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Western Union Telegraph Company Records

Creator:
United Telegraph Workers.  Search this
Western Union Telegraph Company  Search this
Extent:
452 Cubic feet (871 boxes and 23 map folders)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Patents
Scrapbooks
Contracts
Drawings
Articles
Administrative records
Clippings
Books
Photographs
Newsletters
Photograph albums
Specifications
Technical documents
Date:
circa 1820-1995
Summary:
The collection documents in photographs, scrapbooks, notebooks, correspondence, stock ledgers, annual reports, and financial records, the evolution of the telegraph, the development of the Western Union Telegraph Company, and the beginning of the communications revolution. The collection materials describe both the history of the company and of the telegraph industry in general, particularly its importance to the development of the technology in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. The collection is useful for researchers interested in the development of technology, economic history, and the impact of technology on American social and cultural life.
Scope and Contents:
The collection is divided into twenty-six (26) series and consists of approximately 400 cubic feet. The collection documents in photographs, scrapbooks, notebooks, correspondence, stock ledgers, annual reports, and financial records, the evolution of the telegraph, the development of the Western Union Telegraph Company, and the beginning of the communications revolution. The collection materials describe both the history of the company and of the telegraph industry in general, particularly its importance to the development of the technology in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. The collection is useful for researchers interested in the development of technology, economic history, and the impact of technology on American social and cultural life.
Arrangement:
The collection is divided into twenty-six series.

Series 1: Historical and Background Information, 1851-1994

Series 2: Subsidiaries of Western Union, 1844-1986

Series 3: Executive Records, 1848-1987

Series 4: Presidential Letterbooks and Writings, 1865-1911

Series 5: Correspondence, 1837-1985

Series 6: Cyrus W. Field Papers, 1840-1892

Series 7: Secretary's Files, 1844-1987

Series 8: Financial Records, 1859-1995

Series 9: Legal Records, 1867-1968

Series 10: Railroad Records, 1854-1945

Series 11: Law Department Records, 1868-1979

Series 12: Patent Materials, 1840-1970

Series 13: Operating Records, 1868-1970s

Series 14: Westar VI-S, 1974, 1983-1986

Series 15: Engineering Department Records, 1874-1970

Series 16: Plant Department Records, 1867-1937, 1963

Series 17: Superintendent of Supplies Records, 1888-1948

Series 18: Employee/Personnel Records 1852-1985

Series 19: Public Relations Department Records, 1858-1980

Series 20: Western Union Museum, 1913-1971

Series 21: Maps, 1820-1964

Series 22: Telegrams, 1852-1960s

Series 23: Photographs, circa 1870-1980

Series 24: Scrapbooks, 1835-1956

Series 25: Notebooks, 1880-1942

Series 26: Audio Visual Materials, 1925-1994

Series 27: Materials for Interfile (Series 1; Series 3; Series 13; Series 15-23; Series 25-26)
Biographical / Historical:
In 1832 Samuel F. B. Morse, assisted by Alfred Vail, conceived of the idea for an electromechanical telegraph, which he called the "Recording Telegraph." This commercial application of electricity was made tangible by their construction of a crude working model in 1835-36. This instrument probably was never used outside of Professor Morse's rooms where it was, however, operated in a number of demonstrations. This original telegraph instrument was in the hands of the Western Union Telegraph Company and had been kept carefully over the years in a glass case. It was moved several times in New York as the Western Union headquarters building changed location over the years. The company presented it to the Smithsonian Institution in 1950.

The telegraph was further refined by Morse, Vail, and a colleague, Leonard Gale, into working mechanical form in 1837. In this year Morse filed a caveat for it at the U.S. Patent Office. Electricity, provided by Joseph Henry's 1836 "intensity batteries", was sent over a wire. The flow of electricity through the wire was interrupted for shorter or longer periods by holding down the key of the device. The resulting dots or dashes were recorded on a printer or could be interpreted orally. In 1838 Morse perfected his sending and receiving code and organized a corporation, making Vail and Gale his partners.

In 1843 Morse received funds from Congress to set-up a demonstration line between Washington and Baltimore. Unfortunately, Morse was not an astute businessman and had no practical plan for constructing a line. After an unsuccessful attempt at laying underground cables with Ezra Cornell, the inventor of a trench digger, Morse switched to the erection of telegraph poles and was more successful. On May 24, 1844, Morse, in the U.S. Supreme Court Chambers in Washington, sent by telegraph the oft-quoted message to his colleague Vail in Baltimore, "What hath God wrought!"

In 1845 Morse hired Andrew Jackson's former postmaster general, Amos Kendall, as his agent in locating potential buyers of the telegraph. Kendall realized the value of the device, and had little trouble convincing others of its potential for profit. By the spring he had attracted a small group of investors. They subscribed $15,000 and formed the Magnetic Telegraph Company. Many new telegraph companies were formed as Morse sold licenses wherever he could.

The first commercial telegraph line was completed between Washington, D.C., and New York City in the spring of 1846 by the Magnetic Telegraph Company. Shortly thereafter, F. O. J. Smith, one of the patent owners, built a line between New York City and Boston. Most of these early companies were licensed by owners of Samuel Morse patents. The Morse messages were sent and received in a code of dots and dashes.

At this time other telegraph systems based on rival technologies were being built. Some companies used the printing telegraph, a device invented by a Vermonter, Royal E. House, whose messages were printed on paper or tape in Roman letters. In 1848 a Scotch scientist, Alexander Bain, received his patents on a telegraph. These were but two of many competing and incompatible technologies that had developed. The result was confusion, inefficiency, and a rash of suits and counter suits.

By 1851 there were over fifty separate telegraph companies operating in the United States. This corporate cornucopia developed because the owners of the telegraph patents had been unsuccessful in convincing the United States and other governments of the invention's potential usefulness. In the private sector, the owners had difficulty convincing capitalists of the commercial value of the invention. This led to the owners' willingness to sell licenses to many purchasers who organized separate companies and then built independent telegraph lines in various sections of the country.

Hiram Sibley moved to Rochester, New York, in 1838 to pursue banking and real estate. Later he was elected sheriff of Monroe County. In Rochester he was introduced to Judge Samuel L. Selden who held the House Telegraph patent rights. In 1849 Selden and Sibley organized the New York State Printing Telegraph Company, but they found it hard to compete with the existing New York, Albany, and Buffalo Telegraph Company.

After this experience Selden suggested that instead of creating a new line, the two should try to acquire all the companies west of Buffalo and unite them into a single unified system. Selden secured an agency for the extension throughout the United States of the House system. In an effort to expand this line west, Judge Selden called on friends and the people in Rochester. This led, in April 1851, to the organization of a company and the filing in Albany of the Articles of Association for the "New York and Mississippi Valley Printing Telegraph Company" (NYMVPTC), a company which later evolved into the Western Union Telegraph Company.

In 1854 there were two rival systems of the NYMVPTC in the West. These two systems consisted of thirteen separate companies. All the companies were using Morse patents in the five states north of the Ohio River. This created a struggle between three separate entities, leading to an unreliable and inefficient telegraph service. The owners of these rival companies eventually decided to invest their money elsewhere and arrangements were made for the NYMVPTC to purchase their interests.

Hiram Sibley recapitalized the company in 1854 under the same name and began a program of construction and acquisition. The most important takeover was carried out by Sibley when he negotiated the purchase of the Morse patent rights for the Midwest for $50,000 from Jeptha H. Wade and John J. Speed, without the knowledge of Ezra Cornell, their partner in the Erie and Michigan Telegraph Company (EMTC). With this acquisition Sibley proceeded to switch to the superior Morse system. He also hired Wade, a very capable manager, who became his protege and later his successor. After a bitter struggle Morse and Wade obtained the EMTC from Cornell in 1855, thus assuring dominance by the NYMVPTC in the Midwest. In 1856 the company name was changed to the "Western Union Telegraph Company," indicating the union of the Western lines into one compact system. In December, 1857, the Company paid stockholders their first dividend.

Between 1857 and 1861 similar consolidations of telegraph companies took place in other areas of the country so that most of the telegraph interests of the United States had merged into six systems. These were the American Telegraph Company (covering the Atlantic and some Gulf states), The Western Union Telegraph Company (covering states North of the Ohio River and parts of Iowa, Kansas, Missouri, and Minnesota), the New York Albany and Buffalo Electro-Magnetic Telegraph Company (covering New York State), the Atlantic and Ohio Telegraph Company (covering Pennsylvania), the Illinois & Mississippi Telegraph Company (covering sections of Missouri, Iowa, and Illinois), and the New Orleans & Ohio Telegraph Company (covering the southern Mississippi Valley and the Southwest). All these companies worked together in a mutually friendly alliance, and other small companies cooperated with the six systems, particularly some on the West Coast.

By the time of the Civil War, there was a strong commercial incentive to construct a telegraph line across the western plains to link the two coasts of America. Many companies, however, believed the line would be impossible to build and maintain.

In 1860 Congress passed, and President James Buchanan signed, the Pacific Telegraph Act, which authorized the Secretary of the Treasury to seek bids for a project to construct a transcontinental line. When two bidders dropped out, Hiram Sibley, representing Western Union, was the only bidder left. By default Sibley won the contract. The Pacific Telegraph Company was organized for the purpose of building the eastern section of the line. Sibley sent Wade to California, where he consolidated the small local companies into the California State Telegraph Company. This entity then organized the Overland Telegraph Company, which handled construction eastward from Carson City, Nevada, joining the existing California lines, to Salt Lake City, Utah. Sibley's Pacific Telegraph Company built westward from Omaha, Nebraska. Sibley put most of his resources into the venture. The line was completed in October, 1861. Both companies were soon merged into Western Union. This accomplishment made Hiram Sibley leader of the telegraph industry.

Further consolidations took place over the next several years. Many companies merged into the American Telegraph Company. With the expiration of the Morse patents, several organizations were combined in 1864 under the name of "The U.S. Telegraph Company." In 1866 the final consolidation took place, with Western Union exchanging stock for the stock of the other two organizations. The general office of Western Union moved at this time from Rochester to 145 Broadway, New York City. In 1875 the main office moved to 195 Broadway, where it remained until 1930 when it relocated to 60 Hudson Street.

In 1873 Western Union purchased a majority of shares in the International Ocean Telegraph Company. This was an important move because it marked Western Union's entry into the foreign telegraph market. Having previously worked with foreign companies, Western Union now began competing for overseas business.

In the late 1870s Western Union, led by William H. Vanderbilt, attempted to wrest control of the major telephone patents, and the new telephone industry, away from the Bell Telephone Company. But due to new Bell leadership and a subsequent hostile takeover attempt of Western Union by Jay Gould, Western Union discontinued its fight and Bell Telephone prevailed.

Despite these corporate calisthenics, Western Union remained in the public eye. The sight of a uniformed Western Union messenger boy was familiar in small towns and big cities all over the country for many years. Some of Western Union's top officials in fact began their careers as messenger boys.

Throughout the remainder of the nineteenth century the telegraph became one of the most important factors in the development of social and commercial life of America. In spite of improvements to the telegraph, however, two new inventions--the telephone (nineteenth century) and the radio (twentieth century)--eventually replaced the telegraph as the leaders of the communication revolution for most Americans.

At the turn of the century, Bell abandoned its struggles to maintain a monopoly through patent suits, and entered into direct competition with the many independent telephone companies. Around this time, the company adopted its new name, the American Telephone and Telegraph Company (AT&T).

In 1908 AT&T gained control of Western Union. This proved beneficial to Western Union, because the companies were able to share lines when needed, and it became possible to order telegrams by telephone. However, it was only possible to order Western Union telegrams, and this hurt the business of Western Union's main competitor, the Postal Telegraph Company. In 1913, however, as part of a move to prevent the government from invoking antitrust laws, AT&T completely separated itself from Western Union.

Western Union continued to prosper and it received commendations from the U.S. armed forces for service during both world wars. In 1945 Western Union finally merged with its longtime rival, the Postal Telegraph Company. As part of that merger, Western Union agreed to separate domestic and foreign business. In 1963 Western Union International Incorporated, a private company completely separate from the Western Union Telegraph Company, was formed and an agreement with the Postal Telegraph Company was completed. In 1994, Western Union Financial Services, Inc. was acquired by First Financial Management Corporation. In 1995, First Financial Management Corporation merged with First Data Corporation making Western Union a First Data subsidiary.

Many technological advancements followed the telegraph's development. The following are among the more important:

The first advancement of the telegraph occurred around 1850 when operators realized that the clicks of the recording instrument portrayed a sound pattern, understandable by the operators as dots and dashes. This allowed the operator to hear the message by ear and simultaneously write it down. This ability transformed the telegraph into a versatile and speedy system.

Duplex Telegraphy, 1871-72, was invented by the president of the Franklin Telegraph Company. Unable to sell his invention to his own company, he found a willing buyer in Western Union. Utilizing this invention, two messages were sent over the wire simultaneously, one in each direction.

As business blossomed and demand surged, new devices appeared. Thomas Edison's Quadruplex allowed four messages to be sent over the same wire simultaneously, two in one direction and two in the other.

An English automatic signaling arrangement, Wheatstone's Automatic Telegraph, 1883, allowed larger numbers of words to be transmitted over a wire at once. It could only be used advantageously, however, on circuits where there was a heavy volume of business.

Buckingham's Machine Telegraph was an improvement on the House system. It printed received messages in plain Roman letters quickly and legibly on a message blank, ready for delivery.

Vibroplex, c. 1890, a semi-automatic key sometimes called a "bug key," made the dots automatically. This relieved the operator of much physical strain.
Related Materials:
Materials in the Archives Center

Additional moving image about Western Union Telegraph Company can be found in the Industry on Parade Collection (AC0507). This includes Cable to Cuba! by Bell Laboratory, AT & T, featuring the cable ship, the C.S. Lord Kelvin, and Communications Centennial! by the Western Union Company.

Materials at Other Organizations

Hagley Museum and Library, Wilmington, Delaware.

Western Union International Records form part of the MCI International, Inc. Records at the First Data Corporation, Greenwood Village, Colorado.

Records of First Data Corporation and its predecessors, including Western Union, First Financial Management Corporation (Atlanta) and First Data Resources (Omaha). Western Union collection supports research of telegraphy and related technologies, and includes company records, annual reports, photographs, print and broadcast advertising, telegraph equipment, and messenger uniforms.

Smithsonian Institution Archives

Western Union Telegraph Expedition, 1865-1867

This collection includes correspondence, mostly to Spencer F. Baird, from members of the Scientific Corps of the Western Union Telegraph Expedition, including Kennicott, Dall, Bannister, and Elliott; copies of reports submitted to divisional chiefs from expedition staff members; newspaper clippings concerning the expedition; copies of notes on natural history taken by Robert Kennicott; and a journal containing meteorological data recorded by Henry M. Bannister from March to August, 1866.
Separated Materials:
Artifacts (apparatus and equipment) were donated to the Division of Information Technology and Society, now known as the Division of Work & Industry, National Museum of American History.
Provenance:
The collection was donated by Western Union in September of 1971.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.

Gloves must be worn when handling unprotected photographs and negatives. Special arrangements must be made to view some of the audio visual materials. Contact the Archives Center at 202-633-3270.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Electric engineering  Search this
Electric engineers  Search this
Electrical equipment  Search this
Communication -- International cooperation  Search this
Electrical engineers  Search this
Electrical science and technology  Search this
Communications equipment  Search this
Telegraphers  Search this
Telegraph  Search this
Genre/Form:
Patents
Scrapbooks -- 20th century
Contracts
Drawings
Articles
Administrative records
Clippings
Books
Photographs -- 19th century
Newsletters
Photograph albums
Specifications
Photographs -- 20th century
Scrapbooks -- 19th century
Technical documents
Citation:
Western Union Telegraph Company Records, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0205
See more items in:
Western Union Telegraph Company Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0205
Online Media:

Fred Wiseman Scrapbook

Creator:
Wiseman, Fred, 1875-1961  Search this
Names:
Early Birds of Aviation (Organization).  Search this
Wiseman-Peters (Fred Wiseman and J. W. Peters) (Aircraft manufacturer)  Search this
Extent:
0.59 Cubic feet (1 flatbox)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Tickets
Correspondence
Clippings
Date:
1909-1968
bulk [ca. 1910s, 1950s]
Summary:
Fred Wiseman, along with J. W. Peters and D.C. Prentiss, built a biplane named the Wiseman-Peters. During July 1910, both Peters and Wiseman flew the Wiseman-Peters and the following year Wiseman entered the 1911 Aviation Meet at Selfridge Field, Michigan. On February 17, 1911, Wiseman made the first airplane-carried mail flight officially sanctioned by any local U.S. post office and made available to the public when he carried mail, a bundle of newspapers and a sack of groceries from Petaluma, CA, to Santa Rosa, CA. After the 1911 season, Wiseman gave up flying.

This collection consists of a large scrapbook. Inside the scrapbook are newspaper clippings, correspondence, 1st Day Covers, race tickets, and photographs chronicling both Wiseman's automobile and aviation careers.
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of a large scrapbook. Inside the scrapbook are newspaper clippings, correspondence, 1st Day Covers, race tickets, and photographs chronicling both Wiseman's automobile and aviation careers.

Note: The digital images in this finding aid were repurposed from scans made by an outside contractor for a commercial product and may show irregular cropping and orientation in addition to color variations resulting from damage to and deterioration of the original objects.
Arrangement:
Materials are in the order the donor attached them to the scrapbook. Correspondence is often located within the envelope that is attached to the scrapbook. Some materials are loose and have been left in the arrangement in which they were found, unless a portion of a newspaper article could be matched to its other parts.
Biographical / Historical:
Fred Wiseman (1875-1961) was born in Santa Rosa, California, and after attending local schools he engaged in both the bicycle and automotive businesses. Wiseman won considerable fame racing Stoddard-Dayton cars on the West Coast as well as in the Chicago area. He became interested in aviation after attending the Wright brothers' homecoming celebration in 1909 and the first Los Angeles aviation meet at Dominguez Field in 1910.

After these two events, Wiseman was convinced he wanted to learn to fly and so he returned to his home in Santa Rosa and persuaded Ben Noonan to put up $10,000 to build a plane. Wiseman, along with J. W. Peters and D.C. Prentiss, built a biplane named the Wiseman-Peters. During July 1910, both Peters and Wiseman flew the Wiseman-Peters and the following year Wiseman entered the 1911 Aviation Meet at Selfridge Field, Michigan.

On February 17, 1911, Wiseman made the first airplane-carried mail flight officially sanctioned by any local U.S. post office and made available to the public when he carried mail, a bundle of newspapers and a sack of groceries from Petaluma, CA, to Santa Rosa, CA. (The first air mail flight sanctioned by the U.S. Post Office in Washington, D.C., took place on September 23, 1911, when Earle Ovington carried mail from Garden City, Long Island, to Mineola; and the first continuously scheduled U.S. air mail service began on May 15, 1918, with routes between Washington, Philadelphia, and New York.)

During 1911, Wiseman had an active season of exhibition work, including flying for one week at the California State Fair. However, after this season Wiseman gave up flying because he thought there was no future in it. He sold his plane and returned to the automobile business. He later worked for Standard Oil Company of California. Wiseman was a member of the Early Birds of Aviation, an organization of pilots who flew solo in an aircraft prior to December 17, 1916.

