Granatelli's racing career began in 1946, when he built the first rocket-powered car to race on an oval track. That same year, he took his first car to the Indianapolis 500 -a pre-war Harry Miller- designed Ford.

When Andy Granatelli wasn't burning up tracks, he was tearing up the business world. In 1958, Andy and his brother Joe purchased Paxton Products, a failing engineering firm that made superchargers. With Andy at the helm, Paxton Products became profitable in seven months. In 1961, Andy sold Paxton Products to Studebaker Corporation and stayed on as Paxton's CEO. Two years later, Studebaker management wanted Granatelli to work his magic on an under-performing division called Chemical Compounds Corporation. Chemical Compounds had only one, little known product . . . STP Oil Treatment. With virtually no advertising budget, Andy created a four-pronged approach to turn the company around: a recognizable corporate logo (the STP oval), a product (oil treatment), a product spokesman (himself) and a reason for existence (racing). The STP logo became one of the best recognized in history. STP could be found in virtually every venue of speed: on land, on the water or in the air. Andy Granatelli once said that in the 1960s, virtually every kid in America had an STP sticker on his bedroom door, his notebook or his lunchbox, and he was probably right!

Back at Indianapolis, Granatelli entered a revolutionary race car of his own design - one with a turbine engine in 1967 and 1968. Even though the car failed to finish both years due to mechanical failure, the cars demonstrated superior speed and performance. At the end of the 1968 season, the U.S. Auto Club revised engine specifications, effectively outlawing Granatelli's turbine car. Undeterred, Granatelli returned to Indy the following year with a conventional car and proceeded to win his first Indianapolis 500 with Mario Andretti at the wheel. Four years later, in 1973, Andy won his second and last Indy 500 with a car driven by Gordon Johncock. Andy Granatelli's childhood dream of conquering Indy was fulfilled, not once, but twice.

Source

Andy Granatelli Biography, Automotive Hall of Fame (last accessed January 29, 2020 https://www.automotivehalloffame.org/honoree/andy-granatelli/)
Provenance:
Collection donated by Vince Granatelli.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Automobiles  Search this
Automobiles -- Design and construction  Search this
Automobile driving  Search this
Automobile industry executives  Search this
Automobile industry and trade  Search this
Automobiles, Racing  Search this
Engines, automobile  Search this
Hot rods  Search this
Genre/Form:
Advertisements -- 20th century
Business records -- 20th century
Clippings -- 20th century
Correspondence -- 20th century
Design drawings -- 20th century
Drawings
Financial records -- 20th century
Legal records -- 20th century
Minutes -- 20th century
Photographs -- 20th century
Scrapbooks
Speeches
Citation:
Andy Granatelli Collection, ca. 1940-1990s, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1403
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1403
Online Media:

Sosa, Bromley and Aguilar and Associates Records

Advertiser:
Procter & Gamble Company  Search this
Mars, Incorporated  Search this
American Airlines  Search this
Burger King Corporation  Search this
Coca-Cola Company  Search this
Anheuser-Busch, Inc.  Search this
Creator:
Sosa, Lionel  Search this
Sosa, Bromley and Aguilar and Associates (San Antonio, Texas)  Search this
Aguilar, Adolfo  Search this
Bromley, Ernest W.  Search this
Extent:
14 Cubic feet (31 boxes and 1 map folder)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Oral history
Newsletters
Marketing records
Ephemera
Photographs
Commercials
Awards
Advertisements
Ledgers (account books)
Articles
Magazines (periodicals)
Place:
Texas -- 20th century
San Antonio (Tex.)
Date:
1981-1997
Summary:
The collection documents the work of the Sosa, Bromley and Aguilar and Associates advertising agency of San Antonio, Texas.
Scope and Contents:
The collection documents the work of the Sosa, Bromley and Aguilar and Associates advertising agency of San Antonio, Texas. They created advertising for large corporations such as Western Union, American Airlines, Coca-Cola, Mars, Procter and Gamble, Anheuser-Busch, and Burger King. Additionally, they worked on political campaigns for Republican candidates including George W. Bush and Ronald Reagan. Works created for local institutions such as the San Antonio Symphony and Incarnate Word High School are also represented in the collection. Sosa, Bromley and Aguilar were pioneers in developing advertising strategies to appeal to Latino consumers.

This collection includes internal corporate documentation such as awards, financial reports, marketing strategies, advertisement samples and newsletters, as well as newspaper and magazine articles. The majority of the collection consists of audiovisual materials in D2, BetacamSP, 3/4" U-Matic and 1" videotape formats. The audiovisual materials contain commercials, casting calls/auditions, director reels, public service announcements, focus groups sessions and more. Six hours of oral histories with the principals and transcriptions of the interviews are also included in the collection. Prominent sections of the collection include advertisements created for the Center for Disease Control to address misconceptions about AIDS in Latino communities, as well as photographs, an audiocassette, and public service announcements pertaining to the life and death of singer Selena Quintanilla-Pérez.
Arrangement:
This collection is divided into five series:

Series 1: Background Materials, 1980-2015

Series 2: Financial Materials, 1983-1989

Series 3: Clippings, 1988-1999

Series 4: Advertisements, 1988-1995

Series 5: Audiovisual Materials, 1988-1997
Biographical / Historical:
Lionel Sosa (b. 1939) is from San Antonio, Texas and is of Mexican descent. His first venture as an entrepreneur was starting a graphic design studio called Sosart which later developed into an advertising agency. Ernest Bromley (b.1951), of Puerto Rican and Canadian descent, joined the company in 1981 while employed at the University of Texas, San Antonio as a researcher. Bromley's background in acculturation, advertising and consumer research provided a unique perspective for the newly developed Sosa and Associates. Adolfo "Al" Aguilar (b. 1955), also of Mexican descent, studied advertising and marketing at the University of Texas, Austin. Aguilar worked for Coca-Cola's first Hispanic Marketing Department when he began meeting with Sosa and Bromley. Eventually, Aguilar helped bring the Coca-Cola account to Sosa Bromley and Associates. This successful transfer ultimately led to the development of Sosa, Bromley and Aguilar and Associates.
Related Materials:
Materials in the Archives Center:

López Negrete Communications Advertising Collection (NMAH.AC.1413)

Hector and Norma Orcí Advertising Agency Records (NMAH.AC.1384)

Association of Hispanic Advertising Agencies Collection (NMAH.AC.1343)

Dolores Valdes-Zacky Papers (NMAH.AC.1394)

Castor Advertising Corporation Collection (NMAH.AC.1461)

Spanish Language Television Collection (NMAH.AC.1404)

Goya Foods, Inc. Collection, 1960-2000 (NMAH.AC.0694)
Separated Materials:
Items relating to this collection were donated to the Division of Numismatics and Division of Work and Industry. See accessions: 2002.0007.0517 (Tetradrachm coin); 2015.0080.01 (1988 Clio Award Trophy Hispanic Advertising AIDS Campaign); 2015.0080.02 (Promotional Mug); 2015.0080.05 (Promotional Watch); 2016.3049.02 (1993 Clio Award for Hispanic Market Coca Cola Classic); 2015.0080.06 (1990 Adweek Plaque); 2015.0080.03 (1995 Selena Commemorative Pin).
Provenance:
Donated to the Archives Center in 2015, by Lionel Sosa, Ernest Bromley and Adolfo Aguilar.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Advertising campaigns  Search this
Advertising agencies -- 1980-2000  Search this
Advertising executives  Search this
advertising -- Soft drinks  Search this
advertising -- Food  Search this
advertising -- Confectionery  Search this
advertising -- Beverages  Search this
advertising -- Brand name products  Search this
advertising -- Audio-visual materials  Search this
advertising -- Alcoholic beverages  Search this
advertising -- 1980-2000  Search this
advertising -- Airlines  Search this
Minorities in advertising  Search this
Television advertising -- 1980-2000  Search this
advertising -- History  Search this
Genre/Form:
Oral history
Newsletters
Marketing records
Ephemera -- 20th century
Photographs -- Black-and-white photoprints -- Silver gelatin -- 1980-2000
Commercials
Awards
Advertisements -- 1980-2000
Ledgers (account books)
Articles -- 20th century
Magazines (periodicals) -- 20th century
Citation:
Sosa, Bromley and Aguilar and Associates Records, 1981-1997, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1351
See more items in:
Sosa, Bromley and Aguilar and Associates Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1351
Online Media:

Kryptonite Lock Company Records

Creator:
Zane, Michael Stuart, III  Search this
Kryptonite Lock Company (Canton, Massachusetts)  Search this
Zane, Elizabeth  Search this
Extent:
5.6 Cubic feet (; 15 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Advertisements
Business records
Awards
Bumper stickers
Correspondence
Press releases
Photographs
Newsletters
Oral history
Date:
1972 - 2003
Summary:
Massachusetts entrepreneur Michael Zane purchased a bicycle lock design and its trade name, 'Kryptonite lock," in 1972. Working with members of his family, Zane developed the Kryptonite Corporation. The records consist of audio-visual materials, correspondence, design drawings, photographs, testing records, patent information, sales reports, product information, advertisements, clippings, periodicals, legal documents, and research files.
Scope and Contents:
The Kryptonite Lock Company Records, 1972-2001 document a wide spectrum of activities engaged in by the company. The records consists of audio-visual materials, correspondence, design drawings, photographs, testing records, patent information, sales reports, product information, advertisements, clippings, periodicals, legal documents, and research files. The strength of the collection resides in the marketing and sales documents. They tell a remarkable story of a small family business which created an internationally recognized brand name product. The collection also richly documents competition and innovation in the bicycle and motorcycle lock industry, through sales representative trip reports, product research and development records, and the research files on other companies. Although the collection provides a wide spectrum of documents from most aspects of the company's activities, some portions of the record are sparse and incomplete.

