This scrapbook includes articles, newspaper clippings, letters and photographs from various events and marches Grace participated in regarding the fight for returning surplus lands to Native peoples. These events and materials include--Fishing Rights March (1970) in Yelm, Washington with the McCloud family; Fort Lawton "Surplus" March (1970) in Seattle, Washington; Pit River versus P.G..E. (1970) in Big Bend, California; DQU, Deganawidah Quetzalcoatl University founding (1971) in Davis, California; and documentation as National Commitee Director for the "Return Surplus Lands to Indian People".
The cover and back of the scrapbook binder are in Box 12 since they are oversized.
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: email@example.com).
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to firstname.lastname@example.org. For personal or classroom use, users are invited users to download, print, photocopy, and distribute the images that are available online without prior written permission, provided that the files are not changed, the Smithsonian Institution copyright notice (where applicable) is included, and the source of the image is identified as the National Museum of the American Indian.
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Grace F. Thorpe Collection, Box and Folder Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
These papers reflect the professional lives of Alice Cunningham Fletcher (1838-1923), an ethnologist with the Peabody Museum of Harvard and collaborator with the Bureau of American Ethnology, and Francis La Flesche (1856-1923), an anthropologist with the Bureau of American Ethnology. Due to the close professional and personal relationship of Fletcher and La Flesche, their papers have been arranged jointly. The papers cover the period from 1874 to 1939. Included in the collection is correspondence, personal diaries, lectures, field notes and other ethnographic papers, drafts, musical transcriptions, publications by various authors, maps and photographs.
Scope and Contents:
These papers reflect the professional lives of Alice Cunningham Fletcher (1838-1923), an ethnologist with the Peabody Museum of Harvard University and collaborator with the Bureau of American Ethnology, and Francis La Flesche (1856-1923), an anthropologist with the Bureau of American Ethnology. Due to the close professional and personal relationship of Fletcher and La Flesche, their papers have been arranged jointly. The papers cover the period from 1874 to 1939. Included in the collection is correspondence, personal diaries, lectures, field notes and other ethnographic papers, drafts, musical transcriptions, publications by various authors, maps and photographs.
The papers have been divided into three general categories: the papers of Alice Cunningham Fletcher, the papers of Francis La Flesche, and the ethnographic research of Fletcher and La Flesche. The first two categories represent personal and professional materials of Fletcher and La Flesche. The third section holds the majority of the ethnographic material in the collection.
Of primary concern are Fletcher and La Flesche's ethnological investigations conducted among the Plains Indians, particularly the Omaha and Osage. Fletcher's Pawnee field research and her allotment work for the Bureau of Indian Affairs among the Omaha, Nez Perce, and Winnebago are represented in the collection. A substantial portion of the ethnographic material reflects Fletcher and La Flesche's studies of Native American music. Much of the correspondence in the papers of Fletcher and La Flesche is rich with information about the situation of Omaha peoples in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.
Also included in the collection are documents related to Fletcher's work with the Archaeological Institute of America and the School for American Archaeology. Additionally, substantial amounts of Fletcher's early anthropological and historical research are found among her correspondence, lectures, anthropological notes, and early field diaries. La Flesche's literary efforts are also generously represented.
The collection is divided into the following 3 series: 1) Alice Cunningham Fletcher papers, 1873-1925; 2) Francis La Flesche papers, 1881-1930; 3) Papers relating to the anthropological research of Alice Fletcher and Francis La Flesche, 1877-1939.
Series 1: Alice Cunningham Fletcher papers is divided into the following 10 subseries: 1.1) Incoming correspondence, 1874-1923 (bulk 1882-1923); 1.2) Outgoing correspondence, 1873-1921; 1.3) Correspondence on specific subjects, 1881-1925; 1.4) Correspondence between Fletcher and La Flesche, 1895-1922; 1.5) Publications, 1882-1920; 1.6) Organizational records, 1904-1921; 1.7) General anthropological notes, undated; 1.8) Lectures, circa 1878-1910; 1.9) Diaries, 1881-1922; 1.10) Biography and memorabilia, 1878-1925.
Series 2: Francis La Flesche papers is divided into the following 6 subseries: 2.11) General correspondence, 1890-1929; 2.12) Correspondence on specific subjects, 1881-1930; 2.13) Publications, 1900-1927; 2.14) Literary efforts, undated; 2.15) Personal diaries, 1883-1924; 2.16) Biography and memorabilia, 1886-1930.
Series 3: Papers relating to the anthropological research of Alice Fletcher and Francis La Flesche is divided into the following 12 subseries: 3.17) Alaska, 1886-1887; 3.18) Earth lodges, 1882, 1898-1899; 3.19) Music, 1888-1918; 3.20) Nez Perce, 1889-1909; 3.21) Omaha, 1882-1922; 3.22) Osage, 1896-1939; 3.23) Pawnee, 1897-1910; 3.24) Pipes, undated; 3.25) Sioux, 1877-1896; 3.26) Other tribes, 1882-1922; 3.27) Publications collected, 1884-1905, undated; 3.28) Photographs, undated.
Biographical / Historical:
Alice Cunningham Fletcher (1838-1923) was an ethnologist with the Peabody Museum of Harvard and collaborator with the Bureau of American Ethnology. Francis La Flesche (1856-1923) was an anthropologist with the Bureau of American Ethnology.
Chronology of the Life of Alice Cunningham Fletcher
1838 March 15 -- Born in Havana, Cuba
1873-1876 -- Secretary, American Association for Advancement of Women
1879 -- Informal student of anthropology, Peabody Museum, Harvard University
1881 -- Field trip to Omaha and Rosebud Agencies
1882 -- Assistant in ethnology, Peabody Museum, Harvard University
1882 -- Helped secure land in severalty to Omaha Indians
1882-1883 -- Begins collaboration with Francis La Flesche on the Peabody Museum's collection of Omaha and Sioux artifacts
1883-1884 -- Special Agent, Bureau of Indian Affairs, Omaha Agency
1886 -- Bureau of Education investigation of Alaskan native education
1887-1888 -- Special Disbursing Agent, Bureau of Indian Affairs, Winnebago Agency
1889-1892 -- Special Agent for allotment, Bureau of Indian Affairs, Nez Perce Agency
1890-1899 -- President, Women's Anthropological Society of America
1891-1923 -- Mary Copley Thaw Fellow, Peabody Museum, Harvard University
1892-1893 -- Department of Interior consultant, World's Columbian Exposition
1896 -- Vice-President, Section H, American Association for the Advancement of Science
1897 -- Collaborator, Bureau of American Ethnology
1899-1916 -- Editorial board, American Anthropologist
1900 -- Published Indian Story and Song from North America
1901-1902 -- Advisory committee, Anthropology Department, University of California at Berkeley
1903 -- President, Anthropological Society of Washington
1904 -- Published The Hako: A Pawnee Ceremony with James Murie
1908-1913 -- Chair, Managing Committee of School of American Archaeology
1911 -- Honorary Vice-President, Section H, British Association for Advancement of Science
1911 -- Published The Omaha Tribe with Francis La Flesche
1913 -- Chair Emeritus, Managing Committee of School of American Archaeology
1915 -- Published Indian Games and Dances with Native Songs Arranged from American Indian Ceremonials and Sports
1923 April 6 -- Died in Washington, D.C.
Chronology of the Life of Francis La Flesche
1857 December 25 -- Born on Omaha Reservation near Macy, Nebraska
1879 -- Lecture tour, Ponca chief Standing Bear
1881 -- Interpreter, Senate Committee on Indian Affairs
1881-1910 -- Clerk, Bureau of Indian Affairs
1891 -- Informally adopted as Fletcher's son
1892 -- LL.B., National University Law School
1893 -- LL.M., National University Law School
1900 -- Published The Middle Five: Indian Boys at School
1906-1908 -- Marriage to Rosa Bourassa
1910-1929 -- Ethnologist, Bureau of American Ethnology
1911 -- Published The Omaha Tribe with Alice Fletcher
1921 -- Published The Osage Tribe, Part One
1922 -- Member, National Academy of Sciences
1922-1923 -- President, Anthropological Society of Washington
1925 -- Published The Osage Tribe, Part Two
1926 -- Honorary Doctor of Letters, University of Nebraska
1928 -- Published The Osage Tribe, Part Three
1932 -- Published Dictionary of the Osage Language
1932 September 5 -- Died in Thurston County, Nebraska
1939 -- Posthumous publication of War Ceremony and Peace Ceremony of the Osage Indians
Additional material related to the professional work of Fletcher and La Flesche in the National Anthropological Archives may be found among the correspondence of the Bureau of American Ethnology (BAE) and the records of the Anthropological Society of Washington.
Sound recordings made by Fletcher and La Flesche can be found at the Library of Congress. The National Archives Records Administration hold the Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA), including those relating to allotments in severalty for the Nez Perce by Alice Fletcher. The Nebraska Historical Society has diaries, letters and clippings regarding the La Flesche family, including correspondence of Francis La Flesche and Fletcher. The Radcliffe College Archives holds a manuscript account of Alice Fletcher's four summers with the Nez Perce (1889-1892). Correspondence between Fletcher and F. W. Putnam is also located at the Peabody Museum Archives of Harvard University.
Ethnographic photographs from the collection have been catalogued by tribe in Photo Lot 24.
Glass plate negatives from the collection have been catalogued by tribe in the BAE glass negatives collection (Negative Numbers 4439-4515).
The papers of Alice Cunningham Fletcher and Francis La Flesche have been received from an undocumented number of sources. Portions of Fletcher's ethnographic papers were donated to the archives by Mrs. G. David Pearlman in memory of her husband in 1959.
The Alice Cunningham Fletcher and Francis La Flesche papers are open for research.
Access to the Alice Cunningham Fletcher and Francis La Flesche papers requires an appointment.
This collection is open for research. Access to original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C. Research Center. Researchers interested in accessing audiovisual recordings in this collection must use access copies. Contact References Services for more information.
Howard Somers Conant papers, 1944-1987. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
The processing of this collection received Federal support from the Smithsonian Collections Care and Preservation Fund, administered by the National Collections Program and the Smithsonian Collections Advisory Committee.
General correspondence files contain all communications that do not pertain to a specific project. Because Friedman's personal life and business were so interconnected, many of his business associates also shared personal correspondence with the designer.,Materials in this collection document Friedman's work from 1967, as a student, until his death in 1995.
Files that document his affiliations with Yale University and the State University of New York at Purchase include administrative memos, proposals, lecture outlines, syllabi, bibliographies, examples of students' work, and design projects Friedman did for each school. A copy of the goals and objectives of the Division of Visual Arts within the School of the Arts at SUNY Purchase written by Friedman is included.
Project files include business correspondence, invoices, sketches, contracts, clippings, photographs, and slides. In the case of his graphic projects, some samples of stationery and brochures are included. Extensive documentation exists for Friedman's projects for Citibank, WilliWear, National Public Radio, and Bonwit Teller. Some correspondence is in German. Friedman's lecture notes, proposals for articles and books, and drafts of many articles are included. Clippings of articles on the designer and his work are arranged chronologically.
Research files consist of articles and Friedman's notes on topics of interest to him, such as typography, structure, simultaneity, and information theory. Photographs, slides, and transparencies of many of Friedman's projects, his sources of inspiration, and the work of his students are included.
Record Groups include:
1: General Correspondence
2: University Affiliations
3: Project Files
4: Lectures and Writings
6: Research Materials
7: Photographs and Slides
Biographical / Historical:
Educator, graphic and furniture designer. Born in Cleveland, Ohio, 1945. Friedman recieved a BFA from Carnegie Institute of Technology, Pittsburg, PA. He studied graphic design at Hochschule fur Gestaltung, Ulm, and studied with Armin Hofmann and Wolfgang Weingart at Allgemeine Gewerbeschule, Basel. Friedman returned to America in 1969 and began his career as graphic designer for large corporations.
He worked with the firm Anspach Grossman Portugal as a senior designer from 1975 to 1977. Friedman contributed significantly to what came to be known as "post-modern" or "new wave" typography in the 1970s. He taught graphic design at Yale University, 1970-73. He became Assistant Professor and Chairman of the Board of Study in Design at the State University of New York at Purchase, 1972-1975. Friedman designed catalogs and brochures for both universities. Friedman worked with Pentagram Design in New York City from 1979 to 1984. He designed corporate identity programs, posters, publications, packaging, letterheads, and logos, for clients such as Citibank, and Williwear.
Friedman was a long-time friend of artist Keith Haring, and designed the book, "Keith Haring", 1982. He was the author of "Dan Friedman: Radical Modernism", 1994, and co-authored with Jeffrey Deitch, "Cultural Geometry", 1988, and "Artificial Nature", 1990. He designed the books "New Italian Design", 1990, and "Post Human", 1992. He also designed furniture, lighting, screens, wall elements, and interiors. Many of his furniture designs were done especially for Galerie Noetu in Paris. Among his best known furniture designs are the 1989 Virgin Screen, 1989 Zoid sofa and chair, and the Three Mile Island lamps.
Friedman served as the Frank Stanton Professor of Graphic Design at the Cooper Union in New York city, from 1994 until his death in 1995.
Cooper-Hewitt, National Design Museum, Drawings and Prints Department
Hundreds of designs for letterheads, logos, business cards, invitations, greeting cards, furniture, lighting, screens, office interiors, shoppings bags and gift boxes, calendars, packaging, weather pattern diagrams and maps, book covers, and posters
Cooper-Hewitt, National Design Museum, Applied Arts Department
"U.S.A." table and dome-shaped floor lamp.,.
Friedman's work can be found in the collections of the following museums: Museum of Modern Art, New York City; Museum of Decorative Arts, Montreal, Canada; Art Institute of Chicago, Chicago, IL; Seibu, Tokyo; Virginia Museum of Fine Arts, Richmond, VA; and Israel Museum, Jerusalem.
This collection was donated to the museum by the designer's brother, Ken Friedman in 1995.
Collection is open for research.
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection consists of records documenting one of the oldest advertising agencies created in Philadelphia. The company then moves to New York and expanses to international markets. During its history NW Ayer & Sons acquires a number of other advertising agencies and is eventually purchased. The largest portion of the collection is print advertisements but also
includes radio and television. NW Ayer is known for some of the slogans created for major American companies.
Scope and Contents:
The collection consists primarily of proof sheets of advertisements created by NW Ayer & Son, Incorporated for their clients. These materials are in series one through thirteen and consist primarily of print advertisements. There are also billboards, radio and television commercials. The advertisements range from consumer to corporate and industrial products. The majority of the advertisements were created for Ayer's New York, Chicago, Los Angeles and international offices. Printed advertisements created by Cunningham & Walsh, Hixson & Jorgensen and Newell-Emmett are also included among these materials. Researchers who are interested in records created by Ayer in the course of operating an advertising agency will find these materials in Series fourteen-nineteen.
Series fourteen consists of advertisements created by NW Ayer & Son to promote their services to potential clients.
Series fifteen are scrapbooks of some of the earliest advertisements created by the company. Series sixteen are publications. Some of the publications were created by Ayer while others were about Ayer or the advertising industry in general. Provides good background materials and puts the company in perspective. Series eighteen are the legal records. Materials relating to employees including photographs, oral histories etc. are found in series nineteen.
Series twenty is one of the smallest amounts of materials and includes information relating to the history of NW Ayer & Son.
The container lists for series one-thirteen are part of a database and are searchable. The list has been printed for the convenience of the researcher and is included in this finding aid. Series fourteen-twenty container lists are also a part of the finding aid but are not in a searchable format.
Series 1, Scrapbooks of Client Advertisements, circa 1870-1920, is arranged into three boxes by chronological date. There are two bound scrapbooks and one box of folders containing loose scrapbook pages. NW Ayer & Son compiled an assortment of their earliest ads and placed them into scrapbooks. Besides the earliest advertisements, the scrapbooks contain requests to run advertisements, reading notices and listings of papers Ayer advertised in. The early advertisements themselves range from medical remedies to jewelry to machines to clothing to education and more. Most of the advertisements in the bound scrapbooks are dated.
Series 2, Proofsheets, circa 1870-1930, NW Ayer was fond of creating scrapbooks containing proofsheets. The series contains proofsheets created between 1892 and 1930, organized into 526 boxes. For convenience of storage, access and arrangement, the scrapbooks were disassembled and the pages placed in original order in flat archival storage boxes. The proofsheets are arranged by book number rather than client name. Usually the boxes contain a listing of the clients and sometimes the dates of the advertisements to be found within the box.
Series 3, Proofsheets, circa 1920-1975, is organized into 532 oversize boxes, and contain proofsheets and tearsheets created between 1920 and 1972. Within this series, materials are arranged alphabetically by company name (occasionally subdivided by brand or product), and thereunder chronologically by date of production. Many major, national advertisers are represented, including American Telephone & Telegraph, Armour Company, Canada Dry, Cannon Mills, Carrier Corporation, Domino Sugar, Caterpillar tractor company, Ford Motor Company, General Electric, Goodyear, Hills Bros. Coffee, Ladies Home Journal, National Dairy, Plymouth (Chrysler Corporation), Steinway, TV Guide, United Airlines and the United States Army. Also contained in this series are three scrapbooks of client advertisements including Canada Dry, Ford Motor, and Victor Talking Machine.
Series 4, 2001 Addendum, circa 1976-2001, is organized into ninety three oversized boxes,one folder and contains proofsheets for select Ayer clients, created between 1975 and 2001. Within this series, materials are arranged alphabetically by client name and there under chronologically by date of production. Major national advertisers represented include American Telephone & Telegraph, Avon, the United States Army, DeBeers Consolidated Diamond Mines, Dupont, TV Guide, Sealtest, Kraft Foods, Gillette, General Motors, Cannon Mills.
Series 5, Billboards, circa 1952-1956, consists of mounted and un-mounted original art/mock-ups. Twenty-two pieces of original art created as mock-ups for Texaco billboards.
Series 6, Film and Video Commercials, 1967-1970,
Series 7, Radio and Television Materials, 1933-1993, undated, is arranged into eight boxes and includes radio scripts, television scripts, and story boards for commercials.
Subseries 7.1, Scripts and storyboards for Radio and Television Commercials, dates Scripts for radio and television commercials includes title, date, length of commercial, advertising agency, client information
NW Ayer's radio and television materials mainly focus on the American Telegraph and Telephone account. Some of Ayer's materials relate to Bell Telephone Hours.
Storyboards are used in television and film to assist the director in working with crew to tell the story. To show the viewer through the use of figures, visual effects and camera angles. When directors first start thinking about their storyboard they create a story in their mind. They think of all the camera angles, visual effects and how the figures will interact in their mind. They try to create an extraordinary story in their head to attract the viewer (YOU) In order for the storyboard to be entirely effective it can't be a passive document. When done properly, a storyboard serves as a central design, meeting the needs of many team members including graphics artists, video personnel and programmers.
Another function of a storyboard is to help the team communicate during the training development process. This communication is very important in working with a large team as in the movie King, produced in 1996. Figures help the director explain to the crew how they are going to record the film and how to present it to the audience. Sometimes the director wants special effects to be added to the film, but his budget might not be that big so the director will have to change the story to fit their budget.
The Visual Effects are an important part in the storyboards it adds a special touch of creativity to your film. Camera angles are an important expects in your film because the camera angles determine where the viewing audience will look. If you want your audience to look at a certain object you must turn their attention to it by focusing on that object and maybe you might try blocking something out. Then you will have your audience's attention and you may do whatever else you have to, it could be scaring them are just surprising them or whatever you do.
Also included is talent information and log sheets relating to the storage of the commercials.
Bell Telephone Hour Program, 1942-[19??], The Bell Telephone Hour, also known as The Telephone Hour, was a five minute musical program which began April 29, 1940 on National Broadcasting Company Radio and was heard on NBC until June 30, 1958. Sponsored by Bell Telephone showcased the best in classical and Broadway music, reaching eight to nine million listeners each week. It continued on television from 1959 to 1968.
Earlier shows featured James Melton and Francia White as soloists. Producer Wallace Magill restructured the format on April 27, 1942 into the "Great Artists Series" of concert and opera performers, beginning with Jascha Heifetz. Records indicate that the list of talents on the program included Marian Anderson, Helen Traubel, Oscar Levant, Lily Pons, Nelson Eddy, Bing Crosby, Margaret Daum, Benny Goodman, José Iturbi, Gladys Swarthout and .The series returned to radio in 1968-1969 as Bell Telephone Hour Encores, also known as Encores from the Bell Telephone Hour, featuring highlights and interviews from the original series.
National Broadcasting television specials sponsored by the Bell System, 1957-1987includes information relating to Science series, Bell system Theshold Series, Bell telephone hour and commercial and public sponsored programs
Series 8, Chicago Office Print Advertisements, 1954-1989, is arranged alphabetically by the name of the client in ninety boxes and six oversize folders. Clients include Illinois Bell Telephone (1955-1989), Microswitch (1969-1989), Teletype (1975-1984), John Deere (1974-1989) and Caterpillar (1966-1972) are particularly well represented. Other clients of interest include Dr. Scholl's shoes (circa 1968-1972), the Girl Scouts (1976-1980), Sunbeam Personal Products Company (1973-1981), Bell and Howell (1974-1983) and Alberto Culver shampoos (1967-1971), Honeywell, Incorporated, Blue Cross and Blue Shield Associations, Kraft, Incorporated, Sears, Roebuck and Company, and YMCA.
Series 9, Los Angeles Office Materials, 1950s-1987, include printed advertisements created by this office and information relating to the employees.
Subseries 9.1, Print Advertisements, 1977-1987, printed advertisements arranged in one box alphabetically by client. There is a sparse sampling of clients from this particular Ayer branch office. The majority of the advertisements contained within this series are from Pizza Hut (1986-1987). Also included are Computer Automation (1977-1978), State of the Art, Incorporated (1982) and Toshiba (1986).
Subseries 9.2, Personnel Files, 1950s-1970s, includes cards of employees who worked in the Los Angeles office. Information on the cards includes name, address, telephone number, birthday, date hired, departure date and why (retired, terminated, resigned, etc) and position. Not all cards have all information. There is also a photograph of the employees on the cards.
Series 10, Foreign Print Advertisements, 1977-1991, undated, NW Ayer maintained partnerships with international companies such as Sloanas Ayer in Argentina, Connaghan & May Paton Ayer in Australia, Moussault Ayer in Belgium, NW Ayer, LTD. in Canada, GMC Ayer in France, Co-Partner Ayer in Germany, Wong Lam Wang in Hong Kong, MacHarman Ayer in New Zealand, Grupo de Diseno Ayer in Spain, Nedeby Ayer in Sweden, and Ayer Barker in United Kingdom. This group of material is a small sampling of advertisements created from these International offices. It is arranged alphabetically by client. There are quite a few automobile advertisements (i.e. Audi, Fiat, General Motors, Mercedes-Benz, and Volkswagen). In addition there are numerous advertisements for various personal items from MacLean's toothpaste to Quick athletic shoes to Labello lip balm, etc. Most of the advertisements have the creator's name printed on the advertisements.
Series 11, Cunningham & Walsh, Incorporated Materials, 1915-1987, undated contains 98 boxes 11 folders materials from the New York advertising agency acquired by NW Ayer in the 1960s. The company began with Newel-Emmett, an agency of nine men which broke up in 1949. Two of the men Fred Walsh and Jack Cunningham formed this agency in bearing their names in 1950. The agency created "let your fingers for the walking campaign for American Telephone & Telegraph, Mother Nature for Chiffon, and Mrs. Olson for Folgers's coffee and let the good times roll for Kawasaki motorcycle. In 1986, NW Ayer Incorporated purchased Cunningham & Walsh Incorporated.
Subseries 11.1, Print Advertisements, 1915-1987, are contained in ninety eight boxes of primarily print advertisements arranged alphabetically by client name. Clients that are particularly well represented are Graybar (electrical implements, circa1926-1937), Johns-Manulle (circa1915-1971), Smith and Corono typewriters (circa 1934-1960), Sunshine Biscuit Company (circa 1925-1961), Texaco Company (circa 1936-1961), Western Electric (circa 1920- 1971) and Yellow Pages (circa 1936-1971). Cunningham and Walsh also represented several travel and tourism industry clients, including Cook Travel Services (circa 1951-1962), Italian Line (circa 1953-1961), Narragansett and Croft (circa 1956-1960) and Northwest Airlines (circa 1946-1955). There are photographs of Texaco advertisements dating from 1913-1962. There is also a scrapbook of advertisements from the Western Electric Company dating from 1920-1922.
Subseries 11.2, Radio and Television Advertisements, 1963-1967, consist of materials created for Western Electric. Materials are arranged in chronological order.
Subseries 11.3, Company Related Materials, 1962-1986, undated include client lists, information relating to NW Ayer purchase and annual report 1962.
Series 12, Hixson & Jorgensen Materials, 1953-1971, a Los Angeles advertising company, merged with Ayer in 1969. This series is housed in one box. Within the box are four scrapbooks and folders with a hodgepodge of materials relating to advertising. Of most interest are the scrapbooks. Two scrapbooks deal with Hixson and Jorgensen's self promotion ad campaign "the right appeal gets action" (1953-1957). The other two scrapbooks contain news clippings about the company and its activities (1959-1971).
Series 13, Newell-Emmet, 1942-1957, founded in 1919 and governed in the 1940s by a partnership of nine men. The partnership broke up in 1949 when the men went their separate ways. The materials consist of print advertisements for one of client, Permutit Company, a water conditioning company. The materials are arranged in one box in chronological order.