Weldon Cooke, another pioneer aviator from California, bought and modified the Wiseman-Peters aircraft, renaming it the Wiseman-Cooke. Cooke flew the Wiseman-Cooke for exhibition and air mail flights. The Wiseman-Cooke aircraft is currently part of the Smithsonian Institution's collections.
Provenance:
No donor information, Gift?, unknown, XXXX-0618, unknown
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Topic:
Automobile racing  Search this
Air mail service  Search this
Aeronautics, Commercial  Search this
Aeronautics -- Exhibitions  Search this
Airplane racing  Search this
Aeronautics -- Competitions  Search this
Aeronautics -- 1903-1916  Search this
Aeronautics  Search this
Air pilots  Search this
Wiseman-Peters #2 Biplane (1910)  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Tickets
Correspondence
Clippings
Citation:
Fred Wiseman Scrapbook, Acc. NASM.XXXX.0618, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.XXXX.0618
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-xxxx-0618
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Online Media:

Brannock Device Company Records

Creator:
Park-Brannock.  Search this
Park, Ernest N.  Search this
Brannock, Otis C.  Search this
Brannock, Charles F., 1903-1992  Search this
Brannock Device Company.  Search this
Names:
Selby Shoe Company  Search this
United States. Armed Forces -- Supplies and stores  Search this
United States. Army -- Supplies and stores  Search this
Extent:
12 Cubic feet (34 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Patents
Trademarks
Slides (photographs)
Advertisements
Sales records
Photographs
Photographic prints
Filmstrips
Design drawings
Date:
1925 - 1998
Summary:
The Brannock Device Company began with the 1925 invention of the Brannock Device, a tool to measure foot length and width at the same time, by inventor and businessman Charles F. Brannock. Early in his career Brannock worked as a shoe salesman at the Park-Brannock shoe store, and in 1962 he became the CEO of the company. This collection documents both the Park-Brannock store and the Brannock Device. Materials in The Brannock Device Company Records, 1925-1998, include of correspondence, design drawings, United States and foreign patents and trademarks, advertisements, product information, sales records, photographs, and a film strip documenting the invention, promotion, and sale of the Brannock Device as well as the concurrent development of Park-Brannock as a leading shoe store in Syracuse, N.Y.
Scope and Contents:
The Brannock Device Company Records, 1925-1998, consist of correspondence, design drawings, United States and foreign patents and trademarks, advertisements, product information, sales records, photographs, and a film strip documenting the invention, promotion, and sale of the Brannock Device as well as the concurrent development of Park-Brannock as a leading shoe store in Syracuse, NY. The collection is useful to researchers for its stories of invention and entrepreneurship and its exemplification of the patent and trademark process in the United States and internationally in the early 20th century. The process of manufacturing and marketing in the shoe industry, and manufacturing of military supplies during World War II is also highlighted.

The collection is divided into two subgroups: The Brannock Device Company Records and Park-Brannock Shoe Store Records. The Brannock Device Company subgroup is arranged into six series: Series 1: Historical Background, 1928-1995; Series 2: Operational Records, 1926-1963; Series 3: Product Development Records, 1925-1981; Series 4: Advertising and Marketing Records, 1926-1980, 1998; Series 5: Sales and Distribution Records, 1925-1996; and Series 6: Photographs, circa 1930-1997. The Park-Brannock subgroup is similarly arranged into five series: Series 1: Historical Background, 1936-1963, 1981; Series 2: Operational Records, 1936-1972; Series 3: Advertising and Marketing Records, 1933-1962; Series 4: Sales Records, 1916-1918, 1927-1961; and Series 5: Photographs, 1934-1967.

Subgroup 1: The Brannock Device Company, 1925-1998

Series 1: Historical Background, 1928-1995

This series contains articles about Charles Brannock, the Brannock Device, the device in the military, and shoe-fitting in general. The series provides an understanding of the company and the shoe industry as shown both through trade magazines, popular magazines, and newspapers.

Series 2: Operational Records, 1926-1963

This series contains bookkeeping, correspondence, census, insurance, and financial records which account for the company as a whole. It is organized into seven subseries: Book for recording devices on hand, November 1927-January 1929; Correspondence, 1926-1951; Census, 1947-1963, 1980; Insurance Inventory, 1956; Royalties Accrued, January 1946-March 1951; Time Records, 1952, 1954, 1958; and Notes, undated.

The correspondence between Charles and Otis Brannock reflects the strong business relationship which existed between father and son. Charles Brannock put Florence Williams in charge when he was vacationing each July from 1928 to 1931. The often humorous correspondence between them reflects daily business at the factory. Correspondence with Dr. Joseph Levyfield, chairman of the National Foot Health Council, pertains to children's foot exams in schools. For sales analyses of the Brannock Device, see Series 5: Sales and Distribution Records, United States--Private Sector, Direct Sales, under Sales analyses, 1964-1973.

Series 3: Product Development Records, 1925-1981

This series documents the process from invention to manufacture of the Brannock Device. It is divided into four subseries: Competitors' Devices and Other Products, Fitting Stool, Design, and Manufacture. Patents and Trademarks are included in the Sales and Distribution series because they were granted after sale of the device had already commenced and the foreign patents and trademarks are intricately linked to foreign sales.

The Competitors' Devices and Other Products subseries is further refined: Competitors' Devices; Other Products; Correspondence, 1928-1981, and Memos and Reports, n.d. The subseries provides documentation on the other devices Brannock considered while designing and making modifications to his own device. It also includes sale or manufacture negotiations for other inventors' products. Most of these devices were designed later than the Brannock Device and had attributes of the Brannock Device. Charles Brannock liked to keep abreast of new developments in order to protect his own interests.

The Fitting Stool subseries is a product development file on the fitting stool Charles Brannock designed to accommodate his device which enabled salesmen to measure the foot while seated instead of kneeling or squatting. It consists of design drawings and correspondence with American Fixture and Showcase Manufacturing Company, Thonet, and Commonwealth Shoe and Leather Company about negotiating its manufacture.

The Design subseries is further divided: Drawings and Ideas; Specifications; Correspondence, 1935-1975; Customer Comments; and Case of Child Cutting Finger on Device, July 1961-January 1962. The drawings and ideas are rough sketches done by Charles Brannock. The specifications include descriptions of materials used and assembly instructions. They were shipped with military orders for devices and are included in the text of patent applications. The design correspondence consists of actual and proposed modifications to the device. Of particular interest are the unsolicited modification proposals the company received. Customer comments were always appreciated and taken into account in the design process from 1946-1961. The case file of a child cutting her finger on a device resulted in a legal settlement in 1962.

The manufacture subseries contains correspondence with, and pamphlets about, companies that manufactured the device. Of particular interest are the Brannock Device Company's investigation into making plastic devices due to the shortage of aluminum in World War II, as outlined in the correspondence with the Eclipse Moulded Products Company. Also, a number of sample shoe company name plates and instruction plates which were screwed into free sections of the device are in this subseries.

Series 4: Advertising and marketing Records, 1926-1980, 1998

This series contains records from the company which contributed toward the goal of making a sale. It is divided into seven subseries: Correspondence, 1926-1974, 1998; Mailing Lists, 1947-1949; Ideas and Copy; Materials Printed with the Brannock Device Name; Advertisements and Product Information, 1934-1980; Measuring Device Instructions; and Advertising and Merchandising Plans, 1938, 1956, and undated.

The Correspondence, 1926-1974, 1998, contains letters between Brannock and various advertising agencies, printers, and magazines.

The Mailing Lists, 1947-1949, are partial listings of stores Brannock sent advertisements to.

The Ideas and Copy subseries consists of advertising ideas sketched by Brannock or proposed by the Proctor and Collier advertising agency or others. Also included are preliminary versions of advertisements and product information booklets.

Printed Materials with the Brannock Device Name, provides examples of stationery, business cards, and leases seen by potential customers.

The Advertisements and Product Information, 1934-1980, subseries contains various advertisements which appeared in magazines, newspapers, and displays, and product information leaflets which were mailed to customers. Also represented are advertisements by shoe stores which feature the Brannock Device and examples of the Brannock Device being used to advertise other products such as insurance, apartments, magazines, carpets, floorings, and die castings.

The Instructions subseries contains: Ideas and Copy, and Completed Instructions. Ideas and Copy are preliminary versions of the instruction sheets of individual models, including the Bran-X-Stick and a Sock-Measuring Device. The Completed Instructions are finished copies of the instruction sheets of many models.

The Advertising and Merchandising Plans, 1938, 1956, n.d. subseries contains information on three promotional schemes employed by the company: an early advertising plan, a Brannock Device Company merchandising campaign in 1938, and a cooperative effort with Miles Shoes in 1956.

Series 5: Sales and Distribution Records, 1925-1986

The largest series in the collection, the sales and distribution series documents Brannock's sales, partnerships he entered into, and the legal measures he took to ensure his company's success. The series is divided into three subseries: United States--Private Sector, United States--Military, and Foreign.

The United States--Private Sector subseries is further divided: Patents and Trademarks, 1928-1971; Direct Sales, 1926-1973; Salesmen Files, 1925-1935; and Shoe Fairs, 1938-1968.

The Patents and Trademarks, 1928-1971, contains patent and trademark certificates; correspondence with Brannock's lawyer, Theodore E. Simonton, and others in reference to obtaining patents and trademarks; and sales inquiries from those wishing to buy Brannock's patents.

The Direct Sales, 1926-1973, contains customer information and form letters; rental contracts, 1926-1927; customer correspondence, 1927-1989; customer service endeavors, and sales figures.

Arranged alphabetically, the Salesmen Files, 1925-1935 document the enthusiasm for the device experienced by shoe store owners across the country as they inquired about selling it followed by their disappointment with commission percentages and the fact that large shoe companies were getting the device at a discount and distributing it among their affiliates, and therefore not buying from salesmen.

The Shoe Fairs, 1938-1968, contains trade literature, visitation reports, and correspondence from Charles Brannock and his employees while attending the National Shoe Fair and the National Safety Congress and Exposition in Chicago from 1938 to 1968. It is organized chronologically by event. The information learned at the fairs was also useful in keeping abreast of the latest in shoe fashion for the Park-Brannock store.

The United States--Military, 1928-1972 subseries contains correspondence, contracts, and orders relating to the sale of the Brannock Device to the military. The subseries is arranged into seven smaller series: Army, 1939-1962; Coast Guard, 1932-1945; Marine Corps, 1943-1956; Merchant Marine, July 1944-August 1944; Navy, 1928-1970; Women's Army Corps, 1942-1944; and Miscellaneous Military Branches, undated. Arrangement within each smaller series is chronological.

Additional documentation on the Brannock Device in the military are in the following series: articles can be found in the Historical Background series; competitors' designs, drawings, specifications, and materials employed to make military devices are in the Product Development series; instructions and military-theme ads are in the Advertising and Marketing series, and photographs of military fittings and military devices are located in the photographs series.

The Foreign, 1937-1986, subseries documents the complex legal relationship between the Brannock Device Company, the Selby Shoe Company, the Brannock Device Company's lawyer, Theodore E. Simonton, and others as the companies strove for protection and distribution of the Brannock Device in foreign countries. It is arranged into five smaller series: Foreign Trademark Listings; Correspondence about Patents, Trademarks, and Distribution, 1928-1986; Patents and Trademarks; London Speech about Shoe-Fitting and the Company History; and Film Strip.

The foreign trademark listings were compiled periodically by the Brannock Device Company to keep track of their patents and trademarks. The correspondence is arranged chronologically. The actual patent and trademark certificates are arranged by country, and some folders also contain accompanying correspondence. This series does not contain all patents and trademarks issued to protect the Brannock Device internationally; some of the trademarks listed in the container list are renewals and therefore would not be the date of first issue. The London speech is a file of notes Charles Brannock used when giving a speech on his company's history and success in London, England. The sound-slide, instructional film strip is entitled "The Key to Repeat Sales." This series contains a transcript with a frame-by-frame description of each slide and accompanying narration.

Series 6: Photographs, circa 1930-1997

This series is divided into five subseries: Personal; Foot-Measuring Devices; Military; Employees and the Factory, 1949, 1997; and Negatives of Brannock Device, 1933-1958. The series contains black and white photos of Charles and Otis Brannock, competitors' devices, the Brannock device in window displays as well as in use and alone, the Women's Army Corps and various military men being fitted, employees, and the factory. There are also color photos, circa 1997, of the employees, the factory, and devices. Black and white, labeled negatives, 1933-1958, are also included here.

Subgroup 2: Park-Brannock Shoe Store Records, 1916-1918, 1927-1981

Series 1: Historical Background, 1936-1963, 1981

Newspaper and magazine articles about Park-Brannock anniversaries, moves into new stores, and the 1981 closing dominate this series. These articles are useful in understanding the rise of Park-Brannock as a leading shoe and accessory retailer. Photo-laden articles put the industrial design-influenced decor of each store into context.

Series 2: Operational Records, 1936-1972

This series is arranged into six subseries: Financial Materials, 1936-1972; Memos, December 1937-April 1944, January 1949, May 1958-May 1961; Business Course Tailored to Park-Brannock, undated; Store Planning, 1935-1961; New York City Business Trips, January 1949-August 1952; and Miscellaneous Notes, undated.

The Financial Materials, 1936-1972 subseries contains all available financial information for Park-Brannock. It is arranged into five smaller series: Correspondence, May 1937-December 1972; Annual Reports, 1945-1972; Department Sales Figures, 1957-1961; Merchandise Budget, August 1939-January 1941; and Miscellaneous Reports, 1936-1944.

The Memos, December 1937-April 1944, January 1949, May 1958-May 1961 subseries contains a limited amount of general internal correspondence. For correspondence between Charles and Otis Brannock, see the Operational Records series of subgroup 1, the Brannock Device Company. For other internal correspondence, see the correspondence with Alice Buxton in the Advertising and Marketing Records series in subgroup 2, Park-Brannock.

The Business course Tailored to Park-Brannock, undated is a file on how to be successful in the shoe business with advice specifically for Park-Brannock. The author is unknown, but it appears to be a commissioned service.

The Store Planning, 1935-1961 subseries contains architectural drawings for a proposed but not undertaken renovation of the original Park-Brannock building in 1935, and files containing store planning advertisements and correspondence used in the moves to new stores in 1937 and 1946.

The New York City Business Trips, January 1949-August 1952 subseries consists of a chronological file of notes taken by Charles Brannock on business accounts during trips to New York City.

The Miscellaneous Notes, undated, subseries contains various notes made by Charles Brannock.

Series 3: Advertising and Marketing, 1933-1962

Like the Advertising and Marketing Records series in the Brannock Device Company subgroup, this series contains records from the company which contributed toward the goal of making a sale. Correspondence documents the arrangements made by the company to create and post advertisements. Ideas and copy display early moments of this process. Materials printed with the Park-Brannock logo represent what the customers were given to remember their purchases: stationery, receipts, gift cards, bags, and box designs. Printed advertisements, radio advertisements, and form letters brought customers into the store. The Junior League of Syracuse file documents photographic advertising campaigns surrounding this group of fresh-faced young girls, as well as Park-Brannock's efforts to edge into this consumer group with advertisements in their newsletter. Correspondence with and reports from Alice Buxton have to do with her visits with doctors and nurses to promote the store along with evaluations of the company's advertising campaigns. The "Betsey Budget" lawsuit resulted from Park-Brannock copyrighting a commissioned advertising booklet which the artist would rather have had in her own name.

Series 4: Sales Records, 1916-1961

This series is arranged into seven subseries: Customer Correspondence, 1928-1944; Supplier Correspondence, 1927-1944; Florsheim Sales Instruction Manual; Inventories, 1961; Promotions; Receipts, 1916-1918; and Sales Floor Management.

The customer and supplier correspondence consists of mail orders, returns, and repair requests. An interesting aspect of the customer correspondence is the amount of shoe orders customers placed through the mail. Customers often received several pairs of shoes matching their descriptions, selected a pair, and mailed the remainder back to Park-Brannock. Sometimes customers would send in an outline of their foot to be sized or color swatches to match the shoes to a dress. Often the purchasing negotiations would require several letters between store and customer. The most prominent shoe supplier to correspond with Park-Brannock was the Selby Shoe Company, followed by Brown Shoe Company; Marshall, Meadows, and Stewart, Inc.; and LaValle, Inc.

Series 5: Photographs, 1932-1967

This series contains labeled, black and white, 8" x 10" photographs from each of the three stores as well as a booklet celebrating Park-Brannock's 50th anniversary in 1956, window displays from Park-Brannock and other stores, and labeled 8" x10" negatives.
Arrangement:
The collection is divided into two subgroups.

Subgroup 1, The Brannock Device Company, 1925-1998

Series 1: Historical Background, 1928-1995

Series 2: Operational Records, 1926-1980

Subseries 1: Book for Recording Devices on Hand, 1927-1929

Subseries 2: Correspondence, 1926-1951

Subseries 3: Census, 1947-1980

Subseries 4: Insurance Inventory, 1956

Subseries 5: Royalties Accrued, 1946-1951

Subseries 6: Time Records, 1952-1958

Subseries 7: Notes, undated

Series 3: Product Development Records, 1925-1981

Subseries 1: Competitors' Devices and Other Products, c. 1928-1981

Subseries 2: Fitting Stool, 1936-1947

Subseries 3: Design, 1925-1975

Subseries 4: Manufacture, 1927-1959

Series 4: Advertising and Marketing Records, 1926-1998

Subseries 1: Correspondence, 1926-1998

Subseries 2: Mailing Lists, 1947-1950

Subseries 3: Ideas and Copy, undated

Subseries 4: Printed Materials with the Brannock Device Name (stationery, business cards, leases), undated

Subseries 5: Advertisements and Product Information, 1934-1980

Subseries 6: Measuring Device Instructions, undated

Subseries 7: Advertising and Merchandising Plans, 1938-1956

Series 5: Sales and Distribution Records, 1925-1986

Subseries 1: United States--Private Sector, 1925-1973

Subseries 2: United States--Military, 1928-1972

Subseries 3: Foreign, 1937-1986

Series 6: Photographs, c. 1930-1997

Subseries 1: Personal, undated

Subseries 2: Foot-Measuring Devices, undated

Subseries 3: Military, undated

Subseries 4: Employees and Factory, undated

Subseries 5: Negatives of Brannock Device, 1933-1958

Subgroup 2, Park-Brannock Shoe Store Records, 1916-1918, 1927-1981

Series 1: Historical Background, 1936-1981

Series 2: Operational Records, 1936-1972

Subseries 1: Financial Materials, 1936-1972

Subseries 2: Financial Materials, 1937-1961

Subseries 3: Business Course Tailored to Park-Brannock, undated

Subseries 4: Business Course Tailored to Park-Brannock, 1935-1961

Subseries 5: New York City Business Trips, 1945-1952

Subseries 6: Miscellaneous Notes, undated

Series 3: Advertising and Marketing Records, 1933-1962

Series 4: Sales Records, 1916-1977

Subseries 1: Customer Correspondence, 1928-1977

Subseries 2: Supplier Correspondence, 1927-1944

Subseries 3: Florsheim Sales Instruction Manual, undated

Subseries 4: Inventories, 1961

Subseries 5: Promotions, undated

Subseries 6: Receipts, 1916-1918

Subseries 7: Sales Floor Management, undated

Series 5: Photographs, 1932-1967
Biographical / Historical:
The Brannock Device Company began with the 1925 invention of the Brannock Device by Charles F. Brannock. Charles Brannock was working as a salesman in the Park-Brannock shoe store, co-owned by his father Otis C. Brannock and Ernest N. Park, in Syracuse, New York when he saw the need for an improved foot-measuring device. The Brannock Device soon gained favor over size-sticks because it measured foot length and width at the same time. Additionally, it measured heel-to-ball length, a feature which aided in fitting heeled shoes.

Charles F. Brannock (1903-1992) was an inventor and businessman. He began tinkering with the idea of a new foot-measuring device while attending Syracuse University, where he would get up in the middle of the night and work on sketches and calculations. Brannock obtained a patent for the device on August 28, 1928, but by then manufacture and sale of the device was already underway. Brannock assembled the device in the Park-Brannock shoe store and gave the device a trial on the sales floor. In 1926, Charles Brannock began offering the device to shoe retailers first on a rental basis and then by sale through the use of salesmen who lived throughout the country and each covered a geographic area. By 1929, the company began to phase out salesmen because it offered quantity discounts to shoe companies which distributed the devices to their stores at a lower price than salesmen could offer.

Brannock sold his device internationally beginning in 1929 through Mr. I. Singer of London, England. In 1936 distribution rights transferred to Henry Maitland Marler of Feature Shoes Limited of London, an affiliate of the Selby Shoe Company. Renewing and protecting foreign trademarks proved to be a legal challenge. Due to some confusion, Brannock's British patent was allowed to lapse. In order to prevent other companies from using the Brannock name in England, H.M. Marler set up Brannock Fitting Device Limited in October 1937. The company began manufacturing Brannock Devices in January 1946, but royalties accrued through European sale by 1951 did not even cover a third of the cost of trademarks, patents, and designs.

Fortunately for the Brannock Device Company, these costs were absorbed by the Selby Shoe Company, with whom it had entered into agreements about foreign distribution in November 1941. Selby had exclusive rights to distribute the Brannock Device in South America, South Africa, and other countries, and assisted Brannock in securing trademarks in many foreign countries.