Series 1: History, 1973-1974, 2001, 2003, contains a company history and chronology as well as the field notes and photographs documenting the acquisition of the collection. There are two oral history interviews with Michael Zane conducted by NMAH archivist John Fleckner. The 2001 interview is an overview of the Kryptonite history; the 2003 interview focuses on Zane's description and history of the artifacts collected by the museum. There is a seven-page transcription of the 2001 interview. In addition, this series includes materials related to two companies associated with the early history of the Kryptonite Corporation, Zane Manufacturing Company (the sheet metal company owned by Michael Zane's father) and Ernest Zane and Liberty Distribution (a short-lived bicycle accessory distribution company) created by the Zane brothers to supplement and encourage the sale of their locks.

Series 2: Correspondence, 1983-2000, arranged by topic, documents some of the company's key areas of interest. The topics include customers, design ideas, media, suppliers and distributors, and sponsorships. Most of the correspondence focuses on complaints about or suggested improvements for the locks.

Series 3: Product Research and Development, 1987-2000, is arranged into three subseries, Subseries 1: Development, 1987-2000; Subseries 2: Research, 1985-1999

Subseries 1: Development, 1987-2000, is arranged by project and documents the design process of various security devices. It contains design drawings and design revisions.

Subseries 2: Research, 1985-1999, includes research on various lock patents. It also contains testing data for various locks produced by Kryptonite and outside testing companies.

Series 4: Administrative and Financial Papers, 1972-2000, includes various memos, meeting notes and agendas that thoroughly document the later part of the company's history. There is sporadic documentation of human resources activities of the company in this series. The series also includes various financial records. Sales representative trip reports are included as well. These reports are narrative accounts written by Kryptonite sales representatives to detail the state of product placement and the competition in retail stores throughout the country.

Series 5: Marketing, Advertising, and Publicity, 1972-2001, consists of five subseries, Subseries 1: Marketing materials, 1985-2000; Subseries 2: Advertising materials, 1989, undated; Subseries 3: Publicity materials, 1973-2001; Subseries 4: Crime-related materials, 1982-1996; and Subseries 5: Liz Zane files, 1990-1998 and is the most comprehensive series in the collection. It documents the marketing, advertising, and publicity efforts of the company.

Subseries 1: Marketing materials, 1985-2000, includes marketing materials, such as product sheets describing each of the company's products, and promotional materials, such as posters, bumper stickers, and postcards. Market research undertaken by the company is also included.

Subseries 2: Advertising materials, 1989, undated, contains various advertisements dating from the earliest lock designs to the merger with Ingersoll-Rand. Of particular note is a retrospective advertising notebook illustrating the numerous advertising campaigns undertaken by the company from its creation in 1972 to 1989.

Subseries 3: Publicity materials, 1973-2001, documents the multi-faceted publicity efforts of the company. Included are company newsletters, press clippings, reprint notebooks, various printed materials, press kits, and press releases.

Subseries 4: Crime-related materials, 1982-1996, consists of materials that document theft prevention activities. Included are claim reports that Kryptonite used to develop new designs and to generate an annual list of the top twenty cities for bicycle theft. Also included is the report on bicycle theft undertaken by the company in response to a sharp increase in the number of claims filed in New York City in 1988; ultimately this report resulted in the repeal of the lock guaranty in that city.

Subseries 5: Liz Zane files, 1990-1998, contains materials documenting Liz Zane, wife of Michael Zane, founder of the Kryptonite Corporation. She served as the Communications Manager for the company in the 1990s. Included in this series are press kits, her correspondence with law enforcement officers, and various research files related to publicity activities.

Series 6: Other Companies, 1985, 1991, 2001, undated, includes the Kryptonite Corporation's files documenting its patent infringement suit against Ming Tay, a Taiwanese competitor. Also included is information about the company's relationship with Trek and the company's merger with Ingersoll-Rand. In addition, the research files contain catalogs and advertisements of the company's competition.

Series 7: Visual Materials, 1988, 1996, 1997, undated, consists of black and white and color prints, slides, contact sheets, negatives and two 1⁄2" VHS tapes. The prints, slides, contact sheets and negatives document Michael and Peter Zane, the factory, a motorcycle lock, and promotional prints featuring the lock in advertising and being used. The 1⁄2" VHS tapes include a New York City Channel 4 News piece about bike theft (April 1988) and an Inside Edition, (October 1996) and Dateline (October 1997) programs on the Kryptonite Corporation.
Arrangement:
This collection is organized into seven series.

Series 1: History, 1973-1974, 2001, 2003

Subseries 1.1: Chronology and company history, undated

Subseries 1.2: Field Documentation, 2001, 2003

Subseries 1.3: Zane Manufacturing Company, undated

Subseries 1.4: Liberty Distribution, 1973-1974

Series 2: Correspondence, 1983-2000

Series 3: Product Research and Development, 1987-2000

Subseries 3.1: Development, 1987-2000

Subseries 3.2: Research, 1985-1999

Series 4: Administrative and Financial Papers, 1973-2001

Series 5: Marketing and Sales, 1972-2001

Subseries 5.1: Marketing materials, 1985-2000

Subseries 5.2: Advertising materials, 1989, undated

Subseries 5.3: Publicity materials, 1973-2001

Subseries 5.4: Crime-related materials, 1982-1996

Subseries 5.5: Liz Zane files, 1990-1998

Series 6: Other Companies, 1985, 1991, 2001, undated

Subseries 6.1: Ming Tay lawsuit, 1985

Subseries 6.2: Relationships with other companies, 1991, 2001

Subseries 6.3: Competition research files, undated

Series 7: Visual Materials, 1988, 1996, 1997, undated

Subseries 7.1: Photographs, undated

Subseries 7.2: Video cassettes, 1988, 1997
Biographical / Historical:
In 1971, Michael Zane read a newspaper article that sparked his imagination. He discovered that bicycle mechanic, Stanley Kaplan had designed and built a new bicycle lock, which he named the Kryptonite lock. Zane and Kaplan quickly became partners. Aided by the metal manufacturing experience of Ernest Zane, Michael's father, the partners began to produce and market the locks amid a rapidly growing bicycle industry. In this first year, the company sold approximately 50 locks.

In 1972, Zane bought the lock idea and the company name from Kaplan, and founded the Kryptonite Corporation with $1,500 from his personal savings. Using his father's sheet metal business, Zane Manufacturing Company, as a subcontractor for the metal work, Michael Zane's Kryptonite Corp. began manufacturing a slimmer, stronger lock made of stainless steel versus the original hardened steel version. Concentrating in the Boston area where the company was based, Zane started selling the lock to local bike shops. Realizing the need to expand his market and having no money for national advertising, Zane decided to undertake an experiment. He locked a bicycle to a parking meter with a Kryptonite lock on the Lower East Side in New York City for a month. By the time he retrieved the bike, it was completely stripped except for the part attached to the lock. The press was alerted to the experiment, and the resulting publicity helped move Kryptonite locks into New York City bicycle shops, as well as those in Philadelphia and Washington, D.C.

Michael's brother, Peter, joined the company in 1974. Peter concentrated on exporting and legal matters, while Michael handled marketing, design, research, and manufacturing. In this same year, to supplement and encourage their lock sales, the brothers started Liberty Distribution, a bicycle accessory distribution company. It was also at this time that Kryptonite began guaranteeing its locks—if your bike was stolen while secured with a Kryptonite lock, the company would send you up to $500. The guarantee quickly became a selling point.

The next year the company received another free publicity boost; Consumer Reports awarded the Kryptonite's U-lock its highest bicycle security device rating. Distribution expanded to Chicago and Los Angeles, and the company sold approximately 25,000 locks.

In 1977, Kryptonite introduced the K-4 lock. Michael Zane refined the company's basic U-shaped lock by creating a bent foot on one end making the lock easier to use and simplifying the design. This design gained the Kryptonite K-4 U-lock a place in New York's The Museum of Modern Art permanent design collection in 1983 and won both Japan's Good Design Prize and Germany's Museum of Utilitarian Art Award in 1988.

In 1978, Kryptonite expanded into the motorcycle lock market and began exporting its product into European markets. In the late 1980s, just as Kryptonite began to offer a newly designed mountain bike lock, anti-theft guarantee claims began to increase dramatically in Manhattan. This increase in theft forced Kryptonite to stop offering the guarantee in Manhattan and spurred the Zane's to redesign their locks. During this same time, Kryptonite was under constant competition from various domestic and foreign competitors. Many of these competitors adapted Kryptonite's U-lock design. Some so closely mimicked the Kryptonite design that the company took legal action.

In 1992, in response to an increase in thefts and ongoing competition, Kryptonite introduced its Evolution series of locks. This new design placed the locking mechanism in the middle of the crossbar of the lock, rather than at the end, making it less susceptible to breakage.

The next year Kryptonite entered the automobile security market. In its first year on the market, the Kryptonite Steering Wheel Lock was named one of Motor Trend magazine's top ten innovative car care products for 1993. Kryptonite's entrance into automobile security generated interest from Winner International Corporation, the maker's of The Club automotive lock, resulting in a number of court battles.

