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Charles Tyson Yerkes

Artist:
Jan Van Beers, 1852 - 1927  Search this
Sitter:
Charles Tyson Yerkes, 25 Jun 1837 - 29 Dec 1905  Search this
Medium:
Oil on wood
Dimensions:
Frame: 54 x 48.3 x 5.7cm (21 1/4 x 19 x 2 1/4")
Type:
Painting
Date:
c. 1893
Topic:
Printed Material\Book  Search this
Printed Material\Document  Search this
Artwork\Painting  Search this
Personal Attribute\Facial Hair\Mustache  Search this
Costume\Dress Accessory\Eyeglasses\Pince-nez  Search this
Costume\Jewelry\Ring\Wedding Band  Search this
Interior\Domestic\Study  Search this
Charles Tyson Yerkes: Male  Search this
Charles Tyson Yerkes: Business and Finance\Financier  Search this
Charles Tyson Yerkes: Society and Social Change\Philanthropist  Search this
Charles Tyson Yerkes: Law and Crime\Criminal\Thief\Embezzler  Search this
Portrait  Search this
Credit Line:
National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution; gift of Mrs. Jay Besson Rudolphy
Object number:
NPG.76.28
Restrictions & Rights:
CC0
See more items in:
National Portrait Gallery Collection
Exhibition:
2022 Rehang of Out of Many: Portraits from 1600 to 1900
On View:
NPG, East Gallery 131
Data Source:
National Portrait Gallery
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sm4286e138f-2fac-4619-b6c8-8d6a1e0b289d
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:npg_NPG.76.28

American Academy in Rome records

Creator:
American Academy in Rome  Search this
Names:
American Academy in Rome  Search this
American School of Architecture in Rome  Search this
American School of Classical Studies in Rome  Search this
Aldrich, Chester Holmes, 1871-1940  Search this
Boring, William, 1859-1937  Search this
Breck, George, 1863-1920  Search this
Dinsmoor, William B.  Search this
Egbert, J. C. (James Chidester), 1859-1948  Search this
Ely, Theo. N.  Search this
Faulkner, Barry, 1881-1966  Search this
Guernsey, Roscoe  Search this
Hewlett, James Monroe  Search this
Kendall, William M.  Search this
La Farge, C. Grant (Christopher Grant), 1862-1938  Search this
Marquand, Allan, 1853-1924  Search this
McKim, Charles Follen, 1847-1909  Search this
Mead, William Rutherford, 1846-1928  Search this
Millet, Francis Davis, 1846-1912  Search this
Morey, Charles Rufus, 1877-1955  Search this
Mowbray, H. Siddons (Harry Siddons), 1858-1928  Search this
Platt, Charles A. (Charles Adams), 1861-1933  Search this
Pope, John Russell, 1874-1937  Search this
Roberts, Laurance P.  Search this
Smith, James Kellum, 1893-1963  Search this
Stevens, Gorham Phillips, 1876-  Search this
Vedder, Elihu, 1836-1923  Search this
Vitale, Ferrucio, 1875-1933  Search this
Ward, John Quincy Adams, 1830-1910  Search this
Extent:
65.9 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Date:
1855-2012
Summary:
The records of the American Academy in Rome measure 65.9 linear feet and date from 1855 to 2012. The collection documents the history of the institution from its inception in 1894 as the American School of Architecture in Rome, through the end of World War II, and chronicles the contributions the academy has made to America's cultural and intellectual development. Nearly one-half of the collection consists of an unprocessed addition received in 2014 containing records that mostly post-date World War II and include correspondence and subject files of officers and executives based in the New York office of American Academy in Rome.
Scope and Content Note:
The records of the American Academy in Rome measure 65.9 linear feet and date from 1855 to 2012. The collection documents the history of the institution from its inception in 1894 as the American School of Architecture in Rome, through the end of World War II, and chronicles the contributions the academy has made to America's cultural and intellectual development. Nearly one-half of the collection consists of an unprocessed addition received in 2014 containing records that mostly post-date World War II and include correspondence and subject files of officers and executives based in the New York office of American Academy in Rome.

Items predating the 1894 founding of the American School of Architecture in Rome are personal papers and memorabilia of individuals associated with the institution.

Series 1: Predecessor Institutions, is composed of the records of the American School of Architecture in Rome, 1894-1898, and the American School of Classical Studies in Rome, 1895-1913. Records of the American School of Architecture in Rome include records of its Managing Committee, correspondence, financial records, and printed matter. Among the Managing Committee's records are notes and correspondence relative to the founding of the institution, minute books and reports; also, legal documents including records concerning its dissolution prior to being reorganized as the American Academy in Rome. Correspondence is mostly that of Vice President Charles F. McKim who handled administrative matters. Financial records include capital stock certificates, invoices and receipts. Printed matter consists of scholarship competition announcements.

Records of the American School of Classical Studies in Rome include records of its Managing Committee, Committee on Fellowships, publications, printed matter, and treasurers' records. The Managing Committee's records consist of the proposed resolution concerning its merger with the American Academy in Rome. Committee on Fellowship records are comprised of correspondence, reports, and fellowship applications. Publications records include correspondence and invoices. Printed matter includes general information, annual reports of the Managing Committee and Director, annual reports of the Committee on Medieval and Renaissance Studies, fellowship applications and examination questions, and the proposed consolidation agreement. Treasurers' records include the files of Alex. Bell and Willard V. King. Bell's sparse records consist of a budget, receipts for salary payments, an invoice, canceled checks, and correspondence. King's files, while more substantial than those that survive from Bell's tenure, are quite incomplete. They include correspondence, banking records, budgets and financial statements, investment records, invoices, and receipts for salaries and expenses.

Series 2: Board of Trustees Records, is comprised of legal documents, minutes, and reports; records of Trustee committees; records of officers; and records of individual Trustees. Legal documents, 1897-1926 and undated, consist of by-laws and amendments, certificate of incorporation, and constitution and amendments. Minutes and reports of the Board of Trustees, 1897-1947 and 1957, including those of its annual meetings, are carbon copies rather than the official minute books, and are incomplete. Reports of officers are incomplete, as well. Also included are reports of Officers'/Trustees' visits to Rome, and reports of the Director and Secretary in Rome submitted to the Board of Trustees.

Records of Trustee committees, 1905-1946 and undated, consist of reports and/or minutes arranged alphabetically by committee; these, too are incomplete, with many committees represented by a single report. Committees represented are: Building Committee, Carter Memorial Committee, Endowment Committee, Executive Committee, Finance Committee, Library Committee, McKim Memorial Committee, Nominating Committee, Committee on Publications. Committee on the School of Classical Studies records consist of its own minutes and reports, reports of its Advisory Council and the Jury on Classical Fellowships. Committee on the School of Classical Studies also include reports of officers and staff of the School of Classical Studies to the Committee on the School of Classical Studies as follows: Director, Professor in Charge, Annual Professor, Director of the Summer Session, Professor of Archaeology, Curator of the Museum, Editor, Librarian, and Committee on the Welfare of Women Students. Committee on the School of Fine Arts records consist of its own minutes and reports, reports of its Special Committee on the Plan and Expense of a Department of Music in the School of Fine Arts, and report of Fine Arts Program, Triptych Project with the Citizens Committee for the Army and Navy, Inc.; also, reports of officers and staff of the School of Fine Arts to the Committee on the School of Fine Arts as follows: Director, Professor in Charge, Associate in Charge, Annual Professor, Professor in Charge of the Department of Musical Composition. In addition, there are minutes and/or reports of the Committee of Twelve and Subcommittee of Five and the Special Committee on Villa Aurelia.