Series 14, House Print Advertisements, 1870-1991, 16 boxes consists of advertisements or self-promotion advertisements to campaign for new clients. The series is arranged chronologically by date into fifteen boxes. Within the series are two scrapbooks containing self promotion ads from 1888-1919 and 1892-1895. Numerous house ads relate to Ayer's "Human Contact" campaign. In addition to the self promotion ads, Ayer ran advertisements expounding about particular concepts or themes for example, one month the concept would "understand" while another month would be "teamwork" and yet another would be on "imagination". Some of the self promotion ads target specific groups like Philadelphia businessmen. Other advertisements incorporate the fine arts.
Series 15, Scrapbooks, 1872-1959, relates to company events, records and news clippings about Ayer's history. The six boxes are arranged by chronological date. Two of the boxes focus solely on the death of founder F.W. Ayer (1923). Another box houses a scrapbook that showcases Ayer's annual Typography Exhibition (1931-1959). One box contains a scrapbook that specifically deals with correspondences relating to Ayer's advertising. Yet another box's contents are folders of loose pages from scrapbooks that have newspaper clippings, order forms, correspondences and other company records. In one box, a bound scrapbook houses a variety of materials relating to Ayer and advertising (i.e. newspaper clippings, competitor's advertisements, NW Ayer's advertisements, correspondences for advertisements, clippings regarding the "theory of advertising."
Series 16, Publications, 1849-2006, are housed in thirty four boxes and are arranged into three main categories.
Subseries 16.1, House Publications, 1876-1994, covers diverse topics; some proscriptive works about the Ayer method in advertising, some commemorating people, anniversaries or events in the life of the agency. Materials consist of scattered issues of the employee newsletter The Next Step 1920-1921. The materials are arranged in chronological order by date of publication. Ayer in the News, The Show Windows of an Advertising Agency, 1915, book form of advertisements published on the cover of Printer's Ink, highlighting Ayer's relations with advertisers. The Story of the States, 1916, Reprint in book form of a series of articles published in Printer's Ink for the purpose of adding some pertinent fact, progressive thought and prophetic vision to the Nationalism of Advertising highlights major businesses, manufacturer, natural resources and other qualities or attractions of each state. The Book of the Golden Celebration, 1919, includes welcome address and closing remarks by founder F. Wayland Ayer, The Next Step, 1920 employee newsletter with photographs, employee profiles, in-house jokes, etc., Advertising Advertising: A Series of Fifty-two Advertisements scheduled one time a week. Twenty-seven, thirty and forty inches, a day of the week optional with publisher, 1924
Subseries 16.2, Publications about NW Ayer, 1949-2006, includes a book first published in 1939. Includes articles, documenting events and is arranged chronologically by date of publication.
Subseries 16.3, General Publications about Advertising, 1922-1974, are arranged chronologically by date of publication and relate primarily to the history of advertising.
Subseries 16.4, Publications about Other Subjects, 1948-1964, include four books about the tobacco industry primarily the history of the American Tobacco Company and Lorillard Company from the Cunningham and Walsh library.
Series 17, Business Records, circa 1885-1990s
Subseries 17.1, Contracts, 1885-1908, undated, are arranged alphabetically and span from 1885-1908. The majority of the contracts are with newspaper and magazine publishers from around the country.
Subseries 17.2, General client information, 1911-1999, undated, including active and cancelled lists with dates, client gains, historical client list, (should move this to series 20) Ayer Plan User Guide Strategic Planning for Human Contact, undated
Subseries 17.3, Individual Client Account Information, 1950s-1990s, undated, contain information used by Ayer to create advertisements for some of its clients. American Telephone &Telegraph Corporate Case History, American Telephone &Telegraph Corporate advertisement memo, commissioned artists for DeBeers advertisements, DeBeers information relating to the creative process and photography credits, a case history for DeBeers Consolidated Mines, Ltd., The Diamond Engagement Ring, Managing Communication at all levels, DuPont publications, JC Penny Marketing Communication Plan Recommendation, Leaf, Incorporated, Saturn presentation, and USAREC oral presentation.
Subseries 17.4, Potential Clients, 1993, includes grouping has a questionnaire sent to Ayer by a potential client. Questionnaire response for Prudential Securities, 1993 Prudential Securities advertising account review, 1993.
Subseries 17.5, Financial Records, 1929-1938, includes balance sheet, 1929 May 1 Balance sheet and adjustments Consolidated statement of assets and liabilities, Expenses 191936-37 Business review and expenses, 1937 and 1938 Business review and expenses comparative statement, 1937 and 1938.
Series 18, Legal Records, circa 1911-1982, Ayer's legal records are arranged by twelve subject groupings within four boxes. The twelve groupings are advertising service agreements (circa 1918-1982), bylaws, copyright claims, correspondences, international correspondences, dissolution of trusts, stock information, agreements between partners, incorporation materials, reduction of capital, property information and miscellaneous materials. The bulk of the materials are the advertising service agreements. These agreements are between Ayer and their clients and state the services Ayer will offer and at what cost. The bylaws are Ayer's company bylaws from 1969 and 1972. The copyright claims are certificates stating Ayer's ownership over certain published materials (i.e. "Policy", Media Equalizer Model, and Don Newman's Washington Square Experiment). The correspondences relate to either the voting trust and receipts for agreement or the New York Corporation. The international correspondences are from either Ayer's Canadian office or London office. The dissolutions of trusts contains materials about the dividend trust of Wilfred F. Fry, the investment trust of Winfred W. Fry, the voting trust, and the New York corporation. The stock information has stock certificates and capital stock information. The agreements between partners (1911-1916) specify the terms between F.W. Ayer and his partners. The incorporation materials (circa 1929-1977) deal with Ayer advertising agency becoming incorporated in the state of Delaware. The reduction of capital grouping is a notification that shares of stock have been retired. The property information grouping contains property deeds and insurance policy (circa 1921-1939), a property appraisal (1934), and a bill of sale (1948). The miscellaneous grouping contains a house memo regarding a set of board meeting minutes and a registry of foreign companies in Commonwealth of Pennsylvania (1929-1954).
Subseries 18.1, Advertising Service Agreements, 1918-1982
Subseries 18.2, Bylaw Materials, 1969-1972
Subseries 18.3, Copyright Claims, 1962-1969
Subseries 18.4, Correspondence, 1928-1933
Subseries 18.5, International Office Correspondence, 1947-1948
Subseries 18.6, Dissolution of Trusts, 1934-1937
Subseries 18.7, Stock Information, 1934-1974
Subseries 18.8, Agreements between Partners, 1911-1916
Series 19, Personnel Records, circa 1889-2001, are arranged into eight groupings within eight boxes. The groupings are employee card files, photographs, Ayer alumni, biographies, speeches, recollections, oral histories, and miscellaneous. Typed manuscript of book A Copy Writer Speaks by George Cecil, NW Ayer, Incorporated copy head 1920s-1950s
Subseries 19.1, Employee card files, circa 1892-1915; 1929-1963, consists of index cards with the name, age, job title, date and wage increases, date of hire/fire, as well as remarks about the employee's service and/or reasons for seeking or leaving the job. Materials are arranged alphabetically by the last name of the employee within three boxes.
Subseries 19.2, Photographs, circa 1924-1984, undated, are housed in two boxes. The photographs grouped together by subjects i.e. personnel, company events, Ayer buildings, and miscellaneous. This grouping primarily consists of personnel photographs. Includes a glass plate negative dated 1924 of NW Ayer.
Subseries 19.3, Ayer Alumni, circa 1989-98, include employees who have left Ayer. There is a listing of Ayer "graduates" and their current job. Emeritus, Ayer's alumni newsletter 1989-1996, makes up the majority of materials in this grouping. The newsletter keeps the alumni up to date with the happenings of Ayer and what has become of former Ayer employees. Emeritus is a quarterly newsletter devoted to the activities, thoughts and feelings of Ayer alumni a body of people who consists of retirees and former employees.
Subseries 19.4, Biographical Information, circa 1889-1994, undated, prominent members of Ayer's operations had biographical sketches completed of them. This was true for the bio sketches of Robert Ervin, Louis T. Hagopian, and George A. Rink. There is a substantial file on Dorothy Dignam ("Mis Dig"), a leading woman in the advertising world from the 1930s to the 1950s. Also of interest is a video ("The Siano Man") compiled by Ayer employees to commemorate Jerry Siano's retirement from Ayer in 1994. The series is arranged alphabetically by last name.
Subseries 19.5, Speeches, circa 1919-1931; 1975, contains speeches made by Wilfred W. Fry and Neal W. O'Connor. Wilfred W. Fry had various speaking engagements connected with Ayer. Contained in this group is a sampling of his speeches from 1919 to 1931. Neal O'Connor's speech "Advertising: Who Says It's a Young People's Business" was given at the Central Region Convention for the American Association of Advertising Agencies in Chicago on November 6, 1975. The speeches are arranged alphabetically by the speaker's last name.
Subseries 19.6, Recollections, 1954-1984, undated, are arranged alphabetically by last name. These are recollections from Ayer employees about the company and its advertisements. Some recollections are specifically about certain types of advertisements, like farm equipment while others reflect on F. W. Ayer and the company.
Subseries 19.7, Oral History Interview Transcripts, 1983-1985; 1989-1991, include interviews with key NW Ayer personnel, conducted by Ayer alumnae Howard Davis, Brad Lynch and Don Sholl (Vice President creative) for the Oral History Program. The materials are arranged alphabetically by the last name of the interviewee.
Subseries 19.8, Oral History Interview Audio Tapes, 1985-1990, include interviews on audiotape the materials are arranged alphabetically by the last name of the interviewee.
Subseries 19.9, Internal Communications, 1993-1999, includes information sent to employees relating to retirements, management changes, awards won by the company, promotions, potential new accounts, free items, grand opening of Ayer Café, donation events, sponsorship programs, holiday schedules, discounts for employees from clients, Ayer joins MacManus Group.
Subseries 19.10, General Materials, 1940; 1970, includes agency directory entry including a list of the employees, 1970s, annual banquet program for the Curfew Club May 22, 1940 a group formed by the Philadelphia employee in 1938. It sponsored numerous sports, social and educational activities. Groups were formed in public speaking, music appreciation and a series of talks on Monday evenings title the modern woman. The front page was a series of talks for general interest. A list of officers, 1991, Twenty five year club membership, 1973 December 1, List of NW Ayer graduates, 1970, List of Officers, 1991 May 31, Obituary for Leo Lionni, 1999 October 17, List of photographers of advertisements, 2001
Series 20, Background and History Information, 1817-1999, undated includes a chronology, 1817-1990, quick reference timeline, 1848-1923, loose pages from a scrapbook containing examples of correspondence, envelopes, advertisements dating from 1875-1878; slogans coined by NW Ayer & Sons, Incorporated, 1899-1990, history of management, 1909-1923, articles and photographs about the building and art galleries, 1926-1976, publications about the Philadelphia building, 1929, pamphlet relating to memories of NW Ayer & Sons, Incorporated, 1930s-1950s, television history, 1940-1948, Article about the history of the company, 1950 January, pocket guide, 1982, AdWeek reports about standings for advertising agencies, information relating to Human Contact which is NW Ayer's Information relating to Human Contact, undated which is their philosophy on advertising.
Series 21, Materials Created by other Advertising Agencies, 1945-1978, undated, consists of print advertisements collected by Ayer from other major advertising companies. The companies include Doyle Dane Bernback, Incorporated, Leo Burnett Company, Grey Advertising Agency, D'Arcy Ad Agency, Scali, McCabe, Sloves, Incorporated and Erwin Wasey Company. The materials are arranged in alphabetical order by client and include products from Ralston Purina and Van Camp (Chicken of the Sea), Kellogg, American Export Lines and No Nonsense Fashions.
Series 22, 2010 Addendum of Print Advertisements, circa 1879s-1999, undated, includes material given to the Archives Center in 2010. It is organized into seventy one oversized boxes and contains proofsheets of print advertisements for select Ayer clients. These are arranged alphabetically by client name and include substantial quantities of materials from American Telephone &Telegraph (1945-1996), Bahamas Ministry of Tourism (1967-1987), Carrier (1971-1981), Citibank (1973-1991), DeBeers (1940s-1960s and1990s), Electric Companies Advertising Program [ECAP] (1942-1970s), General Motors (1989-1998), J.C. Penney (1983-1986), Newsweek (1966-1975), and Proctor and Gamble (1980s-1890s). There are also numerous other clients represented by smaller quantities of materials.
Subseries 22.2, Print Advertisements on Glass Plate Negatives, 1879-1881, undated, include Cannon towels, Cheny Brothers silks, Cornish & Company organs and pianos, Enterprise Manufacturing Company, 1879 sad iron, an ad from Harper's Weekly 1881 for ladies clothing, Ostermoor & Company mattresses, Pear's soap, Porter's cough balsam, Steinway pianos.
Series 23, Microfilm of Print Advertisements, circa 1908-1985, consists of three boxes of printed advertisements for the American Telephone and Telegraph Company. Some of the same advertisements might also be found in series two, three and four.
The collection is arranged into twenty-three series.
Series 1: Scrapbooks of Client Print Advertisements, circa 1870-1920
Series 2: Proofsheets, circa 1870-1930
Series 3: Proofsheets, circa 1920-1975
Series 4: 2001 Addendum, circa 1976-2001
Series 5: Billboards, circa 1952-1956
Series 6: Audiovisual Materials
Series 7: Radio and Television Materials, 1933-1993, undated
Series 8: Chicago Office Print Advertisements, 1954-1989
Series 9: Los Angeles Office Materials, 1950s-1987
Subseries 9.1: Printed Advertisements, 1977-1987
Subseries 9.2: Personnel Files, 1950s-1970s
Series 10: Foreign Print Advertisements, 1977-1991, undated
Series 11: Cunningham & Walsh Incorporated Materials, 1915-1987, undated
Subseries 11.1: Printed Advertisements, 1915-1987
Subseries 11.2: Radio and Television Advertisements, 1963-1967
Subseries 11.3: Company Related Materials, 1962-1986, undated
Series 12: Hixson & Jorgensen Materials, 1953-1971, undated
Series 13: Newell-Emmet, 1942-1957
Series 14: House Print Advertisements, 1870-1991
Series 15: Scrapbooks, 1872-1959
Series 16: Publications, 1849-2006
Subseries 16.1: House Publications, 1876-1994
Subseries 16.2: Publications about NW Ayer, 1949-1995
Subseries 16.3: General Publications about Advertising, 1922-2006
Subseries 16.4: Publications about other Subjects, 1948-1964
Series 17, Business Records, circa 1885-1990s
Subseries 17.1: Contracts, 1885-1908, undated
Subseries 17.2: General Client Information, 1911-1999, undated
Subseries 22.2: Print Advertisements on Glass Plate Negatives, 1879-1881, undated
Series 23: Microfilm of Print Advertisements, circa 1908-1985
Biographical / Historical:
Founded in Philadelphia in 1869, NW Ayer & Son is one of the oldest and largest advertising agencies in America. For most of its history, it was the undisputed leader and innovator in the field of advertising. In 1876, NW Ayer & Son pioneered the "open contract", a revolutionary change in the method of billing for advertising which became the industry standard for the next hundred years. NW Ayer pioneered the use of fine art in advertising and established the industry's first art department. It was the first agency to use a full-time copywriter and the first to institute a copy department. The agency relocated to New York City in 1974. During its long history, the agency's clients included many "blue-chip" clients, including American Telephone & Telegraph, DeBeers Consolidated Diamond Mines, Ford Motor Company, Nabisco, R. J. Reynolds and United Airlines. However, in later years, the Ayer's inherent conservatism left the agency vulnerable to the creative revolution of the 1960s and 1970s, the advertising industry restructuring of the 1980s and the economic recession of the early 1990s. The agency was bought out by a Korean investor in 1993. In 1996, NW Ayer merged with another struggling top twenty United States advertising agency, Darcy, Masius, Benton & Bowles, under the umbrella of the McManus Group. Ayer continues to operate as a separate, full-service agency.
Through a series of buyouts and mergers, Ayer traces its lineage to the first advertising agency founded in the United States, a Philadelphia agency begun by Volney Palmer in 1841. Palmer began his career in advertising as a newspaper agent, acting as middleman between newspaper publishers and advertisers across the country. By 1849, Palmer had founded his own newspaper, V. B. Palmer's Register and Spirit of the Press, and had developed a complete system of advertising which included securing advertising space and placing ads in scores of commercial, political, religious, scientific and agricultural journals across the country. Palmer went one step further than the "space jobbers" of the day when he began offering "advertisements carefully drawn for those who have not the time to prepare an original copy." Always an enthusiastic promoter of advertising as an incentive to trade and American economic growth, Palmer promised advertisers that "every dollar paid for advertising in country newspapers will pay back twenty-fold" and encouraged skeptical consumers that "he who wishes to buy cheap should buy of those who advertise." When Palmer died in 1863, the agency was bought by his bookkeeper, John Joy, who joined with another Philadelphia advertising agency to form Joy, Coe & Sharpe. That agency was bought out again in 1868 and renamed Coe, Wetherill & Company. In 1877, Coe, Wetherill and Company was bought out by the newly formed NW Ayer & Son.
Francis Wayland Ayer was an ambitious young schoolteacher with an entrepreneurial streak. Having worked for a year soliciting advertisements on a commission basis for the publisher of the National Baptist weekly, Francis Ayer saw the potential to turn a profit as an advertising agent. In 1869, Ayer persuaded his father, Nathan Wheeler Ayer, to join him in business, and with an initial investment of only $250.00, NW Ayer & Son was born. Notwithstanding a smallpox epidemic in Philadelphia in 1871 and the general economic depression of the early 1870s, the agency flourished. The senior Ayer died in 1873, leaving his interest in the agency to his wife, but Francis W. Ayer bought her out, consolidating his interest in the company's management. In 1877, with Coe, Wetherill & Company (the successor to Palmer's 1841 agency) on the verge of bankruptcy and heavily indebted to Ayer for advertising it had placed in Ayer publications, Ayer assumed ownership of that agency. Thus did NW Ayer lay claim to being the oldest advertising agency in the country.
Both Nathan Wheeler and Francis Wayland Ayer began their careers as schoolteachers, and one of their legacies was a commitment to the cause of education: correspondence schools and institutions of higher learning were historically well-represented among Ayer clients. Just after World War I, the agency was heralded as "co-founder of more schools than any citizen of this country" for its conspicuous efforts to advertise private schools. Well into the 1960s, an "Education Department" at Ayer prepared advertisements for over three hundred private schools, camps and colleges, representing almost half the regional and national advertising done for such institutions. In fact, to its clients Ayer presented advertising itself as being akin to a system of education. In 1886, Ayer began promoting the virtues of the Ayer way advertising with the slogan, "Keeping Everlastingly at It Brings Success."
The agency's goals were simple: "to make advertising pay the advertiser, to spend the advertiser's money as though it were our own, to develop, magnify and dignify advertising as a business." Initially, Ayer's fortunes were tied to newspapers, and the agency began to make a name for itself as compiler and publisher of a widely used American Newspaper Annual. During the first years, Ayer's singular goal was "to get business, place it [in newspapers] and get money for it"; after several years as an independent space broker, however, Francis Ayer resolved "not to be an order taker any longer." This decision led NW Ayer and Son to a change in its mode of conducting business which would revolutionize the advertising industry: in 1876, Ayer pioneered the "open contract" with Diggee & Conard, Philadelphia raised growers and agricultural suppliers. Prior to the open contract, NW Ayer & Sons and most agencies operated as "space-jobbers," independent wholesalers of advertising space, in which the opportunities for graft and corrupt practices were virtually unlimited. In contrast, the open contract, wherein the advertiser paid a fixed commission based on the volume of advertising placed, aligned the advertising agent firmly on the side of the advertiser and gave advertisers access to the actual rates charged by newspapers and religious journals. The open contract with a fixed commission has been hailed by advertising pioneer Albert Lasker as one of the "three great landmarks in advertising history." (The other two were Lasker's own development of "reason-why" advertising copy and J. Walter Thompson's pioneering of sex appeal in an advertisement for Woodbury's soap.) Although the transition to the open contract did not happen overnight, by 1884, nearly three-quarters of Ayer's advertising billings were on an open contract basis. Since Ayer was, by the 1890s, the largest agency in America, the switch to direct payment by advertisers had a significant impact on the advertising industry, as other agencies were forced to respond to Ayer's higher standard. Just as important, the open contract helped to establish N W Ayer's long-standing reputation for "clean ethics and fair dealing" -- a reputation the agency has guarded jealously for over a century.
The open contract also helped to establish Ayer as a full service advertising agency and to regularize the production of advertising in-house. From that point forward, Ayer routinely offered advice and service beyond the mere placement of advertisements. Ayer set another milestone for the industry in 1888, when Jarvis Wood was hired as the industry's first full-time copywriter. Wood was joined by a second full time copywriter four years later, and the Copy Department was formally established in 1900. The industry's first Art Department grew out of the Copy Department when Ayer hired its first commercial artist to assist with copy preparation in 1898; twelve years later Ayer became the first agency to offer the services of a full time art director, whose sole responsibility was the design and illustration of ads.
Ayer's leadership in the use of fine art in advertising has roots in this period, but achieved its highest expression under the guidance of legendary art director Charles Coiner. Coiner joined Ayer in 1924, after graduating from the Chicago Academy of Fine Arts. Despite early resistance from some clients, Coiner was adamant that "the use of outstanding palette and original art forms bring a greater return in readership, in impact and prestige for the advertiser." To this end, Coiner marshaled the talents of notable painters, illustrators and photographers, including N.C. Wyeth and Rockwell Kent (Steinway), Georgia O'Keefe (Dole), Leo Lionni (DuPont), Edward Steichen (Steinway, Cannon Mills), Charles Sheeler (Ford), and Irving Penn (DeBeers). Coiner believed that there was a practical side to the use of fine art in advertising, and his success (and Ayer's) lay in the marriage of research and copywriting with fine art, an arrangement Coiner termed "art for business sake." Coiner's efforts won both awards and attention for a series completed in the 1950s for the Container Corporation of America. Titled "Great Ideas of Western Man" the campaign featured abstract and modern paintings and sculpture by leading U.S. and foreign artists, linked with Western philosophical writings in an early example of advertising designed primarily to bolster corporate image. In 1994, Charles Coiner was posthumously named to the American Advertising Federation's Hall of Fame, the first full time art director ever chosen for that honor.
Coiner and fellow art director Paul Darrow also created legendary advertising with the "A Diamond Is Forever" campaign for DeBeers; ads featured the work of Pablo Picasso, Salvador Dali and other modernist painters. The "A Diamond is Forever" tagline was written in 1949 by Frances Gerety, a woman copywriter at Ayer from 1943 to 1970. In 1999, Ad Age magazine cited "A Diamond is Forever" as the most memorable advertising slogan of the twentieth century.
Coiner also earned respect for his volunteer government service during World War II; he designed the armbands for civil defense volunteers and logos for the National Recovery Administration and Community Chest. As a founding member of the Advertising Council in 1945, Ayer has had a long-standing commitment to public service advertising. In the mid-1980s, Ayer became a leading force in the Reagan-era "War on Drugs". Lou Hagopian, Ayer's sixth CEO, brokered the establishment of the Partnership for a Drug-Free America, a media coalition which generated as much as a million dollars a day in donated advertising space and time to prevent the use and abuse of illegal drugs. Famous names appear among NW Ayer's clientele from the very earliest days of the agency. Retailer John Wanamaker, Jay Cooke and Company, and Montgomery Ward's mail-order business were among the first Ayer clients. The agency has represented at least twenty automobile manufacturers, including Cadillac, Chrysler, Ford, General Motors, Plymouth, and Rolls-Royce. Other major, long-term clients through the years have included American Telephone & Telegraph, Canada Dry, Cannon Mills, Hills Bros. Coffee Company, Kellogg's, R. J. Reynolds, Steinway and Sons, United Airlines, and the United States Army. By the time of Ayer's hundredth anniversary in 1969, some of these companies had been Ayer clients for decades if not generations, and the longevity of those relationships was for many years a source of Ayer's strength.
But the advertising industry began to change in the late 1960s and 1970s, due in part to a "creative revolution." Small advertising agencies won attention with provocative copywriting and art direction that more closely resembled art than advertising. Advances in market research allowed clients to more narrowly tailor their advertising messages to distinct groups of consumers, and this led to a rise in targeted marketing which could more readily be doled out to specialized small agencies than to larger, established firms like NW Ayer & Son. The civil rights and anti-war movements also contributed to increasing public skepticism with the values of corporate America, and by extension, with some national advertising campaigns. Older, more conservative firms like Ayer were hard pressed to meet these new challenges.
About 1970, in an effort to meet these challenges and to establish a foothold on the West Coast, Ayer bought out two smaller agencies--Hixson & Jorgenson (Los Angeles) and Frederick E. Baker (Seattle). The agency relocated from Philadelphia to New York City in 1974 in an attempt both to consolidate operations (Ayer had operated a New York office since the 1920s) and to be closer to the historic center of the advertising industry. Riding the wave of mergers that characterized the advertising industry in the late 1980s and 1990s, Ayer continued to grow through the acquisition of Cunningham & Walsh in 1986 and Rink Wells in 19xx.