Kryptonite introduced the New York Lock in 1994. This newly designed lock allowed Kryptonite to reestablish an anti-theft guarantee for $1,000 in Manhattan. The company recreated its earlier publicity event by successfully locking bicycles throughout New York City to prove the efficacy of its locks. Kryptonite also issued a top ten list of cities with the most bicycle thefts (based on its claim reports) and expanded its involvement in theft prevention activities.

In 1995, Gary Furst became CEO of the rapidly growing company. In the following year, Kryptonite celebrated its twenty-fifth anniversary and developed a program called Flex Security, focusing on innovative locking systems for homeowners and contractors. In addition, Kryptonite entered the computer security market by creating locks for desktops and laptops.

With its expansion into new markets and rising sales, larger companies became increasingly interested in Kryptonite. In 2001, Ingersoll-Rand, a leading industrial firm, bought Kryptonite.
Related Materials:
Materials held at the National Museum of American History

The Division of Work and Industry holds related artifacts. See accession 2003.0234.

2003.0234 Bicycle lock collection—Kryptonite Brand

2003.0234.01a, b, c Earliest Kaplan design lock, metal bar, U shape with padlock; ca. 1971; 22cm x 15.8cm x 4 cm

2003.0234.02a, b Second generation design, stainless steel bar with combination lock; ca. 1972; 24cm x 17cm x 4cm

2003.0234.02c Crossbar plate marked "SK Associates"; 14.5cm x 3.75cm x .25cm

2003.0234.02d "Sesamee" brand combination lock for use with .02a; 8.5cm x 5cm x 2.4cm

2003.0234.03a, b, c, d Kryptonite-2, improved version of lock with changed lock cover; 24cm x 18cm x 4cm

2003.0234.04a, b, c Kryptonite-2, lock with attached padlock; 21cm x 17cm x 4 cm

2003.0234.04d Cross bar samples tested with bolt cutters; 14cm x 3.8cm & 10cm x 4cm

2003.0234.04e "Dynalock" brand, key operated padlock; 7cm x 4.5cm

2003.0234.05a, b, c Competitor style lock, "Citadel" brand, ca. 1973; 26cm x 17.8 cm

2003.0234.06a,b Kryptonite-3 (K-3) integrated lock eliminated need for padlock; 18cm x 25cm x 4cm

2003.0234.06c, d Sample of integral lock and cover used on K-3 lock; 7cm x 4cm x 8cm

2003.0234.06e Bracket for attaching to bike to carry K-3 lock; 10cm x 3.2cm x 1.5cm

2003.0234.07a, b, c Kryptonite-4 (K-4) made of rod rather than flat steel; 27cm x 19.6cm

2003.0234.08a, b, c Motorcycle version of K-4 lock; 41.3cm x 22.3cm

2003.0234.09 Vinyl lock cover branded "Secur-a-Glide by Harley Davidson"; 28.5cm x 2.5cm d.

2003.0234.10a, b, c Die stamp for lock cam, example of cost saving part; small metal parts

2003.0234.11a Steel lock carrying bracket for attachment to bike, in retail package; 9.5cm x 7cm x 4cm

2003.0234.11b Plastic lock carrying bracket for attachment to bike, retail package; 8.5cm x 4.5cm x 4cm

2003.0234.11c Punched, flat steel plate to be formed into item .11a, bracket; 21cm x 7cm

2003.0234.12a, b, c "Velo Racer" lock; 18cm x 13.4cm

2003.0234.13a, b, c "Evolite" lock with cut-away to show lock mechanism; 25cm x 16cm

2003.0234.13d Sample of lock mechanism opening from side rather than end of cross arm; 7.5cm x 2cm d.

2003.0234.14a, b, c, d K-4 lock and bike bracket in retail package targeted to Mountain Bikers; 27.5cm x 19.7cm

2003.023415a, b, c Heavy weight lock branded "New York Lock"; 32.5cm x 16.5cm

2003.0234.16a, b, c Uncoated metal prototype of "New York Lock"; 27.5cm x 16.3cm

2003.0234.17a, b, c "New York Lock" in retail packaging; 25.5cm x 14cm

2003.0234.18a, b, c Heavy weight chain and Kryptonite EV Disc lock for motorcycle; chain 97cm x 3.7cm x 6cm; lock 9cm x 9.8cm

2003.0234.19a, b, c "Evolution 2000" lock with prototype titanium U bracket; 27.2cm x 16cm

2003.0234.19d Titanium U rod of lock tested to destruction; 60.7cm x 1.3cm d.

2003.0234.20a, b, c, d Computer parts manufactured by Zane family before manufacturing bike locks, 4 small, metal items
Provenance:
This collection was donated to the National Museum of American History by Michael Stuart Zane III and Elizabeth Zane on June 3, 2003.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use.
Rights:
Copyright held by the Smithsonian Institution. Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Bicycle theft -- Prevention  Search this
Bicycles -- Equipment and supplies  Search this
Inventions -- 20th century  Search this
Locks and keys  Search this
Inventors  Search this
Marketing  Search this
Genre/Form:
Advertisements -- 20th century
Business records -- 20th century
Awards
Bumper stickers
Correspondence -- 1970-2000
Press releases
Photographs -- 20th century
Newsletters
Oral history
Citation:
Kryptonite Lock Company Records, 1972-2003, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0840
See more items in:
Kryptonite Lock Company Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0840
Online Media:

Eskimo Pie Corporation Records

Creator:
Eskimo Pie Corporation.  Search this
Nelson, Christian Kent, 1893-1992  Search this
Extent:
15 Cubic feet (31 boxes, 19 folders)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Advertisements
Sheet music
Posters
Photographs
Business records
Legal records
Clippings
Date:
1921-1996
Scope and Contents:
Printed advertisements, photographs (including negatives and slides), sales presentation materials and packaging; patent and legal information, clippings, posters, scripts for radio commercials, sheet music for jingles, etc. Also includes personal papers (correspondence) of Christian Nelson, inventor of the Eskimo Pie.
Arrangement:
The collection is divided into eight series.
Biographical / Historical:
Eskimo Pie, America's first chocolate covered ice cream bar, was invented by Christian Kent Nelson in his home laboratory in 1920. Nelson patented his invention and the ice cream bar quickly rose in popularity in America. By 1922, Nelson was earning $2000 per day in royalties on his product.

Christian K. Nelson was born on March 12, 1893, in Gunstrup, Denmark, to Pedar Nelson and Margerethe Madesen Nelson. While Nelson was an infant, the seven Nelson children and their parents emigrated to the United States. The dairy farming family settled in Illinois, Wisconsin, and finally in Iowa in 1903. In Onawa, Iowa, Nelson opened a small confectionery shop near the high school where he worked as a teacher. The inspiration for the invention of Eskimo Pie was a boy's indecision in Nelson's confectionery store in 1920. A boy started to buy ice cream, then changed his mind and bought a chocolate bar. Nelson inquired as to why he did not buy both. The boy replied, "Sure I know--I want 'em both, but I only got a nickel." For weeks after the incident, Nelson worked around the clock experimenting with different methods of sticking melted chocolate to frozen ice cream until he found cocoa butter to be the perfect adherent.

Immediately, he produced 500 ice cream bricks with a chocolate candy coating. The "I-Scream Bars" were a hit at the local village fireman's picnic and Nelson began searching for companies to manufacture his new product.

On July 13, 1921, Nelson and chocolate maker Russell C. Stover entered into a joint agreement to market and produce the product. It was decided the name would change from Nelson's "I-Scream Bar" to "Eskimo Pie". In the hand-written agreement composed the same day the two met for the first time, the entrepreneurs agreed to "coat ice cream with chocolate [sic] divide the profits equally." They decided to sell the manufacturing rights to local ice cream companies for $500 to $1000, plus royalties on each Eskimo Pie sold.

Nelson and Stover began their business venture with an advertising campaign in Des Moines, Iowa. The first 250,000 pies produced were sold within 24 hours. By spring 1922, 2,700 manufacturers sold one million Eskimo Pies per day. On January 24, 1922, the United States granted patent number 1,404,539 for the Eskimo Pie. Nelson's patent applied to any type of frozen material covered with candy. Nelson also had the name "Eskimo Pie" trademarked. Initially, even the word "Pie" in a brand name frozen treat was covered by this trademark. The breadth of the patent was detrimental to Eskimo Pie because of growing legal costs associated with its defense.

Russell Stover sold his share of the company in 1922. Because of the cost of litigation, high salaried salesmen, and difficulties in collecting royalties, the company was sold in 1924. Eskimo Pie became a subsidiary of United States Foil Company, the supplier of the Eskimo Pie wrapper. Headed by R.S. Reynolds, Sr., the company later became known as Reynolds Metals Company.

In 1925, dry ice was invented. Nelson was eager to find a way to make buying Eskimo Pie as easy as buying another snack from a vendor. Nelson began to market thermal jugs with dry ice supplied with Eskimo Pies to vendors without access to a freezer. This increased visibility and distribution and made Eskimo Pie an "impulse" item.

The patent litigation continued until October 3, 1929, when the U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals upheld the decision of the lower courts declared that the 1922 patent was invalid, due to "lack of invention." Eskimo Pie resembled an earlier product that also called for ice cream with cocoa butter dipped in chocolate. The judge declared that Nelson had merely changed the shape for an existing product. Even his trademark on the work "pie" was invalidated, as the judge said the word had a wide variety of use.