In 1933 a United States Navy captain asked a shoe salesman to find the source of many sailors' foot problems. The salesman, after measuring sailors' feet with the Brannock device, declared that the Navy shoe was not the cause of the problem; the sailors were simply wearing the wrong size shoes. The captain was so happy that he would not have to order special shoes for his men that he wrote an article in the July 1933 issue of United States Naval Institute Proceedings which described how the Brannock Device had eliminated foot troubles aboard the ship. This gave Brannock an opportunity to promote his device in the Navy by sending the article to other ships. He calibrated his device for use in other branches of the military and by World War II the Brannock Device was being used by most of the armed forces. Several articles were written about the greater foot comfort enjoyed by the military after the introduction of the device. Charles Brannock was proud of his small but widespread role in the war effort and in the comfort of America's enlisted men and women.

Through the years Charles Brannock developed many different models of his device, including the women's, men's, junior, growing girl's, athletic, ski-boot, and military models. In 1947, Brannock moved the device company to a machine shop at 509 East Fayette Street in Syracuse, where it remained for 50 years.

Brannock advertised both the store and the device in local papers, and the device in trade literature such as Boot and Shoe Recorder. He encouraged other shoe stores to promote themselves by using the device in their advertising. He also attended the annual National Shoe Fair in Chicago from 1938 to 1968 in order to promote the device as well as learn about shoe-fashion trends for the Park-Brannock shoe store.

Concurrently, Charles Brannock also played a significant role in the Park-Brannock shoe store. His father, Otis C. Brannock and Ernest N. Park founded Park-Brannock in 1906 in a small store at 321 South Salina Street, focusing on women's shoes. In February 1937, they moved to a three-story building at 427 South Salina Street. Finally, in 1946, a six-story store was built at 473-475 South Salina Street through 129 East Onondaga Street. While waiting for the newest store to be built, Park-Brannock temporarily moved to the Chimes Building at 510-512 South Salina Street and 113 West Onondaga Street. Park-Brannock gained fame in Syracuse for a wide selection of men's, women's and children's shoes, handbags, millinery, hose, and accessories. In an advertisement, the store declared itself "one of America's finest shoe stores." The design of the two newer stores was state-of-the-art, and Park-Brannock was featured in shoe magazine articles. For example, the men's department was designed to look like a great room inside a ship. Charles Brannock became the CEO of Park-Brannock after both his father and Ernest Park died in 1962. Park-Brannock closed its doors in 1981, after the Hotel Syracuse offered to purchase the property for its new Hilton Tower.

Charles Brannock died on November 22, 1992, at the age of 89. The company was purchased in 1993 from the Brannock Estate by Salvatore Leonardi. Leonardi continues to manufacture Brannock devices in a small factory in Liverpool, New York. Over a million Brannock Devices have been manufactured, and it remains the shoe industry standard
Related Materials:
Materials at the National Museum of American History

Artifacts (several Brannock Devices and competitors' devices) are in the Division of Culture and the Arts and the Division of Armed Forces History.
Provenance:
The collection was donated to the National Museum of American History by Salvatore Leonardi on November 4, 1998.
Restrictions:
This collection is open for research use.
Gloves must be worn when handling unprotected photographs and negatives.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning intellectual property rights. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
World War, 1939-1945 -- Equipment and supplies  Search this
Show-windows -- New York -- Syracuse  Search this
Shoes -- Sizes  Search this
Shoe industry -- New York -- Syracuse  Search this
Shoes -- Fitting  Search this
Shoe machinery  Search this
Foot -- Measurement  Search this
Design, Industrial -- New York -- Syracuse  Search this
Military supplies  Search this
Measuring instruments industry  Search this
Measuring instruments  Search this
Genre/Form:
Patents
Trademarks
Slides (photographs)
Advertisements
Sales records
Photographs -- Black-and-white negatives -- Glass -- 1890-1920
Photographs -- 20th century
Photographic prints
Filmstrips
Design drawings
Citation:
Brannock Device Company Records, dates, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0672
See more items in:
Brannock Device Company Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0672
Online Media:

National Company (NATCO) Atomic Clocks Records

Creator:
Bagnall, James  Search this
Orensberg, Arthur  Search this
NATCO, Inc. (National Company, Inc.)  Search this
Mainberger, Walter  Search this
Lerner, Louis C.  Search this
Holloway, Joseph  Search this
Grant, Eugene  Search this
George, James  Search this
Daly, Richard Timothy, Jr.  Search this
Bovarnick, Michael  Search this
Extent:
5.5 Cubic feet (16 boxes, 3 oversize folders)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Blueprints
Technical drawings
Reports
Manuals
Photographs
Date:
1955 - 1968
Summary:
The records document the development of the first commercial atomic clocks by the National Company, Inc., (NATCO) of Malden, Massachusetts, a company known for producing specialized electronic equipment. The records include blueprints, technical drawings and schematics, technical and research reports, instruction manuals, photographs, and marketing materials.
Scope and Contents:
The National Company (NATCO) Atomic Clocks Records, 1955-1968, documents the development of the first commercial atomic clocks. Materials were generated by the National Company, Inc. (NATCO) of Malden, Massachusetts which produced the clocks under contract for military branches of the U.S. government and also marketed them on a retail basis. The collection consists of blueprints, technical drawings and schematics, technical and research reports, instruction manuals, photographs, marketing materials, and a stock offering prospectus for NATCO. If one blueprint, drawing or parts list had two or more models listed, it is included under the first model cited.

Series 1, National Company, Inc., (NATCO), 1957-1959, consists of a stock offering prospectus, 1959, which describes the organization of NATCO, its executives and Board of Directors, financial condition, and products. Located in this series is a bound volume of photographs which accompanied NATCO's contract bids. This volume contains photographs of a state-of-the-art machine shop and electronics laboratory of the late 1950s and early 1960s. A blueprint for a radio receiver— the product on which NATCO had built its reputation—is here.

Series 2, Atomichrons, 1955-1968, contains blueprints, original technical drawings and schematics, instruction manuals for setup and operation, technical and research reports, photographs and marketing materials arranged by Atomichron model from the National Atomic Frequency System (NAFS) prototype through the NC3701 and NC3702. The NC1001, the first commercial atomic clock, is fully documented. Technical Memoranda and proposals (TM-) related to particular models have been included with them. Other Technical Memoranda and proposals are in Series 3, Components, 1955-1957, and Series 5, Technical Memoranda and Reports, 1956-1957.

Series 3, Components, 1955-1967, contains materials related to the development of NATCo's Cesium Beam Tube and other parts of the Atomichrons. It includes Technical Memoranda (TM-), blueprints and original drawings, original notes and computations, parts lists, and photographs. Also included in this series is material related to the Production Engineering Measure (PEM), 1962-1967. This was a piece of equipment designed and built by NATCO to measure the accuracy of each Cesium Beam Tube as it was produced.

Series 4, Collision Avoidance System, 1962-1967, consists of material related to James J. Bagnall's patented Collision Avoidance System, using the Cesium Beam Frequency Standard. It includes his research report, the patent assigned to NATCO, and proposals and reports from NATCO representatives to Air Transportation Association conferences and meetings for 1967.

Series 5, Technical Memoranda and Reports, 1956-1967, consists of bound and numbered (TM-) technical memoranda. These are research reports and proposals for future research or products. Other technical memoranda are in Series 2, Atomichrons and Series 3, Components, 1955-1967.

Series 6, Reprints from Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), 1953-1955, contains a bound volume of reprinted or photocopied papers which document research developments in Cesium Beam Frequency Standards at the time NATCO was establishing itself as a commercial producer.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into six series.

Series 1: National Company, Inc., (NATCO), 1957-1959

Series 2: Atomichrons, 1955-1968

Subseries 2.1, National Atomic Frequency System (NAF), 1956

Subseries 2.2, NC1001, 1955-circa 1959

Subseries 2.3, NC1001, Polaris, 1956-1958

Subseries 2.4, NC2001, Militarized, 1956-1961

Subseries 2.5, NC3001, Airborne, 1956-1961

Subseries 2.6, NC1200, 1959

Subseries 2.7, Missileborne Atomichron, 1959-1960

Subseries 2,8, NC1501, 1958-1964

Subseries 2.9, NC1601, Economy, 1958-1964

Subseries 2.10, Tactical Frequency Standard Drawings, 1959

Subseries 2.11, Tri-Service CBFS, circa 1965

Subseries 2.12, NC3501, circa 1965, 1967

Subseries 2.13, NC3601, Aerospace, circa 1965

Subseries 2.14, NC3701, Commercial, 1964-1968

Series 3: Components, 1955-1967

Series 4: Collision Avoidance System, 1962-1967

Series 5: Technical Memoranda and Reports, 1956-1967

Series 6: Reprints from MIT, 1953-1955
Biographical / Historical:
An atomic clock is a cesium-based frequency standard. It operates by exposing cesium atoms to microwaves at one end of their resonant frequencies and then counting their corresponding cycles as a measure of time. In 1955, Louis Essen of Britain's National Physical Laboratory and William Markowitz of the U.S. Naval Observatory collaborated to produce the first measurement of what is now called the atomic second. In 1967, the 13th general Conference of Weights and Measures formally redefined the atomic second as 9,192,631,770. The atomic second became the internationally accepted unit of time. Atomic clocks are the most accurate of all clocks. The first clock in 1949 was based on the microwave resonances of the ammonia molecule. It was patented by Harold Lyons and Benjamin F. Husten. The first commercial atomic clocks were developed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Research Laboratory of Electronics under J.R. Zacharias, a protégé of I.I. Rabi's, circa 1955-1956 and were manufactured by the National Company, Inc. (NATCO) of Malden, Massachussets. NATCO, founded in 1914, was a well-respected company known for producing specialized electronic equipment in short runs. Prototype clocks bore the working name National Atomic Frequency Standard (NAFS). When the first commercial product was unveiled on October 3, 1956, it bore the trade name "Atomichron" and the model number NC-1001. Between 1956 and 1960, fifty Atomichrons were made and sold to military agencies, government agencies, and universities. Nine other models followed with refinements in size, portability and accuracy. The most radical design departure began with the NC3001 when the beam tube was placed in the horizontal position. Prices ranged from $10,000 to $50,000.

Patents covering NATCO's frequency standards include: 2,960,663, 2,972,115, 2,991,389, 3,258,713, 3,305,290. In 1965, James J. Bagnall was assigned patent 3,167,772 for a Collision Avoidance System to NATCO. It never reached production.

Although supported by research contracts by all three military branches, especially the Army Signal Corps, NATCO failed to achieve a lasting profitability. It was liquidated, and its patents were acquired by Frequency Electronics in 1969.

Sources

1. PEM Drawing C43767, 1967, PEM Drawings (C38037-C43767), 1964-1967, Series 3, Components, 1955-1967, Atomic Clock Collection, Archives Center, Smithsonian Institution National Museum of American History.

2. Forman, Paul. "Atomichron: The Atomic Clock from Concept to Commercial Product," in Proceedings of the IEEE, vol. 73, p. 1181-1204, 1985.
Related Materials:
Materials at the National Museum of American History

Artifacts related to this collection are located in the Division of Work and Industry.

Materials at Other Organizations

Materials related to MIT staff and departments who were involved in NATCO's Atomic Clock projects also can be found in the Historical Collections at the MIT Museum (http://web.mit.edu/museum/) and in the Institute Archives and Special Collections (http://libraries.mit.edu/archives/) of the MIT Libraries in Cambridge, Mass.
Provenance:
Materials in this collection were donated to the Division of Electricity and Modern Physics by Louis C. Lerner in December 1984. The bulk of the blueprints were purchased from Robert Reeves in August, 1991.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Atomic clocks  Search this
Airplanes -- Collision avoidance -- 1950-1970  Search this
United States -- Air defenses -- Military -- 1950-1970  Search this
Inventions -- 1950-2000  Search this
Frequency standards -- 1950-1970  Search this
Cold War -- 1950-1970  Search this
Clocks and watches -- 1950-1970  Search this
Military-industrial complex -- Massachusetts -- Cambridge  Search this
Patents -- 1950-1970  Search this
Genre/Form:
Blueprints -- 20th century
Technical drawings
Reports -- 1940-1970
Manuals -- 1950-1970
Photographs -- 1940-1970
Citation:
National Company (NATCO) Atomic Clocks Records, 1955-1968, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0547
See more items in:
National Company (NATCO) Atomic Clocks Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0547
Online Media:

U.S. Army Signal Corps BC-137 Receiver

Collection Creator:
Laport, Edmund A.  Search this
Container:
Box 1, Folder 22
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1926
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Edmund A. Laport Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
Edmund A. Laport Collection
Edmund A. Laport Collection / Series 1: Photographs
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0016-ref30

Farnum T. Fish Collection

Creator:
Fish, Farnum T.  Search this
Extent:
0.5 Cubic feet ((1 folder))
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Technical notes
Photographic postcards
Date:
bulk 1912
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of five photographic post cards showing Farnum T. Fish and his Wright (Co) Model B biplane. Two of the post cards have caption information on the front. The collection also contains three pages of handwritten notes regarding various mechanical aspects of an aircraft, and a one page handwritten list of various tools.
Biographical / Historical:
Farnum T. Fish was born in 1896 in California. Fish learned to fly at the Wright Aviation School in Dayton, Ohio in 1911 and, on January 12, 1912, FAI Airplane Pilot's Certificate #85 was granted to him by the Aero Club of America. Fish immediately purchased a Wright (Co) Model B biplane and flew in his first air meet at Dominguez Field in Los Angeles, California from January 20 to 26, 1912. At the end of the meet, Fish was second in overall hours flown. Fish flew in another air meet at the Emeryville Race Track, Oakland, California from February 17 to 21, 1912 where he flew the first air mail into Oakland as a stunt. In April 1912, Fish began flying passengers at the Polo Grounds, Coronado, San Diego, where he also carried mail at a small local meet. In May of that year, Fish flew from Chicago to Milwaukee carrying 50 pounds of silk consigned to a department store. Throughout 1912, Fish took part in numerous air meets as well as flying passengers and mail. He also flew a newsreel photographer over the 1912 Vanderbilt Cup Races. In 1915, Fish began flying for Pancho Villa in Mexico where he was shot and wounded badly in the leg while flying over enemy forces. Fish managed to land the plane at his base before collapsing. Fish returned to the United States to recuperate and he was soon active flying in air meets and exhibitions again. In February 1918, Fish enlisted in the U.S. Army and accepted his commission as lieutenant in July 1918. In September of that year he was sent overseas as a test pilot for the U.S Army Signal Corps. He was discharged from the service in April 1919 and in June 1919 he joined the Air Service Officers Reserve Corps until his commission ended in 1934. Fish reentered active duty for a brief period in 1942. Following his military career, Fish was employed in the lumber business in Los Angeles, California for some time, as well as dabbling in ceramics manufacturing. Fish was known as the "Boy Aviator" throughout the early part of his career.
Provenance:
Unknown, Gift, Unknown
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Topic:
Wright (Co) Model B  Search this
Aeronautics  Search this
Aeronautics -- Exhibitions  Search this
Genre/Form:
Technical notes
Photographic postcards
Citation:
Farnum T. Fish Collection , Accession XXXX-0876, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.XXXX.0876
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-xxxx-0876

Edward V. Rickenbacker Microfilm Collection

Creator:
Rickenbacker, Eddie, 1890-1973  Search this
Names:
American Airlines  Search this
Eastern Airlines, Inc.  Search this
Fokker Aircraft Corp  Search this
United States. Air Force. Military Air Transport Service  Search this
United States. Army. Air Service. 1st Pursuit Group. 94th Aero Squadron  Search this
Rickenbacker, Eddie, 1890-1973  Search this
Extent:
0.05 Cubic feet ((5 microfilm reels))
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Albums
Scrapbooks
Photographs
Reports
Date:
1913-1973
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of two annual reports, two photograph albums, and a set of microfilm of 26 scrapbooks. The scrapbooks contain newspaper clippings chronicling Rickenbacker's aviation career. The two photo albums are as follows: 'In Commemoration of the Dedication of the Rickenbacker Foundation,' and 'The Great Silver Fleet,' which features imagery from the 1941 Georgia crash. There are also two annual reports: United Aircraft and Transport Corporation First Annual Report to Stockholders,' 1929 and 'Central Airlines Annual Report, 1965.'
Biographical / Historical:
Edward Vernon Rickenbacker (1890-1973) had only a sixth grade education but became a leading aviation figure in both military and civilian circles. Rickenbacker was a fighter ace during World War I, where as a member of the 94th Aero Squadron he shot down 22 German aircraft and 4 observation balloons. He became a colonel in the Army Air Reserves and during WWII helped form the Military Air Transport Services. In the civilian sector, Rickenbacker worked at several airlines, including Fokker Aircraft Corporation and American Airways, before going to work at Eastern Airlines in 1934. In 1939 Rickenbacker became Eastern's president and chairman, positions he held until 1963.
General:
Note: The physical scrapbooks were deaccessioned to Auburn University Library in 1996. The National Air and Space Museum holds a microfilm copy.
NASMrev
Provenance:
Estate of Edward Vernon Rickenbacker, unknown, 1973, XXXX-0525, unknown
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Topic:
Aeronautics, Military  Search this
Aeronautics  Search this
World War, 1914-1918 -- Aerial operations  Search this
Aeronautics, Commercial -- United States  Search this
Aeronautics, Commercial  Search this
Fighter pilots  Search this
World War, 1914-1918  Search this
Genre/Form:
Albums
Scrapbooks
Photographs
Reports
Identifier:
NASM.XXXX.0525
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-xxxx-0525

United States Army Around the World Trip (Leslie Arnold) Collection

Creator:
Arnold, Leslie P.  Search this
Names:
United States. Army. Air Service  Search this
Arnold, Leslie P.  Search this
Extent:
1.32 Cubic feet (2 legal document boxes and 1 flatbox)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Scrapbooks
Photographs
Maps
Diaries
Date:
1924
Summary:
In 1924, as a lieutenant in the Army Air Service, Leslie P. Arnold was a crew member in one of the three Army planes that flew 27,000 miles around the world in 175 days. This collection consists of Leslie Arnold's handwritten diary and annotated navigational charts of the journey as well as a scrapbook with images of the trip including the aircraft, gasoline tanks, pilot crew, and air-to air shots.
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of Leslie Arnold's handwritten diary and annotated navigational charts of the journey. The collection also contains the following: an autographed photograph; a Signal Corps message; an advertisement for Mobil oil; a page from 'Illustrated Current News;' and a black scrapbook with images of the trip including the aircraft, gasoline tanks, pilot crew, and air-to air shots. Some of the photographs in the scrapbook are snapshots while others were taken by news agencies.
Arrangement:
This collection is arranged by type of material.
Biographical / Historical:
In 1924, as a lieutenant in the Army Air Service, Leslie P. Arnold was a crew member in one of the three Army planes that flew 27,000 miles around the world in 175 days. Arnold joined the Army in 1917 where he served for eleven years. During his service, he spent time in France during World War I and was part of General William Mitchell's group that conducted tests to prove that battleships could be sunk by aerial bombardment. After the 1924 trip, Arnold worked for a variety of airlines: Transcontinental Air Transport; Pennsylvania Central Airlines and Eastern Air Lines.
Provenance:
Leslie Arnold?, Gift?, unknown, NASM.XXXX.0518.
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Topic:
Douglas World Cruiser (DWC)  Search this
Endurance flights  Search this
Aeronautics -- Records  Search this
Aeronautics -- Flights  Search this
Aeronautics, Military  Search this
Aeronautics  Search this
Flights around the world  Search this
Genre/Form:
Scrapbooks
Photographs
Maps
Diaries
Citation:
United States Army Around the World Trip (Leslie Arnold) Collection, NASM.XXXX.0518, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.XXXX.0518
See more items in:
United States Army Around the World Trip (Leslie Arnold) Collection
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-xxxx-0518
Online Media:

Edgar S. Gorrell Collection

Creator:
Gorrell, Edgar S. (Edgar Staley), 1891-1945  Search this
Names:
Air Transport Association of America  Search this
United States. Army. American Expeditionary Forces  Search this
Gorrell, Edgar S. (Edgar Staley), 1891-1945  Search this
Extent:
3.95 Cubic feet (9 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Correspondence
Publications
Date:
1893-1943
Summary:
This collection contains documents relating mainly to Gorrell's activities as president of the Air Transportation Association of America. The materials include copies of Gorrell's addresses and Congressional testimony, as well as press clippings concerning Gorrell's activities. The collection also includes albums of World War I vintage photographs collected by or presented to Gorrell.
Scope and Contents:
The Edgar S. Gorrell Collection is largely comprised of material relating to Gorrell's career as president of the Air Transport Association of America. The material includes his correspondence and speeches, the Congressional hearings and reports for the bills he advocated, and publications and newspaper articles about him and his career. Also in the collection are several photographs and photograph albums from World War I and other miscellaneous material.