During this transitional period, Ayer received widespread acclaim for its work for the United States Army, which included the widely recognized slogan "Be All You Can Be". Ayer first acquired the Army recruitment account in 1967 and with help from its direct marketing arm, the agency was widely credited with helping the Army reach its recruitment goals despite an unpopular war and plummeting enlistments after the elimination of the draft in 1973. Ayer held the account for two decades, from the Vietnam War through the Cold War, but lost the account in 1986 amid government charges that an Ayer employee assigned to the account accepted kickbacks from a New York film production house. Despite Ayer's position as the country's 18th largest agency (with billings of $880 million in 1985), the loss of the agency's second largest account hit hard.
NW Ayer made up for the loss of the $100 million dollar a year Army account and made headlines for being on the winning end of the largest account switch in advertising history to date, when fast food giant Burger King moved its $200 million dollar advertising account from arch-rival J. Walter Thompson in 1987. Burger King must have had drive-thru service in mind, however, and Ayer made headlines again when it lost the account just eighteen months later in another record-breaking account switch. Another devastating blow to the agency was the loss of its lead position on the American Telegraph and Telephone account. Ayer pioneered telecommunications advertising in 1908, when the agency was selected to craft advertising for the Bell System's universal telephone service. Despite valiant efforts to keep an account the agency had held for most of the twentieth century, and for which they had written such memorable corporate slogans as American Telephone &Telegraph "The Voice with a Smile" and "Reach Out and Touch Someone", the agency lost the account in 1996.
After a wave of mergers and acquisitions in the late 1980s, the economic recession of the early 1990s hit Madison Avenue hard, and Ayer was particularly vulnerable. Despite the agency's long history and roster of "blue-chip" clients, Ayer was not known for cutting-edge creative work. Moreover, though the agency had offices overseas, Ayer had never built a strong multinational presence, and many of the smaller international offices were sold during the financial turmoil of the 1980s. This left a real void in the new climate of global marketplace consolidation. By about 1990, earnings were declining (although Ayer was still among the top twenty United States agencies in billings), and the agency was suffering from client defections, high management turnover, expensive real estate commitments and deferred executive compensation deals, all fallout of the high-flying 1980s. This was the atmosphere in 1993, when W.Y. Choi, a Korean investor who had already assembled a media and marketing empire in his homeland, began looking for an American partner to form an international advertising network. Jerry Siano, the former creative director who had recently been named Ayer's seventh CEO, was in no position to refuse Choi's offer of $35 million to buy the now floundering agency. The infusion of cash was no magic bullet, however. Choi took a wait-and-see approach, allowing his partner Richard Humphreys to make key decisions about Ayer's future, including the purging of senior executives and the installation of two new CEOs in as many years.
The agency's downward trend continued with the loss of another longtime client, the DeBeers diamond cartel in 1995. Adweek reported that Ayer's billings fell from $892 million in 1990 to less than $850 million in 1995. Several top executives defected abruptly, and the agency failed to attract major new accounts. Ayer was facing the loss not merely of revenue and personnel, but the loss of much of the respect it once commanded. Ayer remained among the twenty largest U.S. agencies, but an aura of uncertainty hung over the agency like a cloud. A new CEO was appointed, and Mary Lou Quinlan became the agency's first woman CEO in 1995. A year later, Ayer and another struggling top twenty agency, D'arcy, Masius, Benton & Bowles, combined as part of the McManus Group of companies. In 1998, the McManus Group had worldwide billings of more than $6.5 billion.
Under the McManus Group, Ayer was able to expand its international operations and begin to rebuild a stronger global presence. Several important new clients were won in 1997 and 1998, including Avon, General Motors, Kitchenaid, several Procter & Gamble brands and, most notably, Continental Airlines worldwide accounts. Born in the nineteenth century, Ayer may be one of a very few advertising agencies to successfully weather the economic and cultural transitions of both the twentieth and twentieth first centuries. Ayer was eventually acquired by the Publicis Groupe based in Paris, France which closed down the N.W. Ayer offices in 2002.
Materials in the Archives Center
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana (AC0060)
Hills Bros. Coffee Incorporated Records (AC0395)
The collection was donated by N W Ayer ABH International, April 15, 1975 and by Ayer & Partners, October 30, 1996.
The collection is open for research use.
Physical Access: Researchers must use microfilm copy. Researchers must handle unprotected photographs with gloves. Researchers must use reference copies of audiovisual materials. When no reference copy exists, the Archives Center staff will produce reference copies on an "as needed" basis, as resources allow.
Technical Access: Viewing the film portion of the collection without reference copies requires special appointment, please inquire; listening to audio discs requires special arrangement. Do not use original materials when available on reference video or audio tapes.
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Reproduction permission from Archives Center: reproduction fees may apply. Publication and production quality duplication is restricted due to complex copyright, publicity rights, and right to privacy issues. All duplication requests must be reviewed and approved by Archives Center staff. Potential users must receive written permission from appropriate rights holders prior to obtaining high quality copies.
The Jack Stewart papers are dated 1926-2010 and measure 9.9 linear feet and 7.31 GB. A significant portion of the collection concerns Stewart's dissertation, "Subway Graffiti: An Aesthetic Study of Graffiti on the Subway" (New York University, 1989), related research, writings, and exhibitions on the subject. Biographical materials, correspondence, writings, printed and digital material, artwork, sketchbooks, and photographic materials document his career as a painter, muralist, designer, educator and administrator.
Scope and Content Note:
The Jack Stewart papers are dated 1926-2010 and measure 9.9 linear feet and 7.31 GB. A significant portion of the collection concerns Stewart's dissertation, "Subway Graffiti: An Aesthetic Study of Graffiti on the Subway" (New York University, 1989), related research, writings, and exhibitions on the subject. Biographical materials, correspondence, writings, printed and digital material, artwork, sketchbooks, and photographic materials document his career as a painter, muralist, designer, educator and administrator.
Biographical materials include a "Video Archive" in digital format, consisting mainly of Jack Stewart being interviewed on several occasions by Nancy Gold for her television show, "What It Takes." In addition to discussions about Stewart's career, the shows include examples of his paintings and murals along with views of him at work.
Correspondence mostly documents Stewart's artistic career and work as an educator and administrator; there is some personal correspondence, as well. Of particular note are letters to Rodman Townsend who commissioned a mural about the human brain; they discuss the details of the project and its evolution, brain research, and subsequent exhibitions of related paintings. Illustrated letters and greeting cards with original artwork are from Violet Baxter, Lorrie Goulet, Wolf Kahn, Clare Romano, Anthony Toney, and Sam Weiner. Herbert Brooks Walker sent several pieces of mail art and, while in Italy, collected graffiti information for Stewart. Letters Stewart wrote to his mother span decades; the best represented periods are the years he served in the U.S. Army and studied at Yale University.
Writings and notes consist of Stewart's dissertation ("Subway Graffiti: An Aesthetic Study of Graffiti on the Subway"), miscellaneous writings and notes, and art and architecture notebooks. Dissertation documentation includes the manuscript, drafts, and related records. Among the miscellaneous writings and notes - published and unpublished - are shorter pieces, articles, student papers, and teaching notes. Of particular interest are notes/instructions for a performance piece titled "Endless Subway," "Memories of Steffan Thomas" and "My Recollection of Charles Egan." Also found are minutes of Cooper Union adjunct faculty meetings (1965-1966), and reports written when provost of the Rhode Island School of Design. Art and architecture notebooks (5 volumes) were compiled while at Yale University.
Research files on graffiti contain many sound recordings and some transcripts of interviews with graffiti writers, voluminous lists of graffiti writers' names/tags, correspondence, notes, photographs, and a wide variety of printed material. Some of the material is in digital format. Stewart began collecting these materials as his interest in graffiti developed. They were used for his dissertation and material continued to be added after the dissertation was completed.
Printed material mentioning Stewart or containing reproductions of his work includes exhibition catalogs, posters, and newsletters.
Artwork by Jack Stewart consists of drawings, paintings, and one etching; also found are designs and plans for tables, murals, and other projects. Drawings include figure studies, heads, and landscapes; most are in pencil and some in ink. The small number of paintings are oil on canvas (removed from stretchers), and gouache on paper and board. Sketchbooks (44 volumes) contain mostly pencil drawings and sketches, and a few studies for paintings and murals. Two volumes include writings about travels and events; of particular interest are "Notes on Kline's funeral May 1962," "Visit to Roman Bronze Art Foundry," and "Notes on My Development."
Photographic materials consist mainly photographs, but also include digital images and 35-mm color slides. Images of Stewart include views of him with paintings and working in his studio. Identified individuals with whom he appears are: Regina Stewart (wife), Brandon Stewart (son), Lil Stewart (mother), Ninalee Craig, Irving Sandler, and students in Urbino, Italy. Photographs of artwork document murals such as Raw Material (composed of shirt labels), and Versailles Hotel in Miami Beach; among the paintings documented are State of the Union, Icons of Western Art and Revelation XVI-16 (both with keys to individuals portrayed). Exhibition openings and installations are shown in photographs, color slides, and video recordings. Also found are photographs of the World Trade Center site taken by Stewart in December 2001.
The collection is arranged as 9 series:
Series 1: Biographical Materials, 1926-circa 2009 (Boxes 1,11; 0.6 linear foot, ER01-ER02, 3.92 GB)
Series 2: Correspondence, 1944-2009 (Boxes 1-2; 0.7 linear foot)
Series 3: Writings and Notes, circa 1947-2003 (Boxes 2-5; 3.1 linear foot)
Series 4: Research Files on Graffiti, 1972-2010 (Boxes 5-7,11; 2.8 linear foot, ER03-ER05, 3.18 GB)
Series 5: Printed Material, circa 1945-2002 (Boxes 8, 11, OV 13; 0.7 linear foot)
Series 6: Scrapbooks, circa 1990-2003 (Box 8; 0.2 linear foot)
Series 7: Artwork, 1946-2000 (Boxes 8, 11, OV 12; 0.3 linear foot)
Series 8: Sketchbooks, 1951-2004 (Boxes 8-9; 1.3 linear foot)
Series 9: Photographic Materials, circa 1950s-2010 (Boxes 10-11; 0.4 linear foot, ER06-ER07, 0.208 GB)
Jack Stewart (1926-2005) was a painter, muralist, designer, educator and administrator in New York City. After developing an interest in graffiti in the 1970s, Stewart eventually wrote a dissertation on the subject, "Subway Graffiti: An Aesthetic Study of Graffiti on the Subway" (New York University, 1989) and was recognized as an expert on mass transit art.
Jack Stewart began studying art at the High Museum School in his hometown of Atlanta when he was 10 years old. At age 14, he began a 4 year apprenticeship with painter and sculptor Steffen Thomas. After serving in World War II, he enrolled at Yale University (B.F.A. 1951) as a sculpture student, but soon switched to the painting department where he studied with Josef Albers and Willem de Kooning. After graduation, Stewart began receiving mural commissions and enrolled in classes at Columbia University School of Architecture (1951-1953). His interest in architecture was tied to understanding how to work effectively with architects on mural projects. Later, Stewart developed an interest in graffiti which he pursued through graduate study at New York University (M.A., 1975 and Ph.D., 1989).
Stewart created murals in ceramic tile, mixed media and stained glass. In addition to mosaic murals, he designed tables with mosaic tops. As an outgrowth of his mosaic work, Stewart developed a technique for laminating stained glass onto plate glass that, by eliminating the need for lead, opened new design possibilities. Mural commissions included work for Hamilton Hotel in Chicago, Versailles Hotel in Miami Beach, Public School 28 in New York City, and several ocean liners. The most unusual mural, Raw Material commissioned by Cluett Peabody and Company, was composed of shirt labels embedded in acrylic.
Beginning in 1950 Stewart participated regularly in group shows and enjoyed solo exhibitions mainly in the New York City area. He also showed in Philadelphia, Georgia, Rhode Island, Mexico and Italy, and was included in exhibitions circulated by the American Federation of Arts.
Stewart taught at the college level for nearly thirty years, including: The New School (art and architecture, 1953-1958); Pratt Institute (interior architectural design, 1955-1960); The Cooper Union for the Advancement of Science and Art (painting, drawing, human anatomy, art history, 1960-1976; Art Department Chairman, 1971-1976); International Center of Mythymna, American Division, Lesbos, Greece (summer school, 1962-1965); Columbia University (M.F.A. program instructor, 1966-1976); and New York University (drawing, 1967-1975). In 1976 he was appointed Vice President and Provost of the Rhode Island School of Design.
Stewart was active in several professional organizations. He served as New York Artists Equity Association Secretary (1986-1987) and President (1987-1989); President of the National Society of Mural Painters (1996-2000); member of the advisory board of the Steffen Thomas Museum and Archives, Buckhead, GA (1997- 2000s); and President of the Fine Arts Federation of New York (2003-2004). The National Academy of Design elected Jack Stewart an Academician in 1995.
Jack Stewart and Margot Schwarzhaupt, an artist, were married in 1947; they had one son, Brandon. Painter and arts administrator, Regina Serniak, became Jack Stewart's wife in 1976.
Jack Stewart died in New York City in 2005.
Donated in 2010 by Regina Stewart, widow of Jack Stewart.
Use of original papers requires an appointment. Use of archival audiovisual recordings with no duplicate access copy requires advance notice. This collection is copyright restricted.
The Jack Stewart papers are owned by the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Literary rights as possessed by the donor have been dedicated to public use for research, study, and scholarship. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Wright, Frank Lloyd, 1867-1959 -- Photographs Search this
13.3 Linear feet
Japan -- Description and Travel
The collection measures 13.3 linear feet, dates from the 1880s-1997 and documents the life and varied career of Rudolph Schaeffer, artist, designer, teacher, writer, collector of Asian art, and pioneer in the field of color study who founded the Rudolph Schaeffer School of Design in San Francisco in 1926. The papers include biographical information, correspondence, subject files, writings, diaries, journals, artwork, scrapbooks, sound recordings, and photographs.
Scope and Content Note:
The collection measures 13.3 linear feet, dates from the 1880s-1997, and documents the life and varied career of Rudolph Schaeffer, artist, designer, teacher, writer, collector of Asian art, and pioneer in the field of color study who founded the Rudolph Schaeffer School of Design in San Francisco in 1926. The papers include biographical information, correspondence, subject files, writings, diaries, journals, artwork, scrapbooks, sound recordings, and photographs.
Correspondence documents Schaeffer's personal and professional activities as well as the Rudolph Schaeffer School of Design. Subject files contain various combinations of correspondence, photographs, printed material, and drawings reflecting Schaeffer's activities, projects, and interests. Within the subject files is correspondence with artists, including Mark Tobey. Extensive writings include manuscripts for published and unpublished articles and drafts, notes, and manuscripts of several unpublished books including Collected Lectures of Rudolph Schaeffer on Color and Design, Color and Design, Prismatic Color Theory, and Rhythmo-Chromatics, all undated. Diaries include a volume recording Schaeffer's 1936 trip to Japan. 42 volumes of journals, compiled between 1954 and 1987, contain entries on a wide range of subjects including lists of errands, invitation lists, class notes, drafts of letters, notes including staff assignments and staff meetings, autobiographical notes and reminiscences, and musings on religion and philosophy.
The Artwork series houses artwork by Schaeffer and his students. Found are hand-made Christmas cards, designs, sketches, and sketchbooks. Seven scrapbooks document Rudolph Schaeffer's career, his school and former students, and the San Francisco art scene. They contain printed material, photographs, letters, and a small amount of artwork. Volume 3 is devoted to East West Gallery, and volume 7 documents Rudolph Schaeffer's 90th Birthday and the 50th Anniversary of the Rudolph Schaeffer School of Design.
Most untranscribed sound recordings (audio cassettes and reels) are of lectures by Schaeffer and others delivered at the Rudolph Schaeffer School of Design.
Miscellaneous records includes a series of hand-baticked fabric samples from the Wiener Werkstatte, as well as transcripts of an oral history with Schaeffer and other interviews.
Printed material concerns the career of Rudolph Schaeffer, his school and former students, the San Francisco art scene, and general art topics. Included are articles and a book by Schaeffer, catalogs and other items produced by the Rudolph Schaeffer School of Design, and miscellaneous items about or mentioning Schaeffer and his school. Items of note are announcements of courses taught by Schaeffer in Piedmont and San Francisco prior to the opening of his school, and theatre programs from productions with sets and some costumes designed by Schaeffer in the early 1920s.
Photographs are of artwork, people, places, events, stage designs, and miscellaneous subjects. Artwork includes some designs by Rudolph Schaeffer; people include Schaeffer, his family, friends, and students. Of particular note are a photograph of Frank Lloyd Wright's visit to the Rudolph Schaeffer School of Design, and one of Rudolph Schaeffer and Imogen Cunningham. Places include interior and exterior views of the Rudolph Schaeffer School of Design at its St. Anne Street and Mariposa Street locations. Also included are photographs by Ansel Adams of the home of Ed and Caroline Fey.
The collection is arranged as 10 series:
Series 1: Biographical Information, 1900-1988 (Box 1; 0.1 linear ft.)
Series 2: Correspondence, 1906-1989 (Box 1, 19; 0.5 linear ft.)
Series 3: Subject Files, 1907-1988 (Boxes 1-2, OV 16; 1.3 linear ft.)
Series 4: Writings, circa 1910-1987 (Boxes 2-6, 15, 19, 21; 4.2 linear ft.)
Series 5: Artwork, 1911-1957 (Boxes 6-15, 19, 21 OV 17; 0.6 linear ft.)
Series 6: Scrapbooks, 1933-1976 (Boxes 6, 14, 19; 0.6 linear ft.)
Series 7: Sound Recordings, 1949-1986 (Boxes 11-13; 1.2 linear ft.)
Series 8: Miscellaneous Records, 1905-1986 (Box 7, 19, 22; 0.8 linear ft.)
Series 9: Printed Material, 1906-1994 (Boxes 7-8, 15, 19, 22; 1.2 linear ft.)
Series 10: Photographs, 1880s-circa 1988 (Boxes 8-10,15, 20, 22, OV 18; 1.8 linear ft.)
Rudolph Schaeffer (1886-1988), a proponent of the Arts and Crafts movement, aspired to unite technology, science, and lifestyle in order to live in harmony with nature. An individual with many talents and interests, he was best known for his work in the field of color study and as a teacher and the founder of the Rudolph Schaeffer School of Design in San Francisco.
Born on a farm in Clare, Michigan in 1886, Rudolph Schaeffer displayed musical and artistic talent from a young age. Although he initially wanted to become a professional musician, he began focusing more on art when his musical abilities were compromised by an improperly set broken wrist. Schaeffer received his first formal art training as a high school student and then attended the Thomas Normal Training School in Detroit, where he studied music, art, and design. He continued studying independently, developing interests in calligraphy and metal craft.
In 1907, Schaeffer taught manual training courses in the Columbus, Ohio, public schools. The following summer he traveled to Paris and London. While in London he saw an exhibition of Josef Hoffman's modern interiors that had a great impact on his own design ideas. He then returned to Michigan and taught in schools close to home. In 1909, Schaeffer attended a design course in Minneapolis taught by A. E. Batchelder, director of Throop Polytechnic Institute in Pasadena. Both Batchelder and his course were strong influences on Schaeffer, as was Ralph Johnot, a proponent of Arthur Wesley Dow's design principles. In 1910 Schaeffer joined the faculty of Throop Polytechnic Institute, where he remained for five years.
The U. S. Commission on Education selected Schaeffer to be part of a delegation of twenty-five American teachers sent to Munich for several months in 1914 to investigate the exemplary industrial design curriculum offered in their secondary schools. Schaeffer subsequently expected to begin teaching at the Manual Arts High School in Los Angeles at the start of the 1914 school year, but World War I erupted while he was in Germany and his return to the United States was delayed so long that another teacher had to be hired to fill his place.
In 1915 Schaeffer was a manual training instructor at the California College of Arts and Crafts (formerly the Hopkins School), and taught design and metal crafts at the University of California Berkeley. For a number of years afterwards, he did free lance design work, taught private classes, and ran a small summer school in his Piedmont studio. Schaeffer was a visiting professor at Stanford University in 1918 when he was drafted and sent to drafting and surveying courses by the Army. Between 1917 and 1924 Schaeffer was on the faculty of the California College of Arts and Crafts where he taught design, color, handicrafts, and interior design. During this period he developed a new approach to teaching color and design based on the prismatic color wheel.
During the early 1920s Schaeffer worked as a set designer and as Art Director of Greek Theatre at the University of California at Berkeley, Schaeffer began applying prismatic color theory to set and costume design. He also designed sets for productions in Detroit. In 1925, Schaeffer saw the Paris Exposition and researched interior and stage design while in France.
The Rudolph Schaeffer School of Design which, in its early days was called the Rudolph Schaeffer School of Rhythmo-Chromatic Design, opened on St. Anne Street in San Francisco's Chinatown in 1926. In 1951 the school then moved to Union Street on Telegraph Hill where it remained for nearly a decade. In 1960, the school purchased a former boys' school on Mariposa Street, Portero Hill. Rudolph Schaeffer lived in a small cottage built for him at the rear of the property where he designed and tended a remarkable "Peace Garden."
The Rudolph Schaeffer School of Design was best known for its courses in color and interior design. Schaeffer was the first person in the United States to teach prismatic color theory, is credited with being the first to use the term "interior design" rather than "interior decoration" and the first to incorporate the use of models into interior design coursework. In 1959 the school's courses were expanded from 2 to 3-year programs and a diploma was awarded. Former students include many successful interior designers, textile designers, furniture designers, industrial designers, commercial artists, color consultants, teachers, and master flower arrangers.
In addition to the interior design and color diploma courses, the school offered a summer session, classes for children, a brief lecture series for the general public, and a wide variety of classes including advertising art, architecture and design, art history, art in public schools, calligraphy, color design, color for television, color for weavers, color theory, design, drawing, environmental aesthetics, fashion design, fashion illustration, flower arrangement, industrial design, interior design, Notan, sculpture, space planning, textile design, and weaving. Always struggling financially and sometimes lacking adequate enrollment, the school nevertheless managed to stay open for nearly 60 years. In 1984, the Board of Directors voted to remove Schaeffer from the board and close the school. Two years earlier the board had forced Schaeffer to retire, appointed him Director Emeritus, and brought in a new director charged with making the institution financially solvent, reorganizing the curriculum, and working toward accreditation. Unable to separate himself from the school (though he had done so legally when it was incorporated in 1953), Schaeffer balked and refused to cooperate with plans for revitalizing the institution.
One of the aims of the Rudolph Schaeffer School of Design was to interpret Asian esthetic principles. To this end the East West Gallery was established at the school in 1950. A membership organization, it offered exhibitions, lectures, concerts, and other programs that encouraged cultural integration. Exhibitions alternated between East (Asian art and artifacts from Rudolph Schaeffer's collection or other sources) and West (student work or work of local artists illustrating the influence of the Asian esthetic on contemporary art and design). East West Gallery was a membership organization, the first space of its kind in San Francisco for Asian art and operated in each of the school's locations.
In addition to running the school Schaeffer was involved in many other activities. He wrote several articles about flower arrangement, color, and color theory that were published in popular magazines. In 1935, he published Flower Arrangement Folio I (said to be the first on the subject published in this country) and in 1942 edited and wrote the introduction to Sunset's Flower Arrangement Book by Nell True Welch. Over a period of many years, he worked on several monographs on color, design, and "rhythmo-chromatics." None were ever published.
A sought-after speaker on the subjects of color, interior design, flower arrangement, and myriad other art topics, Schaeffer frequently served as a juror for art exhibitions and flower shows. From the 1930s on, the San Francisco department store Emporium used his services as a color consultant, as did Dutch Boy paints, and numerous textile and clothing manufacturers. Builders also asked Schaeffer to select interior and exterior colors for suburban housing developments.
Schaeffer worked on planning and designing the decorative arts exhibition at the 1939-40 Golden Gate International Exposition. In 1943-44, he participated in the Red Cross's Arts and Skills program, using color therapy with shell-shocked soldiers in a psychiatric unit.
The Rudolph Schaeffer Collection of Asian Art began as a collection of ceramics, both historical and contemporary examples chosen for their form and color, which he used for flower arrangements and in set-ups for still life classes. It soon expanded to include color prints, paintings, screens, and other works of art and portions were exhibited frequently in the East West Gallery. Selections from this collection were exhibited in Kansas City in 1960 and at the Asian Art Museum of San Francisco in 1976.
The City of San Francisco declared June 26, 1986, Schaeffer's 100th birthday, "Rudolph Schaeffer Day" and it was observed with great fanfare. He died at home on March 5, 1988, a few months before his 102nd birthday.
The Rudolph Schaeffer papers were donated in 1991 by Rudolph Schaeffer and the Rudolph Schaeffer School of Design administrator Peter Docili, and in 1999 and 2000 by James Alexander, a friend of both Schaeffer and Docili, who had been storing portions of Docili's estate after his death in 1998, with the assistance of Frances Valesco, a fiber artist and researcher. An addition was received in 2007 by William Woodworth, a close friend and caretaker of Schaeffer's and in 2017 and 2018 by Frances Valesco.
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C. Research Center. Contact Reference Services for more information. Use of archival audiovisual recordings requires advance notice.