Nelson retired to California and assigned his royalties to his wife, Myrtle Skidmore "Skid" Nelson. However, Nelson, reportedly "bored," came out of retirement in 1935 to rejoin Eskimo Pie and work on new products. Nelson continued to create ice cream innovations such as ice patties and colored ice cream holiday centers within Eskimo Pie products. In 1955, Nelson was awarded a patent for his Eskimo Machine. The machinery squeezed out ice cream of the correct dimensions which was then cut into bars. This process was faster than the older method of molding the ice cream bar. After a decline in sales during the Great Depression, Eskimo Pie received a boost from sales to the United States armed forces during World II. Rising commodity prices in the post war era forced the company to reduce the size of the product. However, the distinct foil wrapper remained the same. Nelson officially retired from Eskimo Pie in 1961 as vice-president and director of research. Surviving his wife by one year, he died March 8, 1992.

In 1992, Eskimo Pie became independent of Reynolds' Metals. The company continues to market dozens of shapes, sizes, and types of frozen treats. The brand name Eskimo Pie continues to have strong consumer recognition and has appeared in cartoons, movies, and even in Funk and Wagnall's Dictionary.

Sources

"He Made Kids Scream for Ice Cream," 1959, manuscript from collection Nelson-Stover Agreement, July 13, 1921, manuscript from the collection U.S. Patent 1,404,539 January 24, 1922, manuscript from the collection

Scope and Content Note

The Eskimo Pie Collection consists primarily of materials relating to the advertising, business, and packaging of its ice cream products. The collection includes numerous photographs, printed advertisements, and packaging materials. It also contains company annual reports and newsletters, business history, information on machines and equipment used in manufacturing the product, and the history of the invention of Eskimo Pie. The formulas and directions for creating many of the Eskimo Pie products are included.

Series 1: CHRISTIAN NELSON PAPERS, 1921-1992 - Contains personal information on the inventor of Eskimo Pie, Christian Nelson, including his correspondence and financial information. Most of the correspondence is business related. Subseries 1: Christian Nelson Personal Papers, 1933-1988 - These materials include tax information, bank account information, and a few documents related to his personal life. Not many documents of a personal nature are in the collection. Most details of his life are found in magazine and newspaper clippings in Series 2, Subseries 4. Subseries 2: Nelson Correspondence (by correspondent), 1944-1946 - This subseries contains Nelson's business correspondence previously arranged alphabetically by correspondent. The correspondence only dates from 1944-1946. Subseries 3: Nelson and Business Correspondence (by date), 1920-1990 - Arranged chronologically by decade, this correspondence consists of letters on various topics that were scattered throughout the collection. Most of these letters are business related but many have personal notations within them. Not all letters include Nelson.

Series 2: HISTORICAL AND BACKGROUND INFORMATION, 1921-1992 - This series includes any information that helps to narrate the story of the invention of Eskimo Pie and the company that sold the product. It contains company scrapbooks of specific years, important historical documents regarding Eskimo Pie history, and newspaper clippings and magazine articles that summarize the detailed history of the company. Subseries 1: Background Information on Company, 1921-1992 - This information includes company scrapbooks that contain articles, letters, promotions and/or advertisements for a particular year. The scrapbooks often relate the history of Eskimo Pie in past years as well as representing the year of the scrapbook. Other materials such as the Eskimo Pie patent, and information on Christian Nelson and Russell Stover with their original agreement are included. Subseries 2: Information on Related Companies, 1947-1987 - This material contains annual reports and the company publications of Reynolds Aluminum which supplied the Eskimo Pie wrapper. Eskimo Pie became a subsidiary of Reynolds (then known as US Foil Company) in 1924. Other companies whose products are related to Eskimo Pie are also included. Subseries 3: Patent and Legal Information, 1921-1965 - Important legal documents of the Eskimo Pie business are arranged in this subseries by type of document. The patents include many of Nelson's patents as well as other patents of invention related to ice cream. Subseries 4: Newspaper Clippings and Magazine Articles, 1920-1990 - Most articles in the subseries are related to the history or business of Eskimo Pie, although a few are not. Cartoons that use the Eskimo Pie name are included.

Series 3: MANUFACTURING AND EQUIPMENT, 1922-1990 - This series documents the machinery and equipment used to produce, package, and freeze the ice cream. It also includes the specific formulas of Eskimo Pie products with ingredients and directions for their preparation. Subseries 1: Machinery, 1922-1990 - This series is comprised of catalogues, plans, and brochures on general types of machines used to create ice cream along with very specific types of machines with specific names (such as the Eskimo Machine). It also includes video footage of a 1990 production line. Some photographs of equipment are included in the catalogues but other photographs of machinery can be found in Photographs under Series 5, Subseries 1. Subseries 2: Formulae and Directions, 1942-1963 - Formulas and specifications to create certain Eskimo Pie products make up this series. The formulas and directions were sent to franchise manufacturers and field personnel and state how to use the machinery to create the desired product. The folders labeled with product numbers include booklets of formulas and the folders labeled with formulas of specific products are loose pages or additions to the booklets. Other formulas and directions for specific products can be found in some of the promotional brochures in Series 7 Subseries 4.

Series 4: ESKIMO PIE COMPANY RECORDS, 1951-1995 - The company records in this series are comprised of Annual Company Reports and Company Newsletters. Subseries 1: Eskimo Pie Annual Reports, 1951-1995 - The Annual Reports include financial information as well as the names of the directors, officers, and management personnel for that particular year. Subseries 2: Eskimo Pie Newsletters, 1968-1979 - These monthly newsletters function as a company information tool for employees. They include company news along with general interest features such as cartoons, news of the company sports teams, announcements of vacations and birthdays, etc.

Series 5: PHOTOGRAPHS AND NEGATIVES, 1928-1990 - This series consists of photographs and negatives of various subject matter. Subseries 1: Photographs, 1928-1990 - These photographs are arranged by subject matter. Some of the main subject categories of the photographs include machinery and equipment, advertising, promotions, and pictures of Christian Nelson at company events. Subseries 2: Photograph Negatives and Slides, 1928-1990 - This subseries includes many negatives of the photographs already contained in Subseries 1. Only one folder in this subseries is slides.

Series 6: ESKIMO PIE BUSINESS INFORMATION, 1921-1990 - This series consists of any records pertaining to the business of the Eskimo Pie company including finances, marketing, sales, promotions, personnel information, packaging, and publications. It does not include advertising. Subseries 1: General Business Information, 1922-1990 - Business information that did not fit into any particular business category comprises this series. Each folder's information is very specific to its own particular topic and is arranged chronologically. Subseries 2: Marketing, 1927-1996 - This series includes any marketing information that attempts to sell Eskimo Pie to the consumer. This information does overlap with some aspects of advertising and packaging, as they also function as marketing tools to promote increased buying. It also includes promotional materials for the film AWho's Minding the Mint?" which featured an Eskimo Pie ice cream man as a character. The information is organized by specific years or time periods. Subseries 3: Employee Information and Incentives, 1952-1970 - This subseries includes general information such as personnel lists and phone lists but also includes incentive campaigns for employees. These incentive campaigns were directed towards salesmen, particularly route driver salesman, and propose prize rewards for sales. The booklets in box 31 include the ads for incentives to be sent out to the salesmen throughout the year. Along with the ads are explanations of the incentive and the company's reasoning behind its approach to the salesmen in that particular ad. The prizes to be awarded are not specifically listed but are displayed in pictures in many of the incentive ads. Subseries 4: Premiums and Promotions, 1937-1990 - Information on premiums in which consumers save wrappers and send them to Eskimo Pie for goods as well as special promotions are included in this subseries. Lists of goods that can be purchased with the corresponding number of wrappers are included. Other promotions include prizes for contests or special offers with Eskimo proofs of purchase. This subseries includes promotional brochures that explain the new promotions. Subseries 5: Financial Information, 1932-1990 - Any business information pertaining to Eskimo Pie's finances, sales, and\or profits is included in this subseries. It also includes U.S. Foil Royalty Reports that report the number of wrappers shipped and manufactured of different businesses including those of Eskimo Pie (Eskimo Pie was a subsidiary of U.S. Foil). The U.S. Foil reports are addressed to Myrtle Nelson. Bank information of Frozen Products, Inc., which manufactured Eskimo Pie and Eskimo confections, is also included. Subseries 6: Packaging, 1921-1954 - This subseries consists of actual boxes, wrappers, lids, and sticks that were used in packaging Eskimo Pie products. The materials are organized by types of packaging and the dates of the materials are generally unclear. Subseries 7: General Publications Related to Ice Cream, 1935-1990 - Listed in chronological order, these publications provide information on the ice cream, dairy, and chocolate industries in a specific time frame. These publications generally do not mention Eskimo Pie products.