Note: The digital images in this finding aid were repurposed from scans made by an outside contractor for a commercial product and may show irregular cropping and orientation in addition to color variations resulting from damage to and deterioration of the original objects.
Arrangement:
Arranged into two series:

Series 1: GENERAL. This series contains correspondence, addresses delivered by E.S. Gorrell, and publications and newspaper articles, some written by Gorrell. There are also Congressional hearings and reports, and some miscellaneous material. The documents are arranged in chronological order.

Series 2: PHOTOGRAPHS/ALBUMS. This series contains photographs and photo albums. Many of these are aerial photographs of trenches taken c. 1916 --1918, but there are also many photographs of aerial and land transport equipment.
Biographical/Historical note:
Colonel Edgar S. Gorrell (1891-1945) was a pilot and an advocate for aviation safety. He graduated from West Point in 1912 and then spent two years as an infantryman in Alaska before transferring to the Signal Corps, where he joined the 1st Aero Squadron, serving under Gen. John J. Pershing in Mexico. On one of his flying missions in Mexico, Gorrell ran out of gas and was stranded in the desert for several days before being rescued. Upon returning to his unit, he began to criticize the poor equipment US pilots were forced to use, both in terms of actual aircraft components and the signals and communication equipment used on land. In 1917 he was promoted to Captain, and in World War I he became the Chief Engineering Officer for the Air Service, and eventually the Chief of Staff for the Air Service, with the rank of Colonel. After the war, Gorrell remained in Europe representing the US at conferences and peace talks.

In March 1920, he resigned his commission in the Army and joined the automobile business. He served as the vice president of Marmon Motor Car Company until 1925. Then he became vice president, director, and general manager, and later president, of the Stutz Motor Car company of America. In January 1936, Gorrell again switched fields when he was elected the first president of the Air Transport Association of America, shortly after its conception. It was with this organization that he was known for his role in promoting safety in civil aeronautics. He was a strong advocate for the Civil Aeronautics Act of 1938 which provided government control and regulation of civil aeronautics, and he provided testimony before congressional committees several times. Gorrell continued to support civil aeronautics, especially through his role as president of the Air Transport Association of America, until his death, in 1945.
Provenance:
No donor information, gift, unknown, XXXX-0057
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Topic:
Aeronautics  Search this
Aeronautics, Commercial -- United States  Search this
Aeronautics, Military  Search this
World War, 1914-1918  Search this
Periodicals  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Correspondence
Publications
Citation:
Edgar S. Gorrell Collection, Acc. XXXX-0057, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.XXXX.0057
See more items in:
Edgar S. Gorrell Collection
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-xxxx-0057
Online Media:

Krafft Arnold Ehricke Papers

Creator:
Ehricke, Krafft, 1917-1984  Search this
Names:
Bell Aircraft Corporation  Search this
Convair (Consolidated Vultee Aircraft Corp)  Search this
North American Aviation, Inc  Search this
Rockwell International  Search this
Space Global  Search this
Dornberger, Walter, 1895-  Search this
Von Braun, Wernher, 1912-1977  Search this
Extent:
124.9 Cubic feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Notes
Papers, technical
Audiotapes
Sketches
Vhs (videotape format)
Photographic prints
Illustrations
Videotapes
Articles
Newspaper clippings
Date:
1949-1984
Summary:
This collection is composed of Krafft Ehricke's files including Ehricke's published and unpublished papers as well as papers and works by others that Ehricke gathered, presumably as reference material.
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of Krafft Ehricke's writings and interviews spanning 1949-1984 and items gathered by Ehricke as reference material for his various writing projects. The files on his writings include handwritten manuscripts, typed drafts, publication proofs, and/or final published versions and reprints, and in some cases include correspondences or other documents relating to publication. The collection also includes original paste-up versions of graphics created by or for Ehricke to illustrate his writings. The reference material includes technical reports, scientific papers, and newspaper and magazine articles gathered by Ehricke during his career.
Arrangement:
The collection remained in the possession Ehricke's family for nearly two decades after his death and apparently was largely unorganized prior to processing. The material has been arranged in five series, with oversized materials filed at the end of the collection in series order by size.

Series I. Writings (Boxes 1-80) – copies of papers, articles, and lectures by Ehricke, including a mix of manuscript (MS), typescript (TS), paste-up, and published copies. Reports written by Ehricke as part of a study conducted as part of his professional duties are filed in Series IV as part of the "Studies and Projects" section of each subject group (see below). The materials are organized chronologically with different versions of the same work filed together by date of publication (if published) or completion. Ehricke rarely labeled MS or TS pages by title, generally wrote on the similar topics, and often cut finished text blocks or figures from one paper to use in another, a process he referred to cannibalization. As a result, although efforts have been made to organize loose MS and TS pages by their final works these assignments must be considered tentative and some pages have been left unassigned due to lack of sufficient information.

Series II. Graphics (Boxes 81-94) – copies of original and paste-up graphics (charts, graphs, illustrations) designed or created by Ehricke. Because these materials were mainly found in their original folders, they have been filed consistent with their original labeling. As a result they fall into groups roughly corresponding to Ehricke's tenures at General Dynamics, North American Rockwell, and Space Global.

Series III. Company Files (Boxes 94-104) – files and materials relating to business activities at the various companies for which Ehricke worked, organized by company in chronological order of Ehricke's tenure. Within each company, materials are organized by named files (filed alphabetically) and proposals and related material (filed chronologically). The proposals filed in this series represent studies or programs for which no other documentation exists in the collection.

Series IV. Reference Files (Boxes 104-253) – files and documents arranged by broad subject areas, based upon the subject organization for Ehricke's existing lecture transparencies. Within each subject area files are organized into three groups: named files (arranged alphabetically); studies (arranged chronologically by the start of the study); and other reports (arranged chronologically). Named files usually contain a variety of papers, reports, and articles and sometimes include items written by Ehricke. Studies often include correspondence, papers, or reports by Ehricke in addition to documents by other members of the study team; items by Ehricke have been filed in this series, rather than in Series I to preserve the context in which they were created and used. Other reports are generally filed chronologically by date of publication unless it could be clearly established that Ehricke acquired the material significantly later than its publication date (for instance: in cases where order forms attached to document bundles show that Ehricke had requested copies of the documents a decade after they were published). The subject areas are:

Subseries

2. General (Boxes 104-108)

3. Vehicle Technology (Boxes 108-154)

4. Planets and Planetary Missions (Box 154-203)

5. Transportation Systems (Boxes 204-208)

6. Space Habitation and Human Factors (Boxes 208-219)

7. Space and Lunar Industry (Boxes 219-229)

8. Earth / Resources / Open World Synthesis (Boxes 229-234)

9. Energy (Boxes 234-249)

10. Space Light (Boxes 249-250)

11. Information Services (Boxes 250-253)

Unfortunately, there is significant overlap between these subject areas, especially between subseries 2, 3, 4, and 5; subseries 5, 6, and 9; and subseries 7, 8, and 9. Researchers are cautioned to examine several subject areas.

Series V. Miscellaneous Personal and Posthumous Materials (Boxes 253-254) – files and documents not otherwise related to Ehricke's research and writing or which post-date his death.
Biographical/Historical note:
Krafft Arnold Ehricke (1917-1984) was an engineer and scientist who made vital contributions to the American space program. Ehricke was considered "one of the few philosophers of astronautics" by the early 1960s (note 1) and until his death remained a visionary and public champion of the cause of space exploration and colonization.

Ehricke was born in Berlin, Germany on 24 March 1917. He was inspired by Fritz Lang's 1929 science fiction film Frau im Mond (Woman in the Moon) and attempted to join the German rocket society, Verein für Raumschiffarht (VfR), but, denied membership due to his youth, he instead conducted his own experiments. He spent two years (1936-1938) fulfilling military service requirements in Germany's new Panzer Corps, then earned an Aeronautical Engineering degree (MS equivalent) from the Technical University of Berlin (1938-1940). With World War II underway, Ehricke was recalled to service and was wounded during the Blitzkrieg on the Western Front in 1940. While recuperating from his wound he took graduate courses in Celestial Mechanics and Nuclear Physics from the University of Berlin (1940-1941). He returned to duty in 1941 as an officer to participate in the German attack on Russia. In 1942 he was again wounded, but his earlier engineering work had come to the attention of Wernher von Braun and he was recruited into von Braun's rocket development team, a move he later credited with saving his life. Ehricke spent the next two years (1942-1944) as a propulsion engineer at Peenemünde, then became an ordnance lecturer in Köslin, Germany (now Koszalin, Poland) until the end of the war. In January 1945 Ehricke married Ingeborg Maria Mattull. As the Third Reich collapsed in May he returned to her in Berlin and went into hiding to escape being "recruited" by the Soviet Union. He was finally located by an American officer in 1946 and was reunited with von Braun and the other Operation Paperclip (note 2) scientists under United States Army auspices.

In January 1947 Ehricke began work as a Research Engineer for the Research and Development Service of the United States Army Ordnance Corps at Ft. Bliss, TX, moving to Huntsville, AL, in 1950 when the Army transferred missile development from Ft. Bliss to Redstone Arsenal, AL. In 1952 Ehricke was recruited by Walter Dornberger (note 3), left government service for private industry, and moved to Buffalo, NY, to work as a Design Specialist at Bell Aircraft. For the next two years he worked on Bell's Orbital Glider project, a precursor to Project Dyna-Soar, the Air Force reusable boost-glide weapon system that itself prefigured NASA's Space Shuttle.

In November 1954 Ehricke moved to San Diego, CA, to begin a decade-long career with what was then the Convair Division of General Dynamics. For several years he was a key figure in the development of the Convair's SM-65 Atlas ICBM and Atlas launch vehicle. NASA used the man-rated Atlas LV-3 for the orbital flights of the Mercury Program and as of this writing the Atlas V family of Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicles remains a mainstay of the United States launch vehicle inventory. Between 1959 and 1962 Ehricke directed the development of the Centaur booster, the first high-energy upper stage powered by liquid hydrogen. Although Centaur was not successfully launched until 1965, it eventually served as the upper stage for Atlas, Titan, and Delta launch vehicles and was the last stage for the Viking (Mars) and Voyager (Outer Planets) missions. During this time he also authored Space Flight, a two-volume textbook on celestial mechanics and launch vehicle design (note 4). In 1962 Ehricke became the director of the Advanced Projects Department of General Dynamics Astronautics, where he directed and contributed to studies of next-generation (Post-Saturn) launch vehicles and propulsion systems, planetary exploration programs, and post-Apollo space activities.

At the end of October 1965 Ehricke left General Dynamics to become the assistant director of Astrionics at the Autonetics Division of North American Aviation (note 5), later rising to become Chief Scientist in the Advanced Systems Department of North American Rockwell's Space Division (1968-1973) and Chief Scientific Advisor for Rockwell International's North American Space Operations (1973-1977). While at North American Ehricke was involved in some aspects of the Space Shuttle program but primarily worked advanced project studies, including studies relating to NASA's space station and deep space exploration programs, and culminating in a multi-year study of space industrialization which began in 1976. During this time he also acted as scientific advisor to the abortive Satellite Power Corp (1974-1976), which proposed using satellites to generate and transmit electrical power to the Earth.

Ehricke retired from Rockwell in July 1977 and established Space Global Company with himself as president. Space Global was, in essence, a vehicle to promote space exploration and to promulgate his vision of a future space civilization, a concept he originally called the "Extraterrestrial Imperative" but later referred to as the "Open World Synthesis." The basic concept was relatively straightforward: because Earth's resources, although great, are limited, they place a limit on mankind's development. The only way to escape that limit is to move beyond the Earth and exploit the resources available in space. It was an argument for space exploration and colonization that Ehricke developed during the 1950s and 1960s, and finally crystallized in a manuscript he co-authored with Elizabeth Miller. Doubleday planned to publish the book in 1971, but then cancelled the project. Ehricke managed to get facets of the idea published in a number of technical journals, most notably in a four-part article in the Journal of the British Interplanetary Society (1979-1981), and gave numerous lectures on the topic, but The Extraterrestrial Imperative never appeared in the general media. Described as a "warm, witty man" and "a popular lecturer," he kept up an active speaking career until his health began to fail in 1984. He died of complications from leukemia on 11 December 1984.

During his life Ehricke wrote over 200 scientific and technical papers, contributed to a number of dictionaries and encyclopedias, and authored or co-authored several books. His final book The Seventh Continent: Industrialization and Settlement of the Moon (published in German as Der Siebente Kontinent – Die Industri Alisierung und Besiedlung des Mondes (Müchen: Thiemig Verlag, 1984)) was being edited for English publication at the time of his death. He was awarded an Honorary Doctorate of Humane Letters by the National College of Education (note 6) (1961) and received numerous awards including the International Astronautical Federation's Guenther Loeser Medal (1956), the American Rocket Society's Astronautics Award (1957) and Edward J. Pendray Award (1963), the New York Academy of Sciences' I. B. Laskowitz Award (1972), the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics' Goddard Astronautics Award (1984), and was inducted into the Aerospace Hall of Fame (1966).

Notes

2. Dandridge M. Cole to Krafft Ehricke, 12 February 1964.

3. Operation Paperclip was a program by the United States Office of Strategic Services (OSS) to bring German scientists to the United States in the immediate aftermath of World War II. More than 1500 scientists and engineers and nearly 4000 members of their families had entered the US by the end of 1947.

4. Walter Robert Dornberger (1895-1980) was a German artillery officer and engineer. In 1942 he was placed in charge of coordinating V-1 and V-2 development at Peenemünde. Captured by the British in 1945, he participated in Britain's -- Operation Backfire -- before being brought to the United States as part of -- Operation Paperclip -- , working on guided missile development for the United States Air Force. Between 1950 and 1965 he worked for Bell, eventually becoming a Vice President of the company. According to some stories he was responsible for poaching several -- Paperclip -- scientists away from the Army's Huntsville team for USAF projects.

5. Krafft A. Ehricke, -- Space Flight -- , Vol. I – -- Environment and Celestial Mechanics -- (Princeton (NJ): D. Van Norstrand, 1960) and Kraftt A. Ehricke, -- Space Flight -- , Vol. II – -- Dynamics -- (Princeton (NJ): D. Van Norstrand, 1962)

6. In September 1967 North American Aviation merged with Rockwell Standard and was renamed North American Rockwell. In 1973 North American Rockwell merged with Rockwell Manufacturing to form Rockwell International.

7. In 1990 National College of Education (NCE, est. 1886) expanded and reorganized into the National Louis University (NLU), headquartered in Chicago, IL, with NCE becoming one of the NLU's three colleges.

Chronology

1917 Mar 24 -- born (Berlin, Germany)

1923-1926 -- Grammar School (Berlin, Germany)

1927-1936 -- Gynasium (Berlin, Germany)

1936-1938 -- German Army (military service, Panzer Corps)

1938-1941 -- Berlin Technical University (Aeronautical Engineering Diploma, 1941)

1940 -- German Army (Sergeant, Panzer Corps) – Western Front

1941-1942 -- University of Berlin (Nuclear Physics and Celestial Mechanics; predoctoral studies)

1942 -- German Army (Lieutenant, Panzer Corps) – Eastern Front, wounded

1942-1944 -- Peenemünde Research and Development Center (Development Engineer and Assistant to Director, Propulsion Development)

1944-1945 -- Köslin, Germany (Lecterer, Army Ordnance)

1945 Jan 19 -- married Ingeborg Maria Mattull (Berlin, Germany)

1947-1950 -- Ft Bliss, TX (Research Engineer)

1950-1952 -- Redstone Arsenal, Huntsville, AL (Thermodynamics Research Engineer, Chief of Gas Dynamics Dept)

1952-1954 -- Bell Aircraft Corp, Buffalo, NY (Preliminary Design Specialist)

1954-1955 -- General Dynamics/Convair, San Diego, CA (Design Specialist)

1956-1958 -- General Dynamics/Convair, San Diego, CA (Chief of Preliminary Design and Systems Analysis)

1956 -- received Gunther Loesler Medal (International Astronautics Federation)

1957 -- received Astronautics Award (American Rocket Society)

1958-1959 -- General Dynamics/Convair, San Diego, CA (Assistant to Chief Engineer)

1959-1962 -- General Dynamics/Convair, San Diego, CA (Director, Centaur Development)

1959-1961 -- NASA Research Advisory Committee on Electric Energy Systems (Chairman)

1961 -- awarded Honorary Doctorate of Humane Letters (National College of Education, Evanston, IL)

1962-1965 -- General Dynamics/Convair, San Diego, CA (Director, Advanced Studies Dept/Astronautics Division)

1963 -- received Edward Pendray Award (American Rocket Society)

1965-1968 -- North American Aviation, Anaheim, CA (Assistant Director, Astrionics Division)

1966 -- inducted into Aerospace Hall of Fame (San Diego, CA)

1968-1973 -- North American Aviation / Rockwell International, Anaheim, CA (Chief Scientist, Advanced Systems Department, Space Division)

1972 -- received I. B. Laskowitz Award (New York Academy of Sciences)

1973-1977 -- Rockwell International, Anaheim, CA (Chief Scientific Advisor, North American Space Operations)

1977-1984 -- Space Global Co (President)

1981 -- received Space Systems Award (IAA)

1984 -- received Goddard Astronautics Award (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics)

1984 Dec 11 -- died of complications from leukemia (La Jolla, CA)

Partial Bibliography of Papers, Reports, Lectures, and Interviews by Krafft Ehricke

"1990 A.D. and Man's Flight to the Planets" (extract from Ehricke & Betty A. Miller, -- Exploring the Planets -- (Morristown (NJ): Slver Burdett, 1969))

"Absolute Comparisons of Management Systems" (no date)

Accuracy Improvement of Martian Probe by Post-Escape Correction and Improved Determination of the Astronomical Constant -- (Convair report AZM-049; 1 Aug 1958)

"Acquisition of Geospace" (Nov 1968)

"Acquisition of the Solar System" (presented to "Contemporary Americans in an Intricate Society – 1969", The Hackley School Program for a Special Senior Conference, 19-29 May 1969)

"Advanced Nuclear Reactor Propulsion Concepts" (AIAA Lecture Series – Advanced Propulsion Systems for Space Applications, 6 Apr 1965)

"Aero-Thermodynamics of Descending Orbital Vehicles" ( -- Astronautica Acta -- 2, fasc.1 (1956))

"Aerojet-General Nucleonics Non-Chemical Propulsion Program" (presented to USAF, 11 Feb 1966)

"Aerospace and National Economic Development" (Feb 1976)

"Aerospace Contribution to Solving the Energy and Pollution Crisis" (delivered to luncheon meeting of Capital Section of AIAA, 27 Jun 1973)

"Aerospace Transportation" (Jun 1966)

"Aerospace Transportation – Concepts and Advanced Systems" (Jun 1966)

"Air Traffic in the Coming Space Age" (published as "Toward Aviation's New Infinities", -- Jet Tales -- 1/81)

An der Schwelle des Industriellen Raumzeitalters -- (report E75-9-1, Sep 1975)

"Analysis of a New Orbital Supply System and Optimization of Satellite Orbits for Interplanetary Flight" (presented to ARS 8th Annual Meeting, 2-4 Dec 1953; published as "A New Supply System for Satellite Orbits", -- Jet Propulsion -- 24, No.5 (Sep-Oct 1954) : 302-309 and No.6 (Nov-Dec 1954) : 369-373)

"Analysis of Orbital Systems" (1st edition, Feb 1954)

"Analysis of Orbital Systems" (2nd edition; presented to IAF 5th International Astronautical Congress, 5-7 Aug 1954)

"Analysis of Transportation Systems Flight Performance" (1970)

"Anthropology of Astronautics (The)" ( -- Astronautics -- 2 no.4 (Nov 1957) : 26-29, 65-68; reprinted in -- Astronautics and the Future -- )