The Rudolph Schaeffer papers are owned by the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Literary rights as possessed by the donor have been dedicated to public use for research, study, and scholarship. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
The papers of Henry Varnum Poor measure 12.9 linear feet and date from 1873-2001, with the bulk from the period 1904-1970. Correspondence, writings, artwork, printed material and photographs document Poor's work as a painter, muralist, ceramic artist and potter, architect, designer, writer, war artist, educator and a co-founder of the Skowhegan School of Painting and Sculpture. Also found is extensive information about the design and construction of Crow House, his home in New City, New York, commissions for other architectural projects, and his personal life.
Scope and Content Note:
The papers of Henry Varnum Poor measure 12.9 linear feet and date from 1873-2001, with the bulk from the period 1904-1970. Correspondence, writings, artwork, printed material and photographs document Poor's work as a painter, muralist, ceramic artist and potter, architect, designer, writer, war artist, educator and a co-founder of the Skowhegan School of Painting and Sculpture. Also found is extensive information about the design and construction of Crow House, his home in New City, New York, commissions for other architectural projects, and his personal life.
Henry Varnum Poor's correspondence documents his personal, family, and professional life. Correspondents include family and friends, among them George Biddle, Charles Burchfield, John Ciardi, Marion V. Dorn (who became his second wife), Philip Evergood, Lewis Mumford, John Steinbeck, David Smith, and Mrs. John Work (Alice) Garrett. Among other correspondents are galleries, museums, schools, organizations, fans, former students, and acquaintances from his military service and travels. Family correspondence consists of Henry's letters to his parents, letters to his parents written by his wife, and letters among other family members.
Among the writings by Henry Varnum Poor are manuscripts of his two published books, An Artist Sees Alaska and A Book of Pottery: From Mud to Immortality. as well as the text of "Painting is Being Talked to Death," published in the first issue of Reality: A Journal of Artists' Opinions, April 1953, and manuscripts of other articles. There are also film scripts, two journals, notes and notebooks, lists, speeches, and writings by others, including M. R. ("Muktuk") Marston's account of Poor rescuing an Eskimo, and Bessie Breuer Poor's recollections of The Montross Gallery.
Subject files include those on the Advisory Committee on Art, American Designers' Gallery, Inc., William Benton, Harold Dickson, Reality: A Journal of Artists' Opinions Sales, and War Posters. There are numerous administrative files for the Skowhegan School of Painting and Sculpture.
Artwork by Henry Varnum Poor consists mainly of loose drawings and sketches and 45 sketchbooks of studies for paintings, murals, and pottery. There is work done in France, 1918-1919, and while working as a war correspondent in Alaska in 1943. There are commissioned illustrations and some intended for his monograph, A Book of Pottery: From Mud to Immortality. Also found are a small number of watercolors and prints. Work by other artists consist of Anne Poor's drawings of her father's hands used for the Lincoln figure in The Land Grant Frescoes and interior views of Crow House by Ernest Watson.
Documentation of Poor's architectural projects consists of drawings and prints relating to houses designed and built for Jules Billing, MacDonald Deming, John Houseman, Burgess Meredith, Isabel Padro, and Elizabeth S. Sargent. Also found is similar material for the new studio Poor built in 1957 on the grounds of Crow House.
Miscellaneous records include family memorabilia and two motion picture films, Painting a True Fresco, and The Land Grant Murals at Pennsylvania State College.
Printed material includes articles about or mentioning Poor, some of his pottery reference books, family history, a catalog of kilns, and the program of a 1949 Pennsylvania State College theater production titled Poor Mr. Varnum. Exhibition catalogs and announcements survive for some of Poor's shows; catalogs of other artists' shows include one for Theodore Czebotar containing an introductory statement by Henry Varnum Poor. Also found is a copy of The Army at War: A Graphic Record by American Artists, for which Poor served as an advisor. There are reproductions of illustrations for An Artist Sees Alaska and Ethan Frome, and two Associated American Artists greeting cards reproducing work by Poor.
Photographs are of Henry Varnum Poor's architectural work, artwork, people, places, and miscellaneous subjects. This series also contains negatives, slides, and transparencies. Images of architectural work include exterior and interior views of many projects; Poor's home, Crow House, predominates. Photographs of artwork by Poor are of drawings, fresco and ceramic tile murals, paintings, pottery and ceramic art. People appearing in photographs include Henry Varnum Poor, family members, friends, clients, juries, students, and various groups. Among the individuals portrayed are Milton Caniff, Marcel Duchamp, Wharton Esherick, M. R. ("Muktuk") Marston, and Burgess Meredith. Among the family members are Bessie Breuer Poor, Marion Dorn Poor, Anne Poor, Eva Poor, Josephine Graham Poor, Josephine Lydia Poor, Peter Poor, and unidentified relatives. Photographs of places include many illustrating village life in Alaska that were taken by Poor during World War II. Other places recorded are French and California landscapes, and family homes in Kansas. Miscellaneous subjects are exhibition installation views, scenes of Kentucky farms, and a photograph of Poor's notes on glazes.
The collection is arranged as 9 series:
Series 1: Biographical Materials, 1919-1987 (0.2 linear feet; Box 1, OV 18)
Series 2: Correspondence, 1873-1985 (1.5 linear feet; Boxes 1-2)
Series 3: Writings and Notes, circa 1944-1974 (0.6 linear feet; Boxes 2-3)
Series 4: Subject Files, 1928-1975 (0.8 linear feet; Box 3, OV 23)
Series 5: Artwork, circa 1890s-circa 1961 (3.5 linear feet; Boxes 4-6, 9-10, OV 19-22)
Series 6: Architectural Projects, circa 1940-1966 (0.7 linear feet; Box 6, OV 24-26, RD 14-17)
Series 7: Miscellaneous Records, 1882-1967 (Boxes 6, 11, FC 30-31; 0.5 linear ft.)
Series 8: Printed Material, 1881-2001 (1.2 linear feet; Boxes 6-7, 11, OV 27-29)
Series 9: Photographs, 1893-1984 (2.3 linear feet; Boxes 7-8, 12-13)
Henry Varnum Poor (1888-1970), best known as a potter, ceramic artist, and a co-founder of the Skowhegan School of Painting and Sculpture, was also an architect, painter, muralist, designer, educator, and writer who lived and worked in New City, New York.
A native of Chapman, Kansas, Henry Varnum Poor moved with his family to Kansas City when his grain merchant father became a member of the Kansas Board of Trade. From a young age he showed artistic talent and spent as much time as possible - including school hours - drawing. When a school supervisor suggested that Henry leave school to study at the Art Institute of Chicago, the family disagreed. Instead, he enrolled in the Kansas City Manual Training High School where he delighted in learning skills such as carpentry, forge work, and mechanical drawing. In 1905, he moved with his older brother and sister to Palo Alto, California and completed high school there. Because Poor was expected to join the family business, he enrolled at Stanford University as an economics major, but much to his father's disappointment and displeasure, soon left the economics department and became an art major.
Immediately after graduation in 1910, Poor and his major professor at Stanford, Arthur B. Clark, took a summer bicycling tour to look at art in London, France, Italy, and Holland. As Poor had saved enough money to remain in London after the summer was over, he enrolled in the Slade School of Art and also studied under Walter Sickert at the London County Council Night School. After seeing an exhibition of Post-Impressionism at the Grafton Galleries in London, Poor was so impressed that he went to Paris and enrolled in the Académie Julian. While in Paris, Poor met Clifford Addams, a former apprentice of Whistler; soon he was working in Addams' studio learning Whistler's palette and techniques.
In the fall of 1911, Poor returned to Stanford University's art department on a one-year teaching assignment. During that academic year, his first one-man show was held at the university's Old Studio gallery. He married Lena Wiltz and moved back to Kansas to manage the family farm and prepare for another exhibition. Their daughter, Josephine Lydia Poor, was born the following year. Poor returned to Stanford in September 1913 as assistant professor of graphic arts, remaining until the department closed three years later. During this period, Poor began to exhibit more frequently in group shows in other areas of the country, and had his first solo exhibition at a commercial gallery (Helgesen Gallery, San Francisco). In 1916, Poor joined the faculty of the San Francisco Art Association. He and his wife separated in 1917 and were divorced the following year. Poor began sharing his San Francisco studio with Marion Dorn.
During World War I, Poor was drafted into the U. S. Army, and in 1918 went to France with the 115th Regiment of Engineers. He spent his spare time drawing; soon officers were commissioning portraits, and Poor was appointed the regimental artist. He also served as an interpreter for his company. Discharged from the Army in early 1919, Poor spent the spring painting in Paris. He then returned to San Francisco and married Marion Dorn.
Once Poor realized that earning a living as a painter would be extremely difficult in California, he and his new wife moved to New York in the autumn of 1919. They were looking for a place to live when influential book and art dealer Mary Mowbray-Clarke of the Sunwise Turn Bookshop in Manhattan suggested New City in Rockland County, New York as good place for artists. In January of 1920, the Poors purchased property on South Mountain Road in New City. The skills he acquired at the Kansas City Manual Training High School were of immediate use as Poor designed and constructed "Crow House" with the assistance of a local teenager. Influenced by the farmhouses he had seen in France, it was made of local sandstone and featured steep gables, rough plaster, chestnut beams and floors, and incorporated many hand-crafted details. Poor designed and built most of their furniture, too. Before the end of the year, he and Marion were able to move into the house, though it remained a work in progress for many years. Additions were constructed. Over time, gardens were designed and planted, and outbuildings - a kiln and pottery, work room, garage, and new studio - appeared on the property.
In 1925, two years after his divorce from Marion Dorn, Poor married Bessie Freedman Breuer (1893-1975), an editor, short story writer, and novelist. Soon after, he adopted her young daughter, Anne (1918-2002), an artist who served as his assistant on many important mural commissions. Their son, Peter (b. 1926) became a television producer. Crow House remained in the family until its sale in 2006. In order to prevent its demolition, Crow House was then purchased by the neighboring town of Ramapo, New York in 2007.
Between 1935 and 1966 Poor designed and oversaw construction of a number of houses, several of them situated not far from Crow House on South Mountain Road. Poor's designs, noted for their simplicity, featured modern materials and incorporated his ceramic tiles. Among his important commissions were houses for Maxwell Anderson, Jules Billig, Milton Caniff, MacDonald Deming, and John Houseman.
Poor's first exhibition of paintings in New York City was at Kevorkian Galleries in 1920, and sales were so disappointing that he turned his attention to ceramics. His first pottery show, held at Bel Maison Gallery in Wanamaker's department store in 1921, was very successful. He quickly developed a wide reputation, participated in shows throughout the country, and won awards. He was a founder of the short-lived American Designers' Gallery, and the tile bathroom he showed at the group's first exposition was critically acclaimed. Poor was represented by Montross Gallery as both a painter and potter. When Montross Gallery closed upon its owner's death in 1932, Poor moved to the Frank K. M. Rehn Gallery.
Even though Poor's pottery and ceramic work was in the forefront, he continued to paint. His work was acquired by a number of museums, and the Limited Editions Club commissioned him to illustrate their republications of Ethan Frome, The Scarlet Letter, and The Call of the Wild.
Poor's first work in true fresco was shown in a 1932 mural exhibition at the Museum of Modern Art. Between 1935 and 1949 he was commissioned to produce several murals in fresco for Section of Fine Arts projects at the Department of Justice and the Department of the Interior, The Land Grant Frescoes at Pennsylvania State College, and a mural for the Louisville Courier-Journal. Ceramic tile mural commissions included: the Klingenstein Pavilion, Mt. Sinai Hospital, New York City; Travelers Insurance Co., Boston; the Fresno Post Office, California; and Hillson Memorial Gallery, Deerfield Academy, Deerfield, Mass.
As a member of the War Artists' Unit, Poor was a "war correspondent" with the rank of major in World War II, and for several months in 1943 was stationed in Alaska. An Artist Sees Alaska, drawing on Poor's observations and experiences, was published in 1945. A Book of Pottery: From Mud to Immortality, his second book, was published in 1958. It remains a standard text on the subject. While on the faculty of Columbia University in the 1950s, Poor and other artists opposed to the growing influence of Abstract Expressionism formed the Reality Group with Poor the head of its editorial committee. Their magazine, Reality: A Journal of Artists' Opinions, first appeared in 1953 featuring "Painting is Being Talked to Death" by Poor as its lead article. Two more issues were published in 1954 and 1955.
Along with Willard Cummings, Sidney Simon, and Charles Cuttler, in 1946 Henry Varnum Poor helped to establish the Skowhegan School of Painting and Sculpture in Skowhegan, Maine. He served as its first president. Poor and his daughter, Anne, were active members of the Board of Trustees and were instructors for many years. The summer of 1961 was Henry Varnum Poor's last as a full-time teacher, though he continued to spend summers at Skowhegan.
Henry Varnum Poor exhibited widely and received many awards, among them prizes at the Carnegie Institute, Syracuse Museum of Fine Arts, Virginia Museum of Fine Arts, Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, and the Architectural League of New York. Poor was appointed to the United States Commission of Fine Arts by President Roosevelt in 1941 and served a five year term. He was elected a member of the National Institute of Arts and Letters in 1943. The National Academy of Design named him an Associate Artist in 1954 and an Academician in 1963. He became a trustee of the American Craftsman's Council in 1956. The work of Henry Vernum Poor is represented in the permanent collections of many American museums including the Cleveland Museum of Art, Metropolitan Museum of Art, Brooklyn Museum, Addison Gallery of American Art, and Syracuse Museum of Fine Arts.
Henry Varnum Poor died at home in New City, New York, December 8, 1970.
An oral history interview with Henry Varnum Poor was conducted by Harlan Phillips for the Archives of American Art in 1964.
Gift of Henry Varnum Poor's son, Peter V. Poor, in 2007. A smaller portion was loaned to the Archives in 1973 by Anne Poor for microfilming and returned to the lender; this material was included in the 2007 gift.
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C. Research Center. Contact Reference Services for more information. Use of audiovisual recordings with no duplicate access copy requires advance notice.
The Henry Varnum Poor papers are owned by the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Literary rights as possessed by the donor have been dedicated to public use for research, study, and scholarship. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
The papers of LeRoy Neiman measure approximately 70.5 linear feet and date from 1938-2005. The collection includes biographical materials, correspondence, project files, printed material and artifacts documenting the career of the American painter LeRoy Neiman.
Scope and Content Note:
The papers of LeRoy Neiman measure approximately 70.5 linear feet and date from 1938 to 2005. The collection includes biographical materials, correspondence, project files, printed material and artifacts documenting the career of the American painter LeRoy Neiman.
Biographical material pertains to the artist's family, military service, education and teaching experience and representing galleries and publishers and includes artist biographies, awards, distinctions, and membership information.
Correspondence includes personal and business correspondence as well as collections of cards and literature on other artists, Neiman's notes and jottings, art work by children, and office records.
Project files document specific projects or art events in which Neiman was involved, including commissions, promotions, collaborations, serigraph printings, and publications.
Printed material includes newspapers, magazines, catalogs, fliers, invitations, brochures, press releases, film scripts and small posters.
Artifacts include three-dimensional items, clothing, souvenirs and LeRoy Neiman paraphernalia.
The collection is arranged as 5 series:
Series 1: Biographical Material, 1938-2004, undated (Boxes 1-3, 77; 3.3 linear feet)
Series 2: Correspondence, circa 1960s-2004, undated (Boxes 3-19)
Series 3: Project Files, 1949-2005, undated (Boxes 20-39, 78-81)
Series 4: Printed Material, circa 1940s-circa 2005, undated (Boxes 40-61, 82-83, OV 85)
Series 5: Artifacts, 1953-2002, undated (Boxes 69-76, 84)
LeRoy Neiman has been described as the most popular living painter in America. While strikingly original, his work reflects the varied influences of Toulouse-Lautrec, Dufy, the New York Social Realists, and the Abstract Expressionists. Probably best known as a portrayer of sporting and social events, he virtually invented the modern genre of sports art and remains its most accomplished and acclaimed practitioner.
Among many other accomplishments, he was the first and only on-camera official artist for ABC-TV at the Olympics in Munich, 1972 and Montreal, 1976, and covered several other winter and summer Olympiads as an official artist. He was the first artist to create live, on-camera computer art while covering the 1978 Super Bowl in New Orleans for CBS-TV. In 1997 he was selected as the first official artist of the Kentucky Derby. But Neiman's interests range far and wide. As a painter, printmaker, and author, his subjects have included Parisian cafés, African safaris, famous bars, five-star restaurants, urban street scenes, the opera, political figures, jazz musicians, entertainers, stage and screen stars, gambling casinos, portraits, international stock exchanges, and much more.
For the past quarter-century, Neiman has created limited-edition serigraphs (silk-screen prints). Published and distributed exclusively by Knoedler Publishing, they are sold in selected galleries throughout the United States. By one estimate, the more than 150,000 Neiman prints that have been purchased to date have an estimated market value exceeding $400 million. Neiman is the author of twelve books: Horses, LeRoy Neiman Posters, Winners, which was also published in Japanese, Big Time Golf, LeRoy Neiman: An American in Paris, LeRoy Neiman on Safari, and LeRoy Neiman: Five Decades, all published by Harry N. Abrams, as well as Art and Life Style, Carnaval, Monte Carlo Chase, Casey at the Bat, and the newly-released limited edition LeRoy Neiman Sketchbook: Liston vs. Clay 1964/ Ali vs. Liston 1965, 2004. Knoedler Publishing has published The Prints of LeRoy Neiman, Volumes I-III, a catalogue raisonnes on Neiman's limited edition prints.
Over the years the artist has donated scores of his artworks to dozens of charitable causes and organizations. Through his work with the Good Tidings Foundation, two LeRoy Neiman Art Centers for Youth have been built in elementary schools in California. In 1995, he gave the School of the Arts at Columbia University in New York City an endowment of $6 million to create the LeRoy Neiman Center for Print Studies, dedicated to the study of fine art printmaking and the development of new methods of printmaking, and including a scholarship program. A 1998 donation led to the creation of the LeRoy Neiman Center for the Study of American Culture and Society at UCLA.
Neiman's work is represented in the Art Institute of Chicago, the Whitney Museum, the Minneapolis Museum of Art, the Hermitage of St. Petersburg and numerous other museums and public and private collections worldwide. A past member of the New York City Advisory Commission for Cultural Affairs, Neiman has received five honorary degrees and, among other honors, an Award of Merit from the American Athletic Union, a Gold Plate Award from the American Academy of Achievement, and a Lifetime Achievement Award from the Muscular Dystrophy Association, in addition to being named Boxing Artist of 1966 by Lonsdale, London.
1921 -- Born June 8 in St. Paul, Minnesota.
1942-46 -- Leaves high school to enlist in the army; serves four years in Europe.
1946 -- Studies at the St. Paul Gallery and School of Art with Clement Haupers.
1946-50 -- Student at the School of the Art Institute of Chicago; studies with Boris Anisfeld; studies liberal arts at University of Illinois and De Paul University, Chicago.
1950-60 -- Member of the Faculty, School of the Art Institute of Chicago, teaching figure drawing and fashion drawing.
1952 -- Exhibits in Twin City Show at Minneapolis Institute of Arts; wins Chicago Art Directors Award.
1953 -- Begins using enamel house paints; develops interest in drawing horse racing at Arlington Park; wins First Prize for painting "Idle Boats", a purchase prize, at Twin City Show, Minneapolis Institute of Art.
1954 -- Begins association with Playboy magazine illustrating Charles Beaumont story, which wins Chicago Art Directors Award; exhibits for first time in Chicago Artists and Vicinity Show, where he continues to show for next six years; wins Second Prize, Minnesota State Show; exhibits at Philadelphia Art Alliance.
1955 -- Instructor of painting at Elmwood Park Art League and North Shore Art League; exhibits at the Carnegie Pittsburgh International Exhibition of Contemporary Painting; creates the "Femlin" symbolic character which appears in Playboy for next 47 years; wins New York Art Directors Award.
1956 -- Included in "New Talent in America in 1956", published in Art in America, February 1956; delves deeper into Chicago sports scene, draws Chicago Bears, Blackhawks and boxing.
1957 -- Exhibits in Corcoran Gallery of Art "American 25th Biennial Exhibition", Washington, D.C.; awarded most popular prize out of 3,000 entries as well as the juried Clark Memorial Prize and Vicinity Show; first television appearance on Art Institute of Chicago TV show, "Artist's Choice"; painting instructor at School of the Art Institute of Chicago Summer Session and for two years at Ox-Bow Summer School, Saugatuck, Michigan teaching landscape painting; marries art student Janet Byrne.
1958 -- Exhibits at the "Society of Contemporary American Art Exhibition", Art Institute of Chicago, for three years; begins extensive travels for Playboy magazine, creating a feature on the high life called "Man at His Leisure", which appears regularly for the next 15 years; wins Municipal Art Award at "Chicago Artist and Vicinity Show", and Hamilton & Graham Cash Prize, Ball State Teachers College Drawing Show, Muncie, Indiana.
1959 -- Holds one-man show of racing scenes at Arlington Park Race Track, Chicago; shows in "Jazz Exhibition" and "Social Observation and Comment in Art Show" in Chicago.
1960 -- Paints at Squaw Valley Winter Olympic Games; travels six months through Europe covering sporting and social events, the Grand National Steeplechase, Epsom Derby, Ascot, and the Oxford-Cambridge boat race in England, Maxim's Tour d'Argent, the Lido and Folies Bergere in Paris, the Cannes Film Festival and St. Tropez, Fiesta de San Isidro bullfights in Madrid, the Grand Prix in Monaco auto race.
1960-1970 -- Executes over one hundred paintings and two murals for eighteen Playboy Clubs.
1961 -- Takes studio in Paris; does studies of Deauville social season and sketches the great restaurants of France; sketches Dublin Horse Show and cricket at Lord's in London; wins gold medal for oil painting at the "Salon d'Art Moderne", Paris.
1962 -- Sketches Bordeaux wine country, Paris fashion shows, racing at Longchamp, and Giraglia Yacht Race on Riviera; paints Regatta of the Gondoliers in Venice; does studies of Fellini directing "8 ½" and sketches at Cine Citta studios in Rome; visits U.S. to work on commission for 12 paintings of the Indianapolis 500.
1963 -- Returns from Paris; establishes a studio in New York; teaches painting at Arts and Crafts, Inc., Winston-Salem, North Carolina; holds first one-man exhibition in New York at Hammer Galleries; travels to Mexico with Shel Silverstein; sketches in Mexico City and Acapulco.
1964 -- Starts series of Muhammad Ali sketches and paintings which spans the next 15 years; sketches America's Cup Challenge at Newport, Rhode Island; returns to England to sketch London night life and Prince Phillip playing polo at Windsor; paints the Tour de France in Paris.
1965 -- Commemorates Sugar Ray Robinson with 8' x 6' portrait "Farewell to Boxing" unveiled at Madison Square Garden ceremony; paints portrait of Mae West and poet Marianne Moore.
1966 -- Sketches Kentucky Derby; in London paints personalities and scenes including the Beatles and Carnaby Street, Kenneth Tynan, Sir Ralph Richardson; paints surfing in California; executes mural for Swedish-Lloyd Ship, S. S. Patricia; creates art for film "Casino Royale"; sketches indoor polo for opening of Houston Astrodome.
1967 -- Sketches and paints leading figures in the arts, sports and entertainment world, including Leonard Bernstein, Joe Louis, Frank Sinatra, Brigitte Bardot and ballerina Suzanne Farrell; paints "24 Hours of LeMans", nudist scenes on the Dalmatian Coast of Yugoslavia, the Fiesta at Pamplona, the dolce vita of Rome.
1968 -- Paints the Kirov and Bolshoi ballets in Russia; is named artist-in-residence from the bench of the New York Jets football team; executes critical sketches of the 1968 Democratic National Convention in Chicago; paints Bobby Hull for Time magazine cover; contributed drawings for Harpers magazine articles on Cassius Clay and on Bobby Kennedy and race relations; initiates art class for Atlanta Poverty Program.
1969 -- Sketches civil rights figures and teaches art in Atlanta Poverty Program; creates poster for Kurt Weill Off-Broadway show and program cover for Oh! Calcutta; sketches New York City Ballet; appears regularly on TV as New York Jets artist-in-residence; collaborates with Dave Anderson on book, Countdown to Super Bowl; covers horse racing at Ascot and Longchamp, camel racing in Morocco.
1970 -- Paints backdrop for Broadway play Borstal Boy and does album cover for Fifth Dimension; exhibits in the Time magazine "Covers Show" at the National Portrait Gallery of the Smithsonian Institution, Washington D.C.; sketches sporting and social events in Dublin, and holds one-man show at the Abbey Theatre; travels with Hugh Hefner in Europe, Greece and Africa; sketches wildlife on safari in Africa; creates poster for Ali-Quarry fight, Ali's return to the ring in Atlanta; paints $100,000 baseball players for book, This Great Game; paints New York Stock Exchange.
1971 -- Has one-man exhibition at Museo de Bellas Artes in Caracas; travels to Monte Carlo, London, Paris and Switzerland; develops interest in printmaking; creates two-part TV program on the art of lithography and produces etchings and lithographs at Atelier Weber in Zurich; creates official poster and draws pre-fight sketches of Ali-Frazier Super Fight I at Madison Square Garden for The New York Times Magazine cover and post-fight sketches for ABC-TV; illustrates Jose Torres' book on Ali, Sting Like a Bee.
1972 -- Covers Fischer-Spasky world champion chess tournament at Reykjavik, Iceland and Munich Olympic Games, both on camera for ABC-TV; covers World Series for NBC-TV; creates serigraph of Knicks-Lakers championship game; paints Super Bowl for Time magazine cover; and cover for Golf Digest.