Records of Officers. 1898-1957 and undated, consist mainly of correspondence files and reports, with large numbers of transcriptions and carbon copies. Included are records of: Presidents Charles F. McKim, William R. Mead, Charles A. Platt, John Russell Pope, and James Kellum Smith; Vice Presidents Theodore N. Ely, George B. McClellan, and Henry James; Secretaries H. Siddons Mowbray (Secretary/Treasurer), Frank D. Millet, C. Grant La Farge, William B. Dinsmoor, and H. Richardson Pratt; and Treasurers William R. Mead, William A. Boring, Leon Fraser, and Lindsay Bradford Office files of President Mead, Secretaries Millet and La Farge, and Treasurer Boring are the most complete; files of other individuals, the Vice Presidents in particular, are often quite sparse.

Records of individual Trustees, 1902-1946 and undated, consist of material relating to official Academy business that was created or maintained by each in his capacity as trustee. (Note: many of these individuals also served as officers or staff of the Academy, and their records documenting those functions will be found in the appropriate series.) Included in this subseries are the records of: Chester H. Aldrich, Gilmore D. Clarke, James C. Egbert, Barry Faulkner, Allan C. Johnson, William M. Kendall, C. Grant La Farge, Edward P. Mellon, Charles Dyer Norton, Charles A. Platt, John Russell Pope, Edward K. Rand, John C. Rolfe, James Kellum Smith, S. Breck Trowbridge, Ferruccio Vitale, John Quincy Adams Ward, Andrew F. West, and William L. Westerman. These records tend to be sparse; files maintained by James C. Egbert, Barry Faulkner, Allan C. Johnson, and Ferruccio Vitale are notable exceptions.

Series 3: New York Office Records, consists of records of staff, rosters, printed matter, photographs, personal papers, Association of Alumni of the American Academy in Rome, and miscellaneous records.

Records of staff, 1919-1950 and undated, include the office files of Executive Secretaries Roscoe Guersney, Meriwether Stuart, and Mary T. Williams; Librarian George K. Boyce; and Endowment Fund Campaign Secretaries Phillilps B. Robinson and Edgar I. Williams.

The rosters, 1895-1939 and undated, are printed forms completed by fellows and students, with occasional attachments (usually correspondence or photographs). Included are the rosters of the School of Fine Arts, School of Classical Studies, and School of Classical Studies Summer Sessions.

Printed matter, 1905-[1981?] and undated, has been classified as Academy produced and produced by others. Items produced by the Academy, 1905-[1981?], include general information including act of incorporation and by-laws, fundraising brochure, constitution, Directory of Fellows and Residents, histories of the institution, newsletter of the Director, and printed items relating to special events. Printed matter specifically relating to the School of Classical Studies includes annual announcements, the consolidation agreement, a directory, fellowship announcements and applications, lecture announcements, newsletters, and brochures about summer sessions. School of Fine Arts printed matter includes annual announcements, concert programs, exhibition checklists and catalogs, fellowship announcements and application forms, history, and newsletters.

Printed matter produced by others, 1905-1940 and undated, consists of three scrapbooks of news clippings and photographs compiled by the American Academy in Rome, extensive clipping files, and articles from miscellaneous publications. All of these items are about the American Academy in Rome, or by or about individuals associated with the institution. Also included is a poster for Leave Courses offered at the Academy for U. S. servicemen.

Photographs, 1891-1941 and undated, are organized into the categories of works of art, people, buildings, places, events, and miscellaneous. Works of art are by visiting students and fellows, Frank D. Millet, collaborative problems, Rome Prize Competitions in Architecture, Rome Prize Competitions in Landscape Architecture, and Prix de Rome Competition exhibitions. Photographs of people are both of individuals and groups; among the groups are summer school students and fellowship winners.

Buildings depicted are American Academy properties. Among them are the "New Building," including interior and exterior construction views; studios; and Villas Aurelia, Mirafiore, and Richardson. Also included is a group of photographs of Academy architecture students measuring buildings in Rome and Florence. Places pictured are views of the Academy property and surrounding areas.

Photographs of events include cricket games, Thanksgiving and Fourth of July dinners, Architectural League exhibition, and inauguration of the Manship Fountain. Miscellaneous photographs are of an architectural drawing for a proposed building.

Personal Papers, Memorabilia, and Ephemera, 1855-1923 an undated, were donated to the American Academy in Rome or otherwise left on its premises. None are official records generated by the institution. Included are: Ernest Lewis' photograph album/scrapbook; Allan Marquand's papers; Charles F. McKim's memorabilia, photographs, printed matter, and artifacts; Charles R. Morey's correspondence; and Elihu Vedder's Bible.

Records of the Association of the Alumni of the American Academy in Rome, 1913-1945 and undated), consist of a small number of scattered records including correspondence, fellows' war/government service information (compiled by Sidney Waugh), membership lists, and a newsletter.

Miscellaneous records, 1899-1926 and undated, are writings and architectural records. Writings consist of published and unpublished manuscript material about the American Academy in Rome and its history, and article by H. Siddons Mowbray advising on ornamentation, and text and illustrations for the Art and Archaeology issue on the Academy. Also included are fragments of unidentified letters. Architectural records [oversize] include property and floor plans of Villas Aurora, Chiaraviglio, Ferrari, and Ludovisi.

Series 4: Rome Office Records, consist of records of staff and personal papers. Records of staff, 1903-1947 and undated, include the office files of Directors H. Siddons Mowbray, George Breck, Jesse Benedict Carter, Gorham Phillips Stevens, James Monroe Hewlett, Chester H. Aldrich, Amey Aldrich [Acting Director, very briefly, perhaps unofficially], Charles R. Morey, and Laurance P. Roberts; and records of two members of the School of Fine Arts faculty, Frank P. Fairbanks, Professor of Fine Arts, and Felix Lamond, Professor of Music. Records of Carter, Stevens, Hewlett, and Aldrich appear to be fairly complete; records of early directors are sparse; those of Morey and Roberts appear to be missing significant portions; and those of Professors Fairbanks and Lamond consist of a few scattered items.

Also surviving are the personal papers of Director Gorham Phillips Stevens, 1912-1931 and undated), consisting of correspondence, financial records, and documentation of professional and charitable activities.

Series 5: Unprocessed Addition to the American Academy in Rome Records was received in 2014 and consists of 31.6 linear feet of the New York office's records for officers, directors, and executives.
Arrangement:
It was obvious that before they came to the Archives of American Art the records had been rearranged more than once, and in such a way that materials from many different departments had been intermingled. In keeping with archival theory and practice, the records were organized to reflect the structure and operation of the institution that created the records, making them more understandable and accessible to a wide variety of researchers.

In general, the records of each officer and staff member are arranged alphabetically, with general correspondence preceding the alphabetical sequence; arrangement within each file is chronological, unless noted otherwise.

Records of the American Academy in Rome are organized into five major series. Each series, except series 5, is divided into several subseries, with the arrangement described in detail in the series descriptions.

Missing Title

Series 1: Predecessor Institutions, 1894-1913 (box 1; 0.88 linear ft.; Reels 5749-5750)

Series 2: Board of Trustees Records, 1897-1957, undated (boxes 1-17, 35, 37; 15.25 linear ft.; Reels 5750-5777)

Series 3: New York Office, 1855-circa 1981, undated (boxes 17-32, 36; 15 linear ft.; 5777-5795)

Series 4: Rome Office, 1903-1943, undated (boxes 32-34; 3 linear ft.; 5795-5800)

Series 5: Unprocessed Addition to the American Academy in Rome Records, 1933-2002 (boxes 35-103; 31.6 linear ft.)
Historical Note:
While in Chicago to advise and work on the fine arts section of the 1893 World's Columbian Exposition, architects Charles F. McKim, Daniel Burnham, and Richard Howland Hunt, painters John La Farge and Frank Millet, and sculptors Augustus Saint-Gaudens, and Daniel Chester French, among others, met regularly. From their collaborative experience and discussions came the idea for an American school for artists in Europe. Charles F. McKim was especially enthusiastic. He strongly believed that collaborative experience should be available to future American artists, and perceived a real need for an American school in Europe--preferably in Rome, the very best place to study art, in his opinion.