Series 7: ADVERTISING MATERIALS, 1922-1992 - The advertising materials included in this series mainly consist of the actual advertisements. Little written information on specific advertising campaigns is included with the print, radio, and television advertisements. The promotional brochures do include some written information on the product the company is promoting. Subseries 1: Print Advertisements, 1922-1989 - This subseries includes a range of types of advertisements. Some ads include printed ads in magazines and newspapers while many are proofs of advertisements that will go to print. Other types of advertisements include banners, decals, and railstrips which appear to be point of purchase displays for vending machines, ice cream stands, ice cream carts or trucks, or even the grocery store. Although the scrapbooks mainly consist of advertisements, they also include packaging, machinery, and marketing information. Subseries 2: Radio Advertisements, 1930-1985 - This small subseries includes scripts for radio announcements and advertisements. The sheet music for the radio jingles, "I Scream, You Scream, We All Scream for Ice Cream," "Oh My, Eskimo Pie,"and "New Eskimo Pie on a Stick" are included here. Subseries 3: Television Advertisements, 1948-1992 - The television materials included consist of story boards, scripts for television advertisements with corresponding still photographs, television commercials, and little written information on television campaigns. Subseries 4: Promotional Brochures, 1951-1964 - This subseries consists of materials pertaining to new products or special occasion items (e.g. Christmas, Halloween). The brochures were probably sent to vendors, distributors and /or ice cream producers. The brochures intended for vendors and distributors contain samples of advertising, packaging, point of purchase displays and in some instances, inexpensive premiums to be awarded to consumers. The brochures for ice cream manufacturers contain some of the same material as well as the formula and directions for the product, a list of equipment required, and a price list for rental of that equipment. The material, contained in the boxes has been organized alphabetically where possible.

Series 8: MISCELLANEOUS, 1921-1979 - This series includes materials found in the collection with no apparent relation to Christian Nelson or Eskimo Pie. Random materials that display the Eskimo Pie logo are also included.

Provenance

The Eskimo Pie collection was donated on May 10, 1996, to the National Museum of American History, Archives Center.

Related Collections The Division of Cultural History has several objects which are also part of the Eskimo Pie Collection.

The Archives Center holds many collections related to ice cream and the food industry including: #58 Warshaw Collection of Business Americana (see Dairy)

#78 Faris and Yamna Naff Arab-American Collection, 1880-1995 (see waffle cone machine)

#112 Famous Amos Collection, 1979-1983

#300 Sam DeVincent Collection of Illustrated American Sheet Music, 1790-1980 (see Ice Cream)

#451 Good Humor Collection, 1930-1990

#588 Carvel Ice Cream Records, 1934-1989

#594 Krispy Kreme Donut Corporation Records, 1937-1997
Separated Materials:
Related artifacts housed in the Division of Culture and the Arts.
Provenance:
Collection donated by Dave Clark, Eskimo Pie Corporation, July 12, 1996.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Copyright and trademark restrictions.
Topic:
Stereotypes (Social psychology)  Search this
Polar bear in art  Search this
Ice cream industry -- Equipment and supplies  Search this
Ice cream industry  Search this
Ethnic imagery  Search this
advertising -- 20th century  Search this
Genre/Form:
Advertisements
Sheet music -- advertising
Posters
Photographs -- Black-and-white negatives -- Glass -- 1890-1920
Business records -- 20th century
Photographs -- 20th century
Legal records
Clippings
Citation:
Eskimo Pie Corporation Records, 1921-1996, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0553
See more items in:
Eskimo Pie Corporation Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0553
Online Media:

The Campbell Soup Advertising Collection

Interviewee:
Murphy, W.B.  Search this
Norris, Alice  Search this
Norris, E. E.  Search this
Prior, Joseph  Search this
Meehan, Vincenta  Search this
Mercer, Richard  Search this
Meyers, Peter H.  Search this
Mulcahy, Paul  Search this
Welsh, Dick  Search this
White, Richard  Search this
Rindlaub, Jean  Search this
Rombach, Scott  Search this
Shaub, Harold  Search this
Weir, Chris  Search this
Coulson, Zoe  Search this
Gearon, Dan  Search this
Cronin, Betty  Search this
Conill, Alicia  Search this
Conlon, Robert  Search this
Conill, Rafael  Search this
Jordan, James  Search this
McNutt, James  Search this
McGovern, R. Gordon  Search this
Goerke, Donald E.  Search this
Holmes, Martha  Search this
Haber, Bernie  Search this
Jones, Caroline Robinson, 1942-2001 (advertising executive)  Search this
Adams, Anthony  Search this
Baum, Herbert M.  Search this
Bergin, John F.  Search this
Bair, Dean  Search this
Interviewer:
Griffith, Barbara S., Dr.  Search this
Creator:
Archives Center, NMAH, SI.  Search this
Campbell Soup Company  Search this
Names:
Batten, Barton, Durstine, and Osborn  Search this
Connill Advertising  Search this
Extent:
12 Cubic feet (25 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Clippings
Audiotapes
Interviews
Commercials
Ephemera
Videotapes
Oral history
Tear sheets
Date:
1904-2015
bulk 1904-1989
Summary:
This collection is the result of a year-long study of Campbell's "Red and White" Soups advertising and marketing, supported in part by a grant from the Campbell Soup Company. Thirty-one oral history interviews were conducted by Dr. Barbara Griffith for the project, and a variety of related materials were gathered by the Center for Advertising History staff. The objective of the project was to create a collection that provides documentation, in print and media, of the history and development of advertising for Campbell's Red and White Soups in the decades following World War II.
Scope and Contents:
This collection is the result of a year-long study of Campbell's "Red and White" Soups advertising and marketing campaigns. Oral histories conducted by Smithsonian Institution staff with individuals involved with the Campbell's Soup Corporation and its advertising campaigns form the core of the collection. Also included are clippings and background research files, abstracts of the oral history interviews, television and radio commercials, company publications, and promotional items and packaging.

A 2015 addition to the collection was born digital and consists of materials from the groundbreaking "Real Life Campaign" which featured inter-racial couples as well as a gay couple. These materials include storyboards, scripts, consumer feedback both postive and negative, focus group material, labels, commercials, supporting documentation on the development and implementation of the campaign. These materials are available in the Smithsonian Institution DIgital Asset Management System (DAMS).
Arrangement:
Collection is organized into nine series.

Series 1, Research Files, 1939-1989

Series 2, Interviewee Files, 1989-1990

Series 3, Oral Histories, 1989-1990

Series 4, Television Commercials, 1957-1990

Series 5, Radio Commercials, 1966-1975

Series 6, Print Advertisements, 1905-1989

Series 7, Promotional Items and Packaging, 1968-1991

Series 8, Company Publications, 1983-1988

Series 9, Real Life Campaign, 2015
Biographical / Historical:
The Campbell Soup Company's "Red and White" advertising campaigns are remarkable not only for their longevity, but for the consistency of the advertising message. Since 1898, when the red and white label was incorporated, the packaging and the message have changed only marginally. When Andy Warhol painted his pop art Campbell Soup cans in the early 1960s, he presented an immediately recognizable image with which all of America could identify.

Campbell's condensed soups, first marketed in 1897, have become a staple of the 20th century American household. The Joseph Campbell Preserve Company, a canning concern which grew out of an 1869 business partnership between a fruit merchant and an ice box manufacturer, was well established by the time Arthur Dorrance succeeded Joseph Campbell as president. When Dorrance's nephew, John T. Dorrance, a chemical engineer and organic chemist trained at MIT, developed a process for making condensed soup, the company was faced with the task of successfully marketing the revolutionary new convenience food. The soup won a gold medallion for excellence at the 1900 Paris Exposition, and the company incorporated the image on its labels and in its advertising.

In the developing consumer culture which began to grow during and after the industrial revolution, women were identified as the primary consumers of household goods and services. Homemakers have been the target of Campbell' s Red & White advertising since its inception, and this focus is reflected both in the content and the placement of the advertising. The identification of a predominately female consumer market was also influential in the creation of a widely recognized and long-lived symbol, the Campbell Kids, created in 1904 by Grace Gebbie Drayton. The Kids were meant to convey a sense of wholesomeness and physical well-being associated with eating Campbell Soups.

The advertising of the early teens and twenties most often consisted of black and white or two-color depictions of the can and the product, often accompanied by images of the rosy-cheeked Kids. A large portion of the ad was devoted to narrative description of the soups' healthful properties, suggesting that"Campbell Soups Give Vigor and Strength", "I Couldn't Keep House Without Campbell's Tomato Soup", and "If Every Woman Realized How Much Her Husband Likes Soup - She Would Serve It Everyday".

The advertising of the 1930s tended towards idealized illustrations of women and children; the Kids were less visible during the 1930s and 1940s, deemed too "chucklesome" for the Depression years, and too old-fashioned during World War II. Ad copy continued its appeal to women's sense of responsibility for the well-being of husbands and children, with slogans suggesting "It Takes a Bright and Sparkling Flavor to Attract Children", "When a Man Says It's Good, It's Good", and "Wouldn 't I Be Silly to make It Myself?"

Campbell broadened the scope of its advertising by sponsoring radio programming, beginning in 1931 with the "Hollywood Hotel" program on CBS. Later radio sponsorships included the George Burns and Gracie Allen show, "Campbell Playhouse", "Amos and Andy", the "Jack Carson Show", "Hildegarde", and "Edward R. Murrow with the News", among others . The jingle "M'm M'm Good" was first aired during the radio broadcasts of this period, and was reinforced in the print advertising. Beginning in 1950, Campbell began to sponsor television shows, continuing its focus on women and children as primary purchasers and consumers of suop. Most notable among these sponsorships were "The Donna Reed Show" and "Lassie" . Print ads of the 1950s featuring Johnny Carson, Donna Reed, and the cast of the Lassie Show helped to reinforce the Company's sponsorship of these popular shows.