1973 -- Creates Super Bowl art for CBS-TV; sketches the Masters Golf Tournament for Golf Digest magazine; paints commission for Museum of Jazz; creates serigraph of Triple Crown winner Secretariat; sketches Foreman-Frazier fight in Jamaica; travels on multi-city tour and exhibit of Olympic serigraphs; nineteen serigraphs chosen by the Hermitage Museum, St. Petersburg, for its permanent collection.
1974 -- Has exhibition in Tokyo and sketches sumo, baseball and horse racing for Japanese TV; covers Stanley Cup hockey playoffs for NBC-TV; creates poster for Newport Jazz Festival and for next 5 years; creates poster for Ali-Foreman fight in Kinshasa, Zaire, and for Frank Sinatra concert at Carnegie Hall; Art and Lifestyle is published.
1975 -- Creates official St. Paul Bicentennial poster; given major retrospective at the Minnesota Museum of Art; creates official program cover for World Series; creates poster for Ali-Frazier III and paints cockfights in Manila; creates first of four annual posters for Robert F. Kennedy Pro-Celebrity Tennis Tournament; book The Artist's Limited Edition of Moby Dick is published.
1976 -- Paints mural on camera as ABC-TV Official Artist at Olympic Games, Montreal; paints on French Riviera; holds one-man show at Knoedler Gallery in London; exhibits in national invitational "Watercolor USA Show" at Springfield Art Museum, Missouri, and "Drawings USA Show" at the Minnesota Museum of Art; paints Harlem scene for Jazzmobile poster; paints Chris Evert for Saturday Evening Post cover.
1977 -- Holds one-man shows in Stockholm and Helsinki; works in Paris; paints NBA All-Star game; creates poster for Lacrosse USA.
1978 -- Performs first live execution of computer art for CBS-TV coverage of Super Bowl, New Orleans; creates poster for Bill Bradley senatorial campaign; creates poster for Ali-Spinks II match in New Orleans.
1979 -- Appointed Grand Marshal with Jesse Owens at The Drake Relays in Des Moines, Iowa; paints the Ginza, Kamakura Buddha, Mount Fuji in Japan, Royal Ascot in London, and Pan-Am Games in Puerto Rico, for CBS-TV; book Horses is published.
1980 -- Appointed Official Artist of the 1980 Lake Placid Winter Olympic Games and Official Artist of the Democratic National Convention, New York; paints commission for Caesar's Palace, Las Vegas; sketches Carnaval in Rio de Janeiro; presents painting commemorating signing of Arab-Israeli peace treaty at Camp David to President Carter at the White House; book Posters is published.
1981 -- Holds two-man exhibition with Andy Warhol at Los Angeles Institute of Contemporary Art, California; executes 24' x 16' portrait of Sylvester Stallone for Rocky film; creates art and appears as ring announcer in Rocky films II, III, IV and V; book Carnaval is published.
1982 -- Has one-man exhibition at Harrod's, and paints the "The Stock Exchange, London"; creates poster for Kool Jazz Festival; paints and exhibits in Tokyo.
1983 -- Has one-man exhibitions in Los Angeles, San Francisco and New Orleans; executes billboard, television commercial and program for Lido show at the Tropicana, Las Vegas; book Winners is published.
1984 -- Appointed Official Artist, Winter Olympics, Sarajevo, Yugoslavia and Summer Olympics, Los Angeles.
1985 -- Returns to Brazil to paint Gavea Golf and Country Club in Rio de Janeiro and stock exchange in Sao Paulo; named Honorary Marshal at St. Paul Winter Carnival; Japanese version of Winners is published.
1986 -- Appointed Official Artist, Goodwill Games in Moscow for Turner Broadcasting Network; paints America's Cup commission for the New York Yacht Club.
1987 -- Paints and makes video documentaries of Old St. Andrews in Scotland and the Riviera in France; paints Indianapolis 500 auto race commission; presents "Minute Man" poster to President Reagan at the White House.
1988 -- Holds one-man exhibitions in Japan and Moscow; executes mural for Golden Nugget, Las Vegas; paints commission for the Caribbean Classic at Caliente Racetrack in Tijuana, Mexico; paints and makes video documentary of "Napoleon at Waterloo"; book Monte Carlo Chase is published.
1989 -- Paints Frank Sinatra, Liza Minelli and Sammy Davis, Jr. at Royal Albert Hall, London; sketches the World Series at Candlestick Park in San Francisco during earthquake; does sketches and paintings and video documentary of New York's Central Park, and holds exhibition at the boathouse in the park.
1990 -- Executes commemorative painting for 100th anniversary of Los Angeles Dodgers; holds one-man exhibition for inaugural Grand Prix auto race in Denver; paints the Masters Golf Tournament in Augusta, Georgia; travels and sketches in Rome, Paris and Hong Kong.
1991 -- Executes commissioned paintings for 25th anniversary of Spectrum Stadium, Philadelphia, and 10th anniversary of Miami Grand Prix and of Joe Morgan and Jim Palmer for Baseball Hall of Fame induction; travels to Japan to paint geishas, the Ginza and golf; creates Michael Jordan serigraph and poster; works on sketchbooks and paintings in Paris and Berlin.
1992 -- Paints Tom Seaver for Baseball Hall of Fame induction; paints suite of four famous golf courses in conjunction with publication of Big-Time Golf; works on sketchbooks and paintings in Venice, Milan and Rome; honored by the Art Institute of Chicago as an outstanding alumnus; commissioned to paint Bobby Orr by Polaroid.
1993 -- Paints Reggie Jackson for Baseball Hall of Fame induction, Larry Bird for Boston Garden, and Iroquois Steeplechase, Nashville; creates poster for CBS-TV film Call of the Wild; holds one-man exhibition at the Kentucky Derby Museum; paints Frank Sinatra for cover of "Duets" album.
1994 -- Paints Pebble Beach Golf Clubhouse; creates poster for CBS-TV film The Yearling, attends and paints Super Bowl XXVIII in Atlanta; paints in Monte Carlo and Venice; goes on to paint safari in Kenya; sketches Luciano Pavarotti at Metropolitan Opera; paints Frank Sinatra for "Duets II" album; book An American in Paris is published.
1995 -- Paints Babe Ruth for the Baseball Hall of Fame, U.S. Open at Shinnecock Golf Course, and Rockefeller Center; creates 40-foot mural on Broadway theater for Tommy Tune's musical, Busker Alley; gives 30-year retrospective exhibition at the Kentucky Derby Museum; appointed a member of the New York City Advisory Commission for Cultural Affairs; honored by Playboy for the 40th anniversary of the Femlin character.
1996 -- Commissioned by United Nations to create six postage stamps for the Centennial Olympic Games in Atlanta; paints Super Bowl XXX in Phoenix, Arizona; honored by Boxing Writers and England's Lonsdale Boxing Club; paints "Hall of Famer" for the Baseball Hall of Fame's permanent art exhibition; creates serigraph of "The 3 Tenors", Placido Domingo, Jose Carreras, Luciano Pavarotti.
1997 -- Inauguration of the LeRoy Neiman Center for Print Studies at Columbia University, New York; introduction of LeRoy Neiman Selection Cigar; narrates and appears in film documentary on Cuba and cigars, Rhythm and Smoke; creates poster commemorating 50th anniversary of Jackie Robinson's breaking of racial barrier in Major League Baseball; creates first official Kentucky Derby poster; travels to South Africa to present commissioned portrait of President Nelson Mandela; book LeRoy Neiman on Safari is published.
1998 -- Inaugurates LeRoy Neiman Center for Study of American Culture and Society, UCLA, Los Angeles; unveils baccarat painting for Desert Inn, Las Vegas; exhibits and participates in seminar on Frank Sinatra at Hofstra University; paints and creates serigraph of Joe DiMaggio; creates label for Duval-Leroy champagne; creates official poster for Breeders' Cup, Louisville; cover art for Good Will Games New York official program, and for article in The Nation; honored at Ox-Bow Gala at the Art Institute of Chicago, and by Sportscasters.
1999 -- Creates art for Givenchy perfumes; presents portrait of Mark McGwire and creates serigraph edition commemorating record home run hitter. Paints John Elway and creates serigraph celebrating retirement from football; releases serigraph of Mickey Mantle; participates in Olympic Games seminar on Queen Elizabeth II ocean liner crossing; gambling prints installed in Salle Privée at Paris Casino in Las Vegas; creates poster for Taxicab Chronicles Off-Broadway play; visits Havana to sketch Cuban rhythms. Sketches Army-Navy game in Philadelphia for West Point commission.
2000 -- Creates boxing painting for use as poster for Heavyweight Explosion cable TV program; book The Prints of LeRoy Neiman 1991-2000 is published; releases serigraphs of Mike Piazza and Cal Ripken, Jr.; the first LeRoy Neiman Art Center for Youth is opened in San Francisco; commissioned to create artwork for 125th Preakness Stakes and 2000 PGA Championship Tournament at Valhalla Golf Course.
2001 -- Salutes Muhammad Ali as "Athlete of the Century" with oversized portrait and limited edition serigraphs. Commissioned to paint Mardi Gras official poster for 2002; commissioned to paint Phoenix Suns star Charles Barkley on retirement of uniform number; commissioned to paint UCLA basketball coach John Wooden; holds retrospective drawing exhibition at the Fairfield Public Gallery, Sturgeon Bay, Wisconsin; creates poster for 2001 All-Star Jockey Championship; attends 25th year reunion of ABC-TV coverage of 1976 Munich Olympics. Commissioned by New York City Fire Department to commemorate September 11 terrorist attack for benefit of NYFD Widows and Orphans Fund; creates image of NYFD fireman's helmet and for the first time allows an image to be used and sold on t-shirts; also donates original painting to auction for Widows and Orphans Fund. Honorary Chairman at the annual Bare Walls event at the School of the Art Institute of Chicago; the second LeRoy Neiman Art Center for Youth is opened in Watsonville, California; the largest serigraph yet by artist, "Circus", having image size of 43 ¾" x 65", is completed after 2 years work.
2002 -- Commissioned to paint Wayne Gretzky, Gold Medal winning coach of the Canadian Olympic Hockey Team; commissioned to create official tournament poster for the first U.S. Open to be held at a public golf course, Bethpage on Long Island, New York; illustrates "Casey at the Bat", published as a trade edition by Ecco Press, with Foreword by New York Yankees manager Joe Torre; creates the Tyson/Lewis poster for the boxing heavyweight championship fight in Memphis; creates the official poster and program cover for the Oscar de la Hoya/Fernando Valenzuela championship boxing match in Las Vegas; honored with a tribute dinner at the Friar's Club in New York City; painting of Earvin "Magic" Johnson and Larry Bird is unveiled during Johnson's induction ceremonies at the Basketball Hall of Fame; Gallagher's Steak House in New York City unveils a permanent collection of Neiman artwork portraying the city's greatest athletes; receives Lifetime Achievement Award for contributions to golf and sport art at the Art of Golf Festival at Pinehurst Resort in North Carolina; inducted into the New Jersey Boxing Hall of Fame.
2003 -- Unveiled commissioned painting of the racehorse Funnycide at Saratoga; opens exhibition "LeRoy Neiman on Safari" at the Wildlife Experience museum in Denver, CO; S.T. Dupont releases special edition LeRoy Neiman Golf pen and lighter set; mounts exhibition "LeRoy Neiman in Cuba" at the Pratt Institute; paints the Breeders Cup at Santa Anita; publishes book LeRoy Neiman: Five Decades with Harry N. Abrams.
2004 -- Commissioned to paint poster design for the 2005 Special Olympics in Nagano; paints portrait of Secretariat for the Secretariat Museum; paints program cover design for the Newport Jazz Festival and participates in a group exhibition at the festival; receives Medal of Honor at Ellis Island from NECO; paints portraits of Oscar De La Hoya and Bernard Hopkins for their fight program and presents the paintings to the fighters; completes a set of seven jazz lithographs at Columbia's Neiman Center for Print Studies; films a cameo appearance for Sylvester Stallone's television show "The Contender"; produces a set of five limited edition prints of Martha Graham for the Martha Graham Dance Company; publishes limited edition artist's book LeRoy Neiman Sketchbook: Liston vs. Clay 1964/Ali vs. Liston 1965 with powerHouse Books and Meridian Printing.
Appendix A: Notable Correspondents from Series 2: Correspondence
This appendix is an alphabetical listing of notable correspondents primarily from Series 2, but may include references to other series. The numbers following the entry indicate the series number, subseries number if appropriate, and date where the material is filed. For example: Abrams, Judith Ann - 2.1: 1983, 1991 indicates that the correspondence for that person is found in Series 2.1 in the 1983 and 1991 folders.
Garvey, Steve and Cyndi - 2.1: 1979, 1981, 1983, 1986, 1989, 3.2. -- Winners -- , 1983, Harry N. Abrams
Gavea Golf Club - 2.1: 1985
Gere-Suson, Gary - 2.1: 1999
Gilbert, Patti - 2.1: 1992
Giorgio Beverly Hills - 2.1: 1985
Gore, Al - 2.1: 1987, 1993, 3.2: -- Big Time Golf -- , 1992
Gottlieb, Paul - 3.2. -- LeRoy Neiman: An American in Paris -- , 1994
Graham, Martha - 2.1: 1989
Graime, Arlene (US Olympic Committee) - 2.1: 1996
Grasso, Richard - 2.1: 1996
Gray, Joel - 2.1: 2003
Green Hills Farm - 2.1: 1987
Green, Tammie - 2.1: 1993
Greentree Stud, Inc. - 2.1: undated
Greenwich Workshop Gallery - 2.1: 1983
Gregory, Jack - 2.2: Jack Gregory 1993-98
Grenon, Robert - 2.2: Franklin Bowles Galleries
Guest, C. Z. - 2.1: 2003
Gwynne Gallery - 2.1: 1975, 1978
Hackett, Buddy and Sherry - 2.1: 1985, 1989, 1996, 1998
Halvorsen, Robert - 2.1: 1994
Hammer, Armand - 3.2. -- Winners -- , 1983, Harry N. Abrams, 1.2: Knoedler & Hammer Correspondence
Hammer, Michael - 3.2. -- LeRoy Neiman: An American in Paris -- , 1994, 3.2. -- Casey at the Bat -- , 2000, 1.2: Knoedler & Hammer Correspondence, see also Hammer, Armand Hammer, Victor - see Hammer, Armand
Hanson Art Galleries - 2.2: Hanson Art Galleries 1983-1991, 3.1: Hanson Art Galleries Solo Exhibition, New Orleans 1997, see also exhibitions: Hanson Art Galleries in index for more file references
Harden, Richard - 2.1: 1978, 3.1: Peace Treaty, 1980
Harriman, Ambassador Pamela - 3.2. -- LeRoy Neiman: An American in Paris -- , 1994
Hartman, David - 2.1: 1981
Harvey, Paul - 2.1: 1987
Haskell, Nikki - 2.1: 1997, 2001, 2002
Harris, Earl - 2.1: 1987
Harris, Franco - 2.1: 1990
Hatton, Pat - 2.1: 1993
Hawkins, Tommy - 3.1: Dodgers Centennial 1990
Healy, Katherine - 2.1: 1986
Hedgecock, Mayor Roger - 3.2. -- Winners -- , 1983, Harry N. Abrams
Hefner, Christie - 2.2: Playboy Enterprises 1980s, 3.1: Playboy's LeRoy Neiman Selection Cigars by Don Diego 1997
Hefner, Hugh - 2.1: 1983, 2.2: Playboy Enterprises, 3.2. -- Monte Carlo Chase -- , 1988, Van Der Marck Editions, Ltd.
Safir, Police Commissioner Howard - 3.1: New York City Marathon 1984-2001
Saltman, Sheldon - 2.1: 1976
San Francisco 49ers - 2.1: 1995, 2.2: DeBartolo Corporation and Associated Institutions 1989-1991
Santaniello, Carmine - 2.3
Sassi, Etienne - 3.2. -- LeRoy Neiman: An American in Paris -- , 1994
Scaffidi, Marie - 2.1: 1980s Undated
Scarpa, William and Cathy - 2.2: William and Cathy Scarpa 1991-99
Schmidt, Mike - 2.1: 1980
Schulberg, Budd - 2.1: 1997, 1999, 2000, 2004
Schuman, Rhoda - 2.1: 1992
Schumsky, Felicie - see Felicie, Inc.
Schuster, Gary and family - 2.1: 2000
Scully, Vin - 2.1: 1990, 2000
Schwartz, Louis O. - 1.1: Boxing Writers Association Marvin Kohn "Good Guy Award," 1996
Schwartz, Richard - 2.1: 2000
Schwarzenegger, Arnold - 2.1: 1990
Segal, Erich - 2.1: 1973
Seidman, Jay - 2.1: 2001
Seitz, Nick - 3.2. -- Big Time Golf -- , 1992
Serline, Ollie - 1.1: Family (Neiman Studio Archive only), 2.1: 1970s
Sharp Electronics Corporation - 2.1: 1988
Sherman, Allie - 2.1: 2002
Shula, Coach Donald - 2.1: 1991
Siering, David - 2.1: 1987
Sigmond, Aaron - 2.1: 1994, 1995, 1997
Silverstein, Shel - 2.2: Shel Silverstein
Sinatra, Barbara - 2.2: Sinatra family
Sinatra, Frank - 2.2: Sinatra family, 3.2. -- Monte Carlo Chase -- , 1988, Van Der Marck Editions, Ltd.
Sinatra, Nancy - 2.2: Sinatra family
Skelton, Red - 2.1: 1985
Snyder, Jimmy "the Greek" - 2.1: 1982
Solomone, Mickey - 2.1: 1989
Sony - 2.1: 1978
Sorenson, Jackie - 2.1: 1981
Spectrum, Philadephia - 2.1: 1991
Spectrum Fine Art - 2.1: 1978, 1983
Spitz, Mark - 2.1: 1986
Stack, Edward - 2.1: 1996
Staebler, Tom - 2.2: Playboy Enterprises
Stanley, Melvin - 2.1: 1993
Steffens, John L. - 2.1: 1996
Stein, Bill - 2.1: 1982
Steinbrenner, George - 2.1: 2004
Sterling, Donald - 2.1: 1997, 1998
Sugar, Bert - 2.1: 1977
Swoboda, Ron - 2.1: 2002
Symphony for United Nations - 2.1: 1991
TV Guide -- Magazine - 2.1: 1975, 1990, 1993
Talese, Gay - 2.1: 1992
Tate, Evelyn - 2.1: 1976, 1987
Tele Planning International, Tokyo - 2.2: Tele Planning International, Tokyo 1993-98
Tenenbaum, Harold and Judy - 2.1: 1984, 1986, 1988, 2.2: Harold and Judy Tenenbaum
Tiefel, William R. - 3.2. -- Monte Carlo Chase -- , 1988, Van Der Marck Editions, Ltd.
Tiger Tops Pvt. Ltd. - 2.1: 1982
Tigrett, John and Pat Kerr - 2.1: 1993, 1999, 3.1: Blues Ball 1997 -2001
Torrenzano, Richard - 3.1: Lady Liberty, 1985
Torykian, Richard - 2.1: 1997
Touvell, Audra - 2.1: 2002
Trenchard, Peter - 2.1: 2001
Trovato, Liz - 2.1: 1994
Trump, Donald - 2.2: Trump 1987-96, see also Trump in Index
Twentieth Century Fox Film Corportation - 2.1: 1976
United States Department of State - 2.1: 1984
United States Olympic Committee - 2.1: 1985
Universal Pictures - 2.1: 1991
University of Oklahoma - 2.1: 1982
Upstairs Gallery - 2.2: The Upstairs Gallery 1980-89
Valentine, Bobby and Mary - 2.1: 2002
Vorhaus, Louis - 2.1: 1992
war buddy (unnamed) - 2.1: 1997
Ward, Katherine Lecube - 2.1: 1984, 3.2. -- Monte Carlo Chase -- , 1988, Van Der Marck Editions, Ltd.
Warner Brothers Television - 2.1: 1990
Waterhouse, Alma Jones - 2.2: Alma Jones Waterhouse 1977-80
Webster, Jack - 2.1: 1979, 1983, 1990, 1992, 1994, 1995
Wein, George - 2.1: 1991, 1993, 1995, 2000
Weiner, Claire - 2.1: 1970s, 1985, 1987
Weisman, Maria - 2.1: 2002
Welch, Herb and Lisa - 2.1: 1989, 1992
Welzer, Irv - 2.1: 1977
Wenzel, Lee - 2.1: 1985
Whitaker, Jack - 2.1: 1996
The White House - see Harden, Richard or Clough, Susan, or search by name of President
White, Willye - 2.1: 1989
Williams, Ted - 3.1: Williams at Bat, 1980-91
Wilson, Senator Pete - 3.2. -- Winners -- , 1983, Harry N. Abrams
Winer, Jessica - 2.3
Wirin, R. Michael - 2.1: 1998
Wolf, Warner and Sue - 2.1: 2003
Wood, Jan - 2.1: 1997, 1998
Wrather Corporation (the Lone Ranger), Jack and Bonita G. Wrather - 2.1: 1977, 1988
Yarger, Timothy - 2.2: Franklin Bowles
Yellin, Lou - 2.1: 1991, 1992, 1998
Youngman, Henry - 2.1: 1992
Zabrin, Michael - 2.1: 1989, 1991
Zelaya, Jose - 2.1: 1972, 1976, 1977
Zeran, Ken - 2.1: 1990, 1991
Zimmer, Don (Coach, New York Yankees) and Soot - 2.1: 1997
Appendix B: History of LeRoy Neiman's Representation: Felicie Schumsky, Hammer Galleries, and Knoedler & Co.
Hammer Galleries, New York, had its first show of LeRoy Neiman works in 1963 and has represented him ever since.
Armand Hammer was the proprietor of Hammer Galleries, which he founded in 1929 upon returning from the Soviet Union with a load of Czarist art. His brother Victor was in charge of running the gallery.
Armand became the chairman of the Occidental Petroleum Corporation in 1957.
Maury Leibowitz became a partner with the Hammers at the gallery around the same time they began representing Mr. Neiman.
Hammer and O.P.C. bought the respected M.K. Knoedler & Co. gallery in New York in 1971 with Leibowitz as a partner. Knoedler merged with Modarco, a Swiss investment firm, during the 1970s after its purchase by O.P.C.
Knoedler-Modarco now has three divisions: M. Knoedler & Co. (founded in 1846), Knoedler Publishing (created for the sole business of publishing and distributing the prints and posters of LeRoy Neiman), and Hammer Galleries.
Felicie Schumsky was LeRoy Neiman's publisher and distributor before Knoedler. Felicie, Inc. is named alone in advertising until 1973, when ads appear naming FKH Editions as publisher (presumably 'Felicie Knoedler Hammer') and Hammer Galleries as gallery/distributor. This continues until 1975, when ads begin naming Knoedler as publisher and Hammer as gallery.
Hammer Graphics Gallery, a part of Hammer Galleries, was started in 1979 for the sole purpose of distributing and exhibiting the graphic work of LeRoy Neiman.
Victor Hammer died in July 1985, and Armand Hammer died in 1990 at age 92 (less than a year after losing his wife Frances), leaving his son Michael Hammer as the chairman and president of The Armand Hammer Foundation. Maury Leibowitz died in 1992.
Appendix C: A Listing of Major Public Collections of LeRoy Neiman WorksAnchorage Historical and Fine Arts Museum, Anchorage, Alaska
Art Institute of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois
Baltimore Museum of Fine Art, Baltimore, Maryland
Baseball Hall of Fame, Cooperstown, New York
Brooks Memorial Art Gallery, Memphis, Tennessee
Colorado Springs Fine Arts Center, Colorado Springs, Colorado
Delaware Art Museum, Wilmington, Delaware
Duke University Museum of Art, Durham, North Carolina
Eiteljorg Museum of American Indian and Western Art, Indianapolis, Indiana
Football Hall of Fame, Canton, Ohio
Grunwald Center, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California
Armand Hammer Collection, Los Angeles, California
Harding Museum, Chicago, Illinois
Hayward Museum, Hayward, California
Hermitage Museum, Leningrad, USSR
Illinois State Museum, Springfield, Illinois
Indianapolis Museum of Art, Indianapolis, Indiana
Joslyn Museum, Omaha, Nebraska
Memorial Art Gallery, Rochester, New York
Meridian Museum of Art, Meridian, Mississippi
Michigan State University, Kesage Art Center Gallery, East Lansing, Michigan
Minneapolis Institute of Arts, Minneapolis, Minnesota
Minnesota Historical Society
Minnesota Museum of Art, St. Paul, Minnesota
Mobile Art Gallery and Museum, Mobile, Alabama
Museo de Bellas Artes, Caracas, Venezuela
National Museum of Sport in Art, New York, New York
Niagara University, Niagara, New York
Portland Museum of Art, Portland, Maine
Springfield Museum of Art, Springfield, Massachusetts
Tennis Hall of Fame, Newport, Rhode Island
Tucson Museum of Art, Tucson, Arizona
Tweed Museum of Art, University of Minnesota, Duluth, Minnesota
University Art Gallery, Binghamton, New York
University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California
University of Illinois, Champaign, Illinois
University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma
University of Oregon, Eugene, Oregon
University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida
University of Texas, Austin, Texas
Utah Museum of Fine Arts, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah
Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee
Wichita State University, Wichita, Kansas
Whitney Museum. New York, New York
Wodham College, Oxford, England
Yuma Fine Arts Association, Yuma, Arizona
Appendix D: A Listing of LeRoy Neiman Serigraph Releases
This list corresponds to newspaper and magazine ads in files 3.3: Felicie Inc. - Advertising and 3.3: Knoedler & Co. - Advertising. This is not a complete inventory.