By March of the following year, McKim was busy devising plans for the school and persuading like-minded architects and artists to assist. He proposed to finance the school by convincing institutions with traveling scholarships in the arts to send those students to Rome. Columbia University, University of Pennsylvania, and the Rotch Scholarship fund readily agreed to the scheme, and in ensuing years many others followed suit. In October, 1894, the American School of Architecture in Rome opened temporary quarters in the Palazzo Torlonia. The school consisted of its Director, Austin Lord, three fellows, and a visiting student; its "library" contained but one volume.

A move to the larger, more suitable Villa Aurora occurred in July 1895. Rent from two subtenants (the newly established American School of Classical Studies in Rome and the British and American Archaeological Society Library in Rome), along with a personal contribution from McKim, made this financially feasible.

The American School of Architecture in Rome was incorporated in the State of New York, 1895, and 10 shares of capital stock were issued. Despite substantial fundraising efforts in Chicago, New York, and Boston, severe financial problems continued. The American School of Classical Studies in Rome vacated the Villa Aurora in 1896--and with it went a sizeable portion of the School of Architecture's income. McKim frequently made up the deficit from his own pocket.

Eventually, it was decided that the American School of Architecture in Rome must be reorganized along the lines of the French Academy and that national sponsorship needed to be obtained through an act of Congress. In June of 1897, the American School of Architecture in Rome voted to dissolve itself and create the American Academy in Rome. The new institution would assume all assets and obligations, fellowships in painting and architecture were to be added to the program, and its Board of Trustees would include architects and artists. The Academy is not a school. Its fellows and visiting students, already professionally trained, go to Rome for further development and for collaboration and association with others. In the words of Director Gorham Phillips Stevens: "The object of the American Academy in Rome is not to afford opportunities for a few individuals to perfect themselves for the practice of their chosen professions. The ideal is to create an atmosphere in which a limited number of carefully selected artists and scholars may develop that synthesis of intellectual culture which will make them worthy to preserve and continue the great traditions of the past in order that the standard of art and literature may be handed on from year to year, constantly strengthened and improved."

Beginning in 1901, bills to make the American Academy in Rome a "national institution" were introduced in Congress on several occasions. A hearing was finally scheduled in 1905, and a revised bill that prohibited government funding and specified that U.S. officials may not be Trustees was signed into law. Serious efforts to create an Endowment Fund and secure better quarters were associated with the movement to obtain status as a national institution. The Academy was successful in meeting all of these objectives. In 1904, the Academy moved to the Villa Mirafiore (also known as Villa Mirafiori), which it soon purchased and renovated. The Endowment Fund raised well over a million dollars. Donors of $100,000 to the Endowment Fund, designated "Founders" of the American Academy in Rome, were: The Carnegie Foundation, Henry C. Frick, Harvard College, Charles F. McKim, J. P. Morgan, Sr., J. P. Morgan, Jr., The Rockefeller Foundation, John D. Rockefeller, Jr., William K. Vanderbilt, and Henry Walters. Other categories of donors were "Incorporators" (a new Act of Incorporation was required at the time the American Academy in Rome was chartered as a national institution) and "Life Members."

The American School of Classical Studies in Rome, which had been established by the Archaeological Society in 1895 and during its first year shared the Villa Aurora with the American School of Architecture in Rome, entered into a consolidation agreement with the American Academy in Rome in 1911. Their merger went into effect on the last day of 1912, and ever since, the American Academy in Rome has consisted of the School of Fine Arts and the School of Classical Studies, administered by a common director. The School of Classical Studies is composed of fellows and visiting scholars who are graduate students, secondary teachers, or professors engaged in research in the areas of archaeology, ancient art, philology, and humanistic studies. Women were a part of the School of Classical Studies from its beginning, but were not permitted to participate in the School of Fine Arts until well after World War II. Beginning in 1923, the School of Classical Studies instituted Summer Sessions which appealed to secondary teachers, and attracted an enrollment that was largely female.

Originally, the School of Fine Arts offered fellowships in architecture, painting, and sculpture. Fellowships in landscape architecture were added in 1915; in 1920, a Department of Music was established, and along with it fellowships in musical composition. Fellowships in art history were established in 1947. Unmarried men under age 30 were eligible to compete for the fine arts fellowships awarded annually (except for landscape architecture, awarded every third year); the duration of fellowships ranged from one to three years at various points in the institution's history. In residence along with fellows of the American Academy in Rome, might be holders of various traveling scholarships: the McKim Fellowship, the Columbia Traveling Scholarship, the Perkins Scholarship, the Robinson Traveling Scholarship (Harvard), the Rotch Scholarship, the Julia Appleton Scholarship, the Traveling Scholarship and Stewardson Memorial Scholarship (University of Pennsylvania), the Cresson Scholarship (Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts), the Drexel Institute Traveling Scholarship, the Lazarus Scholarship (Metropolitan Museum of Art), the Lowell Scholarship (Massachusetts Institute of Technology), and the Rinehart Scholarship (Peabody Institute, Baltimore). Visiting students, who remained for a much briefer period than fellows or recipients of various traveling scholarships, were admitted to all lectures and granted use the library, but resided elsewhere. The Academy opened an Atelier in downtown Rome for visiting students in 1927, which operated until financial considerations forced its discontinuation seven years later.

As the merger was being planned, J. P. Morgan, Sr., who was interested in both the American Academy in Rome and the American School of Classical Studies in Rome, began buying properties on the Janiculum, adjacent to Villa Aureilia. Villa Aurelia, built on the summit of the Janiculum in 1650, had been bequeathed to the American Academy in Rome in 1909 by Clara Jessup Heyland. Complications surrounding the gift of Villa Aurelia--including the will being contested by Mrs. Heyland's brother, and problems with unsettled tax assessments--were overcome in the interest of acquiring the outstanding building and its extensive grounds. Not long before his death in 1913, Morgan donated his neighboring land, and the American Academy in Rome continued to expand its Janiculum holdings through purchases and gifts from others. Morgan also agreed to provide a loan for construction of a new building. This building, designed by McKim, Mead, and White and known as the Main Building or Academy Building, opened in 1915; it served as the fellows' residence and work area, and included room for the library, offices, and space for exhibitions and other public events.

During World War I, the American Academy in Rome managed to remain open, although no new fellows arrived during the war years and the number of resident fellows and staff dwindled considerably. Most who remained were involved in some type of civilian war work, often with the Red Cross. In fact, Villa Aurelia was rented by the Red Cross in Italy for office space, and the Main Building was offered as a convalescent hospital, but the war ended before it could be put to that use.

After Italy declared war on the United States in 1941, the American Academy in Rome closed for the remainder of World War II. Those who had been awarded fellowships in classics just prior to the Academy's closing were given the option of using their stipends for study at home or waiting until conditions permitted travel to Rome. A very reduced staff stayed to care for the property and continue library cataloguing, coping with often severe wartime shortages of food and fuel. In addition, there were financial hardships. When bank accounts of enemy aliens were frozen and it was no longer possible to transfer funds from the United States, the Swiss Legation and Vatican arranged for loans to keep the Academy and its staff afloat. Funds that would have been awarded to new fellows during this period were put to use in other ways. In 1943, the American Academy in Rome made a grant to the Citizen's Committee for the Army and Navy, Inc. for competitions to award commissions to artists and art students throughout the country, funding more than 100 triptychs for chapels, as well as murals, medals, and sculpture. Seniors in American colleges and universities were eligible to compete for several scholarships for graduate work in classical studies awarded by the American Academy in Rome.

In 1945, the Academy was the site of Leave Courses on various aspects of Italian culture offered to servicemen. From the end of the war until the Academy reopened at the start of the 1946/47 academic year, G.I. Fellowships were offered to discharged soldiers wishing to study at the Academy, making the institution eligible to receive surplus equipment and rations. During this time intensive planning was underway for administrative changes and new programs.