In 1954, Campbell moved its $10 million dollar condensed soup account from Ward Wheelock Company, the Philadelphia firm which had handled the account since 1910, to Batten, Barton, Durstine & Osborn (BBDO) of New York. By 1966, BBDO account executives urged "selective but not major" use of the Kids and the slogan "M'm M'm Good", choosing instead to employ advertising that stressed health claims and fitness issues rather than the wholesome, comforting associations of hot soup. The Kids became more athletic and less rotund.

Reflecting changes in American social and family structures Campbell' s advertising, began to depict the working wife and the busy schedules of a family "on the go". A 1960 ad declares "Good Things Begin to Happen When Working Girls Have Soup and Crackers" or "Somethings Happened to Supper". In light of the women 's movement, which was gaining momentum during this period, Campbell advertising remained decidedly traditional. In the 1970s, "Give Me the Campbell Life" recognized women 's expanded roles as working mothers, but "They Always Eat Better When You Remember the Soup" and "Get Your Campbells Worth" reveal a more conservative pitch to homemakers responsibilities. Other societal changes are suggested in the advertising, for instance, the "Soup is Good Food" and "Health Insurance" campaigns of the 1980s reflected a new emphasis on health and fitness.

In 1981 the company transferred the soup account to another New York firm, Backer Spielvogel and Bates . The 1980s saw a renewed emphasis on network primetime, strategic radio advertising (where ads for hot soup are tagged to reports of rain or snow, or are aired just before the noon lunch hour), and regional marketing of specialized products or packaging designed to appeal to local tastes and changing nutritional standards. These new products have engendered some changes in Campbell' s time-honored red and white label to emphasize the "new and improved" characteristics of the products

In 2015, Campbells developed the "Real Life" campaign. This campaign was groundbreaking in many ways. The commercials portrayed not only inter-racial couples but also a gay couple, two fathers and their son. This campaign had a product tie in with the 2015 release of the new installment in the motion picture franchise, Star Wars. The campaign received commentary from the public both pro and con. Campbells continued the campaign without revising or pulling any of its commercials. While running in selected markets, the campaign made nationwide headlines and pointed up the continuing change in the make-up of the American family.
Provenance:
Paul N. Mulcahy, V.P. Marketing Services, Campbell Soup Company,1990. Made for the National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution by the Center for Advertising History, 1989-1990.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Broadcast advertising  Search this
advertising -- Food  Search this
Soups -- advertising  Search this
Advertising agencies  Search this
Advertising departments  Search this
Advertising campaigns  Search this
Sex role in advertising  Search this
Radio advertising  Search this
Women in advertising  Search this
Television advertising  Search this
Art directors  Search this
Advertising executives  Search this
Genre/Form:
Clippings
Audiotapes -- 1980-1990
Interviews -- 1980-1990
Commercials
Ephemera -- 20th century
Videotapes
Oral history
Tear sheets
Citation:
Campbell Soup Advertising Oral History and Documentation Project, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0367
See more items in:
The Campbell Soup Advertising Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0367
Online Media:

Marlboro Oral History and Documentation Project

Topic:
Marlboro (cigarette brand)
Creator:
Ellsworth, Scott, Dr.  Search this
Zinn, Manfredo  Search this
Marx, Dick  Search this
Nunez, Raul  Search this
Winfield, Darrel  Search this
Kwan, William  Search this
Kwong, Goddard  Search this
Adams, Hall  Search this
Landry, Jack  Search this
Arguelles, Rafael  Search this
Fockler, Knut  Search this
Philip Morris, Inc.  Search this
Gil, Felipe  Search this
Jarrard, Tom  Search this
Names:
Leo Burnett, Inc.  Search this
Extent:
17.4 Cubic feet (86 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Color slides
Commercials
Audiotapes
Videotapes
Posters
Proofs (printed matter)
Newsletters
Articles
Slides (photographs)
Place:
Brazil -- advertising
Argentina -- advertising
China -- advertising
Hong Kong -- advertising
Switzerland -- advertising
West Germany -- advertising
Dominican Republic -- advertising
Date:
1926-1988
Scope and Contents:
The Marlboro Oral History and Documentation Project is the result of a two-year effort supported in part by a gift from Philip Morris, Inc. Sixty oral history interviews and a variety of television commercials, print advertising, promotional materials, packaging, and industry publications were gathered to document Marlboro cigarette advertising. The bulk of the collection focuses on the period between 1954 and 1986, and examines the "Marlboro man", "Settle Back" and "Marlboro Country" campaigns. The collection is a rich source of information for researchers interested in advertising and marketing history, issues of smoking and health, and the export of both tobacco and American cultural symbols abroad. The core of the collection is a series of interviews conducted during 1985-1987 by Dr. Scott Ellsworth, an independent scholar and oral historian. The broad range of interviewees included executives of Philip Morris, advertising agency personnel from Leo Burnett, photographers, production staff, sales and marketing personnel, and Marlboro cowboys. Twenty-seven interviews were conducted overseas, in Argentina, Brazil, the Dominican Republic, Hong Kong, Switzerland, and West Germany. Conducted primarily with Marlboro licensee and affiliate staff, the interviews focus on the marketing and advertising history of Marlboro in the six nations. These interviews and others conducted with executives of Philip Morris International in New York City also address the history of Marlboro advertising in Africa, the Middle East, China, Eastern Europe and elsewhere in Europe and Latin America. The interviews cover events from the 1930s through the 1980s. They focus on the theory and development of Marlboro advertising, its content and creation, and its modifications over the years. The foreign interviews also discuss the structure of the local cigarette marketplace, marketing and advertising techniques, and the use and modification of Marlboro advertising for different cultures. Finding aids to the oral histories include abstracts of each interview indicating the major topic discussed, a cumulative index to personal names and topics in the interviews, and brief biographical and scope notes.
Arrangement:
Dthe collection is divided into seven series.

Series 1: Research Files, 1943-1987

Series 2, Interviewee Files, 1986

Series 3; Oral History Interviews, 1986

Series 4: Advertising Materials, 1926-1986

Series 5: Promotional items and packaging, 1926-1986

Series 6: Publications and Research Material, 1960-1988

Series 7: Travel Slides Generated by Project Team, 1926-1986
Biographical / Historical:
The history of Marlboro cigarettes offers insight into one of the great advertising and marketing success stories of the 20th century. Marlboro cigarettes were marketed from the Victorian era through the first half of this century as a women's cigarette, with tag-lines that aimed to appeal to female smokers, such as "Marlboro - Mild As May." In 1955, two transformations occurred which would affect both profitability and brand recognition: the addition of an integrated filter and the re-invention of the market through the debut of the "Marlboro Man" advertising campaign. The original Marlboro Man campaign featured close-up images of all kinds of men using the product -- the cowboy was one, along with lifeguards, sailors, drill sergeants, construction workers, gamblers and other types suggestive of a masculine spirit and rugged independence. By 1963, the "Marlboro Country" campaign began. This campaign focused on the cowboy and his symbolic canon: boots, hats, horses, and western landscapes. By the mid-1980s, Marlboro was the best-selling brand in the United States and the world, and the Marlboro cowboy was among the most widely recognized of American cultural symbols. Sold in over 180 nations, both the cigarettes and the ad campaign had become a global phenomena.
Provenance:
The collection was donated to the Archives Center by Philip Morris, Inc. in 1986.
Restrictions:
The materials in the Marlboro Collection are made available for research according to the established practices and principles of the Archives Center and the National Museum of American History.
Rights:
In making these materials available for research, the Smithsonian Institution makes no claims of ownership of the copyrights or related rights. All responsibility for infringement of legal authorship rights and or copyright is assumed by the user of the materials. In addition, the user indemnifies and holds harmless the Smithsonian Institution for all claims, actions, damages, judgments and expenses that may result from use of these materials. In addition, the donor has imposed restrictions on reproduction or broadcast of collection materials by third parties. The reproduction or broadcast of print ads and television commercials in the collection is subject to prior written consent from: Nancy Lund, Vice President, Marketing,Philip Morris International, 120 Park Avenue, New York, NY 10017;(917) 663-5000
Occupation:
Cinematographers  Search this
Topic:
T.V. commercial producers  Search this
Photographers  Search this
Accountants  Search this
advertising -- Cigarettes -- 20th century  Search this
Cowboys -- 20th century  Search this
Advertising, Newspaper -- 20th century  Search this
Smoking -- 1940-1990  Search this
Travel photography -- 1940-1990  Search this
Photography, Advertising -- 20th century  Search this
Advertising photography  Search this
Advertising campaigns -- 20th century  Search this
Cigarette industry -- 20th century  Search this
Cigarettes -- advertising -- 20th century  Search this
Advertising agencies -- 20th century  Search this
Television advertising -- Cigarettes -- 1940-1990  Search this
Advertising, magazine -- 20th century  Search this
Art directors  Search this
Copy writers  Search this
Genre/Form:
Color slides -- 1960-1990
Commercials
Audiotapes -- 1980-1990
Videotapes
Posters
Proofs (printed matter)
Newsletters
Articles
Slides (photographs) -- 1950-2000
Citation:
Marlboro Oral History and Documentation Project, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0198
See more items in:
Marlboro Oral History and Documentation Project
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0198
Online Media:

López Negrete Communications Advertising Collection

Creator:
Lopez Negrete Communications (Houston, Texas)  Search this
Names:
Bank of America  Search this
Circle K Corporation  Search this
Fiesta Mart  Search this
Goya Foods, Inc.  Search this
Houston Metropolitan Transit Authority  Search this
Microsoft Corporation  Search this
Nationsbank  Search this
Tyson (Firm)  Search this
Wal-Mart (Firm)  Search this
Extent:
14 Cubic feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Posters
Born digital
Oral history
Print advertising
Place:
Texas -- 20th century
Date:
1988 - 2015
Summary:
The López Negrete Communications Advertising Collection showcases the successful print advertising campaigns the communications agency undertook with major clients like Goya Foods, NationsBank, and Walmart. The advertising posters in this collection exemplify the agency's creativity in building on U.S. Latinos' everyday experiences to market American products and services. Alex and Cathy López Negrete, the founders of López Negrete Communications, made it their mission to use ethnographic approaches to better understand the U.S. Latino market which led to their success as the largest independently-owned Latino advertising agency in the country.
Scope and Contents:
The collection is made up of López Negrete Communications' large posters created as part of the print advertising campaigns for major American corporations and oral history interviews with Javier Gonzalez Herba, Alex López Negrete, and Cathy López Negrete. Transcripts for oral history interviews with Javier Gonzalez Herba and Alex López Negrete are available.