Apollo 11 Flight [5th] Anniversary "Town Hall Talk" (circa 1974)

"Apollo and the Future" (delivered to Industrial Management Club of Reading and Berks County, Reading, PA, 25 Mar 1971)

Ascent and Descent of Rocket Vehicles -- (Convair report AZP-071; no date)

"Ascent of Orbital Vehicles" (published in -- Astronautica Acta -- 2 fasc.4 (1956))

"Aspects Concerning the Impact of Manned Heliocentric Mission on Space Station and Space Shuttle" (NR report PD70-5; Jan 1970)

"Aspects of Deep Space Probes Requiring Cryogenic Engineering Solutions" (University of California, Engineering X428GHI, Lecture 14, 14-17 May 1962)

"Astro-ecology and the Human Environment" (no date)

"Astrogenic Environments – The Effect of Stellar Spectral Classes in the Evolutionary Pace of Life" ( -- Space Flight -- 14 no.1 (Jan 1972); NR report SD71-716)

"Astronautical and Space-Medical Research with Automatic Satellites" (presented to the Franklin Institute; Jun 1956)

"Astronautical Vehicles" (no date)

"Astronautical Vehicles" ( -- Colliers Encyclopedia Year Book -- , 1960)

"Astronautics" (San Diego State College course, Physics 131, Fall Semester 1960)

"Astropolis and Androcell / Thermonuclear Power Generation Satellite / Lunar Productivity Center" (extracts from papers and testimony, 1972-1975; SG reprint SG578-1R, May 1978)

"Astropolis and Androcell – The Pyschology and Technology of Space Utilization and Extraterrestrialization" (presented to Session 2, International Space Hall of Fame Dedication Conference, 3-9 Oct 1976)

"Astropolis: The First Space Resort" ( -- Playboy -- , Nov 1968 : 96-98, 222)

"Atlas Family of Spacecraft & Preliminary Data on 990000 and 2x106 lb 3-Stage System with O -- 2 -- /H -- 2 -- Second and Third Stage" (30 Sep 1958)

Atmosphere Braking Entry and Associated Technologies -- (NR report X6-624/3061, 1968)

"Aufstieg und Abstieg von Raketengeraten" (published as Chapter 8 of -- Handbuch der Astronautik -- (Karl Schütte and Hans K. Kaiser, eds; Akademische Verlaggesellschaft Athenaion, 1958), pp.235-254; also Convair report AZP-071, circa 1958)

"Ausbeutung des Roten Planeten" (with unidentified "German author", circa Oct 1975)

"Ballistic Ascent to Satellite Orbits" (no date)

Beyond Earth: The Story of Astronautics -- (with Betty A. Miller, 1970 [not published])

"Beyond the First Space Stations" (Jan 1971; presented to Alabama AIAA Meeting, 20 Jan 1971)

"Blaue Planet hat doch eine Zukunft (Der)" ( -- Die Welt -- , 29 Jun 1974)

"Brief Outline of Steps for Commercial Development of Solar Power Systems on Earth and Power Transmission Through Space" (no date)

"Brief Study of the Application of Three Nerva Engine Models to Comparatively Modern Manned Interplanetary Missions Such as Capture in an Elliptic Orbit around Venus in 1975 and Return to Earth" (with B. Brown, B. Oman, and W. Strobl; GDA report GDA 63-1223, 20 Nov 1963)

Будущее Космической Индустрии (Москва: Машиностроение, 1979) [ -- The Future of Space Industry -- (Moscow: Mashinostroenie, 1979)]

"Buck Stops Here (The)" (Viewpoint column; -- Fusion -- , Sep 1981)

"Busy World of Outer Space (The)" ( -- Discovery -- ; ABC TV, aired 28 Jan 1968; includes Ehricke interview)

"Calculations on a Manned Nuclear Propelled Space Vehicle" (ARS paper 532-57; presented at ARS 12th Annual Meeting, 2-5 Dec 1957)

"Case for Space (A)" (presented to the Citizen's Campaign for Space, Sponsored by The Center of American Living Inc, New York City, NY, 17-18 Feb 1970; NR report SD70-65; Feb 1970)

"Case for Space" [II] (presented to unidentified meeting, 27 Jun 1970; also to California State Polytechnical College, Aerospace Education Workshop, 14 Jul 1970)

"Case for the Space Station (The)" (circa Feb 1970)

CBS News Interview (Krafft Ehricke/Walter Cronkite, Sep 1966)

"Changing Role of Technology (The) – Yesterday Today and Tomorrow" (presented to 8th Space Congress, 19-23 Apr 1971; NR SD71-536)

"Circular Satellite Orbits" (no date)

"Cislunar Operations" (ARS paper 467-57; presented at ARS Semi-Annual Meeting, 10-13 Jun 1957)

Cislunar Orbits -- (Convair report AZP-004, 30 Mar 1957)

"Comments on Space Station Paper by R Gilruth" (presented to 5th AIAA Annual Meeting, 21-25 Oct 1968; response to Robert R. Gilruth, "Manned Space Stations - Gateway to Our Future in Space," presented at the Orbital Laboratory Symposium of the International Academy of Astronautics, 18 Oct 1968)

"Comments on the Question of the Usefulness of the Scramjet to Boost and Reentry Vehicle Program" (no date)

"Communications and the New Life Style" (address to Public Broadcasting System Annual Meeting, 1972)

Comparison of Advanced Propulsion Systems: Solar-Heating, Arc Thermo-dynamics and Arc Magneto Hydrodynamics -- (Convair report AZK-002, 1 Dec 1957)

"Comparison of One-Way Transfers and the Effect of Specific Impulse I -- sp -- and Mass Fraction x on Gross Payload Fraction" (no date)

"Comparison of Propellants and Working Fluids for Rocket Propulsion (A)" (Sep 1952; published in -- Journal of ARS -- 23, no.5 (Sep/Oct 1953))

"Comparison of Rocket Propulsion at Constant Thrust and Constant Acceleration (A)" (Jun 1951; published in -- Rocket Science -- 5, no.3 (Sep 1951))

"Computation of Number of Binary Bits of Information for Venus Radar Mapping" (no date)

"Concept of Shuttle Stations and Their Functions in Geolunar Space Utilization (The)" (NR report PD70-4, 15 Jan 1970, revised Jan 1970)

"Contributions of Space Reflection Technology to Food Production, Local Weather Manipulation and Energy Supply, 1985-2020" (presented to 17th European Space Symposium, 4-6 Jun 1980; published in -- JBIS Space Technology -- 34 no.12, Dec 1981))

"Cost Reductions in Energy Supply through Space Operations" (IAF paper IAF-A-76-25; presented to the Sixth International Cost Reduction in Space Operations Symposium II, session 34 of the IAF 27th International Astronautical Congress, 10-16 Oct 1976)

"Cost Reductions in Transportation to Geosynchronous and Lunar Orbit" (presented to IAF 23rd International Astronautical Congress, 8-15 Oct 1972, 5th Lunar International Laboratory Symposium; NR report SD72 SA-0174, Sep 1972; published as "Cost Reduction in Transportation to Geosynchronous and Lunar Orbit in a Swing Station"" ( -- Raumfahrtforschung -- 17 no.3 (May/June 1973) : 126-135)

"Cost Reductions in Transportation to Geosynchronous and Lunar Orbit in a Swing Station" (Raumfahrtforschung 17 no.3 (May/June 1973) : 126-135; NR report SD72-SA-0174, Sep 1972; presented to IAF 23rd International Astronautical Congress, 8-15 Oct 1972, 5th Lunar International Laboratory Symposium as "Cost Reduction in Transportation to Geosynchronous and Lunar Orbit")

Delta -- (California Museum of Science and Industry, TV Pilot, Jun 1974; Ehricke included in on-screen interview)

"Destination Mankind – Proposal for a Saturn V-Apollo Mission into Geosynchronous Orbit" (19 May 1972)

Development of a Basic Planetary Transportation System Model, Interim Report -- (GDA report, circa 1964)

"Development of Large Earth Orbital Space Station" (presented to IAF 21st Interntional Astronautical Congress, 4-10 Oct 1970; NR report SD 70-641, Nov 1970)

Early Manned Interplanetary Missions, Intermediate Report No. 1 – Missions and Operations Studies -- (GDA report AOK 62-0001, 30 Jul 1962)

"Earth Environment and Resources Management from Space" (presented to IAF 22nd International Astronautical Congress, 20-24 Sep 1971; NR report SD 71-734, Sep 1971)

Earth's Seventh Continent – Industrialization and Settling of the Moon -- (in preparation for publication, 1984)

"Earth-Moon Transportation" (presented to AAS 16th Annual Meeting, 8-10 Jun 1970; NR report SD70-338)

"Earth-Space Meta-Environment and the Future of Man 1970-2070" (presented to ISF 1971 Conference on International Science Policy with the International Meta-University, Sep 1971)

"Economy of Large Launch Vehicles including Labor Costs" ( -- Journal of Spacecraft and Rockets -- 1, no.6 (Nov 1964) : 611-619; originally presented as part of "Nexus – Concept of a Large Reusable Launch Vehicle"; AIAA Summer Meeting, paper 63-277, 17-20 Jun 1963; originally titled "Economy of Saturn V and Post-Saturn Vehicles with Consideration of Orbital Labor Cost")

"Economy of Saturn V and Post-Saturn Vehicles with Consideration of Orbital Labor Cost" (originally presented as part of "Nexus – Concept of a Large Reusable Launch Vehicle"; AIAA Summer Meeting, paper 63-277, 17-20 Jun 1963; published as "Economy of Large Launch Vehicles including Labor Costs", -- Journal of Spacecraft and Rockets -- 1, no.6 (Nov 1964) : 611-619)

Effective Initial Contributions of a Manned Space Station -- (report KAE-11, 6 Nov 1970)

"Electric Propulsion Systems Model" (no date)

"Electromagnetic Propulsion" ( -- McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technolog -- y, vol. 4 (NY: McGraw-Hill, 3rd Ed., 1971))

Elements of Rocket Science -- (unpublished textbook, no date)

"ELV Comparison and Evaluation Methodology" (Summer 1963)

EMPIRE Follow-On Final Report -- , Vol. I – -- Condensed Summary Report -- (GDA report AOK 64-006, 1 Jan 1964)

EMPIRE Follow-On Final -- [Third] -- Presentation -- (GDA report AOK 64-002, 28 Jan 1964)

EMPIRE Follow-On – Parametric Mission Analysis -- (GDA report AOK 63-024, 30 Aug 1963)

"Energy and the Shuttle Compatible Space Energy Test (SET) Facility Briefing, September 25, 1974"

"Engineering and Space Operations" (presented to Space Station Utilization Conference, NASA/Ames Research Center; 9-10 Sep 1970)

"Engineering Problems of Manned Space Flight" (presented to USC Symposium on the 75th anniversary of the University and 59th Anniversary of the Engineering Dept, Apr 1955)

"Engineering the Reality of Lunar Industrialization" (presented to CSU Northridge School of Engineering and Computer Science Colloqium, 24 Feb 1983)

"Erde und Raum als Integrale Aktionsumwelt des Menschen" (no date)

Error Analysis of Keplerian Flights Involving a Single Central Force Field and Transfer Between Two Central Force Fields Spacecraft Orbits -- (Convair report AZM-7-551; 17 Jan 1958)

"Error Analysis of Single and Two-Force Field Spacecraft Orbits" (Ehricke; presented to Franklin Institute Lecture Series on Space Flight, Mar 1958; Convair report AZM-054, 22 Sep 1958)

"Evolution of Interstellar Operations" (presented to AAS Joint National Meeting, Denver, Colorado, 17-20 Jun 1969; NR report SD69-420, Jun 1969)

"Evolution of Space Flight" (no date)

Evolution of the Space Ship -- (not published)

"Ex Mens[is] – 1: On the Integrated Plan" (15 Feb 1970)

"Ex Mens[is] – 2: Perspective" (no date)

Excerpts of Chapter 7 "Low Thrust Space Flight" of -- Space Flight, Vol. II "Dynamics" -- (Convair report KE62/1, no date)

Exoindustrial Productivity – The Extraterrestrial Imperative of Our Time -- (report E75-5-1, May 1975)

"Exoindustrialization as a System" (no date)

Exoindustry: A Macro-System Analysis -- (report E76-1-1, Jan 1976)

Exploration of the Solar System -- (with Betty A. Miller; published as -- Exploring the Planets -- (Learning Corp, 1969))

"Exploration of the Solar System and Interstellar Space" (presented to 2nd International Conference on Planetology and Space Mission Planning, NY Academy of Science, 26-27 Oct 1967; NR report X7-3215/060)

Exploration of the Solar System and Interstellar Space -- (with Elizabeth A. Miller, 1971 [not published])

Exploring the Planets -- (with Betty A. Miller; (Learning Corp, 1969); originally titled -- Exploration of the Solar System -- )

"Extraterrestrial Contamination, Pollution and Waste Disposal" (published as "Space Dumping – Extra-terrestrial Contamination, Pollution and Waste Disposal" in -- The Environment This Month -- 1 no.1 (Jul 1972) : 36-45)

"Extraterrestrial Imperative" (published as "The Extraterrestrial Imperative – Grow and Live", NY -- Times -- , 23 May 1972)

Extraterrestrial Imperative (The) -- (with Elizabeth A. Miller, 1971 (first version), not published)

Extraterrestrial Imperative (The) -- (with Elizabeth Miller, 1974 (second version), not published)

Extraterrestrial Imperative (The), Part I – Evolutionary Logic -- (SG report SG1078-1, Oct 1978)

"Extraterrestrial Imperative (The), Part II – Productive Earth Orbits – New Partnership Through Pressures and Promise" ( -- JBIS -- 32 no.11 (November 1979) : 410-418)

"Extraterrestrial Imperative (The), Part III – New Earth-Space Energy Metabolism, I – Energy Demand Model, Near-Term Space Assist, Space Disposal of Nuclear Waste" ( -- JBIS -- 33 no.11 (November 1983) : 379-390; SG report SG779-1, Jul 1979)

Extraterrestrial Imperative (The), Part IV – Evolution II -- (SG report SG-OW-9ET-4-182, Jan 1982)

"Extraterrestrial Imperative (The)" ( -- Air University Review -- 29 no.2 (Jan-Feb 1978) : 2-20)

"Extraterrestrial Imperative (The)" ( -- Futures -- 13 no.2 (Apr 1981) : 107-114; originally titled "The Extraterrestrial Imperative – Evolutionary Perspective and a Cosmopolitan Strategy")

"Extraterrestrial Imperative (The)" ( -- Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists -- 27 no.9 (Nov 1971) : 18-26; reprinted in -- New Worlds -- 2 no.2 (Feb 1972) : 12-23)

"Extraterrestrial Imperative (The) – Evolutionary Logic and Realistic Promise" (SG report SG678-1; submitted to -- Smithsonian -- , circa 1978)

"Extraterrestrial Imperative (The) – Evolutionary Perspective and a Cosmopolitan Strategy" (published as "The Extraterrestrial Imperative", -- Futures -- 13 no.2 (Apr 1981) : 107-114)

"Extraterrestrial Imperative (The) – Grow and Live" (NY -- Times -- , 23 Mar 1972)

"Extraterrestrial Imperative – Road Into the Future" (presented to SYNCON '72, 17-21 May 1972; NR report SD72 SA-0120, Jun 1972)

"Extraterrestrial Imperative (The) – The Logic of Social and Realistic Promise" (CSU Northridge extension course SOC X496G/X896G, 30 Jan-14 May 1980)

"Extraterrestrial Imperative (The): Why Mankind Must Colonize Space" ( -- Fusion -- (English language edition) 5 no.6 (Dec 1982) : 18-24)

"Extraterrestrial Imperative and Lunar Development" (originally presented to NASA Symposium, Lunar Bases and Space Activities of the 21st Century, 29-31 Oct 1984 as "Lunar Industrialization and Settlement – Birth of Polyglobal Civilization")

"Extraterrestrial Imperatives" (presented to Future Oriented Activities in the United Nations, 30 Nov 1972)

"Extraterrestrial Industry – A Challenge to Growth Limitation" (Jun 1972)

"Extraterrestrial Industry – A Challenge to Growth Limitation" (presented to The Conference Board, The Essential Resources Conference, 16 Apr 1973; NR report SD 73-SH-0134, Apr 1973)

"Extraterrestrial Nuclear Mining" (no date)

"Fast Flight Profiles for Manned Helionautical Missions" (presented to 4th International Symposium on Bioastronautics and the Exploration of Space, 24-27 Jun 1968, San Antonio, TX))

"Flight Profiles and Navigation of Interorbital Transports in Geolunar Space" (presented to ION National Space Meeting, 23-25 Feb 1971; NR report SD71-475, Mar 1971)

"For a Synergistic Space Program – Excerpts from Material Presented to the Advanced Aerospace Projects Office, NASA Langley Research Center, on July 16, 1970" (16 Jul 1970)

Forward to -- Into the Unknown -- (Don Dwiggins; San Carlos (CA): Golden Gate Junior Books, 1971)

Foundations of Interplanetary Flight -- (unpublished textbook, no date)

"Four Objectives – The Fundamental Principles of Our Commitment to Space" (5 Jul 1970; published as "Our Commitment to Space", -- Spaceflight -- 13 no.3 (Mar 1971) : 82)

"From Closed to Open World" (presented to NASA Study Group on "Outlook for Space", 23-24 Oct 1974)

From Dust to Stars: The Evolution of Space Flight -- (with Elizabeth Miller and J. Sentovic, 1967)

"Further Analyses of the Slide Lander and of Drop Delivery Systems for Improved Lunar Surface Access" (IAF paper IAA-82-216; presented IAF 33rd International Astronautical Congress, 12th International Symposium on Space Economics and Benefits: Socio-Economics Benefits of Space Operations, 27 Sep-3 Oct 1982)

"Further Comments on the Power Relay Satellite Concept" (Jan 1974)

"Future in Space" (presented to Air Command and Staff College, Maxwell AFB, AL, 18 May 1972)

Future of Space Industry (The) -- (Moscow: Mashinostroenie, 1979) [Будущее Космической Индустрии (Москва: Машиностроение, 1979)]

"Geolunar Industrial Transportation for Low Propellant Expenditure with New Energy Management Concepts for Lunar Access, Part I" (IAF paper 79-120, presented to IAF 30th International Astronautical Congress 16-22 Sep 1979; SG report SG779-1, Jul 1979)

Geospace Development – Presentation to C. W. Mathews, Deputy Associate Administrator, Office of Manned Space Flight, NASA Headquarters, Washington, DC -- (NR report PD70-24; Mar 1970)

"Good Heavens, Santa!" (television script with Leon Leonidoff and Elizabeth A. Miller, 20 Jul 1978)

"Government, Industry and Research Responses to Space Exploration" (presented to ARDC 7th Annual Science and Engineering Symposium, 29-30 Nov 1960)

Guidance and Navigation Approach to Lifting Reentry Vehicle Missions -- (NA report T6-2580/060, Oct 1966)

"Habeus Extraterrestrium – Kultur und Technik im gesetz Jenseits der Erde" (no date)

Hard and Soft Power Relay Satellite Systems – Technical, Financial and Development-Related Aspects of Beamed Power Transmission Over Great Distances -- (SG reprint SG879-2R, Aug 1979; reprint of -- Technical, Financial and Development-Related Aspects of Beamed Power Transmission Systems Using a Power Relay Satellite (PRS) -- ; report E74-12-1, Dec 1974)

"Harenodynamic Cooling: The Use of Lunar Sand as a Cooling Medium" (published in -- Acta Astronautica -- 11 no.6 (Jun 1984) : 319-325)

"Helionautics in the Year 2000" (no date)

Helionauts (The) -- (proposed TV series, circa 1966; also titled -- The Infinauts -- )

"Heritage of Apollo – Presentation to the Town Hall of California (The)" (report E74-7-1, 16 Jul 1974)

"How Do We Get There From Here?" (presented to Los Angeles Council of Engineers and Scientists [LACES], 3 Apr 1975)

"I Can Get Us There by 1966" ( -- Space World -- 1 no.2 (Jul 1960) : 16-19, 48-49)

"Identification of Manned Space Activities Beyond Apollo at Modest Orbital Work, Attractive to Scientific Community" (n.d)