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1893 -- While in Chicago to collaborate on the fine arts section for the World's Columbian Exposition, architects Charles F. McKim, Daniel Burnham, Richard Howland Hunt, painters John La Farge, and Sculptors Augustus Saint-Gaudens, and Daniel Chester French, among others, met regularly and from their collaborative experience and discussions came the idea for an American school in Europe.

1894 -- American School of Architecture in Rome opened in temporary quarters at the Palazzo Torlonia with Austin Lord, Director, three fellows, and a visiting student.

1895 -- Villa Aurora leased with 2 subtenants, the American School of Classical Studies and the British and American Archaeological Society Library in Rome American School of Architecture incorporated and 10 shares of capital stock issued (2 each to McKim and Hunt, and 1 to Burnham, Kendall, Schermerhorn, Boring, Garland, and Dill) McKim visits Rome.

1896 -- Metropolitan Museum of Art, administrator of Jacob H. Lazarus Scholarship for the study of mural painting, agrees to send the winner to Rome American School of Classical Studies in Rome vacates Villa Aurora.

1897 -- American School of Architecture in Rome dissolved and reorganized as the American Academy in Rome; the assets (including the lease on Villa Aurora) of the American School of Architecture in Rome were transferred and its program expanded to include fellowships in painting and sculpture Samuel A. B. Abbott appointed first Director Rome Prize discontinued (for 9 years) due to lack of funds.

1898 -- Incorporated in New York State; trustees begin to focus on raising an endowment.

1904 -- Move to Villa Mirafiore (also known as Villa Mirafiori); occupied until 1914.

1905 -- Chartered by the Congress of the United States; a bill signed by President Roosevelt made the American Academy in Rome a national institution (receiving no government funding and barring U.S. officials from acting as Trustees).

1906 -- Purchase of Villa Mirafiore finalized; renovations begun.

1909 -- Villa Aurelia bequeathed to the Academy by Clara Jessup Heyland (used until 1932); there were protracted problems surrounding the acquisition of the property including a brother who contested the will and unsettled taxes.

1911 -- School of Classical Studies in Rome (established by the Archaeological Institute of America in 1895) and the American Academy in Rome announce their consolidation [the merger became effective on the final day of 1912].

1912 -- Lands on the Janiculum adjacent to Villa Aurelia, recently acquired by J. Pierpont Morgan, Sr., transferred to the American Academy in Rome.

1913 -- American Academy in Rome now consists of the School of Fine Arts and the School of Classical Studies. New York office moves to the Architect's Building, 101 Park Ave., remaining at this location until 1973. By this date, largely through the generosity of J. Pierpont Morgan, Sr., nearly all of the land bounded by Via Angelo Masina, Via Giacomo Medici, Via Pietro Riselli, and the Aurelian Wall on the Janiculum had been purchased and many improvements made to the properties near the Villa Aurelia. Construction begins on the new Academy building designed by McKim, Mead, and White and situated on the grounds of Villa Aurelia; financed through a loan from J. Pierpont Morgan, Sr. (after Morgan Sr.'s death, his son offered to cancel the loan at an amount equal to funds raised by the Academy for the purpose).

1915 -- First Fellowship in Landscape Architecture established; opening of new Academy building housing the fellows' residential quarters, work areas, library, offices, and spaces for public programs.

1917 -- Villa Aurelia rented to the Red Cross for office space, and the new Main building was slated to become a convalescent hospital, but the war ended before it could be put to use.

1919 -- New York office reorganized by Roscoe Guernsey, executive secretary; sale of Villa Mirafiore; Academic Council established in Rome.

1920 -- Department of Music and Fellowship in Musical Composition established.

1923 -- School of Classical Studies establishes summer sessions, largely attended by teachers.

1926 -- Second Fellowship in Landscape Architecture funded by Garden Club of America (later permanently endowed).

1927 -- Academy opens an Atelier in downtown Rome, providing studios for visiting students (operated until 1934).

1929 -- First Thomas Spencer Jerome lecturer appointed.

1941 -- Academy closes for duration of World War II; a skeletal staff remain behind to care for the property and continue library cataloguing; Italy declares war on the United States.

1942 -- After transfer of funds from the U.S. proved impossible and enemy aliens were prohibited from withdrawing their own funds from Italian banks, the Swiss Legation and Vatican offered assistance to the Academy by providing loans.

1943 -- Academy grant to Citizen's Committee for the Army and Navy, Inc., funded hundreds of triptychs; murals, medals, and sculptures also commissioned Academy awards scholarships in classical studies at American colleges and universities.

1945 -- "Leave courses," held at the Academy, consisting mainly of lectures by distinguished scholars still in Rome, instituted for U.S. servicemen.

1946 -- Regular program resumes at the start of the academic year.

1947 -- Fellowship in the History of Art established.

1965 -- Loan of printed matter for microfilming by the Archives of American Art (reels ITRO 2-3 and 11-13).

1973 -- New York office moves to American Federation of Arts building, 41 East 65th St. (until 1993).

1982 -- Gift of New York office records to the Archives of American Art.

1990 -- Gift of Rome office records to the Archives of American Art.

1993 -- New York office moves to Metropolitan Club, 7 East 60th St.
Related Material:
Papers of a number of former fellows, trustees, and other individuals associated with the American Academy in Rome are among the holdings of the Archives of American Art.

Chaloner Prize Foundation records, 1915-1974 (microfilm reels 5664-5669) were received with the American Academy in Rome records. They have been arranged and described as a separate collection.

Valentine, Lucia and Alan Valentine. The American Academy in Rome, 1894-1969. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1973.
Separated Material:
The Archives of American Art also holds microfilm of material lent for microfilming (reels ITRO 2-3, and ITRO 11-13) including annual reports, exhibition catalogues, a history of the American Academy in Rome, the American Academy in Rome at the World's Fair, and the Golden Gate Exposition and newsletter. Loaned materials were returned to the lender and can be found at the American Academy in Rome, Italy. This material is not described in the collection container inventory.
Provenance:
The material on reels ITRO 2-3 and ITRO 11-13 were lent to the Archives of American Art for microfilming by the American Academy in Rome in 1965. Records of predecessor institutions, the Board of Trustees, and the New York office, including photographs and personal papers, were donated in 1982 by the Academy president, Calvin G. Rand. In 1990, Rand also gifted the Rome office records and the personal documents of Gorham Phillips Stevens. An addition of New York office records was donated in 2014 by the Academy director, Adele Chatfield-Taylor.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C. research center. Contact Reference Services for more information.
Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Topic:
Architecture -- Study and teaching  Search this
Architecture, Classical -- Study and teaching  Search this
Art -- Study and teaching  Search this
Art schools -- Italy -- Rome  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Citation:
American Academy in Rome records, 1855-2012. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.ameracar
See more items in:
American Academy in Rome records
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/mw9eb425e5a-26de-478b-8ecc-8a9006e9dc52
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-ameracar
Online Media:

John Wetherill lantern slides

Photographer:
Wetherill, John  Search this
Extent:
42 Lantern slides
Culture:
Pueblo (Anasazi) (archaeological)  Search this
Diné (Navajo)  Search this
Ute  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Lantern slides
Place:
Cliff Palace (Mesa Verde, Colorado) -- Archeology
Colorado -- Antiquities
Date:
1892
Summary:
This collection contains glass lantern slides shot by rancher and explorer John Wetherill (1866-1944). The photographs depict Ancestral Puebloan sites in southwestern U.S., as well as photos of Diné (Navajo) and Ute men and women.
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of 42 glass lantern slides that were shot by John Wetherill (1866-1944) circa 1892. The bulk of the photographs depict Ancestral Puebloan sites at Mesa Verde and Hovenweep in southwest Colorado. Wetherill may have been escorting the H. Jay Smith Exploring Company around the region as they collected objects for a Mesa Verde exhibit at the 1893 World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago.