López Negrete Communications' clients include Fiesta Mart, Goya Foods, NationsBank (and its successor, Bank of America), Tyson Foods, and Walmart. The content of the posters serves as an example of the advertising agency's efforts to better understand the U.S. Latino market by engaging with Latinos' everyday experiences through ethnography and direct communication.
Arrangement:
The collection is divided into ten series.

Series 1: Background Materials, 2016

Series 2: Bank of America, 2000-2007

Series 3: Circle K, Totally Bueno, 2003

Series 4: Fiesta Mart, Inc., 2002-2003

Series 5: Goya Foods, Inc., 2003

Series 6: Houston Metropolitan Transit Authority (METRO), El camino a su destino/The Road to Your Destiny, 1988

Series 7: Microsoft, Nosotros vemos/We See, 2002

Series 8: NationsBank, 1994-1998

Series 9: Tyson Foods, 2001-2006

Series 10: Walmart, Inc. 1998-2015
Biographical / Historical:
Originally named Third Coast Marketing, López Negrete Communications was founded in 1985 by Alex and Cathy López Negrete. The advertising agency has been based in Houston, Texas since the beginning but has additional offices in Los Angeles and New York. López Negrete Communications is currently the largest independently-owned Latino advertising agency in the United States. It is known for drawing on the everyday lives and experiences of US Latino consumers in order to work with major corporate clients to market their products through effective communication and empowerment.
Separated Materials:
The Division of Work and Industry holds the following artifacts related to this collection:

Coin, Accession #: 2015.0305.01

Paperweight, Accession #: 2015.0305.02
Provenance:
Collection donated by López Negrete Communications, 2016.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
advertising -- Department stores  Search this
Hispanic American business enterprises  Search this
Latinos in American society and culture  Search this
advertising -- Banks  Search this
mexican Americans and mass media  Search this
Advertising agencies -- 20th century  Search this
advertising -- Computers  Search this
Advertising campaigns  Search this
Advertising history  Search this
Minorities in advertising  Search this
Mexican American business enterprises  Search this
advertising -- Food  Search this
advertising -- Transportation  Search this
Advertising agencies -- 21st century  Search this
Minorities in advertising -- 1950-2000  Search this
Hispanic Americans and mass media  Search this
Hispanic American consumers  Search this
Hispanic American mass media  Search this
Hispanic American businesswomen  Search this
Hispanic American capitalists and financiers  Search this
advertising -- Groceries  Search this
Hispanic Americans -- 1950-2000  Search this
Hispanic American businesspeople  Search this
Genre/Form:
Posters -- 1980-2010
Born digital
Oral history -- 2010-2020
Posters -- 20th century
Print advertising
Citation:
López Negrete Communications Advertising Collection, 1988-2015, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1413
See more items in:
López Negrete Communications Advertising Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1413

Dolores Valdes-Zacky Papers

Sponsor:
Coors Brewing Company  Search this
Creator:
Valdes Zacky, Dolores  Search this
Names:
Arrowhead Puritas Waters, Inc.  Search this
Mitsubishi  Search this
Partnership for a Drug-Free America  Search this
Thompson, J. Walter (advertising agency).  Search this
Vons Grocery Company  Search this
Extent:
2 Cubic feet (2 boxes, 3 oversize folders)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Magazines (periodicals)
Oral history
Storyboards
Proposals
Commercials
E-mail
Press releases
Newsletters
Correspondence
Articles
Awards
Books
Dvds
Photographs
Advertisements
Clippings
Date:
1955 - 1999
Summary:
The collection documents the work of Dolores Valdes-Zacky and her advertising firm Valdes-Zacky Associates, who specialize in the Hispanic consumer market.
Scope and Contents:
The collection includes guidebooks on marketing to Hispanics; business records; letters and emails; photographs; an award; case studies; ad campaign proposals; story boards; press releases; print advertisements for the agency and for its clients, as well as for products; a DVD of commercials; newsletters; magazine and newspaper articles. Some items in the collection relate to Valdes Zacky's work with the J. Walter Thompson firm.
Arrangement:
The collection is divided into two series.

Series 1: Background Materials, 1955-1999

Series 2: Advertising and Marketing Materials, 1989-1999
Biographical / Historical:
Dolores Valdes-Zacky started her career in advertising with the J. Walter Thompson agency. She left to start her own firm, Valdes-Zacky Associates in 1987, specializing in tapping the Hispanic consumer market. Some of the agency's clients have been Mitsubishi Motors, Adolph Coors Company, Arrowhead Puritas Waters, Vons Grocery, and the Partnership for a Drug Free America.
Provenance:
Collection donated by Dolores Valdes Zacky, 2016.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Advertising history  Search this
Minorities in advertising  Search this
Advertising campaigns  Search this
Advertising agencies  Search this
Advertising executives  Search this
Women in advertising  Search this
Marketing -- 1950-2000  Search this
Genre/Form:
Magazines (periodicals) -- 20th century
Oral history -- 20th century
Storyboards
Proposals -- 20th century
Commercials -- 20th century
E-mail
Press releases -- 20th century
Newsletters -- 20th century
Correspondence -- 20th century
Articles -- 20th century
Awards
Books -- 20th century
DVDs
Photographs -- 20th century
Advertisements -- 20th century
Clippings -- 20th century
Citation:
Dolores Valdes-Zacky Papers, 1955-1999, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1394
See more items in:
Dolores Valdes-Zacky Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1394

DFS Ad Agency Falstaff Beer Advertisements

Creator:
Dancer Fitzgerald Sample.  Search this
Names:
Falstaff Brewing Corporation.  Search this
Extent:
0.3 Cubic feet (1 box)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Proof sheets
Scrapbooks
Advertisements
Date:
1945-1946.
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of a single scrapbook of proofsheets and photo proofs from DFS's advertising campaign for Falstaff Beer in the period 1945 1946.

The advertisements center around three distinct themes. The first and most comprehensive features a salute to "The Men Who Keep Faith with America." These ads contain handsome black and white woodcut illustrations depicting men at work in a wide variety of occupations, accompanied by a text which emphasizes each occupation's contribution to the war effort. Some of the occupations featured include: railroad workers, telephone linemen, grocers, policemen, laborers, design engineers, construction workers, white collar workers, bus drivers, doctors, farmers, bakers, steel workers, cowboys, machinists, newspapermen, and auto mechanics. Interestingly, this campaign does include a few women newspaperwomen.

The second theme treated in this scrapbook features returning veterans, who have earned the right to relax and enjoy the bounty of America. They are depicted in a variety of social scenes, such as at parties or at the beach.

The final theme concerns tie ins for the "Falstaff Show" on radio. These also feature Americans enjoying their rights to relaxation and depict men and women playing tennis and baseball, bowling, fishing, etc.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into one series.
Biographical / Historical:
The DFS (Dancer, Fitzgerald Sample) Advertising Agency was a New York based firm organized in 1923. One of their clients was the Falstaff Brewing Corporation of St. Louis, Missouri. DFS was merged into the Saatchi & Saatchi advertising agency in mid 1987.

In 1917, Joseph Griesedieck founded the Griesedieck Beverage Company after purchasing the small Forest Park Brewing Company plant in St. Louis. During Prohibition, the company changed its name to the Falstaff Corporation, and produced soft drinks and near beer. Towards the end of Prohibition, the name was again changed, to the Falstaff Brewing Corporation. The company received the first Federal permit issued when brewing was made legal again in 1933. In 1935 the company was among the first to pioneer the concept of multiple breweries in several cities. By 1973 it was among the top ten American breweries in terms of sales. It was purchased by the General Brewing Company in 1977.
Provenance:
The scrapbook was discovered in a records storage center in New York and was donated to the Archives Center by the archivist of the Procter & Gamble Company in 1989.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Occupations  Search this
Beer  Search this
Patriotism  Search this
Recreation -- 1940-1950  Search this
Women -- Employment  Search this
advertising -- Alcoholic beverages  Search this
Genre/Form:
Proof sheets
Scrapbooks -- 20th century
Advertisements
Citation:
DFS Ad Agency Falstaff Beer Advertisements, 1945-1946, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0332
See more items in:
DFS Ad Agency Falstaff Beer Advertisements
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0332

Maidenform Collection

Creator:
Maidenform, Inc.  Search this
Photographer:
Avedon, Richard  Search this
Names:
Coleman, Beatrice  Search this
Coleman, Joseph  Search this
Inventor:
Rosenthal, Ida  Search this
Rosenthal, William  Search this
Extent:
35 Cubic feet (87 boxes, 1 oversize folder)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Advertisements
Newsletters
Tear sheets
Photographs
Videotapes
Clippings
Business records
Date:
1922-1997
Scope and Contents:
Patent and trademark documents, advertisements, sales and marketing material, market research, photographs, packaging, company newsletters and magazines, and business records documenting the history of the Maidenform Company from 1922 to1997.
Arrangement:
Collection organized into eleven series.