"In-Depth Exploration of the Solar System and Its Utilization for the Benefit of Earth" (presented to 3rd Conference on Planetology and Space Mission Planning, New York Academy of Sciences, 28-29 Oct 1970; NR report SD 71-290, Jan 1971)

"Industrial Productivity as a New Overarching Goal of Space Development" (Oct 1975)

"Industrialisierung des Mondes (Die) – Der erste Schritt in eine Neue Offene Welt" ( -- Fusion -- (German language edition) 3 no.2 (Mar 1982) : 38-51 and -- Fusion -- (German language edition) 3 no.3 (May 1982) : 40-50)

"Industrialization of Space" (presented to the Wisconsin American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Milwaukee, WI, 28 Apr 1978)

"Industrializing the Moon – The First Step into a New Open World" ( -- Fusion -- (English language edition) 5 no.2 (Dec 1981) : 21-31 and -- Fusion -- (English language edition) 6 no.1 (May-Jun 1984) : 46-55)

"Industrielle Evolution und Revolution im Geolunaren Raum 1980-2010" (presented to 21 Raumfahrt-tagung der HOG, Garmisch-Partenkirchen, 28 Sep-1 Oct 1972; NR report SD72-0173, Sep 1972)

Infinauts (The) -- (proposed TV series, circa 1966; originally titled -- The Helionauts -- )

"Instrumented Comets – Astroanutics of Solar and Planetary Probes" (ARS paper 493-57; presented to IAF 8th International Astronautical Congress, 6-12 Oct 1957)

Integrated Geolunar Transportation and Occupation System Using Space Station Modules in Highly Eccentric Orbits -- (report KAE-4, 18 Nov 1969)

"Interplanetary Maneuvers in Manned Helionautical Missions" (AIAA paper 65-695; presented to the AIAA/ION Astrodynamics Specialist Conference, 16-17 Sep 1965; reprinted in -- Progress in Astronautics -- , Vol. 17, -- Methods in Astrodynamics and Celestial Mechanics -- (NY: Academic Press, 1966))

Interplanetary Mission Profiles -- (GDC report AZM-023, 30 Apr 1958)

Interplanetary Mission Profiles – Pt. II -- (report KE60/2, 1 Dec 1960; published as part of -- Space Flight -- , Vol. II – -- Dynamics -- )

"Interplanetary Probes: Three Problems" ( -- Astronautics -- , Jan 1959 : 20-22, 42, 44, 46)

"Ion Propulsion" ( -- McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology -- , vol. 7 (NY: McGraw-Hill, 3rd Ed., 1971))

Ion Propulsion System for Orbital Stabilization of Satellites, Especially of Several Satellites in Closely Similar Orbits (Pt. 1) -- (Convair report ASM-2, 13 Sep 1957)

Kraftsoletta – Eine Industrie-Sonne für Europa -- (SG report SG1177-1, Nov 1977)

"Künstliche Kometen – Eine Analyse der Enforschüng der Interplanetaren Raums mit hyperbolischen Sonden" (no date)

"Large Scale Processing of Lunar Material" (presented to LSI 7th Lunar Science Conference "Utilization of Lunar Materials and Expertise for Large Scale Operations in Space", 15-19 Mar 1976; report E76-3-1, Mar 1976)

Light and Shadow Distribution in a Circular Satellite Orbit with and without Precession -- (Convair report ZP-7-019; 3 Nov 1953)

"Long-Range Perspective and Some Fundamental Aspects of Interstellar Evolution (A)" (Apr 1975; published in -- JBIS -- 28, no.11 (Nov 1975); report E75-6-1, Jun 1975)

"Low Cost Commercial Space Traffic Operations and the Swing Station" (presented to IAF 24th International Astronautical Congress, 7-13 Oct 1973; report E73-10-2, Oct 1973; published in -- Raumfahrtforschung -- 18 no.4 (Jul/Aug 1974) : 173-182)

"Lunar Atmospheric Research by Lunar Satellite and the Landing of Lunar Probes Within Pressurized Structures" (circa 1960)

"Lunar Bases – Complexes for Exploration and Colonization of the Moon" (with Betty Ann Miller, pp.1380-1391 of unidentified publication)

"Lunar Industrialization and Settlement – Birth of Polyglobal Civilization" (presented to NASA Symposium, Lunar Bases and Space Activities of the 21st Century, 29-31 Oct 1984; later retitled "Extraterrestrial Imperative and Lunar Development")

"Lunar Industries and Their Value for the Human Environment on Earth" (presented to IAF 23rd International Astronautical Congress, 8-15 Oct 1972; NR report SD72-SA-0176, Sep 1972; published in -- Acta Astronautica -- 1 no. 5 (May 1974): 585-622)

"Lunar Settlements and Their Value for the Human Environment on Earth" ( -- Acta Astronautica -- 1, no.5-6 (May-Jun 1974) : 585-622; originally titled "Permanent Lunar Settlements and Their Value for the Human Environment on Earth")

"Lunetta System Analysis" (IAF paper 80-A-11: presented at IAF 31st International Astronautic Congress, Symposium on Space and Engery; possibly SG report SG-OW-21-182)

"Magnetogas Dynamics" ( -- McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology -- , vol. 8 (NY: McGraw-Hill, 3rd Ed., 1971))

Magnificent Heritage – Missions to New Worlds and the New Solar System (The) -- (documentary; with Elizabeth Miller, Jul 1970)

"Man Can Use Interstellar Space" (Los Angeles -- Times -- , 28 Jun 1972)

"Man, Resources and Planets" (presented to IAF 19th International Astronautical Congress, 13-19 Oct 1968; NR report X8-2233/060)

"Maneuvers and Navigation in Manned Helionautics" (presented to ION National Space Meeting, 23-25 Feb 1971; NR report SD 71-474, Mar 1971)

"Manned Orbital and Lunar Space Vehicles" (presented to 2nd International Symposium on the Physics and Medicine of the Atmosphere and Space, 10-12 Nov 1958; Convair report AZM-059, 25 Nov 1958; reprinted in Southwest Research Institute, -- The Physics and Medicine of the Atmosphere and Space -- (John Wiley, 1960))

"Manned Planetary Spacecraft Commonality with Space Station" (with A. L. Jones; presented to AAS 16th Annual Meeting, 8-10 Jun 1970; NR report SD70-342, Jun 1970)

Manned Space Service Program -- (report KAE-16, Nov 1968)

"Manned Spaceflight in the Seventies, Part I – Alternatives for Manned Spaceflight in the Seventies" (Jan 1971)

"Manned Versus Unmanned Spaceflight" (Oct 1968)

"Material on Space Industrialization Presented to J. T. Murphy, NASA-MSFC, 31 Aug 1976"

"Mehr Mut, die Brücke in eine große Zukunft zu betreten" ( -- Die Welt -- no.304, 31 Dec 1982)

"Mensch, Umwelt, Technik und wachstum – Dem 'Klub von Rom' zum Zehnten ins Stammbuch" (no date)

"Metaprobe – A Concept for Regional Exploration of the Solar System and a Means to Develop International Teamwork in Space Research" (presented to IAF 19th International Astronautical Congress (Oct 13-19, 1968). NR report X-2209/060; originally presented to 5th AIAA Annual Meeting, 21-25 Oct 1968 as "Metaprobe – A Tool for the Synoptic Exploration of Space", NR report X-2291/060)

"Metaprobe – A Tool for the Synoptic Exploration of Space" (presented to 5th AIAA Annual Meeting, 21-25 Oct 1968; NR report X-2291/060; also presented to IAF 19th International Astronautical Congress (Oct 13-19, 1968) as "Metaprobe – A Concept for Regional Exploration of the Solar System and a Means to Develop International Teamwork in Space Research" (NR report X-2209/060))

"Method of High-Speed Spacecraft Ejection from the Solar System (A)" (published as "Saturn-Jupiter Rebound – A Method of High-Speed Spacecraft Ejection from the Solar System", -- JBIS -- 25 no.10 (Oct 1972) : 561-571)

"Method of Using Small Orbital Carriers for Establishing Satellites" (ARS paper 69-52, Dec 1952)

Methodology of Mission and Systems Synthesis of Manned Planetary Flights with Particular Emphasis on Venus and Mars as Target Planets -- (GD report AOK-63-019, 1 Jul 1963)

"Methods of Minimizing Shuttle-Based High- and Low-Thrust Transportation Costs to Geosynchronous Orbit" (IAF paper A74-03; presented to IAF 25th International Astronautical Congress, 30 Sep-5 Oct 1974)

"Mission Analysis of Fast Manned Flights to Venus and Mars" (presented to Interplanetary Mission Conference, AAS 9th Meeting, 15-17 Jan 1963)

Mission Map Parameters: Hyperbolic Excess Velocity, Inclination, Path Angle, Perihelion Distance, and Tranfer Angle, Vol. II – Earth-Mars-Earth 1972-1985 -- (GD report AOK63-0005, 20 Jan 1963)

"Missions Between Planets and to Selected Asteroids of this Solar System, Covering the Period of 1973 to 2000" (presented to AIAA National Meeting, Washington, DC, 28 Jun-2 Jul 1964)

"Morphological Analysis and Comparison of Nuclear Pulse Drive Mechanization Concepts" (presented to AIAA 5th Joint Propulsion Specialist Conference, 9-13 Jun 1969)

"New Cosmos and Homo Extraterrestris (The)" (delivered to AIAA Symposium: "Our Extraterrestrial Heritage – from UFOs to Space Colonies", 28 Jan 1978)

"New Growth in an Open World at the Threshold of the First Cosmopolitan Millenium – Collected Works of K. A. Ehricke, 1939 through 1980" (introduction to SG "OpenWorld" document series)

"New Growth in an Open World: Evolutionary Perspective and a Cosmopolitan Strategy" (IAF paper IAA-81-234, Aug 1981; presented to IAF 32rd International Astronautical Congress, 11th International Symposium on Space Economics and Benefits II, 6-12 Sep 1981)

"New Supply System for Satellite Orbits (A) – Part 1" ( -- Jet Propulsion -- 24 No.5 (Sep-Oct 1954) : 302-309)

"New Supply System for Satellite Orbits (A) – Part 2" ( -- Jet Propulsion -- 24 No.6 (Nov-Dec 1954) : 369-373)

"Nexus – Concept of a Large Reusable Earth Launch Vehicle (with Freeman D'Vincent; presented at AIAA Summer Meeting, 17-20 Jun 1963; GDA report 63-0065; AIAA paper 63-277)

"Nexus Concept (The)" (with Freeman D'Vincent; -- Astronautics and Aerospace -- 2 no.1 (Jan 1964))

Non-relativistic Interstellar Mission Performance Analysis to Alpha Centauri -- (report KAE-19, circa 1971)

"Notwendigkeit der Weltraumfahrt (Die) – Der Extraterrestrischel Imperativ" (published in -- Fusion -- (German language edition) 4 no.4 (Fall 1983) : 29-41)

"Offene Neue Welt" (no date)

Omni -- Interview ( -- Omni -- 3 no.12 (Sep 1981) : 87-91, 124)

"On Bounding the Problem of Growth" (17 Jul 1972)

"On the Application of Solar Power in Space Flight" (presented to IAF 7th International Astronautical Congress, 17-22 Sep 1956)

"On the Commercial Satellite Project" (no date)

"On the Descent of Winged Orbital Vehicles" ( -- Astronautica Acta -- 1, fasc.3 (1955))

"On the Mechanics of Descent to a Celestial Body" (presented to ARS Annual Meeting, Dec 1954; -- Journal of Astronautics -- 2 no.4 (Winter 1955) : 137-144)

"On the Need for New Launch Vehicles" (session paper for "Do We Need New Propulsion Systems (Post Saturn) for Lunar and Planetary Flight?", panel for AIAA Annual Meeting, 29 Nov-2 Dec 1966 (chaired by Ehricke); NA report X7-158/060)

"On Space Dynamics at Moderately Low Accelerations" (no date)

"Ӧppen värld med obegränsad tillväxt (En)" ( -- Energi and Utveckling -- , no date, 50-58)

"Orbit Change at Moderate Infra G Acceleration" (no date)

"Our Commitment to Space" ( -- Spaceflight -- 13 no.3 (Mar 1971) : 82; originally titled "Four Objectives – The Fundamental Principles of Our Commitment to Space" (5 Jul 1970))

"Our Philosophy of Space Missions", ( -- Aero/Space Engineering -- 17 no.5 (May 1958) : 38-43; originally titled "Philosophy of Our Space Mission")

"Out There ... Why Not?" (no date)

"Outer Atmosphere Research Program" (Jan 1954)

"Outlook for Space 1980-2000" (6 Sep 1974)

"Outlook for Space, Economy of Infinity aned Economy of Durability" (extract from -- Extraterrestrial Industy - A Challenge to Growth Limitations -- , Proceedings of the Essential Resources Conference, The Conference Board)

Parametric Mission Analysis -- (GDA report AOK 63-024, 30 Aug 1963)

"Passive Power Relay Satellite (The) – Concept and Appraisal of Extraterrestrial Means to Contribute to Overcoming the Energy Confrontation" (circa 1974)

"Passive Power Relay Satellites for Global Energy Distribution" (presented to 10th Annual Space Congress, 11-13 Apr 1973; RI report SD73-SA-0016, Feb 1973)

"Peenemünde: The Coming of the Future" (CSULB-Nova; Ehricke interviewed for program; possibly aired as "Hitler's Secret Weapon", -- NOVA -- , 5 Jan 77)

"Peenemuende Rocket Center" (3 Jan 1950)

"Permanent Lunar Settlements and Their Value for the Human Environment on Earth" (published as "Lunar Settlements and Their Value for the Human Environment on Earth"; -- Acta Astronautica -- 1 no.5-6 (May-Jun 1974) : 585-622)

"Perspective and Systems Engineering of Manned Planetary Flight" (presented to AAS 16th Annual Meeting, 8-10 Jun 1970; NR report SD70-339, Jun 1970)

"Pesticides, Fungicides, Oxides of Nitrogen = Recognized Environmental Hazards" (no date)

Philosophy and Outline of Long-Range Space Planning for the Needs of This Nation and Mankind -- (NR report PD71-16; Jul 1971)

"Philosophy of Our Space Mission" (published as "Our Philosophy of Space Missions", -- Aero/Space Engineering -- 17 no.5 (May 1958) : 38-43)

"Planning Space Stations for Long Range Utilization" (presented to Short Course in Space Station Utilization, University of Tennessee, Tullahoma, Mar 1971; NR report SD 71-473, Mar 1971)

"Planning Space Stations for Long Range Utilization of Space for Earthians" (presented to von Karman Institute for Fluid Dynamics, Brussels, during the Short Course on Space Station Technology and Utilization, Sep 1971; NR report SD 71-562, Sep 1971)

Pollution of the Future (The) -- (SG report SG879-1, Aug 1978)

Post-Nova Launch Vehicles, Intermediate Report No.1, Advanced Concepts, Extraterrestrial Operation Models and Launch Vehicle Requirements -- (GDA report AOK62-0005, 5 Sep 1962)

Post-Nova Launch Vehicles, Intermediate Report No.2, Extraterrestrial Options, Concept Selections and Schedule (GDA report AOK62-0012, 13 Nov 1962)

Power Relay Satellite (The) – A Means of Global Distribution of Electricity from Large Remotely Located Energy Factories Processing Solar, Nuclear or Other Sources of Primary Energy -- (report E74-11-1, Nov 1974)

Power Relay Satellite (The) – A Means of Global Energy Transmission Through Space, Part I: Technology, Operation, Performance and Economics of the Power Relay System -- (report E74-3-1, Mar 1973)

Power Relay Satellite (The) – A Means of Global Energy Transmission Through Space, Part II: The Power Relay Satellite Concept in the Framework of the Overall Energy Picture and Complete Terrestrial Energy Systems -- (report E74-6-1, Jun 1974)

"Power Relay Satellite (The) – A Means of World Electrification through Space Transmission" (Aug 1973; presented to IAF 24th International Astronautical Congress, Symposium on Cost Reduction in Space Operations, 7-13 Oct 1973)

"Power Relay Satellite (The) – Problem Areas" (circa Jan 1974)

Power Relay Satellite (PRS) Concept in the Framework of the Overall Energy Picture (The) -- (report E73-12-1, Dec 1973)

"Powered Ascension Path of Satellite Vehicles" (no date)

"Powered Flight Without Atmosphere" (published as Chapter 6.1 of -- Handbook of Astronautical Engineering -- (H.H. Koelle, ed, McGraw-Hll, 1961); Convair report AE61-0199, 19 Mar 1961)

"Powered Flyby" (no date)

"Practical Approach to the Disposal of Highly Toxic and Long-Lived Spent Nuclear Fuel Waste Between Venus and Earth (A)" (presented to 10th International Symposium on Space Economics and Benefits II: Socio-Economic Benefits of Space Operations, 31st International Astronautical Congress, 22-27 Sep 1980; published in -- Acta Astronautica -- 10 no.11 (Nov 1983))

"Producing Advanced Fusion Fuel on the Moon" ( -- Fusion -- (English language ed.), Sep 1982)

"Profitability of Manufacturing in Space in View of Lunar Industrial Development and Geo-Socio-Economic Benefit" (presented to ASME Winter Meeting – Manufacturing in Space, Boston 17-18 Nov 1983; published in L. Kops, Ed. -- Manufacturing in Space -- [PED Vol.11] (NY: ASME, 1983), pp.183-198)

Programmatic Comparison of Initial Manned Missions to Venus and Mars (A) -- (GDA report AOK 63-031, 16 Oct 1963)

"Project Orbital Carrier" (1st edition, May 1952)

"Project Orbital Carrier" (2nd edition, Aug 1952)

"Propellant for Booster of a Two-Stage Missile" (PGAF Memorandum #3, 1 Feb 1949)

"Propulsion System for Fast Manned Reconnaissance Flights to Mars and Venus" (presented to IAS National Flight Propulsion Meeting, 6 Mar 1959; Convair report AZM-068)

"Propulsion Systems Comparison and Evaluations for Space Missions" (published as Chapter 18 of -- Jet, Rocket, Nuclear, Ion, and Electric Propulsion – Theory and Design -- , W. H. T. Loh, ed. (Springer-Verlag, 1968); NA report X7-626/060, Mar 1967)

"Raumfahrtsziele und Weltraumtechnik von Morgen" (presented at Industry Fair, Hannover, 26-27 Apr 1971; published in -- Astronautik -- 8 no.3/4 (Aug-Dec 1971) : 95-109; -- Technische Möglichkeiten von Morgen III -- (Düsseldorf and Vienna: Econ Verlag, 1971); -- Junkers Nachrichten -- 14 no.2 (Mar-Apr 1972) : 3-5; no.3 (May-Jun 1972) : 5-7; no.4 (Jul-Aug 1972) : 4-6; no.5 (Sep-Oct 1972) : 4-6; no.6 (Nov-Dec 1972) : 4-6)

Re-entry Characteristics of Recoverable Spherical Satellites, Satelloids and Lunar Vehicles -- (Convair report AZP 001, 25 Jun 1957)

"Re-entry of Spherical Bodies Into the Atmosphere at Very High Speeds" (presented to ARS 12th Annual Meeting, Dec 1957)

"Regional and Global Energy Transfer Via Passive Power Relay Satellites" (presented to 10th Annual Space Congress, 11-13 Apr 1973; RI report SD73-SH-0117, Apr 1973)

"Regional Power Distribution Via Power Relay Satellite" (presented to 1st Greater Los Angeles Area Energy Symposium, 3 Apr 1975)

"Rescue from Space by a Secondary Vehicle" (presented to 2nd International Symposium on the Physics and Medicine of the Atmosphere and Space, 10-12 Nov 1958)

"Response to Questions by the Subcommittee on Energy (Congressman Mike McCormack, Chairman) and the Subcommittee on Space Science and Applications (Congressman James W. Symington, Chairman) Following Testimony Before Both Subcommittees on 24 May 1973" (23 Jul 1973)

"Restricted 3-Body Systems Flight Mechanics in Cislunar Space and the Effect of Solar Perturbation" (presented to American Mathematical Society for Orbit Symposium, January 1957; Convair report AZM-013, Mar 1957)

"Review and Evaluation of Solar Central Power Stations for Use in the U.S., Mideast and Japan and Associated Solar Engineering Business Development (A)" (19 Jul 1974)