The glass lantern slides depict cliff dwellings in a state of pre-archaeological preservation including the sites of Cliff Palace, Spruce Tree House, Square Tower House, Kodak House, Sandal House, and Spring House at Mesa Verde; and Square Tower at Hovenweep. The photographs also depict Oraibi Hopi Village, Montezuma Castle, and Casa Grande Ruins sites in Arizona.

A few photographs depict Ute and Diné (Navajo) men and women. One photograph of note depicts an outdoor group portrait photographed at a Ute wedding in Mancos, Colorado. The individuals depicted include George Bowles (Harvard student), Mancos Jim (Ute) and his wife, Herbert L. Cowing (1877-1956), Elmer Coston, Benjamin Kite Wetherill (1832-1898), and Richard Wetherill (1858-1910).

Several photographs in this collection also depict objects such as pottery, yucca baskets, stone axes, manos, and metates alongside Ancestral Puebloan human remains. These photographs are restricted.

John Wetherill is listed as the photographer, however, his brother Richard Wetherill (1858-1910) may have shot some of the photographs as well. The lantern slides feature handwritten labels that describe the photographs and were probably written by a Museum of the American Indian employee. Additionally, "Museum of the American Indian Heye Foundation, Broadway at 155th ST. N. Y. City" is printed on the back of the masking paper, which indicates that the lantern slides were most likely assembled by MAI staff.

Some lantern slides may be the reverse or mirror images of the actual scenes.
Arrangement:
This collection is arranged in photo number order.
Biographical / Historical:
John Wetherill (1866-1944) was a cattle rancher, explorer, and amateur archaeologist in Colorado. Born in Kansas in 1866 to Benjamin Kite Wetherill and Marion Tompkins Wetherill, the family moved to Mancos in southwestern Colorado in 1879. In December 1888, Richard Wetherill (John's older brother) and Charles Mason (brother-in-law), were credited with having discovered Cliff Palace, Spruce Tree House, and Square Tower House sites at Mesa Verde, although the cliff dwellings were already known to some Native Puebloan communities in the southwest at the time. Additionally, several non-Native explorers had visited other Ancestral Puebloan sites in the region prior to the Wetherills' discoveries including Mexican-Spanish missionaries Francisco Atanasio Dominguez and Silvestre Velez de Escalante in 1776; prospector John Moss in 1873; and photographer William Henry Jackson for the Hayden U.S. Geological Survey in 1874.

After the discovery, Richard and his brothers John, Clayton, Winslow, and Benjamin continued exploring and found other Ancestral Puebloan sites in the region. In 1891, the Wetherill brothers worked with amateur Swedish archaeologist Gustaf Nordenskiöld excavating Cliff House. Nordenskiöld taught them the basics tenants of archaeological excavation and trained them to keep detailed provenance records and to label objects.

From 1888-1893, the Wetherills collected more objects from Mesa Verde and eventually sold many of their collections, including a large collection to the Colorado State Historical Society (History Colorado). By 1900 John Wetherill moved to New Mexico and then Utah with his wife Louise Wade Wetherill. John continued serving as a guide and trained archaeologists and anthropologists in the region. He died in 1944.

Agnes Cowing (1880-1965), the collector of the glass lantern slides, was a librarian in New York. She most likely obtained them from her brother Herbert L. Cowing (1877-1956) or her sister Julia R. Cowing (b. 1857) who were both friends of the Wetherill family and visited the Wetherill Ranch in Mancos, Colorado in the 1890s.
Related Materials:
History Colorado in Denver, Colo. holds a John and Richard Wetherill photographs collection (2000.129), a Richard Wetherill manuscripts collection (Mini-MSS #3035), and a large collection of objects collected by the Wetherills. The Smithsonian's National Anthropological Archives holds a collection of photographs collected by H. Jay Smith (NAA MS 2420).
Provenance:
Donated to the Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation by Agnes Cowing in 1934.
Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiphotos@si.edu. For personal or classroom use, users are invited to download, print, photocopy, and distribute the images that are available online without prior written permission, provided that the files are not modified in any way, the Smithsonian Institution copyright notice (where applicable) is included, and the source of the image is identified as the National Museum of the American Indian. For more information please see the Smithsonian's Terms of Use and NMAI Archive Center's Digital Image request website.
Some images restricted: Cultural Sensitivity
Topic:
Indians of North America -- Antiquities & archaeological sites -- Colorado  Search this
Indians of North America -- Colorado  Search this
cliff dwellings -- Colorado -- Mesa Verde National Park  Search this
Genre/Form:
Lantern slides
Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); John Wetherill lantern slides, Box and Photo Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.106
See more items in:
John Wetherill lantern slides
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sv4c6bd4b84-f45a-47d2-8ff7-bea7c091feb3
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmai-ac-106
Online Media:

Bitter, Karl

Collection Creator:
Bitter, Karl Theodore Francis, 1867-1915  Search this
Container:
Box 1, Folder 4
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1915
Scope and Contents:
Copy of a letter to Daniel C. French.
Collection Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C. Research Center. Contact Reference Services for more information.
Collection Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Collection Citation:
Karl Theodore Francis Bitter papers, 1887-circa 1977. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Karl Theodore Francis Bitter papers
Karl Theodore Francis Bitter papers / Series 2: Family Correspondence
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/mw955f9becc-38c0-4804-be8f-c846bfd4f220
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aaa-bittkarl-ref10

Diary

Collection Creator:
Bitter, Karl Theodore Francis, 1867-1915  Search this
Container:
Box 1, Folder 5
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1901
Scope and Contents:
Oversized material housed in Box 3, Folder 1.
Collection Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C. Research Center. Contact Reference Services for more information.
Collection Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Collection Citation:
Karl Theodore Francis Bitter papers, 1887-circa 1977. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Karl Theodore Francis Bitter papers
Karl Theodore Francis Bitter papers / Series 3: Diaries
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/mw9671ffd76-37c8-4693-b370-450f8d032418
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aaa-bittkarl-ref12

Diary

Collection Creator:
Bitter, Karl Theodore Francis, 1867-1915  Search this
Container:
Box 1, Folder 6
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1909
Collection Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C. Research Center. Contact Reference Services for more information.
Collection Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Collection Citation:
Karl Theodore Francis Bitter papers, 1887-circa 1977. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Karl Theodore Francis Bitter papers
Karl Theodore Francis Bitter papers / Series 3: Diaries
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/mw9af27f391-75c7-44ba-9165-c2fee7c09813
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aaa-bittkarl-ref15

Biography

Collection Creator:
Bitter, Karl Theodore Francis, 1867-1915  Search this
Container:
Box 1, Folder 1
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
circa 1927
Collection Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C. Research Center. Contact Reference Services for more information.
Collection Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Collection Citation:
Karl Theodore Francis Bitter papers, 1887-circa 1977. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Karl Theodore Francis Bitter papers
Karl Theodore Francis Bitter papers / Series 1: Biographical Material
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/mw994cca719-be88-43eb-af2d-4825515bf0be
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aaa-bittkarl-ref6

Abel, Marietta (Mrs. Walter)

Collection Creator:
Bitter, Karl Theodore Francis, 1867-1915  Search this
Container:
Box 1, Folder 2
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1958
Collection Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C. Research Center. Contact Reference Services for more information.
Collection Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Collection Citation:
Karl Theodore Francis Bitter papers, 1887-circa 1977. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Karl Theodore Francis Bitter papers
Karl Theodore Francis Bitter papers / Series 2: Family Correspondence
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/mw97e3b99eb-5525-4f6b-9a58-5c777bdeee28
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aaa-bittkarl-ref7