DateSerigraphUnknown -- Bar '21' (offset lithograph)
Unknown -- Delacroix Tiger
Unknown -- Elephant Family
Unknown -- Gorilla Family
Unknown -- Kenya Leopard
Unknown -- Lion Pride (offset lithograph)
Unknown -- Lion Couple
Unknown -- Polar Bears
Unknown -- Serengeti Leopard
Unknown -- Zebra Family
Unknown -- The Plaza Square
Unknown -- Stock Market (offset lithograph)
Unknown -- Neiman Montreal '76 (offset lithograph)
Unknown -- Winter Olympic Skier, Lake Placid 1980
Unknown -- P.J. Clark's
Unknown -- Olympic Slalom
Unknown -- Dublin Bar
Unknown -- Le Grand Cuisine
Unknown -- Little Hitter
Unknown -- Little Fielder
1975 -- Le Grand Escalier de l'Opera, 1969
1975 -- Toots Shor Bar
1975 -- Club House Turn
1975 -- Black Panther
1976 -- Sun Serve
1976 -- Satchmo
1976 -- High Seas Sailing
1976 -- Vegas Blackjack
1976 -- Golf Landscape
1976 -- Elephant Stampede
1976 -- Nadia
1976 -- America's Cup
1977 -- Marlin!
1977 -- High Altitude Skiing
1977 -- Basketball Superstars
1977 -- Café aux Deux Magots
1977 -- The Mallet Men
1977 -- Bengal Tiger
1977 -- Giraffe Family
1977 -- Show Jumper
1977 -- Outrigger Canoe Race
1978 -- Metropolitan Opera
1978 -- Moby Dick Portfolio
1978 -- Bucking Bronc
1978 -- The Wildcats
1979 -- Kentucky Derby
1979 -- Chateau Hunt
1979 -- Stretch Stampede
1979 -- Aegean Sailing
1979 -- American Bald Eagle
1980 -- Lake Placid, Eighty, 1980
1981 -- Stenmark
1981 -- The Race of the Year
1981 -- Tour de France
1981 -- Before the Race
1984 -- Rush Street Bar
1984 -- Regents Park
1984 -- Elephant Nocturne
1985 -- Six Golfers, 1984
1985 -- Lady Skier
1985 -- Harry's Wall Street Bar
1986 -- Nob Hill
1986 -- Buena Vista Bar
1986 -- America's Cup, Australia
1987 -- Great Dane
1987 -- Giants - Broncos Classic
1987 -- 24 Hours of Le Mans
1987 -- Bistro Garden
1987 -- Left Bank Café
1988 -- Diamond Head, Hawaii
1988 -- Napoleon at Waterloo
1988 -- Piazza del Popolo - Rome
1988 -- Monte Carlo Suite
1988 -- Harbor at Monaco
1988 -- Salle Prive - Monte Carlo
1988 -- Borzoi
1988 -- In the Pocket
1988 -- Magic (Johnson)
1988 -- Clubhouse at Old St. Andrew's
1989 -- Polo Lounge
1989 -- Superplay
1989 -- President's Birthday Party
1989 -- Chicago Key Club Bar
1990 -- Secretariat II
1990 -- Chicago Options
1990 -- April at Augusta
1990 -- Gaming Table
1990 -- The '21' Club
1991 -- Homage to Ali
1991 -- Ted Williams
1991 -- Café Rive Gauche
1991 -- Cougar
1991 -- The Bordello
1992 -- Hunt Rendezvous
1992 -- Kilimanjaro Bulls
1992 -- Paddock at Chantilly
1993 -- The Maulers
1993 -- Fouquets
Appendix F: A Listing of "Man at His Leisure" Features in Playboy MagazineDateSubject/Pages1958 April -- Painter of the Urban Scene, p. 49-51
1958 December -- The Pump Room, Ambassadors East, Chicago, p. 60-61
1959 January -- Le Café Chambord, p. 52-53
1959 June -- Romanoff's, p. 62-63
1959 December -- Moore County Hounds (Southern Pines), p. 68-72
1960 February -- Hialeah Race Course, p. 52-54
1960 June -- The Colony, p. 74-75
1960 August -- Forest Hills, p. 76-77
1961 January -- Squaw Valley, p. 84-87
1961 March -- Ernie's, p. 94-95
1961 June -- The S.S. United States, p. 60-61
1961 July -- Longchamp - Auteuil, p. 82-85
1961 September -- La Plaza de Toros, p. 109-111
1961 December -- Maxim's, p. 130-131
1962 January -- The French Riviera, p. 103-105
1962 March -- The Grand National Steeplechase, p. 94-95
1962 May -- The Cambridge-Oxford Boat Race, p. 96-97
1962 August -- Las Vegas, p. 86-89
1963 May -- Monte Carlo, p. 122-125
1963 July -- Air France, p. 102-103
1963 September -- Sardi's, World Billiard Championship, p. 150-151
1963 December -- Madison Square Garden, p. 169-171
1964 April -- Epsom Derby, p. 120-121
1964 August -- St. Tropez, p. 62-65
1964 October -- Chantilly, p. 144-147
1964 December -- The Lido, p. 159-193
1965 March -- The New York Playboy Club, p.116-117
1965 August -- The Girallia Yacht Race, p. 110-111
1965 December -- The Plaza, Manhattan, p. ?
1966 July -- The Royal Ascot, p. 110-113
1966 September -- The America's Cup, p. 168-169
1967 January -- Discotheques, p. 180-181
1967 June -- Surfing, p. 112-115
1967 November -- National Horse Show, p. 143-145
1967 Winter -- VIP Magazine, Assignment London
1968 January -- Rosati's, Via Venito, p.?
1969 January -- The Bolshoi Ballet, p. 199-201
1969 June -- Le Mans, p. 124-125
1969 August -- Yugoslavia, p. 126-129
1970 January -- Morocco, p. 203-207
1970 November -- Can-Am Race, p. 179-181
1971 January -- Jamaica, p. 191-193
1972 January -- Sotheby's Auction Room, p. 171-173
1973 January -- Super Bowl, p. 187-189
1973 July -- Summer of '72 - The Hamptons, p. 152-157
Playboy Magazine's "Neiman Sketchbook" Features
DateSubject/Pages1979 December -- Teofilo Stevenson, p. 221
1980 January -- Senator Ted Kennedy, p. 137
1980 February -- Roller Skating, p. 166 -167
1980 March -- Charles Mingus, p. 179
Appendix E: Exhibitions
Below is a chronological list of Neiman exhibitions. See the index for an alphabetical list of exhibitions (listed by name of venue under the item "exhibitions") and reference to locations of pertinent archive files.
DateSolo ExhibitionsOct. 9-Nov. 6, 1959 -- F. Oehlschlaeger Gallery, Chicago
March 3-31, 1961 -- F. Oehlschlaeger Gallery, Chicago
Feb. 9-March 9, 1962 -- F. Oehlschlaeger Gallery, Chicago
March 1962 -- O'Hana Gallery, London
Nov. 27-Dec. 11, 1962 -- Galerie O. Bosc, Paris
Oct. 8-19, 1963 -- Hammer Galleries, New York
January-February, 1965 -- "Vie de France," Astor Tower French Center, Chicago
Nov. 23-Dec. 4, 1965 -- Hammer Galleries, New York
March 5-25, 1966 -- Gallery Richelle, St. Louis
1976 -- "LeRoy Neiman Retrospective 1949-75," Minnesota Museum of Art, St. Paul
Nov. 1967 -- Frank Sinatra Film Drawings Exhibition, Gallery of Modern Art, New York
Sept. 26-Oct. 7, 1967 -- Hammer Galleries, New York
Dec. 26-31, 1968 -- New York Jets Sketches, Hammer Galleries, New York
May 1-June 10, 1969 -- "LeRoy Neiman: Paintings and Drawings," Choate School, Wallingford, CT
May 1969 -- "LeRoy Neiman: Impressions of Atlanta," Heath Gallery, Atlanta, GA
Jan. 20-31, 1970 -- Hammer Galleries, New York
Oct. 19-Nov. 2, 1971 -- "Recent Graphics and Drawings", The Far Gallery, New York
April-May, 1972 -- Museo de Bellas Artes, Caracas
Dec. 1972 -- Circle Gallery, Chicago
Oct. 31-Nov. 11, 1972 -- Hammer Galleries, New York
Nov. 22, 1972-Jan. 7, 1973 -- "Sketches of the XXth Olympiad," Solo Exhibition, Indianapolis Museum of Art
Jan.-Feb. 1973 -- Circle Gallery, Los Angeles
1973 -- Circle Gallery, Dallas
March 24, 1973 -- The Hang -Up Gallery Open House
April-May 1973 -- Circle Gallery, New York
June 2-23, 1973 -- Brentano's Gallery, New York
Jan. 24-Feb. 5, 1974 -- "Ali - Frazier," Circle Gallery, New York
Feb. 3-March 17, 1974 -- Springfield Museum of Art
1974 -- Windsor Gallery, Los Angeles
April 30-May 11, 1974 -- Hammer Galleries, New York
June 22-July 6, 1974 -- Gallery Hawaii, International Market Place, Honolulu
Sept. 1974 -- Abercrombie & Fitch
1974 -- Tobu Gallery, Tokyo
Nov. 1974 -- Gilbert Gallery, San Francisco
Nov. 1974 -- Windsor Gallery, New York
Feb. 1975 -- Carol Condit Galleries, White Plains, NY
March 1975 -- Art Gallery -Studio 53 Ltd., New York
April 1975 -- "The Wide World of LeRoy Neiman," Windsor Gallery, Los Angeles
June-July 1975 -- Moby Dick Traveling Exhibition, Peter Foulger Museum, Nantucket
Aug. 1975 -- Moby Dick Traveling Exhibition, Sag Harbor, Long Island
Sept. 1975 -- Moby Dick Traveling Exhibition, Pittsfield, MA
July 1975 -- Waller's Gallery, Tampa, FL
Sept. 1975 -- Hess's Gallery, Allentown, PA
Nov. 1975 -- Meredith Long & Co., Houston
Dec. 4-26, 1975 -- Thomas Ward Galleries, St. Paul
Dec. 4, 1975-Jan. 24, 1976 -- Minnesota Museum of Art, St. Paul
Dec. 10, 1975-Jan. 10, 1976 -- Hammer Galleries, New York
Jan. 21-March 10, 1976 -- Indianapolis Museum of Art, Downtown Gallery at American Fletcher National Bank
Feb.-May 1976 -- Emerald Art Galleries, Coronado, CA
March 14-28, 1976 -- Jewish Community Center, Bridgeport, CT
June 1976 -- M. Knoedler & Co., London
Aug. 1976 -- Frank Oehlschlaeger Gallery, Chicago
Aug. 28-Sept. 27, 1976 -- Gallery Hawaii, Hyatt Recency
Sept. 12-Oct. 6, 1976 -- Niagara Art Center, Niagara Falls
1976 -- Art Gallery-Studio 53 Ltd., New York
Oct. 1976 -- Heit Galleries, Phoenix, AZ
Nov. 16-Dec. 4, 1976 -- "The Olympic Ring," Hammer Galleries, New York
Dec. 12-19, 1976 -- Fahlnaes Konstsalong, Sweden
March 1977 -- Gallery 100, Mishawaka, IN
March 1977 -- Upstairs Gallery, Beverly Hills
March 1977 -- Galerie Marc, San Francisco
Aug. 31-Sept. 11, 1977 -- Galerie Renee & Victor, Stockholm, Sweden
Sept. 1977 -- Bowles/Hopkins Gallery, San Francisco
Sept. 2-23, 1977 -- Casa Grafica, Helsinki, Finland
Oct.-Nov. 1977 -- St. Lawrence National Bank, Ogdensburg NY
Arledge, Roone - 2.2: ABC Correspondence, 3.1: Olympics Munich 1972, 3.1: "Recent Graphics and Drawings," The Far Gallery Solo Exhibition 1971, 3.1: Olympics, Montreal 1976 Roone Arledge, 1972 drawing - 4.1: 2003
Arliss - 4.1: 1996
Armory Art Fair, Washington DC - 4.1: 1977
Armstrong, Louis - see jazz
Army, U.S., service in - 1.1: Military Service
Army vs. Navy 1946, 2000 - 4.1: 2001
Arnstein, Vera Daphne - 4.1: 1990
Arrow shirts - see promotions
Art Aid - 4.1: 1986
L'art et l'automobile - 3.1: LeRoy Neiman Corvette 1984, 4.1: 1988, 2002, see also exhibitions
Art Brokerage Inc. - see Rose, Donna
Art Collection House Co., Ltd., Japan - 2.1: 1994, 1995
Art Directors Club of Oklahoma City - 4.1: 1967, VII
Art Expo - 4.1: Undated
Art for Education - 4.1: 1998
The Art of Gaming Through the Ages, by Arthur Flowers and Anthony Curtis, foreword by LeRoy Neiman - 3.1: The Art of Gaming Through the Ages, Huntington Press, 2000
Art Institute of Boston - 1.1: Honorary Degrees, 2.1: 1975, 4.1: 1975
Art Institute of Chicago - 1.1: Education and Teaching, 2.1: 1987, 1989, 1996, 3.1: "Drawing New Conclusions," Art Institute of Chicago group exhibition 1992, 4.1: 1978 ov, 2001, 2002, see also exhibitions
Auxiliary Board - 2.1: 1990
Barewalls, 2001 - 3.1: Art Institute of Chicago Reunion 2001
Art and Lifestyle, 1974 - see LeRoy Neiman: Art and LifeStyle, 1974, 3.2.1
ArtExpo New York - 2.1: 1989, 4.1: 1987, 1998, 2001
Art-o-gram: News of the art world for art dealers only - 4.1: 1977
Arthur Andersen & Co. - 4.1: 1981
Les Arts de France - 2.1: 1988
Arum, Bob and Lovee - 2.1: 1996, 1998, 4.1: 1996
Ascent, 1961 - 4.1: 1961
Ashford, Evelyn - see running
Aspen, CO - 4.1: 1993, 1994
Association for the Help of Retarded Children (AHRC) - 3.1: Thurman Munson and Thurman Munson Awards Dinner 1977-present
Fred Astaire - 3.1: Good Tidings Foundation 1998 -, 4.1: 1985
Athens International Festival - 4.1: 1993
Atlanta, GA - 3.1: Economic Opportunity Atlanta 1968
Atlanta International Film Festival - 4.1: 1974 and ov, V: 1974
Atlanta Magazine - 4.1: 1969, 1975, 1996
Atlanta's Poor People Art School - 4.1: 1969
Atlantic City, New Jersey - see also casinos, promotions, 3.1: Tour de Trump 1989
attorney - see Shaw, Robert
auction - 4.1: 1978, 1997, 1998, 1999
Augusta National Golf Club, The 16th at Augusta, 1992 - 4.1: 1994
auto racing -- - 4.1: 1982, 1983, 1989, 1999
Andretti, Mario - 4.1: 1975, 1992
Andretti, Michael - 4.1: 1992
Brayton, Scott - 4.1: 1996
Beni Hana Grand Prix - 2.1: 1978
Caesar's Palace Grand Prix, 1981 - 3.1: Caesar's Palace Grand Prix 1981-83
Caesar's Palace Grand Prix, 1982 - 3.1: Caesar's Palace Grand Prix 1981-83
Caesar's Palace Grand Prix, 1983 - 3.1: Caesar's Palace Grand Prix 1981-83
Can-Am Race - 4.2: -- Playboy -- 1970, see Appendix E
Dallas Grand Prix, 1984 - 2.2: Neiman-Marcus 1983-88, 3.1: Dallas Grand Prix 1984
Denver Grand Prix, 1990 - 3.1: Denver Grand Prix 1990-1991
Denver Grand Prix, 1991 - 3.1: Denver Grand Prix 1990-1991
boats - see sailing, or Showboats International; The Cambridge-Oxford Boat Race - 4.2: -- Playboy -- 1962, see Appendix E
Bochette, Liston - 2.1: 1981, 1984, 1985
bodybuilding -- - 4.1: 1977, 1982, 1990
Everson, Cory - 4.1: 1990
Schwarzenegger, Arnold - see Schwarzenegger, Arnold
Boek, Louis - 1.1: Military Service
Boggs, Bill - 4.1: 2002 ov., 2004
Bonaventure - see St. Bonaventure University
Bond, Julian - 4.1: 1969
Bonds, Barry - Barry Bonds, 2003 pastel - 3.1: Good Tidings Foundation, 1998-present book jacket illustrations - 3.1: folder 1, 3.1: Charlotte Chandler 1978-84, 4.1: 1973, 1982, 1988-89
Book of the Month Club - 3.2.5, 3.2. -- Winners -- , 1983, Harry N. Abrams , Text Drafts
by Mr. Neiman - see Publications files in Series 3.2
by others, containing Mr. Neiman's works - see Licensing Art and Design by Cynthia Revelli, Skip Singleton tennis books, see also book jacket illustrations
bookstores - see Publications files in series 3.2 for information on book signings at bookstores
Borg, Bjorn - see tennis
Borstal Boy - 2.1: 1984, 3.1: Borstal Boy 1970
Bosley, Thad - see Skoal Pinch Hitter
Bourgeois, Louise - 3.1: "Cig Art" Benefit Exhibitions 1996-2000
Bourne, Bob - 4.1: 1983
Bowe, Riddick - see boxing
Bowlers Journal - see bowling
Bowles, Franklin - see Bowles Galleries
Bowles Galleries - 1.2: Bowles Galleries, see exhibitions, see also Timothy Yarger Fine Art
bowling -- - 2.1: 1976
Anthony, Earl - 3.1: Million Dollar Strike, 1982
Carter, Don - 3.1: Million Dollar Strike, 1982
Esposito, Frank - 2.1: 1986, 1996, 3.1: Million Dollar Strike, 1982
Million Dollar Strike, 1982 - 3.1: Million Dollar Strike, 1982
Varipapa, Andy - 3.1: Million Dollar Strike, 1982
boxing -- - 3.1: Ali vs. Frazier I, 1971, 3.1: Ali vs. Frazier III "The Thrilla in Manila," 1975, 3.1: Ali vs. Spinks 1978, 3.1: Sportsman's Ball 1978, 3.1: Ali vs. Holmes 1980, 3.1: Duran vs. Leonard I, II, III 1980-89, 3.1: Hearns vs. Leonard 1981, 3.1: Tribute to Joe Louis (Holmes vs. Spinks) 1981, 3.1: Holmes vs. Cooney 1982, 3.1: Hagler vs. Hearns 1985, 3.1: Mike Tyson Portraits 1986-1990s, 3.1: Tyson vs. Spinks 1988, 3.1: McGirt vs. Whitaker 1993, 3.1: Tyson vs. Holyfield 1991-1996, 3.1: Holyfield -Lewis and Ali vs. Frazier I, 1971, 1999, 3.1: Lewis vs. Tyson 2002, 3.1: De La Hoya vs. Vargas 2002, 4.1: 1964, 1965, 1966, 1967, 1970, 1971, 1972, 1976, 1977, 1978, 1979, 1981, 1982, 1983, 1984, 1985, 1987, 1988, 1989, undated 1990s, 1990, 1991, 1993, 1994, 1995, 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002
Ali, Muhammad - see Ali vs. Frazier, 3.1: Lewis vs. Tyson 2002, .2.1: 2001, 3.1: GOAT (Greatest of All Time - A Tribute to Muhammad Ali) Book by Taschen, 2004, 3.2.1, 3.2.16, 4.1: 1964, 1965, 1966, 1967, 1970, 1971, 1974, 1976, 1977, 1978, 1980, 1985 1991, 1994, 1995, 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001, 4.2: Playboy Ephemera 1960s, 4.2: The Ring Magazine as artist - 2.1: 1979, 4.1: 1966, 1967, 1970 ov, 1979
Muhammad Ali - Athlete of the Century, 2000 - 3.1: Muhammad Ali - Athlete of the Century, 2000-2002
Muhammad Ali - The Greatest Collector's Edition Magazine, 2002 - 4.1: 2002
Ali vs. Foreman, Zaire poster, 1974 - 4.1: 1974, 2000, 2002
Ali vs. Frazier
Ali vs. Frazier I, 1971 - 3.1: Ali vs. Frazier I, 1971
Ali vs. Frazier I, 1971, 1999 - 3.1: Holyfield -Lewis and Ali vs. Frazier I, 1999, 4.1: 2000
Ali vs. Frazier II etchings, 1974 - 3.1: Ali vs. Frazier I, 1971, 3.1: Circle Gallery 1972, 3.1: Ali vs. Frazier II, 1974, 3.1: Ali vs. Frazier III "The Thrilla in Manila," 1975, 4.1: 1990
Fight of the Century poster, 1971 - 3.1: Ali vs. Frazier I, 1971
Thrilla in Manila poster, 1975 - 3.1: Ali vs. Frazier III "The Thrilla in Manila," 1975, 4.1: 2000
Ali vs. Holmes, 1980 - 3.1: Ali -Holmes 1980, 4.1: 2000
Ali vs. Spinks, 1978 - 3.1: Ali vs. Spinks 1978, 4.1: 2000
Bobrick - 4.1: 1977
Bowe, Riddick - 4.1: 1993, 1995, 1996, 4.2: The Ring Magazine
Boxers Ball - 4.1: 1997
Boxing Beat Magazine - 4.1: 1988
Boxing Illustrated - 4.1: 1993
Boxing at the Ritz - 4.1: 1993
Boxing Writers Association of America - 1.1: Awards, 4.1: 1967, 1985, 2004
Brenner, Teddy - 2.1: 1978, 1979, 4.1: 1978, 4.2: The Ring Magazine
Camacho, Hector - 4.1: 1986, 1997
Chavez, Julio Cesar - 4.1: 1993, 1996
Julio Cesar Chavez, pastel - 4.1: 1996
Julio Cesar Chavez, 1996 drawing - 4.1: 1996
Clay, Cassius - see Muhammad Ali
Coetzee - 4.1: 1984
Cooney, Gerry - see Holmes vs. Cooney, 2.1: 1989, 2000, 4.1: 1981, 1987, 2001, 4.2: The Ring Magazine
De La Hoya, Oscar - 3.1: The Fight of the Millennium, 1999, 3.1: De La Hoya vs. Vargas 2002, 3.1: De La Hoya vs. Hopkins 2004, 4.1: 1995, 1997
Oscar De La Hoya, 1995 - 4.1: 1997
De La Hoya vs. Mosely poster 2000 - 3.1: De La Hoya vs. Mosley 2000
De La Hoya vs. Whitaker, 1997 - 4.1: 1997
Dundee, Angelo - 3.1: Angelo Dundee Tribute 2002
Duran, Roberto - 3.1: Duran vs. Leonard I, II, III 1980 -1989, 4.1: 1980, 1983, 1984, 1994, 1995, 4.2: The Ring Magazine
Ellis, Jimmy - 4.1: 1973 ov
F.I.S.T. - 2.1: 2000, 4.1: 2000, 2001
film, documentary - see Win a Few, Lose a Few, 1972
Foreman, George - see Ali vs. Foreman, 2.1: 1989, 4.1: undated, 1973, 1974, 1976, 1993, 1995, 1999, 4.2: The Ring Magazine
Foreman Frazier Fight - 4.1: undated
Foreman vs. Holmes, 1999 - 4.1: 1999
Frazier, Joe - see Ali vs. Frazier, 2.1: 1975, 4.1: undated, 1969 ov, 1971, 1972, 1973, 1976, 1981, 1992, 1998, 4.2: The Ring Magazine
Golden Gloves Championships - 4.1: 2000, 2001
Golota, Andrew - 4.1: 1996
Grant, Michael - see Lewis vs. Grant, 4.2: The Ring Magazine, 4.1: 2001
Trump Taj Mahal, Atlantic City - see Trump, Donald
Vegas Blackjack - 4.1: 1984, 1996
catalogue raisonnes - 3.2.5, 3.2.9, 3.2.14
Cavett, Dick - 2.1: 1999
"Celebration 2000" Exhibition - 3.2.14
Celebrity Night at Spago, 1993 - 3.1: Celebrity Night at Spago, 1993
Centaur Galleries, Las Vegas - see exhibitions
Center Art Galleries, Hawaii - 3.1: Center Art Galleries Exhibition, Hawaii 1985, 4.1: 1984, 1987
Central Park Boathouse - see restaurants
cereal box - see Wheaties
Chabot Galleries - 2.1: 1989
Chamberlain, Wilt - see 3.1: Basketball Superstars, 1975 -76, 3.1: Kareem Abdul -Jabbar, 1984, 3.1: Wilt Chamberlain 2000, 4.1: 1981
champagne - 3.1: Duval LeRoy Champagne 1999-2001
Champagne Taittinger - 3.1: 1993
Champagne...Uncorked! by Rosemary Zraly - 3.1: Saks Fifth Avenue 1994-1999, 3.1: Champagne...Uncorked! by Rosemary Zraly 1996
Champions vs. MS - 2.1: 1977
Le Champs- Elysses, 1992 - 4.1: 1996
The Champs-Elysees, la Voie Triomphale, 1994 - 4.1: 1997
Chandler, Charlotte - 3.1: Charlotte Chandler 1978-84, 3.1: March of Dimes' Gourmet Gala 1985
Channel Thirteen, New York - 2.1: 1984, 4.1: 1983
Charismatic - 4.1: 1999
charity - 2.1: Charities (all files), see also AIMS (Committee to Aid Multiple Sclerosis), American Cancer Society, American Diabetes Association, American Heart Association, Association for the Help of Retarded Children (AHRC), Boys & Girls Clubs of America, Boys Town of Italy, Carousel of Hope (Children's Diabetes Foundation), Champions vs. MS, Children's Hearing Institute, Citymeals-on-Wheels, Concern's Charity of Champions, Cystic Fibrosis Foundation, Doodle for Hunger, Good Tidings Foundation, Hope House Ministries, Hospital Relief Fund of the Caribbean, International Heart Foundation, International Sephardic Education Foundation, Jackie Robinson Foundation (under Robinson, Jackie), Jimmy Fund, Juvenile Diabetes Foundation, Leukemia Society of America, Make-a-Wish Foundation, Monmouth Park Charity Ball, Muscular Dystrophy Association, Myasthenia Gravis Foundation, National Multiple Sclerosis Society, North Shore Child and Family Guidance Association, Race to Erase MS, Rock for the Cure, Ronald McDonald House, Special Olympics, United Cerebral Palsy Association, United Way, 4.1: 1981, 1992, 1999; see also animals: rescue
Charlie Cosmetics - see promotions
Chavez, Julio Cesar - see boxing
chef - 3.1: James Beard 1985-87, see also Bennett, Chef John; Clark, Chef Patrick; Kopf, Stefan; Lomonaco, Chef Michael; food; restaurants; Soltner, Chef Andre
Chemical Bank - 2.2: Manufacturers Hanover and Chemical Bank, VII: Box 3
Cher - 4.1: 1981
chess - see Fischer, Bobby
Chicago Board of Trade, 1974-75 - 2.1: 1977, 1989, 4.1: 1977
Chicago Public Library - 4.1: 1955-59
Chicago Serigraphic Workshop - 2.1: 1977
children, artwork by - 2.2: Artwork from Children
children, letters from - 2.2: Mrs. Vladimir's Class 1975-85, 2.2: Hutchinson KS, Elementary Schools, 1976-78, 2.2: Mr. Silver's Class 1978-81, see also various letters in 2.1 Fan Mail files
Children at Heart - 4.1: 1996
Childrens Diabetes Foundation - 3.1: Carousel Ball 1982-present
Children's Hearing Institute - 4.1: 1994
China - 2.1: 1983
Chinaglia, Georgio - see soccer
Choate School - 4.1: 1969
Christie's - 4.1: 1978
Christina Galice Gallery - 2.1: 1990
churches -- - 4.1: 1964, 1965; The Organ at St. Paul the Apostle, 1965 - 4.1: 1965
etchings - 2.1: 1977, 3.1: Malletmen etching Certificate, 1977, 1.2: Bowles Galleries Correspondence 1970s, see also boxing: Ali vs. Frazier II etchings, 1974, and soccer: Soccer, 1989 etching, The Etchings of LeRoy Neiman, 1976 Knoedler booklet - 3.1: The Etchings of LeRoy Neiman, 1976 booklet (ov)
Eve Models, Ltd. - 4.1: 1971, 1974
Everson, Cory - see bodybuilding
Evert, Chris - see tennis
Ewbank, Weeb - 3.1: Gridiron Football News 1971-1973, 4.1: 1978
exhibitions -- - Note: Solo and group exhibitions are listed alphabetically by the venue name
Bowles/Sorokko Galleries, "LeRoy Neiman: Monte Carlo," San Francisco 1988 - 3.2. Monte Carlo Chase, 1988, Van Der Marck Editions, Ltd., Related Exhibitions
Bowles/Sorokko Galleries, Polo Lounge Debut, Beverly Hills, April 1989 - 3.1: Polo Lounge debut at Bowles/Sorokko Galleries, Beverly Hills 1989
Bowles/Sorokko Galleries, San Francisco, May 1990 - 3.1: Bay Area Baseball debut at Bowles/Sorokko, San Francisco 1990
Bowles/Sorokko, Beverly Hills, October 1990 - 4.1: 1990
Bowles/Sorokko Galleries, "The Prints of LeRoy Neiman 1980 -1990," Beverly Hills, 1991 - 3.2. The Prints of LeRoy Neiman, 1980-1990, 1991
Bowles/Sorokko Galleries, "LeRoy Neiman's San Francisco," San Francisco 1991 - 3.1: San Francisco Series 1991-93
Bowles/Sorokko Galleries, "LeRoy Neiman: Downtown," New York 1992 - 4.1: 1992
Bowles/Sorokko Galleries, "Big Time Golf," Beverly Hills, San Francisco, and New York, 1992 - 3.2. -- Big Time Golf -- , 1992, Publicity and Related Exhibitions
Bowles/Sorokko Galleries, City by the Bay Debut, San Francisco, 1993 - 3.1: San Francisco Series, 1991-1993
Bowles/Sorokko Galleries, "An American in Paris," Beverly Hills, San Francisco, and New York, 1994 - 3.2. -- LeRoy Neiman: An American in Paris -- , 1994, Related Exhibitions
Bowles/Sorokko Galleries, San Francisco, 1995 - 4.1: 1995
Bowles/Sorokko/Yarger Galleries, "Portraits of Our Times 1946-1996", Beverly Hills and San Francisco 1996 - 3.1: "Portraits of Our Times 1946-96" Solo Exhibition and Catalog, Bowles/Sorokko/Yarger Galleries, 1996
Brentano's Gallery, New York, 1973 - 4.1: 1973
Brentano's Gallery, New York, 1979 - 2.1: 1979, 4.1: 1979
Brentano's Gallery, New York, 1980 - 4.1: 1980
Butler Institute of American Art, Exhibition at "The Art Spirit" Event, April 1990 - 4.1: 1990
Carol Condit Galleries, White Plains, 1975 - 4.1: 1975
Casa Grafica, Helsinki, Finland, 1977 - 3.1: Casa Grafica Solo Exhibition, Helsinki, Finland, 1977
"Celebration 2000," 2000 - 3.2. -- The Prints of LeRoy Neiman -- , 1991-2000, 2001
Centaur Galleries, Las Vegas, 2000 - 4.1: 2000
Centaur Sculpture Galleries, "The Safari Suite," Las Vegas 1996 - 3.2. -- LeRoy Neiman On Safari -- , 1996, Related Exhibitions
Center Art Galleries, Honolulu, Hawaii, 1985 - 3.1: Center Art Galleries Exhibition, Hawaii, 1985
Halas, George - 3.1: Gridiron Football News 1971-73, George Halas, Jr. Sports Center - 4.1: 1979
Hall, Jim - 4.1: 1997
Hall of Famer, 1996 - 3.1: Saks Fifth Avenue 1994-1999, 4.1: 1998
Halle, David - 3.1: UCLA LeRoy Neiman Center for the Study of American Society and Culture, 1998-present; A Sociological Study of the Artist LeRoy Neiman, and 1000 Neiman Collectors by David Halle and Louis Mirrer - IC: A Sociological Study of the Artist LeRoy Neiman, and 1000 Neiman Collectors by David Halle and Louis Mirrer, 1990
Halmi, Robert - 3.2.12 and 4.1: undated ov
Hammer Galleries - see exhibitions, and Knoedler & Co.