"Review of Important Aspects Concerning the Use of Power Relay Satellite for Icelandic Energy Export by Means of Beamed Microwave Transmission (A)" (no date)

Review of Future Space Applications for House Science and Astronautics Committee -- (RI report SSV74-41; 25 Sep 1974)

"Role of the Army in Space" (presented to Association of the United States Army "Rockwell Night", 24 Feb 1970)

"Safety Aspects in Planning Manned Interplanetary Missions" (submitted to AIAA 4th Annual Meeting, 1967)

"Satellite Orbits for Interplanetary Flight" ( -- Jet Propulsion -- 24, No. 6 (Nov-Dec 1954): 381)

"Satelliten zur irdischen Energie-Übertragung Technische und sozio-ökonomische Untersuchungen" (presented at HOG 23rd Raumfahrtkongreß, Jun 1974; published in -- Astronautik -- 12 no.2 (1975) : 19-25)

"Satelloid (The)" (presented to IAF 6th International Astronautical Congress, Copenhagen, 1-6 Aug 1955; -- Astronautica Acta -- 2 no.2 (1956) : 63-100)

"Saturn-Jupiter Rebound – A Method of High-Speed Spacecraft Ejection from the Solar System" (originally titled "A Method of High-Speed Spacecraft Ejection from the Solar System", -- JBIS -- 25 no.10 (Oct 1972) : 561-571)

"Science Policy and the Extraterrestrial Imperative" (adapted and exerpted from -- Extraterrestrial Imperative -- (1971); presented to Congressman G. P. Miller, Chairman, Committee on Science and Astroanutics, US House of Representatives, Feb 1972; later identified as report KE72-1-1, Jan 1972)

Selection of Promising Initial Planetary Missions and Mission Modes -- (GDA report ASO 63/24, 18 Sep 1963)

"Shuttle and Apollo – The Nature of their Differences" (circa 1971)

Shuttle Station as Element of Low-Cost Geospace Transportation to Geosynchronous Orbit, Interlinking with Earth-Space Shuttle -- (NR report PD70-24, Feb 1970)

"Sidereal Civilization" (no date)

Siebente Kontinent (Der) – Die Industri Alisierung und Besiedlung des Mondes -- (Müchen: Thiemig Verlag, 1984)

"Significance of Earth-To-Low-Orbit Shuttle for the Cost Effectiveness of Space Operations (The)" (presented to IAF 22nd International Astronautical Congress, 20-24 Sep 1971; NR report SD 71-780, Sep 1971; published in -- Raumfahrtforschung -- 16 no.2 (Mar/Apr 1972) : 65-77)

"Social Relevance" ( -- Skyline -- 30 no.2 (1972) : 50-55)

"Socio-Economic Determinants of a Program for Lunar Industrialization In Support of Space Light Development Lunetta and Soletta" (IAF paper IAF-A-77-66; presented to the Seventh Symposium on Cost Effectiveness in Space Operations, at the IAF 28th International Astronautical Congress, 25 Sep-1 Oct 1977)

"Socio-Economic Evaluation of the Lunar Environment and Resources (A) – I. Principles and Overall System Strategy" (IAF paper 78-A-40; presented to the Symposium on Space Economics and Benefits, IAF 29th International Astronautical Congress, Dubrovnik, Yugoslavia, 1-8 Oct 1978; published in -- Acta Astronautica -- 8 no.11-12 (Nov-Dec 1981) : 1389-1433; SG report SG778-1, Jul 1978)

"Socio-Economic Evaluation of the Lunar Environment and Resources (A) – II. Energy for the Selenosphere" (IAF paper 79-A-16, presented to IAF 30th International Astronautical Congress, Symposium on Space Economics and Benefits); published in -- Acta Astronautica -- 8 no.11-12 (Nov-Dec 1981) : 1407-1433; SG report SG779-3, Jul 1979)

"Socio-Economic Evaluation of the Lunar Environment and Resources (A) – III. Selenospheric Economics and Cislunar/Terrestrial Market Analysis" (IAF paper IAA-82-235; presented IAF 33rd International Astronautical Congress, 27 Sep-3 Oct 1982,12th International Symposium on Space Economics and Benefits: Socio-Economics Benefits of Space Operations; published in -- Acta Astronautica -- 11 no.2 (Feb 1984)

"Solar Energy" ( -- McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology -- , vol. 12 (NY: McGraw-Hill, 3rd Ed., 1971))

Solar Option (The) – A Study -- (report E74-4-1, Apr 1974)

"Solar Power from Space" (circa 1973)

"Solar Power Module Concept and Data Summary" (no date)

"Solar Powered Space Ship (The)" (ARS paper 310-56; presented to ARS Semi-Annual Meeting, 18-20 Jun 1956

"Solar Transportation" (presented to AAS 4th Goddard Memorial Symposium, 15-16 Mar 1966; NA report X6 661/3061, Mar 1966 rev. May 1996)

"Some Basic Aspects of Operation in Cislunar and Lunar Space" (no date)

"Space" ( -- Young People's Science Encyclopedia -- (Edited by the Staff of the National College of Education, Chicago: Children's Press, 1970))

"Space – 1980" (circa 1970)

"Space and a World Society Under Law" (no date)

"Space and Energy Sources" (presented to the World Electrotechnical Congress, Moscow, USSR, June 21-25, 1977; RI report, May 1977)

"Space and Human Dividends" (no date)

"Space Applications for Earth-to-Low-Orbit Shuttle Vehicles" (presented as the University of Tennessee, Tullahoma Short Course in Reusable Launch and Re-Entry Vehicles for Space Flight, Oct 1970; and Von Karman Institute for Fluid Dynamics Lecture Series in the Technology of Space Shuttle Vehicles, Nov 1970; NR report SD70-637, Nov 1970)

"Space Applications for Low Cost Ferry Vehicles" (presented at the Space Institute of the University of Tennessee Tullahoma Short Course in Reusable Launch and Re-Entry Vehicles for Space Flight Technology and Applications, 18-22 Aug 1969; NR report SD70-66, Feb 1970)

"Space Dumping – Extra-terrestrial Contamination, Pollution and Waste Disposal" ( -- The Environment This Month -- 1 no.1 (Jul 1972) : 36-45; originally titled "Extraterrestrial Contamination, Pollution and Waste Disposal")

"Space Engineering" (no date)

Space Flight -- , Vol. I – -- Environment and Celestial Mechanics -- (Princeton: D Van Nostrand Co, 1960)

Space Flight -- , Vol. II – -- Dynamics -- (Princeton: D Van Nostrand Co, 1962)

Space Flight -- , Vol. III – -- Missions, Operations, Vehicles and Planning -- (not published)

"Space Industrial Productivity – New Options for the Future" (Jul 1975; presented to the Committee on Science and Technology and the Subcommittee on Space Science and Applications, Hearings on Future Space Flight, 22-30 Jul 1975)

"Space Industrialization – New Growth Through An Open World" (presented to AIAA 13th Annual Meeting; Jan 1977)

Space Industrialization – Statement to the Commitee on Science and Technology Hearing on Future Space Projects, US House of Representatives -- (SG report SG178-1, Jan 1978)

"Space Light: Space Industrial Enhancement of the Solar Option" (published in -- Acta Astronautica -- 6 no.12 (Dec 1979) : 1515-1633; SG report SG812-1, Feb 1981)

"Space Light – The Enhanced Solar Option" (published in -- Swann Oil Energy Digest -- 2 no.17 (24 Aug 1977); SG report SG777-1)

Space Light Illumination from Sun-Synchronous Orbits -- (SG report SG278-2, Feb 1978)

"Space Medicine" ( -- Young People's Science Encyclopedia -- (Edited by the Staff of the National College of Education, Chicago: Children's Press, 1970))

"Space Pilot" ( -- Young People's Science Encyclopedia -- (Edited by the Staff of the National College of Education, Chicago: Children's Press, 1970))

"Space Planning Methodology" (circa 1969)

Space Shuttle – The Timing is Right -- (RI report E73-4-1, Apr 1973)

"Space Shuttle and the Energy Crisis" (no date)

"Space Shuttle and the Power Crisis" (no date)

"Space Shuttle May Point the Way to Safe Disposal of Atomic Waste" (Huntsville -- Times -- , 30 Jun 1972)

"Space Station" ( -- Young People's Science Encyclopedia -- (Edited by the Staff of the National College of Education, Chicago: Children's Press, 1970))

Space Station Accessibility and Launch Complex Selection -- (Convair report KE-59/3, 15 Sep 1959)

Space Station Accessibility and Launch Complex Selection -- (Convair report KE-59/4, rev. 25 Feb 1960)

Space Station for Development and Orbital Flight Training -- (Convair report KE-59/2, 12 May 1959)

"Space Stations – Symbols and Tools of New Growth in an Open World" (keynote address to Session 1 (International Space Stations) of the International Space Hall of Fame Dedication Conference, 3-9 Oct 1976; RI report SD 76-SA-0200)

"Space Stations – Tools of New Growth in an Open World" (5th IAF Invited Lecture, presented to IAF 25th International Astronautical Congress, 30 Sep-5 Oct 1974; later report E74-9-1, Sep 1974)

Space Technology and Energy – Presentation to the Space Science and Applications and the Energy Subcommittee of the Committee of Science and Astronautics, US House of Representatives -- (RI report SD 73-SH-139, 24 May 1973)

Space Technology Course – "Interplanetary Operations" (UCLA course, Engineering X461, , 1958)

"Space Tourism" (AAS paper 67-127; presented to AAS 13th Annual Meeting, 1-3 May 1967)

"Space Transportation Lecture" (presented to 3rd Conference on Engineering for Executives, University of Texas; NA report BR6-802/3061, Mar 1966)

"Space Travel" -- (Young People's Science Encyclopedia -- (Edited by the Staff of the National College of Education, Chicago: Children's Press, 1970))

"Space Vehicles" (published as Chapter 24.1, "Advanced Launch and Carrier Vehicle", -- Handbook of Astronautical Engineering -- (H.H. Koelle, ed, McGraw-Hll, 1961))

"Space Vehicles" ( -- Young People's Science Encyclopedia -- (Edited by the Staff of the National College of Education, Chicago: Children's Press, 1970))

"Space Vehicles Prototypes" (published as Chapter 24.18, "Advanced Space Vehicle Prototypes", -- Handbook of Astronautical Engineering -- (H.H. Koelle, ed, McGraw-Hll, 1961)

"Spacecraft" (presented to 3rd Jet Age Conference, 26-28 Feb 1958; Convair report AZM-020, 25 Feb 1958)

"Spacecraft Propulsion" ( -- McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology -- , vol. 12 (NY: McGraw-Hill, 3rd Ed., 1971))

"Spacecraft Propulsion, Fusion Propulsion" ( -- McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology -- , vol. 12 (NY: McGraw-Hill, 3rd Ed., 1971))

"Spacecraft Propulsion, Nuclear Pulse Propulsion" ( -- McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology -- , vol. 12 (NY: McGraw-Hill, 3rd Ed., 1971))

"Spacelab – Model for International Teamwork" (presented to 12th Space Congress, 9-11 Apr 1975)

"Sprung In Die Unendlichkeit – Der Flug Des Pioneer Zum Jupiter" (circa 1974)

"STEPP, A Computerized System for Space Technology Evaluation and Program Planning" (no date)

"Statement of Krafft A. Ehricke , Chief Scientific Adviser to the Space Division of Rockwell International, Before the Committee on Aeronautical and Space Sciences, United States Senate" (RI report, 31 Oct 1973)

"Statement of Krafft A. Ehricke, Scientific Advisor, North American Space Operations, Rockwell International Corporation, before the Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs, United States Senate" (RI report, 27 Jun 1974)

"Statement of Krafft A. Ehricke , Space Division, Rockwell International, Before the Space Science and Applications and the Energy Subcommittees of the House Science and Astronautics Committee" (25 May 1973)

"Statement to Subcommittee on Science, Technology and Space; Commitee on Commerce, Science and Transportation, Symposium on the Future of Space, US Senate" (SG report SG278-1, Feb 1978)

"Statement to the Committee of Science and Astronautics, House of Representatives, Congress of the United States" [1973 NASA Authorization, 92nd Congress, Second Session] (Jan 1972)

"Strategic Approach to Interplanetary Flight (A)" (presented to 4th International Symposium on Bioastronautics and The Exploration of Space, 24-27 Jun 1968, San Antonio, TX; NR report X8-1689/060)

"Strategic Approach to the Development of Geolunar Space (A)" (presented to IAA Orbiting International Laboratory and Space Sciences Conference, Oct 1969; NR report SD69-710, Oct 1969)

Study of Interplanetary Missions -- (GDA report, circa Jan 1964)

Study of Interplanetary Missions to Mercury through Saturn with Emphasis on Manned Missions to Venus and Mars 1973/82 Involving Capture -- (GDA report GDA 63-0916, 30 Sep 1963)

Study of Interplanetary Vehicle Assembly Modes, Part I -- ( GDA report AOK 63-029, 23 Sep 1963)

"Summary of Fundamental Rules of Space Navigation" (published as part of -- Space Flight -- Vol. II, -- Dynamics -- ; Convair report KE61/2, 22 Sep 1961)

Summary of Preliminary Data on Earth-to-Orbit Vehicles -- (Convair report KE59/1, 4 May 1959)

"Sun-Synchronous Power Generation and Space Light Systems Lunetta/Soletta" (IAF paper 76-120; presented to session 15 of the IAF 27th International Astronautical Congress, 10-16 Oct 1976)

Sun-Synchronous Power Generation Satellite System (The) -- (report E76-1-2, Jan 1976)

"Sun, Wind, and Space (Testimony Before the Senate Interior Committee)" (no date)

"Synoptic Comparison of Advanced Propulsion Systems for Maneuvering Operations Associated with Several Employment Modes in Geolunar Space" (presented to 5th Symposium on Advanced Propulsion Concepts, 8-10 Apr 1968; NR report X8-1353/060, Apr 1968)

System Analysis of a New Concept for Low-Cost Transportation Involving Geosynchronous and Lunar Space -- (report KAE-8-1, no date)

"System Analysis of Fast Manned Flights to Venus and Mars – Part I: Mission Philosophy, Life Support, Scientific Reconnaissance and Prototype Vehicle Layout" (published in -- Transactions of the ASME – Journal of Engineering for Industry -- 83B no.1 (Feb 1961) : 1-12; Convair report AZM-072, 11 Mar 1959)

"System Analysis of Fast Manned Flights to Venus and Mars – Part II: Storage of Liquid and Solid Hydrogen on Nuclear Powered Interplanetary Vehicles" ( -- Transactions of the ASME - Journal of Engineering for Industry -- 83B no.1 (Feb 1961) : 13-28)

System Concepts for STS Derived Heavy Lift Launch Vehicles, Special Emphasis Task Decsription -- (circa Apr 1975)

Systems Integration, Mission-Performance Analysis, Vehicle Comparisons -- (with B. H. Ohman; GDA report AOK62-0010, 1 Dec 1962)

Technical, Financial and Development-Related Aspects of Beamed Power Transmission Systems Using a Power Relay Satellite (PRS) -- (report E74-12-1, Dec 1974; reprinted as -- Hard and Soft Power Relay Satellite Systems – Technical, Financial and Development-Related Aspects of Beamed Power Transmission Over Great Distances -- (SG reprint SG879-2R, Aug 1979))

"Technology and Economy of Extraterrestrial Industrialization (The)" (no date)

"Toward Aviation's New Infinities" (originally titled "Air Traffic in the Coming Space Age", -- Jet Tales -- 1/81)

"Toward a 3-Dimensional Civilization" (interview; -- Skyline -- 28 no.3 (Jul 1970))

"Ultraplanetary Probe (The)" (AAS paper AAS-71-164; presented to AAS 17th Annual Meeting, 28-30 Jun 1971; NA report SD 71-542)

"Und Wieder wind die Welt gerettel" ( -- Die Welt -- 106, 7 May 1983); review of Fritjof Capra, -- Wendezeit -- (Bern/Munich: Scherz Verlag, 1983), originally published as -- The Turning Point -- (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1982))

United Nations and the Power Relay Satellite as Element of Global Energy Development (The -- ) (report KE75-4-1, 5 Apr 1975)

"Use of Shuttle in Establishing Large Space Installations" (presented at American Association for the Advancement of Science 7th Annual Meeting, Dec 27-28, 1972; NR report SD 73-SA-0015, Jan 1973)

"Utilization of Space Environment for Therapeutical Purposes" (with B. D. Newsom; AAS paper 66-19; presented to AAS 12th Annual Meeting, 21-22 Feb 1966; NR report X6-1962/060, August 1966)

"Vision of Space: We Must Expand to Survive" (Don Barr interviews Ehricke; Los Angeles -- Herald Examiner -- , 9 Apr 1970)

"Wachsen in die Offene Welt" ( -- Die Welt -- no.89, 17 Apr 1982)

"Wachstum als überlebenschance des Modernen Menschen" (published as "Wie ist das eigentlich mit den Grenzen des Wachstums?", -- Geistige Welt -- 244, 18 Oct 1980)

"We Must Colonize the Planets" (Don Barr interviews Ehricke; Los Angeles -- Herald Examiner -- , 10 Apr 1970)

"Weltraum Technik als Mittel der Produktionssteigerung" (no date)

"Wie ist das eigentlich mit den Grenzen des Wachstums?" ( -- Geistige Welt -- 244, 18 Oct 1980; originally titled "Wachstum als überlebenschance des Modernen Menschen")

Wirtschaft, Weltall und Wachstum -- (with E. A. Miller, 1978)

"World Electrification through Space Transmission (WEST)" (Jan 1973)

Abbreviations

AAS -- American Astronautical Society

ABMA -- Army Ballistic Missile Agency

AFOSR -- Air Force Office of Scientific Research (USAF)

AFSC -- Air Force Systems Command (USAF)

AIAA -- American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics

ARS -- American Rocket Society

ASME -- American Society of Mechanical Engineers

AWST -- Aviation Week and Space Technology

CRS -- Congressional Research Service (Library of Congress)

GD -- General Dynamics

GD|FW -- General Dynamics, Fort Worth

GDA -- General Dynamics Astronautics

GDC -- General Dynamics Convair

GE -- General Electric

HOG -- Hermann Oberth Gesellschaft

IAF -- International Astronautical Federation

IAS -- Institute for Aeronautical Sciences

ION -- Institute of Navigation

JBIS -- Journal of the British Interplanetary Society

JPL -- Jet Propulsion Laboratory

LC -- Library of Congress

LLL -- Lawrence Livermore Laboratory

LSI -- Lunar Science Institute

MIT -- Massachusetts Institute of Technology

MSC -- Manned Spacecraft Center (NASA)

MSFC -- Marshall Space Flight Center (NASA)

NA -- North American Aviation

NAS -- National Academy of Sciences

NASA -- National Aeronautics and Space Administration

NIH -- National Institutes of Health

NR -- North American Rockwell (successor to NA)

ONERA -- Office National d'Études et de Recherches Aérospatiale (France)

ONRL -- Oak Ridge National Laboratory

PWA -- Pratt & Whitney Aircraft Corp

RI -- Rockwell International (successor to NR)

SAMSO -- Space and Missile Systems Organization (USAF)

SG -- Space Global Co

TUB -- Technische Universität Berlin

UAC -- United Aircraft Corp

UARL -- United Aircraft Research Laboratory
Provenance:
Ingeborg M. Ehricke, Gift, 2003
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Topic:
Rocket engines  Search this
V-2 rocket  Search this
Interplanetary voyages  Search this
Space stations  Search this
Centaur Rocket  Search this
Launch vehicles (Astronautics)  Search this
Space scientists  Search this
Space colonies  Search this
Space industrialization  Search this
Genre/Form:
Notes
Papers, technical
Audiotapes -- Open reel
Sketches
VHS (videotape format)
Photographic prints
Illustrations
Videotapes
Articles
Newspaper clippings
Citation:
Krafft A. Ehricke Papers, Accession 2003-0025, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.2003.0025
See more items in:
Krafft Arnold Ehricke Papers
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-2003-0025
Online Media:

Haeussermann, Walter

Collection Creator:
Neufeld, Michael J., 1951-  Search this
Extent:
2 cassette tapes
Container:
Box 1
Type:
Archival materials
Audio
Cassette tapes
Date:
1990-01-24
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Collection Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Collection Citation:
Peenemünde Interviews Project, Acc. 1999.0038, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Peenemünde Interviews Project
Peenemünde Interviews Project / Series 1: Cassettes
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-1999-0038-ref11
1 Page(s) matching your search term, top most relevant are shown: View entire project in transcription center
  • View Haeussermann, Walter digital asset number 1
Online Media:

V-2 rocket motors and test firings, U.S. Army Signal Corps, Near Lehesten, Germany

Collection Creator:
Porter, Richard W. (Richard William), 1913-1996  Search this
Container:
Box 13, Folder 8
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Date:
1945 June 22
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
See more items in:
Richard Porter Papers
Richard Porter Papers / Series 7: Photographs
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-1997-0037-ref155

Tinian Color Slides

Creator:
Staley, George E.  Search this
Names:
Bendix Aviation Corp  Search this
Tinian Island Airbase  Search this
United States. Army Air Forces. 509th Composite Group  Search this
Staley, George E.  Search this
Tibbets, Paul  Search this
Extent:
0.01 Cubic feet ((1 folder))
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Color slides
Date:
1945
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of the 22 color slides taken by Staley during his stay in Tinian. The images are of Tinian and units stationed there, including aircraft of the 509th Composite Group, the 6th Bomb Group, and the 504th Bomb Group. A few slides show 'Enola Gay' and her crew (with Colonel Paul Tibbets), and scenes of men celebrating the 'Enola Gay's' successful flight. Several slides show B-29 nose art and nicknames: 'Full House', 'The B.A. Bird', 'Doc's Deadly Dose', 'Cox's Army', 'The Ernie Pyle', 'The Herd of Bald Goats', 'The Spirit of Sammy', 'Snugglebunny', 'Earthquake McGoon', and 'Flak Alley'.
Biographical / Historical:
During World War II, George E. Staley worked for Bendix as a technical representative for their fuel injection system which was used in Boeing B-29 Superfortresses. In 1945 Staley was sent to Tinian for seven months, during which time the 'Enola Gay' made her historic flight.
General:
NASMrev
Provenance:
George E. Staley, Gift, 1996, 1996-0014, NASM
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Topic:
Airplanes, Military -- Decoration  Search this
Aeronautics, Military  Search this
Aeronautics  Search this
World War, 1939-1945 -- Campaigns -- Pacific Ocean  Search this
World War, 1939-1945 -- Aerial operations  Search this
World War, 1939-1945  Search this
Airplanes -- Motors  Search this
Airplanes  Search this
Lesbian and gay experience  Search this
Boeing B-29 Superfortress  Search this
Genre/Form:
Color slides
Identifier:
NASM.1996.0014
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-1996-0014
Online Media:

Carl Myers Balloon Farm Collection

Names:
United States. Army. Signal Corps  Search this
United States. Weather Bureau  Search this
Benbow, Thomas C.  Search this
Curtis, George E. (George Edward)  Search this
Hazen, Henry Allen, 1849-1900  Search this
Myers, Carl, 1842-1925  Search this
Myers, Mary, "Carlotta Queen of the Air"  Search this
Extent:
0.25 Cubic feet (1 slim legal document box)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Correspondence
Photographs
Place:
Carl Myers Balloon Farm
Date:
1889-1910
Summary:
Carl Myers (1842-1925) was a meteorologist, photographer and balloonist. In 1875, Myers and his wife Mary ("Carlotta, Queen of the Air") began experimenting with balloons and made their first ascensions in 1880. Myers constructed and flew a variety of balloons and airships, and worked on the following technical advances: he developed a varnishing machine for producing fabrics impervious to hydrogen gas; he produced a portable system for generating hydrogen gas; he patented an apparatus for guiding balloons; and he made the first balloon ascension using natural gas as the lifting medium. Myers manufactured balloons for the U.S. Weather Bureau's rainmaking experiments and also supplied the United States Army Signal Corps (USASC) with twenty-one balloons for use in Spanish American War. Myers retired in 1910.

The collection consists of 91 images of the following: balloons, airships, and aeronautical gear in various stages of construction and flight; interior and exterior views of the Carl Myers Balloon Farm; and a number of portraits taken of the family and visitors, including Thomas C. Benbow, a noted pioneering aeronaut. It also contains correspondence written by Myers to Professor Henry Allen (H.A.) Hazen, a meteorologist connected with the United States Signal Office, and one letter to George E. Curtis, head of the U.S. Weather Bureau.
Scope and Contents:
The Carl Myers Balloon Farm Collection spans the years 1889-1910 and contains photographs and documents produced at the property of that name in Frankfort, New York, owned and operated by Carl Myers. "Professor Myers" as he was called by the press in his day, was a pioneering aeronaut, inventor, and experimenter actively engaged in all aspects of ballooning during these years.

The bulk of the collection consists of ninety-one captioned photographs showing a variety of balloons, airships, and aeronautical gear in various stages of construction and flight. Also included in this material are several interior and exterior views of the main house known as the Gates Mansion (see note) along with a number of portraits, both individual and group, taken of the family and visitors - possibly including several of Thomas C. Benbow. The latter was another pioneering aeronaut who visited the Balloon Farm in 1903 in conjunction with the construction of an airship later identified in contemporary press accounts of the St. Louis Exposition of 1904 as the Benbow Airship "Meteor."

Other material in the Carl Myers Balloon Collection consist of correspondence composed between 1891 and 1894. Except for one unrelated item, all are copies of letters written by Myers to George E. Curtis, head of the U.S. Weather Bureau, Department of Agriculture, and Henry Allen Hazen, then Professor of Meteorology at the Weather Bureau. The contents of these letters contain proposals for, discussions about, and observations involving the use of balloons for meteorological research. Information documented in these letters includes material on balloon technology, economical aspects of ballooning, and the operational aspects of conducting aeronautical activities with balloons in the 1890s.

Detailed information on the life of Carl Myers can be found in the biographical files of the National Air and Space Museum's Archives Division. Additional correspondence between Myers and the Weather Bureau is purported to be located in the archives of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics. Materials concerning Henry Allen Hazen can be found in two locations: at the Manuscript Division, Library of Congress, listed under the Aeronautical Archives, Institute of the Aerospace Sciences, and at the Smithsonian Institution Archives under the Office of the Secretary, Records of the Smithsonian Institution.

Further information on Thomas Benbow and the Benbow "Meteor" (which the donor referred to as the "Montana Butterfly") can be located in the biographical files held at the National Air and Space Museum's Archives. Additional photographs of the Benbow Airship can be found in the Museum's photographic collection, images 2B 2166-2179.

NOTE: Gates Mansion - The main building at the Balloon Farm was located on Cemetery Hill Road in Frankfort, New York. It was a large mansion constructed by William Gates, the inventor of the sulfur safety match, in 1878 at a cost of $35,000. The property was sold to Carl Myers by Gates' son Fred.
Arrangement:
The Carl Myers Balloon Farm Collection is organized into two series.

Series 1: Photographic Images of the Carl Myers Balloon Farm (1889-1910); 91 images

Series 2: Correspondence (1891-1894); 20 items
Biographical/Historical note:
Charles Edgar Myers (1842 1925) was a meteorologist, photographer and balloonist. He grew up in the town of Mohawk, New York, becoming adept at the use of all types of electrical, chemical, and mechanical apparatus.

Myers started working in 1861 when he was hired as a teller by the Mohawk Valley Bank, a position which soon led to his interest in developing, and the subsequent invention of, a comparison system for identifying bogus bank notes. In 1863, at the solicitation of the Bank's officers, Myers established the town's first telegraph office. He resigned his position at the bank in 1867 and purchased a photograph gallery in the village of Hornell (then Hornellsville), New York. Fascinated with the rapid technical advances then being made in photography, he constructed a portable photographic set up for taking wet process photographs in scenic, remote locations. Using this equipment he produced the first known series of stereoscopic views of the Adirondack Wilderness billed as "The Adirondack Series."

While living in Hornellsville he met Mary Breed Hawley, seven years his junior, whom he married in 1871. In 1875 Myers sold the photographic gallery and moved back to Mohawk where he and Mary began to experiment with methods of making fabrics impervious to hydrogen gas so they would be suitable for manufacturing balloons and airship envelopes. Myers' interest in ballooning appears to have arisen out of his continuous involvement in meteorological measurements and a desire to further his studies of the atmosphere. One of his earliest achievements was the development of an automatic self-recording mercury barometer which properly compensated for temperature changes and kept a continuous record of local barometric pressure.

In 1878, Myers constructed his first balloon, but did not make his first ascension until 1880. Mary, who would later win notoriety as "Carlotta Queen of the Air," made her first ascension a few months later. Their only child, a daughter whom they named Elizabeth Aerial, was born the following year in 1881.

During the ten years that the Myers resided in Mohawk, Carl constructed and flew a variety of balloons and airships. He also developed a varnishing machine for producing fabrics impervious to hydrogen gas, produced a portable system for generating hydrogen gas, patented an apparatus for guiding balloons, and made the first balloon ascension using natural gas as the lifting medium. Within this time period he also published the writings of his wife, The Aerial Adventures of Carlotta, and started The Balloon Bulletin, a four page illustrated periodical devoted to aeronautics. Mary, it is said, made more balloon ascensions than any person in America and was one of the only balloonists of that era to attain a measure of navigational control during untethered flight.

In 1889 Myers purchased the property owned by Fred Gates in Frankfort, New York, renaming it the "Balloon Farm." When the Weather Bureau was transferred to the Agriculture Department in 1891, he visited Mr. George E. Curtis in Washington, D.C., to propose his services as a supplier of balloons for meteorological use. In the next few years Myers manufactured more then one hundred balloons for the Weather Bureau and personally participated in rainmaking experiments involving "exploding " balloons which he designed for this purpose. In 1898 the Balloon Farm supplied the United States Army Signal Corps (USASC) with twenty-one balloons for use in the Spanish American War. In 1904 Myers was appointed Superintendent of Aeronautics at the St. Louis Exposition where he was in charge of aeronautic exhibits and also arranged for, and supervised, such special features as balloon races and demonstrations of the latest airships.

Myers continued to operate the Balloon Farm until 1910, when he sold the farm and moved to his daughter's home in Atlanta, Georgia. His last known work on ballooning appeared in 1913 when he wrote an article for Scientific American titled "Half a Lifetime with the Hydrogen Balloon."
Provenance:
Lynn Fitzpatrick, gift, 1991, 1991-0075, NASM (images only)
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Topic:
Meteorology  Search this
Aeronautics -- Exhibitions  Search this
Balloons -- Exhibitions  Search this
Balloons  Search this
Meteorology -- Research  Search this
Balloons -- Materials  Search this
Meterologists  Search this
Balloon gases  Search this
Balloonists  Search this
Aeronautics  Search this
Genre/Form:
Correspondence
Photographs
Citation:
Carl Myers Balloon Farm Collection, Acc. 1991-0075, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.1991.0075
See more items in:
Carl Myers Balloon Farm Collection
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-1991-0075
Online Media:

College Park Airport Collection [Knauer]

Creator:
Knauer, Fred C.  Search this
Names:
College Park Airport  Search this
Wright, Orville, 1871-1948  Search this
Wright, Wilbur, 1867-1912  Search this
Extent:
2.18 Cubic feet ((2 records center boxes))
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Drawings
Scrapbooks
Correspondence
Date:
1903-1986
Scope and Contents:
This collection documents the history of College Park Airport, the conservation of the airport and the establishment of the museum on the airport grounds. The material includes correspondence, photographs, news clippings, a scrapbook, and other mixed media.
Biographical / Historical:
College Park Airport, in College Park, MD, is the oldest continually-operated airport in the world. Flight operations at College Park began in 1907 when the Wright Brothers gave flight instruction to United States Army Signal Corps personnel at the site. The airport continues to operate as a single-runway general aviation airport. The grounds also include a small museum and the site has been designated as a historic landmark. Fred C. Knauer was instrumental in the formation of committees to preserve the airport against encroachment by developers and to publicize the airport's historic nature.
General:
NASMrev
Provenance:
Fred C. Knauer, gift, 1986, 1987-0087, unknown
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Topic:
Aeronautics  Search this
Airports -- Maryland  Search this
Airports  Search this
Genre/Form:
Drawings
Scrapbooks
Correspondence
Identifier:
NASM.1987.0087
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-1987-0087

Charles Ingram Stanton, Sr., Papers

Creator:
Stanton, Charles Ingram, 1893-1986  Search this
Names:
Bell Telephone Laboratories  Search this
Civil Aeronautics Administration  Search this
Federal Aviation Administration  Search this
National Aeronautic Association (U.S.)  Search this
United States. Air Navigation Development Board  Search this
United States. Army. Air Service  Search this
United States. Post Office Department. Air Mail Service  Search this
Stanton, Charles Ingram, 1893-1986  Search this
Extent:
3.91 Cubic feet (1 slim legal document box; 4 legal document boxes; 3 flatboxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Publications
Manuscripts
Articles
Correspondence
Audiotapes
Clippings
Date:
1917-1977
Summary:
This collection consists of Stanton's personal papers. The material includes correspondence, photographs, news clippings and articles, reunion memorabilia and records, and personal and professional writings over the course of his aeronautical career.
Scope and Content:
This collection of the papers of Charles Ingram Stanton contains work-related photographs, personal writings on his career, periodicals, programs, financial records, published materials, maps, charts, plans, scrapbooks and audiotapes. At the time of processing, no attempt was made to transcribe or to duplicate the audiotapes; therefore, they are not available for review at this time.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged as follows:

Series I, Professional Life Subseries I: Military Career Subseries II: Civilian Career

Series II, Personal Life

Series III, Miscellaneous Material
Biographical/Historical note:
Charles Ingram Stanton was born on July 28, 1893, in Medford, Massachusetts. He graduated from high school in Revere, Massachusetts in 1911; and earned a Bachelor of Science degree from Tufts College in 1917. After graduation, he joined the United States Army and was assigned to the Signal Corps. Upon graduation from the Corps flight school, Stanton was promoted to the rank of 2nd Lieutenant. Although he served in the Air Service during World War I, he was never assigned overseas, but remained in the United States conducting research regarding radios and their effects in aircraft. In December of 1918, Stanton was formally discharged from the Army.

Prior to his military discharge, Stanton accepted a position with the United States Post Office Department of Aerial Mail, and began work as a test pilot. On September 15, 1920, Stanton was promoted to Superintendent of Operations, United States Air Mail Service. He later resigned from the Post Office and went to work for the National Aeronautic Association (NAA). His tenure there was terminated for unknown reasons in 1923; he then went to work for the U.S. Engineer Corp as a surveyman. From 1925 through 1926, he was employed as a civil engineer in Miami, Florida. On January 17, 1927 Stanton returned to government service as an airplane and engine inspector for the United States Department of Commerce. He was named the Chief of Airways Engineering Division, Civil Aeronautics Authority (CAA) on May 4, 1937. While working there, he obtained patent number 2,147,679 for an illuminating system for runways. On June 29, 1940 Stanton was named Assistant Administrator and Director of the Bureau of Federal Airways. During his tenure with the CAA, Stanton attended several conferences and important meetings for the establishment of international airways. Stanton was instrumental in establishing the Provisional International Civil Aviation Organization. In 1944 he received an honorary doctorate from Tufts College for his contribution to the field of civil aeronautics.

On March 8, 1948 Stanton retired from the United States Government and took a teaching position at the Technological Institute of Aeronautics of Brazil as Professor of Air Navigation, and Chief of Airway Division. Upon returning to the United States in 1952, Stanton went to work for Bell Telephone Laboratories. He returned to work for the CAA in 1957, where he remained until his retirement in 1962.

Charles Ingram Stanton's love of flying did not end with his work. He remained an active member in the OX-5 Club, the Society of Air Mail Pioneers, Society of Airway Pioneers, and the Washington Air Derby Association. In addition to flying clubs, Stanton was a member of the Delta Upsilon Fraternity. Charles Ingram Stanton passed away in 1986.
Timeline:
1893 July 28 -- Born in Medford Massachusetts

1911 -- Graduated from Revere High School

1917 -- Graduated from Tufts College

1917 December 8 -- Joined United States Army

1918 December 12 -- Joined United States Post Office Department of Aerial Mail

1918 December 18 -- Discharged from the United States Army

1920 September 15 -- Appointed Superintendent of Operations, Air Mail Service

1923 November 13 -- Terminated from National Aeronautic Association

1924 -- Worked for United States Engineer Corp as Surveyman

1925 -- Worked as a Civil Engineer in Miami

1927 January 17 -- Worked for U.S. Department of Commerce as an Airplane Inspector

1937 May 4 -- Selected as Chief of Airways Engineering Division, Civil Aeronautics Authority

1939 June 1 -- Granted U.S. Department of Justice Patent Number 2,147,679

1940 June 29 -- Appointed Assistant Administrator and Director of Bureau of Federal Airways, Civil Aeronautics Authority

1944 June 18 -- Received Honorary Degree from Tufts College

1948 March 8 -- Retired to teach in Brazil

1952 -- Returned to America to work for Bell Laboratories

1956 November 16 -- Left Bell Laboratories

1957 January 23 -- Worked for the Air Navigation Development Board, Civil Aeronautics Administration

1957 November 6 -- Worked as Electrical Engineer (Gen.) of Airways Modernization Board Civil Aeronautics Administration

1957 -- Worked as Chief of Airports Division, Civil Aeronautics Administration

1962 -- Retired from the Federal Aviation Agency

1986 January 1 -- Passed away
Provenance:
Charles I. Stanton, Jr., gift, 1987, 1987-0076
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Permissions Requests
Topic:
Aeronautics  Search this
Aeronautics -- Law and legislation  Search this
Aeronautics, Commercial -- United States  Search this
Aeronautical engineers  Search this
Aeronautics -- Safety measures  Search this
Aeronautics, Commercial  Search this
World War, 1914-1918  Search this
Air pilots  Search this
Aeronautics, Military  Search this
Air mail service  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Publications
Manuscripts
Articles
Correspondence
Audiotapes
Clippings
Citation:
Charles Ingram Stanton, Sr., Papers, Acc. 1987-0076, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.1987.0076
See more items in:
Charles Ingram Stanton, Sr., Papers
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-1987-0076
Online Media:

Military Career

Collection Creator:
Stanton, Charles Ingram, 1893-1986  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Scope and Content:
Charles Stanton began his career in public service when he was drafted into the United States Army during World War I. He learned to fly while in the Signal Corps, and tested early radio equipment during the war. With his discharge from the Signal Corps in 1918, he went to work for the United States Post Office Department of Aerial Mail. This subseries contains military orders, official correspondence, training material and photographs.
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Collection Rights:
Permissions Requests
Collection Citation:
Charles Ingram Stanton, Sr., Papers, Acc. 1987-0076, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.1987.0076, Subseries 1.1
See more items in:
Charles Ingram Stanton, Sr., Papers
Charles Ingram Stanton, Sr., Papers / Series 1: Professional Life
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-1987-0076-ref12

Correspondence between Vera Zorn, Lee David Hamilton and Firm of Winer, Neuburger and Sive

Collection Creator:
Studenski, Paul, 1887-1961  Search this
Container:
Box 1, Folder 7
Type:
Archival materials
Text
Date:
1971-1975
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Collection Rights:
Permissions Requests
Collection Citation:
Paul Studenski Collection, Acc. 1989-0012, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Paul Studenski Collection
Paul Studenski Collection / Series 1: Correspondence
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-1989-0012-ref22
1 Page(s) matching your search term, top most relevant are shown: View entire project in transcription center
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Early Birds of Aviation, Inc.

Collection Creator:
Studenski, Paul, 1887-1961  Search this
Container:
Box 1, Folder 8
Type:
Archival materials
Text
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Collection Rights:
Permissions Requests
Collection Citation:
Paul Studenski Collection, Acc. 1989-0012, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Paul Studenski Collection
Paul Studenski Collection / Series 2: Aviation Career and Activities
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-1989-0012-ref23
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Other Aviation Organizations

Collection Creator:
Studenski, Paul, 1887-1961  Search this
Container:
Box 1, Folder 9
Type:
Archival materials
Text
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Collection Rights:
Permissions Requests
Collection Citation:
Paul Studenski Collection, Acc. 1989-0012, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Paul Studenski Collection
Paul Studenski Collection / Series 2: Aviation Career and Activities
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-1989-0012-ref24
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