Bitter, Francis

Collection Creator:
Bitter, Karl Theodore Francis, 1867-1915  Search this
Container:
Box 1, Folder 3
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1945-1958
Scope and Contents:
Includes a copy of a letter written by Marie Bitter in 1916 concerning the death of her husband Karl and of burial arrangement.
Collection Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C. Research Center. Contact Reference Services for more information.
Collection Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Collection Citation:
Karl Theodore Francis Bitter papers, 1887-circa 1977. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Karl Theodore Francis Bitter papers
Karl Theodore Francis Bitter papers / Series 2: Family Correspondence
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/mw914a66b79-5af3-411c-87a6-291ab7f30de3
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aaa-bittkarl-ref8

James McNeill Whistler collection

Creator:
Whistler, James McNeill, 1834-1903  Search this
Names:
Company of the Butterfly  Search this
Royal Academy of Arts (Great Britain)  Search this
Salon (Exhibition : Paris, France)  Search this
Salon des refusés  Search this
World's Columbian Exposition (1893 : Chicago, Ill.)  Search this
Anderson, Christine  Search this
Beck, J. W.  Search this
Boehm, Joseph Edgar, Sir, 1834-1890  Search this
Bronson, Katharine de Kay, 1834-1901  Search this
Burnett, Frances Hodgson, 1849-1924  Search this
Burnett, Swan M. (Swan Moses), 1847-1906  Search this
Ford, Sheridan, d. 1922  Search this
Lee, George Washington Custis, 1832-1913  Search this
Lee, Robert E. (Robert Edward), 1807-1870  Search this
Leighton of Stretton, Frederic Leighton, Baron, 1830-1896  Search this
Lucas, George A., 1824-1909  Search this
Pollitt, Herbert Charles Jerome, 1871-1942  Search this
Wilde, Oscar, 1854-1900  Search this
Extent:
0.2 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Postcards
Pamphlets
Date:
1863-1906, circa 1940
Summary:
The collection measures 0.2 linear feet and provides scattered documentation of the career of American-born British-based painter and etcher James McNeill Whistler (1834-1903) through 39 items from Whistler to various recipients, including 25 letters, 9 telegraphs, 3 invitations, one thank you card and a postcard. The collection also contains 4 letters from others, 7 catalogs of Whistler exhibitions, a note from the back of Whistler's painting The Beach at Selsey Bill, and a 1906 copy of Wilde v. Whistler: being an acromonious correspondence on art between Oscar Wilde and James A. McNeill Whistler, a pamphlet containing letters originally published in London newspapers between 1885 and 1890.
Scope and Content Note:
The collection measures 0.2 linear feet and provides scattered documentation of the career of American-born British-based painter and etcher James McNeill Whistler (1834-1903) through 39 items from Whistler to various recipients, including 25 letters, 9 telegraphs, 3 invitations, one thank you card and a postcard. The collection also contains 4 letters from others, 7 catalogs of Whistler exhibitions, a note from the back of Whistler's painting The Beach at Selsey Bill, and a 1906 copy of Wilde v. Whistler: being an acromonious correspondence on art between Oscar Wilde and James A. McNeill Whistler, a pamphlet containing letters originally published in London newspapers between 1885 and 1890.

The Whistler letters found here touch on some important events in Whistler's career. One letter to George Lucas, an American art dealer in Paris, discusses his plans to send Symphony in White, No. 1: The White Girl to the Paris Salon of 1863. Rejected by the Royal Academy of Arts in London in 1862, the painting was also refused by the Paris Salon but shown ultimately in the landmark exhibition at the Salon des Refusés.

Also found are a circa 1879 letter to the eldest son of Robert E. Lee, General George Washington Custis Lee, with whom Whistler had been a cadet at West Point, recommending sculptor Joseph Boehm for an equestrian statue for memorializing Lee and expressing Whistler's veneration for the Confederate general; a circa 1880 letter from Whistler, written during his 14 months in Venice, to Katharine de Kay Bronson, who presided over the expatriate community there; 2 circa 1892-1893 letters documenting Whistler's determination to pursue Sheridan Ford through the courts in response to Ford's publication of a contraband version of Whistler's book The Gentle Art of Making Enemies; and a circa 1897 letter to J. W. Beck, sent in response to Beck's request on behalf of the Royal Academy that he exhibit with the British contingent at the 1893 World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago. In the letter Whistler insults Sir Frederic Leighton, the Royal Academy's president, retaliating against previous slights including having his paintings hung well above eye-level, or "skied".

Although few, if any, records survive about the creation of The Company of the Butterfly, a syndicate established in 1897 for selling Whistler's work, the collection contains one letter from Christine Anderson, the secretary of the Company, to one of it's first clients, Herbert Charles Pollitt.

The collection also contains an 1883 invitation from Whistler to Dr. Swan Burnett and his wife, children's author Frances Hodgson Burnett, to view etchings and drypoints and a note written by Whistler and signed with the butterfly, taken from the back of the painting Beach at Selsey Bill (1865).

Seven catalogs dating from 1892-1910 and circa 1940 document Whistler exhibitions in London and the United States.

Seven of the Whistler items are signed with his butterfly signature and all letters sent after his wife's death in May 1896 are on mourning stationary.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged as 1 series:

Missing Title

Series 1: James McNeill Whistler Collection, 1863-1906, circa 1940 (Box 1; 0.2 linear ft.)
Biographical Note:
London-based painter and etcher, James McNeill Whistler (1834-1903) was born in Lowell, Massachusetts and lived in St. Petersburg and London as a child before returning to the United States on the death of his father in 1849. After a failed attempt at a military career at West Point from 1851-1853, he worked as a draftsman for the Coast Survey from 1854-1855 where he received technical instruction in etching. Whistler then left for Paris and remained an expatriot for the rest of his life, living alternately in Paris and London. He studied briefly in Paris at the Ecole Impériale, but was influenced more heavily by his own studies of the great masters and his contemporaries, including Henri Fantin-Latour, Charles Baudelaire, Gustave Courbet, and Edouard Manet.

Whistler's reputation as an etcher was firmly established with the 1858 publication of his group of "French Set" etchings. Shortly thereafter he settled in London and began work on his first major painting At the Piano (1859). His paintings, such as Symphony in White No. 1 The White Girl, (1862; National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.) and later portraits such as Arrangement in Black and Grey No. 1: The Artist's Mother (1871; Musée d'Orsay, Paris), won him international acclaim. His style was not easily defined although he was influenced by Realism and Impressionism and by Japanese art styles, which can be seen in his "Nocturne" landscapes, exhibited in 1877 at the Grovesnor Gallery in London, and influenced the development of his "butterfly signature" in the 1860s.

When art critic John Ruskin wrote a scathing review of the "Nocturnes" exhibition, Whistler sued for libel and won, although the resulting legal fees drove him into bankruptcy. He spent 14 months in Venice on a commission for the Fine Art Society and produced a succession of etchings and pastels that were subsequently exhibited in 1883 and helped to stabilize his financial situation.

In 1885 Whistler, famous for his witty and flamboyant personality, published his Ten O'Clock Lecture which espoused his belief in "art for arts sake," and asserted his refusal to ascribe narratives or morality to his art. Whistler's "Ten O'Clock" drew a response from Oscar Wilde and a public discourse between the two men followed in the London newspapers. It was later published in the pamphlet Wilde v. Whistler: being an acrimonious correspondence on art between Oscar Wilde and James A. McNeill Whistler.

In 1890 Whistler published The Gentle Art of Making Enemies, a collection of his best letters and witticisms. The book had originally been the idea of American journalist Sheridan Ford, to whom Whistler had advanced money which he then withdrew with the intent of completing the project alone. When Ford retaliated with a contraband edition of the book, Whistler pursued him through the courts and Ford was tried in Belgium in 1891.