Hammer, Armand - 1.2: Knoedler & Co. and Hammer Galleries, 3.1: New York City Marathon 1984-2001, 3.1: Tretyakov Museum Solo Exhibition, Moscow 1988, 3.1: Tokyo exhibition 1988
Hammer, Michael - 1.2: Knoedler & Co. and Hammer Galleries
Hammer, Victor - 1.2: Knoedler & Co. and Hammer Galleries
Hammond, IN - see Mercantile Bank
Hampton, Kym - 4.1: 2000
The Hamptons, New York - 3.1: Hamptons notes 1972, 4.2: -- Playboy -- 1973, see Appendix E handball - see Jacobs, Jim
Hanson Gallery, New Orleans - see exhibitions, 3.1: Rex Proclamation Mardi Gras Painting 2002, 4.1: 1984, 1986, 1998, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2004
Hanson Gallery, San Diego - 4.1: 1987
Harbor Boat House, 1955 - 4.1: 1950s
Hardy, Joseph A. - 1.1: Collectors
Harlem Streets, 1981 - 3.1: Cities in Schools and Harlem Streets, 1981
Harlequin, lithograph - 3.1: Circle Gallery 1972, 4.1: 1989
Harlequin and a Nude, 1971 - 4.1: 1991
Harlequin with Sword, lithograph - 3.1: Circle Gallery 1972
Harlequin's Entry into Venice, 1971 mural - 3.1: "The Playboy Collection," Dyansen Gallery Traveling Exhibition 1989-90
Haring, Keith - 4.1: 1997
Harmon Galleries - see Foster Harmon Galleries
Harper's -- Magazine - 4.1: 1964, 1968
Harrod's, London - 4.1: 1982
Harry, Deborah - 2.1: 1978
Harry's Wall Street Bar - see bars
Hartack, Bill - 2.1: 1977
Harvard University - 4.2: Playboy Parodies - Harvard and Yale
Japan - 2.1: 1986, 1987, 2.2: CBS Sports Correspondence, 3.1: Hawaii and Japan 1974, 3.1: Japan Trip 1977, 3.1: Tokyo Exhibition 1983, 3.1: Tokyo Exhibition 1988, 3.2. -- Winners -- , 1983, Correspondence, Harry N. Abrams, 4.1: 1984
Armstrong, Louis - 3.1: "Louis Armstrong: A Cultural Legacy" traveling exhibition 1995, 4.1: undated 1990s
Louis Armstrong, 1963 - 4.1: 1965
Louis Armstrong, 1981 - 4.1: 1981
Louis Armstrong, 1976 - 3.1: Newport Jazz Festival 1975 -2004, 3.1: Kool Jazz Festival 1976, 4.1: 1979
London, England - 3.1: O'Hana Gallery Solo Exhibition, London 1962, 3.1: Knoedler London Exhibition 1976, 4.1: 1960 ov, 1961, 1962, 1966, see also Liverpool
The Lone Ranger, 1977 - 2.1: 1988, 3.1: The Lone Ranger, 1977
Long, Captain Elgen, The Adventurer, between 1971 and 1977 - 2.2: Gallery Mack 1975 -87, 4.1: 1982
Lonsdale International Sporting Club - 1.1: Awards
Los Angeles Institute of Contemporary Art (LAICA) - 3.1: Neiman/Warhol Exhibition at LAICA 1981-82
Louganis, Greg - see swimming and diving
Louis, Allyson - see Allyson Louis Gallery
Louis, Joe - see boxing
Nick Lowery, 1992 - 4.1: 1992, 1997
Lubel, William - 2.1: 1973
Lynch, David - 3.1: "Cig Art" Benefit Exhibitions 1996-2000
Maccioni, Sirio - 4.1: 2004
Mack, Barbara - see Gallery Mack
Madison Square Garden - 2.1: 1981, 4.1: 1966, 1967, 1968, 1969, 1971, 1987, 1992, 1994, 1999, 4.2: -- Playboy -- 1963, see Appendix E
Madison Square Garden (silkscreen) - 4.1: 1978
Madrid, Spain - 4.1: 1960 ov
A Magic Moment, 1990 - see Orlando Magic under "baseball"
magical creatures - see animals: unicorn
Mahoney, James - 2.1: 1983, 3.1: Pebble Beach Golf 1982-1995
Mailer, Norman - 4.1: 1982
Maitland, Vic - 2.2: NFL Alumni
Make-a-Wish Foundation - 4.1: 2000
Maki, Mary Ann - 2.1: 1993, 1995, 1997
Malave, Chu Chu - see boxing
Malinowski, Mark "Scoop" - 4.1: 2000
Malletmen, 1977 etching - see polo
Manager of the Year, 1992 - see LaRussa, Tony
Mandalay Bay - 3.1: De La Hoya vs. Vargas 2002
Mandela, Nelson - 3.1: Nelson Mandela Tribute 1997
Mangione, Chuck - 4.1: 2004
Manhattan Bride -- Magazine - 4.1: 1999
Manhattan Concert Club - 4.1: 2004
Manhattan Magazine - 1.1: Awards, 2.1: 1989, 3.1: LeRoy Neiman Center for Print Studies, Columbia University 1995 - present, 4.1: 1984, 1990, 1997, 1998, 1999 Manila, Phillipines - 3.1: Ali vs. Frazier III "The Thrilla in Manila," 1975
Manufacturers Hanover Trust Company - 2.1: 1978, 2.2: Manufacturers Hanover and Chemical Bank, 3.1: New York City Marathon 1984-2001, 3.1: Millrose Games 1986-1995, see also Chemical Bank and McCabe, Charles
marathon - see running
March of Dimes - 2.1: 1981, 1982, 3.1: March of Dimes' Gourmet Gala 1985, 4.1: 1974, 1981, 1983, 1985
The Organ at St. Paul the Apostle, 1965 - 4.1: 1965, 1967
Symphantasy - 3.1: Symphantasy 1988
Symphony for United Nations, 1991 - 2.1: 1991, 4.1: 1991
country - 4.1: 1994, see Tennessee
jazz - see jazz
opera - see opera
popular - 3.1: Fifth Dimension Album Art 1970-82, 3.1: Billboard Magazine First Annual Billie Awards 1993, 4.1: 1993, see The Beatles; Bennet, Tony; Blues Ball; Davis, Sammy; Iglesias, Julio; Jackson, Michael; Lennon, John; Paul, Les; Sinatra, Frank
musicals - see Times Square, 2001
Angels on Horseback - 4.1: undated 1980s
Golden Boy - 4.1: 1964
My Fair Lady - 3.1: Showstoppers Group Exhibition, MCNY 1983, 4.1: 1983
Oh! Calcutta - 4.1: 1967
Porgy and Bess - 3.1: Showstoppers Group Exhibition, MCNY 1983, 4.1: 1983
West Side Story - 3.1: Showstoppers Group Exhibition, MCNY 1983, 4.1: 1983
Mustang Ranch - 3.1: Mustang Ranch Brothel 1989
Myasthenia Gravis Foundation - 4.1: 1978
Myers, Farlan - 2.1: 1986
Mystic Seaport, CT - 3.2. -- Moby Dick -- , 1975, The Artist's Limited Edition
Mystic Rock, 1995 - 4.1: 1997
NAMTA - 4.1: 1984
NBC - see television
NECO (National Ethnic Coalition of Organizations) - 1.1: Awards, Citations and Miscellaneous Prizes
Nabisco - see promotions
Nahan, Kenneth - 4.1: undated
Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame - see basketball
Namath, Joe - 3.1: New York Jets 1966-, 4.1: 1968, 1972, 1973, 1982
Napoleon at Waterloo, 1988 serigraph - 4.1: 1988
Nash, Beau - 3.1: The Ambassadors, 1960s
The Nation -- Magazine - 2.1: 1998, 4.1: 1998
National Art Museum of Sport (NAMOS) - 2.1: 1972, 1979, 4.1: 1980, 2003 see also exhibitions
National Arts Club - 4.1: 1994
National Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum, Cooperstown, NY - see baseball
National Bowling Hall of Fame and Museum - see bowling - Million Dollar Strike, 1982
National Cowboy Hall of Fame - 2.1: 1999, 3.1: National Cowboy Hall of Fame 1985
National Fitness Classic - 4.1: 1982, 1983
National Multiple Sclerosis Society - 4.1: 1969, 1976, 1980, 1988
National Sports Collectors Convention - 4.1: 1992 ov.
Playboy -- Magazine and Man at His Leisure - see Appendix E, 2.2: Playboy Enterprises Inc. 1980s, 3.1: 1984 Olympics, Los Angeles, 4.1: 1959, 1966, 1999, 4.2: -- Playboy -- Magazine, V: Playboy Clubs 1961-63
The Plaza Hotel, New York - 4.2: -- Playboy -- 1965, see Appendix E
The Plaza Square, 1985 - 4.1: 1985, 1986
tapestry - 2.1: 1990
Poland - 2.1: 1976, 1987
Plunkett, Sherman - 4.1: 1967
Police Athletic League - 2.1: 1981
politics - 3.1: Bill Bradley 1978-2000, 3.1: Peace Treaty, 1980, 3.1: Peter Dawkins Poster 1988, 3.1: Rudy Giulianni and Commission on Cultural Affairs 1994-2001, 3.1: Nelson Mandela Tribute 1997, 4.1: 1960, 1968, 1988, 1989, 1992, see also Thurmond, Strom, and The White House
Sinatra, Frank -- - 1.1: New York Friars Club, 2.2: Sinatra Family Correspondence, 3.1: Hammer Galleries Solo Exhibition 1967, 3.1: Frank Sinatra Film Drawings Exhibition, Gallery of Modern Art 1967, 3.1: Leo Durocher 1974-94, 3.1: Frank Sinatra Portraits for Duets and Duets II Albums 1993-1995, 3.1: Hofstra Univ. Frank Sinatra Conference and Exhibition 1998, 3.1: Frank Sinatra Classic Duets Album Cover 2002, 4.1: 1979, 1983, 1989, 1998, see also golf, 4.2: Playboy Ephemera 1960s
Frank at Rao's, 2005 serigraph - 4.1: 2005
Frank Sinatra, 1993 - 3.1: Frank Sinatra Duets and Duets II Album Covers 1993-1995
Frank Sinatra at Carnegie Hall, 1974 - 3.1: Frank Sinatra at Carnegie Hall Poster 1974
Frank Sinatra as the Detective, 1967 - 3.1: Frank Sinatra Film Drawings Exhibition, Gallery of Modern Art 1967
Frank Sinatra at Madison Square Garden, 1974 drawing for poster - 4.1: 1974
Frank Sinatra at Royal Albert Hall, 1989 - 3.1: Frank Sinatra at Royal Albert Hall 1989
Singleton, Isaiah - 2.1: 1996
Singleton, Skip - see tennis: Intelligent Doubles and Intelligent Tennis
skating - see figure skating
skiing -- - 4.1: 1983, 1995, see also Olympics: skiing
Lady Skier - 4.1: 1998
Little Skier - 4.1: 1974
The Skier, serigraph - 3.1: Circle Gallery 1972
Skiing, etchings - 3.1: Circle Gallery 1972
Slalom, serigraph - 3.1: Circle Gallery 1972, 4.1: 1973
Squaw Valley - 4.2: -- Playboy -- 1961, V: 1960s, see Appendix E
Vail Race to Erase MS painting, 1994 - 4.1: 1995
Skoal Pinch Hitter of the Year Award - 3.1: Skoal Pinch Hitter 1985-1987
Slatkin, Leonard, Leonard Slatkin, 1980? - 4.1: 1980
Special Olympics -3.1: Special Olympics Nagano Japan 2005, 4.1: 1986, 1996, Mississippi Special Olympics - 2.1: 1977
The Spectrum, Philadelphia, PA - 2.1: 1991, 1996, 3.1: Philadelphia Spectrum Painting 1991, 4.1: 1992, V: Photographs
Spectrum Fine Art, New York - 3.1: "Ball, Bat, and Glove", Spectrum Fine Art, 1977, 4.1: 1978
Spelling, Aaron - 2.1: 1985
Spinks, Leon - see boxing
Spinks, Michael - see boxing
Spirit Foundation - 2.1: 1999
Spitz, Mark - see swimming and diving
The Sporting Life - 4.1: undated
The Sporting News - 3.1: Iona College Trustee Awards Dinner Dances 1984-95
sports - listed alphabetically by name of sport (i.e. "baseball," "soccer"), with teams listed under heading of appropriate; in some cases college and professional sports are indexed separately. Also search for names of specific athletes.
sports arenas - see Madison Square Garden, Philadelphia Spectrum
sports cards - see trading cards
Sports Collectors Digest - 4.1: 1997
Sports Commemorative Decanters - see promotions and collectibles
sportscasters - see also Cosell, Howard, and Rooney, Art
American Sportscasters Association - 1.1: Awards
Sportsman's Ball - 3.1: Sportsman's Ball 1978
Sportsman's Park, Chicago - 3.1: Sportsman's Park Mural, Chicago 1976
SportsWise Magazine - 2.1: 1980
Springfield Art Association, Illinois - 2.1: 1990
Stadium Tennis, 1981 - see tennis
The Stag's Head Bar, Dublin, 1961 - see bars
Stallone, Sylvester - see Rocky, 4.1: 1987
stamps - 4.1: 1974
"Health in Sports" stamps, 1988 - 3.1: United Nations "Health in Sports" Stamps 1988
"Sport and the Environment" stamps, 1996 - 3.1: United Nations "Sport and the Environment" Stamps 1996
"Superbowl History" Stamps, 1988 - 3.1: U.S. Postal Service Superbowl Stamps 1988
Taylor, Elizabeth - 3.1: Celebrity Night at Spago, 1993
Taylor, Lawrence - 4.1: 1996
television - 2.1: 1970, 1978, 4.1: 1972, 1974, 1975, 1977, 1979, 1980, 1985, 1994, 1995, 3.1: Call of the Wild 1993, see also ABC, CBS, American Federation of Television and Radio Artists, The Lone Ranger
ABC Sports - 2.2: ABC Sports
Ampex Video Art - 3.1: Superbowl XII, 1978, 4.1: 1980
Arlene Herson Show - 4.1: 1989
The Black Stallion television show - 2.1: 1990
CBS Sports - 2.2: CBS Sports, 3.1: Superbowl XII, 1978
Shukan T.V. Guide, Japan - 2.1: 1996, 3.1: 1984 Olympics, Los Angeles
TV Food Network - 2.1: 1993
TV Gallery with Ron Parris - 2.1: 1979, 4.1: 1979
T.V. Guide - 2.1: 1975
T.V. Guide Japan - 2.1: 1996, 4.1: 1984
TV Shopper - 2.1: 1979, 4.1: 1973, 1980
Tele Planning International, Tokyo - 2.2: Tele Planning International, Tokyo 1993-98
Today Show - 3.1: WNBC Traffic Helicopter 1981-93
WGBH TV Boston - 2.1: Charities 1994, Charities 1996
Wonderama TV Show - 4.1: undated 1970s
The Year of the Runner TV series, LeRoy Neiman host - 4.1: 1979
Tenenbaum, Judy and Harold - 2.1: 1984, 1986, 1988, 2.2: Harold and Judy Tenenbaum
Tennessee - 3.1: Women's Basketball Hall of Fame, 1993, 3.1: Iroquois Steeplechase, Nashville, TN, 1993, 3.1: Blues Ball 1997 -2004, see also Gregory, Jack; Morris, Gary and Elizabeth; Murphy, Libby; Perkins, Carl; Rudy, Jeanette Cantrell; Tigrett, John and Pat Kerr
tennis -- - 3.1: Nelson Mandela Tribute 1997, 3.2. -- Winners -- , 1983, Harry N. Abrams, 4.1: 1975, 1980, 1985, 1988-89, 1997, 1999
The Splendid Splinter - 3.1: Williams at Bat, 1980-1991, 4.1: 1993, 2002
Williams at Bat, 1980 painting and 1991 serigraph - 3.1: Williams at Bat, 1980-1991, 4.1: 1981, 1991, 2002
Win a Few, Lose a Few, 1972 boxing documentary film - 4.1: 1972
Windsor Gallery - 4.1: undated 1970s
wine -- - 4.1: 1997, see also champagne
labels - 3.1: David Frost Wines 2001, 4.1: 1992, 1996, see also golf: Atlanta National Golf Club California Merlot
Wine Country Film Festival - 3.1: Wine Country Film Festival 1990
Wine, Women, and Cigar, 1996 - see cigars
Winged Foot - see golf
Wingmead - 2.2: JoAnn Perse Gallery 1983-02
Winners, 1983 - 2.2: ABC Correspondence, 2.2: Neiman-Marcus 1983-88, 2.2: Sterling/Winters Company 1983-84, 3.1: Hanson Galleries New Orleans and Carmel, 1983-84, 3.2. -- Winners -- , 1983, Harry N. Abrams, 4.2: The Ring Magazine
Wisconsin - 2.2: Bobby Hinds 1990-2000
Wittnauer International - see Universal Geneve
Wolf, Martin B. - 4.1: 1964
Wolfberg, Lee - 4.1: undated 1980s
Wolfson, Mr. and Mrs. Robert L. - 4.1: 1967, 1980
Women of Excellence - 2.1: 1985
Women's Basketball Hall of Fame - 3.1: Women's Basketball Hall of Fame, 1993
The papers of contemporary and folk art curator, historian, and consultant Dorothy C. Miller measure 34.6 linear feet and date from 1853-2013, with the bulk of the material dating from 1920 to 1996. The papers primarily concern Miller's private art consulting work outside of her curatorial work at the Museum of Modern Art in New York City. Found are scattered biographical materials, extensive correspondence and subject files, and project files for her art consulting work for the Rockefeller family, Rockefeller University, Chase Manhattan Bank, the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey, the World Trade Center, and other miscellaneous corporate and private clients. Miller's work as a trustee and committee member of various public and private boards and commissions is also represented here. Additionally, the papers contain Miller's research files on Edward Hicks and folk art, and a small number of files of her husband Holger Cahill about his work as Director of the Federal Art Project. There is a scattered documentation of Miller's early curatorial work with Holger Cahill on the First Municipal Art Exhibition (1934) held at the RCA Building in Rockefeller Center. Also found is Dorothy Miller's collection of artists' Christmas cards and photographs of Miller and others. An addition to the papers includes biographical material; family papers; correspondence; professional files; art collection and client files; printed material; and photographic material. While a small number professional files are included, the majority of the addition relates to her personal life, including correspondence with her husband Holger Cahill, and files pertaining to her personal art collection.