Series 1, Company History, 1922-1990

Series 2, News Articles, 1941-1997

Series 3, Patents, Trademarks, and Registrations, 1871-1979

Series 4, Publications, 1931-1997

Series 5, Sales and Marketing Materials, 1929-1997

Series 6, Advertising, 1929-1997

Series 7, Photographs, 1927-1993

Series 8, Patterns, circa 1950s

Series 9, World War II Activities, 1941-1946

Series 10, Labor Relations, 1937-1990

Series 11, Miscellaneous Unprocessed Materials
Biographical / Historical:
The history of Maidenform, Incorporated began at Enid Frocks, a small dress shop in New York City owned and operated by Enid Bissett. Ida Rosenthal was a Russian Jewish immigrant and seamstress at Enid's shop. In 1922, Ida and Enid decided that the fit and appearance of their custom-made dresses would be enhanced if improvements were made to the bandeaux style bras then in vogue. They gathered the bandeaux in the middle in a design modification that provided more support in a manner they believed enhanced, rather than downplayed, a woman's natural figure. Ida's husband, William, added straps and further refined the style. The called their bras "Maidenform", in counterpoint to the "Boyish Form" brand then in vogue. Initially, the bras were given away with each dress they sold. As the bras gained popularity they began selling them, and eventually the bras became so popular they stopped making dresses altogether and shifted to full-scale brassiere manufacturing. The first Maidenform plant opened in Bayonne, N.J. in 1925. After World War II, the company began marketing heavily in Europe and Latin America. Eventually, Maidenform operated plants in West Virginia, Florida, Puerto Rico and the Dominican Republic.

Documentation for the development and manufacture of a "pigeon vest" is also included in the collection. The pigeon vest allowed troopers to carry homing pigeons with them as they parachuted behind enemy lines. During World War II, Maidenform manufactured these pigeon vests and silk parachutes for the war effort.

Maidenform advertising campaigns were enormously successful, and generated controversy as well as praise. The now famous "I Dreamed" campaign was launched in 1949; this campaign ran for 20 years, making it one of the longest running campaigns in the history of advertising. The advertisements featured models in everyday or fantastic situations, elaborately costumed but wearing only a Maidenform bra above the waist. This campaign was followed by the "Maidenform Woman" campaign which was credited with boosting sales by 200 percent in some stores. The "Dares to Dream" campaign played off the "I Dreamed" tagline in 1984, and in 1987, the "Celebrity" campaign began. The "Celebrity" ads were notable for the absence of women in lingerie; instead, well-known male actors discussed their feelings about women and lingerie in print and commercial advertisements. The tone of the advertising shifted in 1992 with a series of ads called "The Women's Advocacy" campaign.

Maidenform was family owned and operated until 1997. After the death of William Rosenthal in 1958, his wife, Ida, became the president of their company. In 1963, she suffered an incapacitating stroke. At this time, son-in-law Dr. Joseph Coleman became head of the company. Upon his death in 1968, his wife (the only surviving child of Ida and William) Beatrice Rosenthal Coleman, gained complete control over the business until her death in 1990.

The Ida and William Rosenthal Foundation, a philanthropic and charitable institution founded in 1953, is run by granddaughter Catherine Brawer.
Related Materials:
The Division of Home and Community Life holds Maidenform artifacts including brassieres, girdles, and "long-lines," and two of the costumes used in the "I Dreamed" campaign.
Provenance:
The collection was donated by Maidenform, Incorporated in May 1997.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use. Only reference copies of audiovisual materials may be used for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning intellectual property rights. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.

The donor has imposed restrictions on reproduction, broadcast or use of the collection for commercial purposes of any kind by third parties. Reproduction, broadcast or other use of the collection for commercial purposes of any kind by third parties is subject to prior written consent. These permissions will be required until July 2047. Please see the repository for further details.
Topic:
Advertising campaigns  Search this
Sex in advertising  Search this
advertising -- 20th century  Search this
Women in advertising  Search this
Brassieres -- 20th century  Search this
Parachutes -- 1940-1950  Search this
Symbolism in advertising  Search this
Homing pigeons -- 1940-1950  Search this
World War, 1939-1945  Search this
Genre/Form:
Advertisements
Newsletters -- 20th century
Tear sheets
Photographs -- 20th century
Videotapes
Clippings
Business records -- 20th century
Citation:
Maidenform Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0585
See more items in:
Maidenform Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0585
Online Media:

I dreamed I went shopping in my maidenform [sic] bra [color advertisement]

Advertiser:
Maidenform, Inc.  Search this
Collection Creator:
Maidenform, Inc.  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (Ink on paper., 11" x 9".)
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Tear sheets
Date:
1949
Scope and Contents:
Woman wearing a brassiere in a store; photographer unidentified.
Local Numbers:
AC0585-0000015.tif (AC Scan)
General:
In Box 26, Folder I dreamed ads.
Collection Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use. Only reference copies of audiovisual materials may be used for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning intellectual property rights. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.

The donor has imposed restrictions on reproduction, broadcast or use of the collection for commercial purposes of any kind by third parties. Reproduction, broadcast or other use of the collection for commercial purposes of any kind by third parties is subject to prior written consent. These permissions will be required until July 2047. Please see the repository for further details.
Topic:
Shopping. -- 1940-1950  Search this
Sex in advertising -- 1940-1950  Search this
Advertising campaigns  Search this
Brassieres -- 20th century  Search this
Dreams  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- 1940-1950 -- Color -- Reproductions
Tear sheets -- 1940-1950
Collection Citation:
Maidenform Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Maidenform Collection
Maidenform Collection / Series 6: Advertising / 6.1: Advertisements / "I Dreamed" Campaign
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0585-ref1368

I dreamed I stopped them in their tracks / in my maidenform [sic] bra [color advertisement]

Advertiser:
Maidenform, Inc.  Search this
Collection Creator:
Maidenform, Inc.  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (Ink on paper., 15.25" x 12".)
Type:
Archival materials
Tear sheets
Photographs
Proof sheets
Date:
1962
Scope and Contents:
Color advertisement based on a photograph of woman wearing a brassiere, standing in front of a "locomotive" backdrop; photographer unidentified.
Local Numbers:
AC0585-0000069(AC Scan)
General:
In Box 73, Folder: I dreamed.
Collection Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use. Only reference copies of audiovisual materials may be used for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning intellectual property rights. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.

The donor has imposed restrictions on reproduction, broadcast or use of the collection for commercial purposes of any kind by third parties. Reproduction, broadcast or other use of the collection for commercial purposes of any kind by third parties is subject to prior written consent. These permissions will be required until July 2047. Please see the repository for further details.
Topic:
Dreams  Search this
Locomotives -- 19th century  Search this
Women in advertising -- 1960-1970  Search this
Advertising campaigns  Search this
Railroads  Search this
Railroad trains  Search this
Sex in advertising  Search this
Brassieres -- 20th century  Search this
Genre/Form:
Tear sheets -- 1960-1970
Photographs -- 1960-1970 -- Color -- Reproductions
Proof sheets -- 1940-1990
Collection Citation:
Maidenform Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Maidenform Collection
Maidenform Collection / Series 6: Advertising / 6.1: Advertisements / Advertisements, "I Dreamed" campaign
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0585-ref1369

I dreamed I had a swinging time / in my maidenform [sic] bra [color advertisement], 1963

Advertiser:
Maidenform, Inc.  Search this
Collection Creator:
Maidenform, Inc.  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (10.6 x 10.3 in.)
Container:
Box 64, Folder 2
Type:
Archival materials
Advertisements
Photographs
Tear sheets
Date:
1963
Scope and Contents:
Image: photograph of a woman swinging from a vine in a tree.
Arrangement:
Maidenform Collection, 1922-1997, 0585, Box 64, Folder 2.
Local Numbers:
03058515.tif (AC Scan)
Collection Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use. Only reference copies of audiovisual materials may be used for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning intellectual property rights. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.

The donor has imposed restrictions on reproduction, broadcast or use of the collection for commercial purposes of any kind by third parties. Reproduction, broadcast or other use of the collection for commercial purposes of any kind by third parties is subject to prior written consent. These permissions will be required until July 2047. Please see the repository for further details.
Topic:
Advertising campaigns  Search this
Sex in advertising -- 1960-1970  Search this
Brassieres -- 20th century  Search this
Dreams  Search this
Swings  Search this
Genre/Form:
Advertisements -- 1960-1970
Photographs -- 1960-1970 -- Color -- Reproductions
Tear sheets -- 1960-1970
Collection Citation:
Maidenform Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Maidenform Collection
Maidenform Collection / Series 5: Sales and Marketing Materials / 5.10: Counter Cards
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0585-ref447
Online Media:

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