Toward the end of his life Whistler focused increasingly on etching, drypoint and lithography, in addition to interior decoration such as the Peacock Room for Frederick Leyland's London residence begun in 1876. A happy marriage to Beatrix Godwin in 1888 ended in her death in May 1896. By the time of his death in London in 1903, Whistler was regarded as major artist of international renown.
Related Material:
The Archives holds several collections relating to James McNeill Whistler including the Katherine Prince collection relating to James McNeill Whistler, 1835- 1892; Edward Guthrie Kennedy papers concerning James McNeill Whistler in the New York Public Library, 1850-1902 and Selected papers concerning James McNeill Whistler in the New York Public Library, 1830-1950 (available on microfilm only, reel N25; originals reside at the New York Public Library); and James McNeill Whistler collection in the University of Glasgow, Special Collections, circa 1830-1963 (available on microfilm only, reels 4600-4611 and 4683-4699; originals reside in the Glasgow University Library, Dept. of Special Collections).
Provenance:
The collection was compiled from a series of accessions donated between 1959 and 2003. Most of the items in the collection were given to the Archives of American Art by Charles Feinberg in 1959. The pamphlet Wilde v. Whistler was donated by Mrs. Lois Field in 1964 and an invitation to Dr. and Mrs. Burnett was donated by Martha Fleischman in 2003.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment.
Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Occupation:
Art dealers -- France -- Paris  Search this
Painters  Search this
Topic:
Painting, American  Search this
Etchers  Search this
Genre/Form:
Postcards
Pamphlets
Citation:
James McNeill Whistler collection, 1863-1906, circa 1940. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.whisjame2
See more items in:
James McNeill Whistler collection
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/mw928311e59-846a-4af4-9d7d-74c442d7440c
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-whisjame2
Online Media:

Personal Papers, Memorabilia and Ephemera

Collection Creator:
American Academy in Rome  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1855-1923, undated
Scope and Contents note:
These records (0.66 linear feet, reel 5795) were donated to the American Academy in Rome from various sources or otherwise left on its premises. None are official records generated by the institution and some predate the institution. Included are: Ernest Lewis' photograph album/scrapbook; Allan Marquand's papers; Charles F. McKim's memorabilia, photographs, printed matter, and artifacts; Charles R. Morey's correspondence; and Elihu Vedder's Bible.

Ernest Lewis, fellow in architecture, was at the American Academy in Rome, circa 1908-1911. Little is known of him other than that he practiced architecture in New York. The Ernest Lewis scrapbook, included in this subseries, includes photographs of Lewis and his fellow students (many identified, most likely at a later date), circa 1908-1911; interior views of Mirafiore and Lewis in Egypt; photographs of architectural renderings and drawings of architectural details (some by Lewis, others unsigned); clippings and printed matter about architecture, including illustrations of a prize-winning work, and articles about French architects Constant Désiré Despradelle and Jean Louis Pascal; photographs and reproductions of architectural renderings of Roman buildings and entries in various architectural competitions; a McKim, Mead & White label [possibly a bookplate]; a reprint from The Technology Review, November 1912, of an article about Constant Désiré Despradelle; "Rome Letter," 1913 and undated, by George S, Koyle, Fellow in Architecture, American Academy in Rome; and an article about Jean Louis Pascal from Journal of the American Institute of Architects, circa 1913.

Allan Marquand (1853-1924) was professor of art history and archaeology at Princeton University, from 1883 until his death in 1924. Between 1896 and 1897 he served as a professor in the School of Classical Studies in Rome. From approximately 1909 to 1923, he chaired the annual meeting of the Committee on Medieval and Renaissance Studies of the Archaeological Institute of America, a committee which originated in the School of Classical Studies. Papers relating to Marquand and included in this subseries were given to the American Academy in Rome by Miss Lucy Shoe, who had received the materials from the Marquand family.

Charles Follen McKim (1847-1909), after studying at Harvard, and the Ecole des Beaux Arts, and working in the offices of H. H. Richardson, in 1879 formed the architectural firm of McKim, Mead, and White. After meeting other architects and artists at the 1893 World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago and discussing with them the advantages of studying art in Europe, McKim proposed the idea for a school in Europe for American artists. From this plan emerged the American School of Architecture in Rome which eventually became the American Academy in Rome. In addition to being a founder, McKim served as trustee, treasurer, and president; in the early days, McKim's determined service and financial help were responsible for the institution's continued existence. Acquisition documents relating to McKim's files are contained in this subseries and include an itemized list of the gift, labeled as follows: "Documents, property of Mr. McKim, which were brought from Mr. Smith's office by Mr. Dolan (21/8/47) to be left with record in A.A.R. office (in small black case in closet)." Items 10, 11, 12 (case of drawing instruments, 18" ruler, and sketch by unknown artist) were not among the materials received from the American Academy in Rome by the Archives of American Art.

Charles R. Morey (1877-1965) was a professor of art and archaeology at Princeton University, a fellow at the American School of Classical Studies in Rome in 1903, and professor of classical studies at the American Academy in Rome from 1925 to 1926. From 1945 to 1947, Morey served as Acting Director, and later Director of the American Academy in Rome. Morey's correspondence is included in this subseries.

Mural painter Elihu Vedder (1836-1923), a resident of Rome, was affiliated with the firm of McKim, Mead and White during a stay in America from 1897 to 1898. Nothing is known of the circumstances under which the Elihu Vedder Bible, included in this subseries, became the property of the academy.
Arrangement note:
This subseries is arranged alphabetically by name of individual to whom the material relates, then by subject.
Collection Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C. research center. Contact Reference Services for more information.
Collection Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Collection Citation:
American Academy in Rome records, 1855-2012. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.ameracar, Subseries 3.5
See more items in:
American Academy in Rome records
American Academy in Rome records / Series 3: New York Office
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/mw915e6417b-55c8-43a9-85e8-ec73bd2922e3
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aaa-ameracar-ref1363

American School of Architecture in Rome

Collection Creator:
American Academy in Rome  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1855-circa 1981
bulk 1894-1946
Scope and Contents note:
The idea for a school for American artists in Europe was discussed by a group of architects, painters, and sculptors who met in Chicago while collaborating on the fine arts section of the 1893 World's Columbian Exposition. Its most enthusiastic proponent was architect Charles F. McKim who worked tirelessly to make the concept a reality. He was its main administrator, and often kept the school afloat financially with infusions of cash from his personal account. In 1897 it was decided to reorganize as an academy, and the American School of Architecture in Rome was legally dissolved and replaced by the American Academy in Rome.

This subseries include records of the school's managing committee, correspondence, financial records, and printed matter. Among the managing committee's records are notes and correspondence relative to the founding of the institution; minute books which include a semi-annual report of the executive committee managing committee, copies of printed competition announcements, and an engrossed copy with a transcription of dissolution documents; and legal documents including records concerning the school's dissolution in 1898 prior to being reorganized as the American Academy in Rome, an 1895 certificate of the secretary to the bank, and the 1895 lease for the Villa Aurora. Correspondence is mostly that of Charles F. McKim (Vice President 1894-1895 and President 1895-1896) who handled administrative matters. Capital Stock Certificates, 1895, include an "Original Issues of Shares" list.
Collection Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C. research center. Contact Reference Services for more information.
Collection Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Collection Citation:
American Academy in Rome records, 1855-2012. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.ameracar, Subseries 1.1
See more items in:
American Academy in Rome records
American Academy in Rome records / Series 1: Predecessor Institutions
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/mw99d387b7a-efb9-4e05-8da6-3b0611aafb72
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aaa-ameracar-ref20

New Indexed Standard Guide Map of the World's Columbian Exposition at Chicago, 1893 [map]

Topic:
Ethnic Imagery Project, Archives Center
Advertiser:
Rand-McNally & Company  Search this
Series Creator:
Warshaw, Isadore, 1900-1969  Search this
Extent:
1 Map (Ink on paper)
Container:
Box 4, Folder 4
Type:
Archival materials
Maps
Place:
Chicago (Ill.)
Date:
1893
Scope and Contents:
Map of 1893 World's Columbian Exposition from Rand McNally's "Week at the Fair" booklet.
Local Numbers:
040060187.tif (AC Scan No.)
Series Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Some items may be restricted due to fragile condition.
Series Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
World expositions  Search this
Genre/Form:
Maps
Series Citation:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: World Expositions, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: World Expositions
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: World Expositions / Images, Keepsakes, Promotional Material, Publications, and Other / CHICAGO
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8f0e8804d-8594-4174-9814-003107271aea
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0060-s01-01-world-ref555
Online Media:

History and Operations

Series Creator:
Warshaw, Isadore, 1900-1969  Search this
Container:
Box 6, Folder 6
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1852-1967
Scope and Contents:
Booklets with company history. Catalogue for the Historical Exhibit at the 1893 World's Columbian Exposition. Descriptive brochure with photo of the San Francisco new building dated 1899 February 28. Backer Industries, Inc. 1967 Annual Report. Listings of key officers and staff (1851-53, 1855, 1898). Stock documents (1867, 1910).
Series Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Some items may be restricted due to fragile condition.
Series Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Series Citation:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Express, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Express
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Express / Business Records and Marketing Material / Wells Fargo
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8a868057f-1b2e-417c-98ed-df00e8bd5bef
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0060-s01-01-express-ref85

Brandon B. Fortune research material on the 1893 World's Columbian Exposition

Researcher:
Brandon Fortune  Search this
Extent:
6.75 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Date:
1977-1993
bulk 1987-1991
Summary:
Research material gathered by Brandon B. Fortune regarding two exhibitions and one exhibition catalog about the 1893 World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago; including correspondence with museums and collectors, and photocopied book pages. The exact title of the first exhibition is now unknown, but it was likely similar to "World's Columbian Exhibition, 1893: Department of Fine Arts." The second exhibition was entitled "American Art at the 1893 World's Fair-Revisiting the White City," which was accompanied by a book with the same title.
Scope and Contents:
These papers are the research materials of Brandon B. Fortune on the subject of painted portraiture from the 1893 World's Columbian Exposition. The research material was compiled by Fortune for two exhibitions on the exposition, as well as a catalog for one of the exhibitions. The exact title of the first exhibition is now unknown, but it was likely similar to "World's Columbian Exhibition, 1893: Department of Fine Arts." The second exhibition was entitled "American Art at the 1893 World's Fair-Revisiting the White City," which was accompanied by a book with the same title.The research material includes correspondence with museums and collectors about portraits, photocopies of publications about portraits and artists, and handwritten notes.
Arrangement:
This collection is arranged alphabetically according to the artist's last name.
Biographical / Historical:
Brandon B. Fortune is chief curator and curator of painting and sculpture at the National Portrait Gallery, and has been with the museum since 1987. Fortune organized the first two triennial Outwin Boochever Portrait Competitions (2006 and 2009). In 2008 she served as co-curator for "Recognize! Hip-Hop and Contemporary Portraiture." Fortune was also chair of the curatorial team charged with creating the "Portraiture Now" series of exhibitions, which includes "Drawing on the Edge," "Asian American Portraits of Encounter," and "Framing Memory." In 1999 Fortune served as co-curator of the exhibition "Franklin & His Friends: Portraying the Man of Science in Eighteenth-Century America" and author of the accompanying publication. Her primary research includes eighteenth- and nineteenth-century American portraiture, such as the work of Charles Wilson Peale, and women portraitists of the later nineteenth century. She is a co-curator for the 2014 exhibition "Face Value: Portraiture in the Age of Abstraction." Fortune graduated from Agnes Scott College and received a master's degree and doctorate in art history from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.
Provenance:
Acquired from Brandon B. Fortune.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment.
Rights:
The Brandon B. Fortune research material is owned by the Catalog of American Portraits, National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution. Literary rights as possessed by the donor have been dedicated to public use for research, study, and scholarship. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Topic:
World's fairs  Search this
Expositions -- World's Columbian  Search this
1893 World's Columbian Exposition  Search this
Citation:
Brandon B. Fortune research material on the 1893 World's Columbian Exposition, 1977-1993, bulk 1987-1991. Catalog of American Portraits, National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NPG.CAP.00004
See more items in:
Brandon B. Fortune research material on the 1893 World's Columbian Exposition
Archival Repository:
National Portrait Gallery
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sp9914dafbe-f4fd-4af3-9d39-461cd8786355
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-npg-cap-00004

Beckwith, Carroll: Elisa Adams Hall

Collection Researcher:
Brandon Fortune  Search this
Container:
Drawer 1, Folder 8
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment.
Collection Rights:
The Brandon B. Fortune research material is owned by the Catalog of American Portraits, National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution. Literary rights as possessed by the donor have been dedicated to public use for research, study, and scholarship. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Collection Citation:
Brandon B. Fortune research material on the 1893 World's Columbian Exposition, 1977-1993, bulk 1987-1991. Catalog of American Portraits, National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Brandon B. Fortune research material on the 1893 World's Columbian Exposition
Archival Repository:
National Portrait Gallery
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sp926f94627-1d83-42f5-b5f2-6ad24e637661
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-npg-cap-00004-ref10

Huntington, Daniel: "The Goldsmith's Daughter"

Collection Researcher:
Brandon Fortune  Search this
Container:
Drawer 2, Folder 98
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment.
Collection Rights:
The Brandon B. Fortune research material is owned by the Catalog of American Portraits, National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution. Literary rights as possessed by the donor have been dedicated to public use for research, study, and scholarship. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Collection Citation:
Brandon B. Fortune research material on the 1893 World's Columbian Exposition, 1977-1993, bulk 1987-1991. Catalog of American Portraits, National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Brandon B. Fortune research material on the 1893 World's Columbian Exposition
Archival Repository:
National Portrait Gallery
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sp9c12f4fe6-bf86-4409-9f59-e8cb9d04eb10
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-npg-cap-00004-ref100

Irwin, Benoni: Hubert Herkomer

Collection Researcher:
Brandon Fortune  Search this
Container:
Drawer 2, Folder 99
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment.
Collection Rights:
The Brandon B. Fortune research material is owned by the Catalog of American Portraits, National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution. Literary rights as possessed by the donor have been dedicated to public use for research, study, and scholarship. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Collection Citation:
Brandon B. Fortune research material on the 1893 World's Columbian Exposition, 1977-1993, bulk 1987-1991. Catalog of American Portraits, National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Brandon B. Fortune research material on the 1893 World's Columbian Exposition
Archival Repository:
National Portrait Gallery
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sp99f746cdd-023d-4756-afe1-e48fa7b3ec65
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-npg-cap-00004-ref101

Irwin, Benoni: "Sweet Sixteen"

Collection Researcher:
Brandon Fortune  Search this
Container:
Drawer 2, Folder 100
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment.
Collection Rights:
The Brandon B. Fortune research material is owned by the Catalog of American Portraits, National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution. Literary rights as possessed by the donor have been dedicated to public use for research, study, and scholarship. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Collection Citation:
Brandon B. Fortune research material on the 1893 World's Columbian Exposition, 1977-1993, bulk 1987-1991. Catalog of American Portraits, National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Brandon B. Fortune research material on the 1893 World's Columbian Exposition
Archival Repository:
National Portrait Gallery
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sp989a25710-cda6-405f-a3ba-22ac11e393a1
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-npg-cap-00004-ref102

Isham, Samuel: "Portrait of a Lady"

Collection Researcher:
Brandon Fortune  Search this
Container:
Drawer 2, Folder 101
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment.
Collection Rights:
The Brandon B. Fortune research material is owned by the Catalog of American Portraits, National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution. Literary rights as possessed by the donor have been dedicated to public use for research, study, and scholarship. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Collection Citation:
Brandon B. Fortune research material on the 1893 World's Columbian Exposition, 1977-1993, bulk 1987-1991. Catalog of American Portraits, National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Brandon B. Fortune research material on the 1893 World's Columbian Exposition
Archival Repository:
National Portrait Gallery
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sp9cec68c27-a008-4f79-b122-f6b507f57926
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-npg-cap-00004-ref103

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