Scope and Content Note:
The papers of contemporary and folk art curator, historian, and consultant Dorothy C. Miller measure 34.6 linear feet and date from 1853-2013, with the bulk of the material dating from 1920 to 1996. The papers primarily concern Miller's art consulting work outside of her curatorial work at the Museum of Modern Art in New York city. Found are scattered biographical materials, extensive correspondence and subject files, and project files for her art consulting work for the Rockefeller family, Rockefeller University, Chase Manhattan Bank, the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey, and other miscellaneous corporate and private clients. Her work as a trustee and committee member of various public and private boards and commissions is also represented here. Additionally, the papers contain Miller's research files on Edward Hicks and folk art, and a small number of files related to Miller's husband Holger Cahill and his work as Director of the Federal Art Project. There is important documentation of Miller's early curatorial work with Holger Cahill on the First Municipal Art Exhibition (1934) held at the RCA Building in Rockefeller Center. Artwork includes scattered sketches and drawings enclosed with correspondence and original Christmas cards sent to Miller by various artists. Photographs of Miller date from 1926 - circa 1950.
Scattered biographical material mostly concerns Miller's education at Smith College and awards and honorary degrees that she received. Extensive correspondence and subject files document her professional and personal relationships with family, friends, colleagues, museums, art dealers and artists, as well as her research interests. Individual files may contain a mix of correspondence with, as well as about, the person or subject, compiled research documents, printed materials, and scattered photographs. Files are found for Lewin Alcopley, Alfred Barr, Betty Parsons Gallery, Cahill family members, Lee Bontecou, James Byars, Holger Cahill, Alexander Calder, Christo, Chryssa, Calvert Coggeshall, John Canaday, Maryette Charlton, Stuart Davis, Jay DeFeo, Lorser Feitelson, Arshile Gorky, Peggy Guggenheim, Grace Hartigan, Will Horwitt, Jasper Johns, Julien Levy, Pierre Matisse, Louise Nevelson, Barnett Newman, Isamu Nauchi, Georgia O'Keeffe, Pablo Picasso, Robert Rauschenberg, Ad Reinhardt, Kay Sage, Charles Sheeler, Hedda Sterne, travel, Clyfford Still, William Scharf, among many others.
Detailed records of Miller's art consulting and advisory work for the Rockefeller family include correspondence with Nelson A. Rockefeller and David Rockefeller about building their personal collections of contemporary and folk art, meeting notes and minutes, research notes and writings, and printed materials. The largest group of records concerns the writing and publication of The Nelson A. Rockefeller Collection: Masterpieces of Modern Art. Miller's curatorial work for David Rockefeller and the Rockefeller University's Abby Aldrich Rockefeller Hall art collection is documented in Series 4 through curatorial files, correspondence, printed materials, photographs and slides, artists files, and design records.
Series 5 contains files relating to Miller's work as the first art consutant to the Chase Manhattan Bank and the building of the corporation's extensive collection of contemporary art. There is a draft of Miller's text for the bank's published catalog, Art At Work: Chase Manhattan Bank Collection. A smaller set of records is found in Series 6 documenting Miller's work on the Art Committee of the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey, including files about selecting artwork for the World Trade Center during the early 1970s. Files concerning Miller's advisory work with additional public and private clients, boards, and commissions are arranged in Series 7 and 8 and concern the Amstar Corporation, Fidelity International Bank, First National Bank of Tampa, First National City Bank, Inmont Corporation, Pepsico, United Mutual Savings Bank, the Empire State Plaza Art Commission, the Hancock Shaker Village, the Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden, the Mark Rothko Foundation, the Museum of American Folk Art, and the Smith College Museum of Art.
Miller's papers include a small group of files relating to the WPA Federal Art Project (FAP)created by her husband Holger Cahill when he was director of the FAP, Holger Cahill. A small series is devoted to Miller's work with Eleanore Price Mather researching and writing Edward Hicks: His Peaceable Kingdom and Other Paintings. A series of general research files contain miscellaneous research notes and photographs related to Miller's interests in early American art and folk art. Series 12 contains important documentation of Miller's early curatorial work with Holger Cahill on the First Municipal Art Exhibition (1934) held at the RCA Building in Rockefeller Center.
Works of art are primarily in the form of Christmas cards sent to Miller by various artists including Elise Asher, Lyonel Feininger, Bernard Karpel, and Irene Rice Pereira. A small group of photographs includes photographs of Miller from 1926-circa 1950 and a few photographs of others.
The addition includes biographical material; family papers; correspondence; professional files; art collection and client files; printed material; and photographic material. While a small number of professional files are found here, the majority of material relates to Miller's personal life, including correspondence with her husband Holger Cahill, and files pertaining to her personal art collection. Scattered correspondence, inventories, research, and notes created by curator and donor of the papers, Wendy Jeffers, are found throughout the collection. These materials date from the 1980s-2000s.
The collection is arranged as 15 series:
Series 1: Biographical Material, 1917-1986 (Box 1; 0.3 linear ft.)
Series 2: Correspondence and Subject Files, circa 1912-1992 (Boxes 1-8, OV 27; 7.2 linear ft.)
Series 3: Rockefeller Family Art Collections, circa 1949-1985 (Boxes 8-12, 25; 3.9 linear ft.)
Series 4: Rockefeller University Collection, 1923-1984 (Boxes 12-13, OV 27; 1.0 linear ft.)
Series 5: Chase Manhattan Bank Collection, 1959-circa 1985 (Boxes 13-14, 26; 1.4 linear ft.)
Series 6: Port Authority of New York and New Jersey Art Committee, circa 1965-1987 (Boxes 14-15, OV 27; 0.8 linear ft.)
Series 7: Other Corporate and Private Clients, 1968-1984 (Boxes 15-16; 1.3 linear ft.)
Series 8: Other Boards, Committees and Commissions, 1925, 1949-1985 (Boxes 16-20; 3.6 linear ft.)
Series 9: Works Project Administration Federal Art Project Files, 1935-1979 (Box 20, OV 27; 0.5 linear ft.)
Series 10: Edward Hicks Catalog, 1934-1984 (Boxes 20-22; 1.5 linear ft.)
Series 11: Research Files, 1930s-1980 (Boxes 22-23; 0.8 linear ft.)
Series 12: Exhibition Files, 1932-1986 (Box 23; 0.6 linear ft.)
Series 13: Works of Art, circa 1924-circa 1982 (Boxes 23-25; 1.5 linear ft.)
Series 14: Photographs, 1926-circa 1970s (Boxes 24-25; 0.3 linear ft.)
Series 15: Addition to the Dorothy C. Miller Papers, 1853-2003, bulk 1920-1996 (Boxes 28-38, OVs 39-41; 9.9 linear ft.)
Dorothy Canning Miller (1904-2003) worked in New York City as a highly influential curator of contemporary and folk art at the Museum of Modern Art and as the first curator of the museum. Later, she was the primary art consultant for Nelson A. Rockefeller, the Rockefeller family, Rockefeller University, Chase Manhattan Bank, and the Port Authority of and New Jersey. Dorothy Miller was also married to Holger Cahill, director of the WPA Federal Art Project.
Dorothy C. Miller was born in Hopedale, Massachusetts in 1904 and received her Bachelor of Arts from Smith College in 1925. She was first introduced to modern art through classes at the Newark Museum taught by John Cotton Dana and Holger Cahill. Miller joined the curatorial staff of the Newark Museum in 1926. The museum was one of the first to organize exhibitions of American folk art, American Primitives (1930-1931) and American Folk Sculpture (1931-1932). Miller worked with Cahill and others on the exhibition and developed a life-long interest in folk art.
After four years at the Newark Museum, Miller moved to New York city, hoping to get involved with the newly opened Museum of Modern Art (MoMA), and, likely, to be with Holger Cahill, with whom she lived with on 8th Street prior to their marriage in 1938. Between 1930 and 1932 she took odd jobs and worked with Mrs. Henry Lang cataloging, researching and installing Lang's collection of Native American art Lang donated to the Montclair Art Museum. At the same time, Holger Cahill was serving as Acting Director of the Museum of Modern Art during an absence of Director Alfred H. Barr. In 1932, Cahill asked Miller to assist him with curating the American Painting and Sculpture, 1862-1932 exhibition at MoMA, and together they also curated the First Municipal Art Exhibition, 1934 at the Rockefeller Center.
In 1934, Barr hired Miller as his assistant and one year later appointed her as MoMA's first curator. Miller spent the next 35 years organizing many of this country's most important exhibitions of contemporary art and building personal relationships with new artists and photographers, as well as the collections of MoMA. Miller retired from MOMA in 1969 and focused more on her art consulting work begun in the late 1950s.
Dorothy Miller's most notable client was Nelson A. Rockefeller. She assisted and advised Rockefeller as he acquired a vast personal collection of modern art - some of which was later donated to MoMA. Just prior to her retirement, Miller organized a large exhibition of Rockefeller's collection. The exhibition catalog written by Miller was the basis for the book she worked on with Rockefeller up until and following his death in 1979, ultimately published as The Nelson A. Rockefeller Collection: Masterpieces of Modern Art. In the preface, Rockefeller credited Miller with being one of the four people to whom he was indebted "for the understanding and endless joy I have found in the collecting of modern art in all forms."
Miller also served as the primary art consultant for projects to furnish federal spaces, including Henry Kissinger's State Department office suite, and the official Vice-Presidential residence at the Admiral's House in Washington D.C.
In 1959 Miller was invited to join the art collection committee of the Chase Manhattan Bank and served on the committee until the mid-1980s, contributing her expertise to the development of one of this country's oldest and largest corporate collections of modern and contemporary art.
Miller was also an advisor to other members of the Rockefeller family, including David Rockefeller, and assisted with developing the art collections of Rockefeller Institute/University. From 1960 through the late 1980s Miller was a member of the art committee for the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey (PANJY) and was responsible for selecting much of the artwork for the World Trade Center in the 1970s. She served on numerous boards and commissions, including the Hancock Shaker Village, the Smithsonian Institution's Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden, the Empire State Plaza in Albany, Smith College Museum of Art, and the Museum of American Folk Art. She also became a member of the Mark Rothko Foundation Board of Directors after the litigation following Rothko's death between Rothko's executors and his daughter.
In the mid-1970s Miller assisted the Whitney Museum of American with planning an exhibition and supporting catalog of the work of folk artist Edward Hicks. Although the exhibition and catalog were only partially realized in 1980, Miller and Eleanore Price Mather compiled and published a book on Hicks, Edward Hicks: His Peaceable Kingdoms and Other Paintings, published in 1983.
In 1982-1983 Miller received the Art Dealers Association Special Award, an honorary degree from Williams College, and the Skowhegan School of Painting and Sculpture governor's award. In 1984 she was named honorary trustee of the Museum of Modern Art. In 1985 the Smith College Museum of Art honored her important contributions to museum connoisseurship with the exhibition Dorothy C. Miller: With An Eye to American Art.
Dorothy Miller died in 2003 at the age of 99 at her home in Greenwich, New York.
The Archives of American Art holds two oral history interviews with Dorothy C. Miller. The first was conducted by Paul Cummings between May 26, 1970 and September 28, 1971, and details Miller's life from childhood up to, and including, her years at the Museum of Modern Art. The second was conducted by Avis Berman on May 14, 1981 and covers Miller's relationships with Mark Rothko and Clyfford Still. Also found among the holdings of the Archives are the papers of Holger Cahill, Dorothy Miller's husband and colleague.
The Museum of Modern Art Achives holds Dorothy Miller's papers related to her curatorial work at the museum.
The collection was donated by Dorothy C. Miller via Wendy Jeffers between 1986 and 1997, and Reid White, Executor of Miller's estate, in 2004. Two subsequent additions were donated by Wendy Jeffers in 2014 and 2015.
Use of original papers requires an appointment.
The Dorothy C. Miller papers are owned by the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Literary rights as possessed by the donor have been dedicated to public use for research, study, and scholarship. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Germany (Territory under Allied occupation, 1945-1955)
The papers of art historian and museum curator W.G. (William George) Constable measure 25.7 linear feet and date from 1905 to 1981, with the bulk of the material from 1920 to 1976. The papers include biographical material; professional and personal correspondence; extensive lectures, writings, and notes; exhibition and book research files; printed materials; and photographs, glass plate negatives, and slides. There is substantive correspondence related to Constable's participation in the American Defense Harvard Group and about the formation of the Roberts Commission, including correspondence with Ralph Perry, Hugh Hencken, Paul Sachs and George L. Stout. There are numerous official reports prepared by Constable after World War II for the U. S. Office of Military Government for Germany.
Scope and Contents:
The papers of art historian and museum curator W.G. (William George) Constable measure 25.7 linear feet and date from 1905 to 1981, with the bulk of the material from 1920 to 1976. The papers include biographical material; professional and personal correspondence; extensive lectures, writings, and notes; exhibition and book research files; printed materials; and photographs, glass plate negatives, and slides. There is substantive correspondence related to Constable's participation in the American Defense Harvard Group and about the formation of the Roberts Commission, including correspondence with Ralph Perry, Hugh Hencken, Paul Sachs and George L. Stout. There are numerous official reports prepared by Constable after World War II for the U. S. Office of Military Government for Germany.
Biographical material includes W.G. Constable's curriculum vitae; club memberships; personal, educational, and military records; three memorial essays and obituaries; five address books; appointment books dating from 1930-1968; and financial records related to personal business travels.
Correspondence is mostly professional and arranged into General, Committee, Condolences, and J.G. Links. General correspondence is with friends, business associates, auction houses, galleries, and museums. The letters cover a wide variety of professional work, such as research projects, letters of inquiry and recommendation, and work done for Christie's and the Internal Revenue Service. Correspondents include Mortimer Brandt, Helen Frick, Helen Gluck, William Ivins, Duncan Phillips, Paul Sachs, and Rudolph Vasalle, among many others.
Committee related correspondence includes letters, memoranda, and reports related to ongoing committee objectives, projects, and routine activities. There is correspondence related to Constable's advisory work with the Art Gallery of Toronto, the National Gallery of Canada, and the Watts Gallery, among other projects. Condolences consists of letters and cards received by Constable's wife, Olivia, after Constable's death. Correspondence with J.G. Links is primarily about the second edition revision of Constable's book Canaletto.
There are over 170 drafts of Constable's notes and outlines for lectures. Topics range from 13th-20th century European and American art to museum conservation, ethics, art education, and art collecting. The series also includes lecture notes from organized touring trips to Canada, Northern Europe, Scandanavia, and Poland.
Writings consist of Constable's published and unpublished articles, articles submitted for the Encyclopedia of World Art, essays, notes, exhibition catalogs, translations, and drafts and research material related to Art Collecting in the United States, Art History and Connoisseurship, and The Painter's Workshop.
Files specifically documenting Constable's advisory role in the World War II American Defense Harvard Group drafting and organizing lists of men with curatorial, museum conservation, or library/archives backgrounds to aid in the protection European most valued cultural artifacts, artwork, and architecture. There are letters documenting the formation of the Harvard Group and its goals and objections. The files also include many of the original lists that were forwarded to the Commission for the Protection and Salvage of Artistic and Historic Monuments in Europe, also known as the Roberts Commission, eventually leading to the formation of the U.S. Army's Monuments, Fine Arts, and Archives division. The series also includes the Harvard Group's manual Safeguarding and Conserving Cultural Materials in the Field, committee minutes, and clippings related to their work. Correspondents include Ralph Perry, Paul Sachs, George L. Stout, and Hugh Hencken.
Constable's work after the war for the U.S. Office of Military Government for Germany is documented through numerous reports, memoranda, letters, and other official documents from the U. S. Army to Constable about surveying the state of German and Italian art institutions after World War II. The series also includes Constable's notebook "Visits in Germany" (1949), and a copy of his report Art and Reorientation: Status and Future of Museums and the Teaching of Art in Western Germany.
Exhibition files contain correspondence, notes, lists, research material, and reports related to exhibitions that Constable organized prior to his employment by and after his retirement from the Boston Museum of Art.
Research files contain materials relevant to Constable's interests and include notes, lists, correspondence, and printed and photographic reference material. These subject areas cover artists, including extensive files on Canaletto and other vedute painters, museum conservation, museums and galleries, private and public art collections, and schools of art.
Printed materials include clippings, programs, book excerpts and other miscellaneous printed materials.
Photographic materials include prints of Constable with friends and family, as well as prints, glass negatives and slides of artwork. There are also prints of the Fogg Art Museum's interiors and exterior and interior shots of Tennessee Valley Authority dam projects.
The collection is arranged as 10 series.
Series 1: Biographical Materials, 1905-1983 (1.2 linear feet; Box 1-2, OV 28)
Series 2: Correspondence, 1906-1981 (6.2 linear feet; Box 2-8, OV 28-29)
Series 3: Lectures, 1909-1963 (4.6 linear feet; Box 8-12)
Series 4: Writings and Notes, 1910-1974 (2 linear feet; Box 13-14)
Series 5: American Defense Harvard Group, 1942-1946 (0.6 linear feet; Box 15)
Series 6: Office of Military Government for Germany, 1947-1952 (0.3 linear feet; Box 15)
Series 7: Exhibition Files, 1930-1969 (1 linear foot; Box 15-16, OV 29)
Series 8: Research Files, 1922-1976 (7.5 linear feet; Box 16-24, OV 28-29)
Series 9: Printed Material, 1921-1977 (0.5 linear feet; Box 24)
Series 10: Photographic Materials, circa 1940-1960 (1.4 linear feet; Box 24-27, OV 28-29)
Biographical / Historical:
W. G. (William George) Constable (1887-1976) was a museum curator and art historian who worked in England and Boston.
Born in Derby, England, Constable studied for the bar at Cambridge University, but was encouraged to pursue art over law by the Lord Chancellor who told him that law would be too strenuous after a two year convalescence from gassing during World War I. For three years, he studied at the Slade School and the Bartlett School of Architecture. In 1923, he joined the National Gallery of London where he became the Assistant Director in 1929. In 1930, he accepted the first Director's position at the newly formed Courtauld Institute, where he worked to develop one of the first programs on art history. In 1938, Constable became Curator of Paintings at the Boston Museum of Fine Arts and worked there until his retirement in 1957.
Throughout his career as an arts administrator, Constable remained an accomplished lecturer and held appointments as the Slade Professor of Art at Cambridge (1933-1936), Ryerson Lecturer at Yale University (1940), and the Lowell Lecturer at the Lowell Insitute (1958). As a researcher and art historian, he published a steady stream of essays on European and American art connoisseurship, and authored over ten scholarly books, including The Painter's Workshop (1953), Richard Wilson (1953), and Canaletto (1962), the definitive work on the Venetian master.
Constable was a trusted arts advisor and, in this capacity, worked for the Wadsworth Atheneum from 1943-1945.
He also worked closely with Lord Beaverbrook to establish the National Gallery of Canada and later consulted for Sotheby's and the U. S. Internal Revenue Service.
In the years leading to World War II, Constable served as an advisor to the American Defense Harvard Group and was later appointed to the Commission for the Protection of Artistic and Historic Monuments in Europe (the Roberts Commission) by President Roosevelt. The Roberts Commission was responsible for the establishment of the U. S. Army's Monuments, Fine Arts, and Archives section. After the war, Constable served the U.S. government as a member of a commission responsible for the recovery of looted art work and the evaluation of the state of the arts in Germany and Italy.
After his retirement from the Boston Museum, Constable continued to research and write, and also served as president of the International Institute of Conservation (1958-1960) and the Renaissance Society of America (1959-1961). From 1957 to 1966, he worked on behalf of Christie's auction house, where he met with prospective clients and provided preliminary valuations of private art works and collections.
On February 4, 1976, Constable died in Cambridge, Massachusetts from natural causes.
The Archives also holds additional materials related to W.G. Constable, including an oral history interview with Constable conducted by Robert Brown in 1972-1973, and a photograph and clipping of Constable donated by Eleanor Barton in 1982.
Additional W.G. Constable papers are located at archival materials are also located at St. Johns College in Cambridge,England; the Warburg Institute in London, England; the National Gallery in London, England; and the Society for the Protection of Science and Learning in London, England. Photographs of works art collected by Constable are found at the British Studies Center at Yale University. Records relating to his tenure at the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston are housed there.
The papers of W.G. Constable were donated in multiple gifts from 1978 to 1979 and in 1987 to 1988 by his son Giles Constable. Additional material regarding Constable's research on Canaletto was donated by researcher J.G. Links in 1985.
Use of original papers requires an appointment. Glass plate negatives are housed separately and closed to researchers.
The W.G. Constable papers are owned by the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Literary rights as possessed by the donor have been dedicated to public use for research, study, and scholarship. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
W.G. Constable papers, 1905-1983, bulk 1920-1976. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Funding for the processing of this collection was provided by the Terra Foundation for American Art. Digitization of this collection was funded by the Samuel H. Kress Foundation. Glass plate negatives in this collection were digitized in 2019 with funding provided by the Smithsonian Women's Committee.
The papers document the life and work of William R. Hutton, a civil engineer during the late 1800s to the early 1900s. Materials include diaries, notebooks, correspondence, letterpress copy book, printed materials, publications, specifications, photographs, drawings, and maps that document the construction of several architectural and engineering projects during this period. Most notable are the records containing information related to the construction of the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, Hudson River Tunnel, the Washington Aqueduct, the Kanawha River Canal, and the Washington/Harlem River Bridge. There are also several records about railroads in the state of Maryland, the District of Columbia and elsewhere, including the Western Maryland Railroad, Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, Colorado Midlands Railway, Baltimore and Drum Point Railroad, the Northern Adirondack Railroad, and the Pittsfield and Williamstown Railroad. The records can be used to track the progression of these projects, and engineering innovation during the late 1800s to the early 1900s.
Scope and Contents:
These papers document William R. Hutton's professional career as a civil engineer and his personal affairs. Although the personal materials in the collection provide insight into a man and a family that have been largely forgotten by biographers, it is the professional materials that are perhaps the most interesting to researchers. They provide a compelling narrative of the push to the West that occurred in 19th century America and the internal improvements movement typified by the American System plan proposed by Henry Clay. Perhaps best remembered for the high tariffs that accompanied it, the American System plan was also concerned with the advancement of internal improvements, such as canals, that would unite the East and West in communication, travel, and trade. The Chesapeake and Ohio Canal can be seen as one of the products of this movement (1) and was in fact initially heralded as the first great work of national improvement (2).
The papers in this collection that are related to the construction and maintenance of the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal are an invaluable documentation of efforts during this turbulent time to unite the eastern and western United States. They provide details of the canal from its initial construction to its decline with the incline at Georgetown project. The canal also serves as an example, or perhaps a warning against, federal involvement in state improvement efforts as it was the first project to be directly funded and staffed by the federal government (3). The groundbreaking ceremony was attended by then President John Quincy Adams whose toast, "to the canal: perseverance," (4) became an ironic omen, as construction of the canal took over twenty-two years to be completed. The Chesapeake and Ohio Canal materials can be used as a case study for the problems encountered during canal building (5). These problems are best typified in the collection by the papers relating to the Georgetown incline. This project was headed by Hutton and was plagued with construction problems, boating accidents, and obsolescence from the moment of its completion. Despite these issues, the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal remains a structure of historical significance in America. As the third and last effort to construct an all-water route to the West (6), the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal is an important artifact of 19th century attitudes and efforts towards commerce, trade, travel, and communication between the eastern and western United States. Other significant canals and water structures represented in the collection are the Kanawha Canal, the Washington Aqueduct, and a large collection of materials relating to the Kingston Water Supply (New York).
One of the most significant internal improvements made during this time was the railroad. The legal conflicts that arose between the canal companies and railroads is also represented in the materials relating to the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal. These materials specifically deal with the legal conflict's between the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal and the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad. The development and construction of the railroads is also represented in the materials documenting the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, the Baltimore and Drum Point Railroad, the Northern Adirondack Railroad, the Western Maryland Railroad, the Mexican National Railroad, the Colorado Midlands Railroad, and the Columbia Railroad.
The collection also demonstrates the spirit of innovation and invention that was prevalent in the engineering field in the nineteenth century. Joseph Gies writes, "...one of the distinctive characteristics of the great nineteenth century engineering adventurers was their readiness to gamble on the translation of theory into practice" (7). In this quote, he is speaking of the civil engineer Dewitt Clinton Haskins and a project that truly encapsulates engineering invention in the nineteenth century, the Hudson River Tunnel. Responding to the increase in the population of the City of New York in the late nineteenth century from sixty thousand to three and a half million, the Hudson River Tunnel was originally devised as a way to alleviate traffic and to transport train passengers directly across the Hudson River (8). Beginning with records dating from 1881 to 1901, the Hutton papers can be used to document not only the advances in engineering during this time but also the costs of progress. Haskins' initial efforts to build the tunnel using submerged air pressurized caissons were marked by failure and in some cases fatalities. Workers on the tunnel often suffered from what came to be known as "caisson disease" or "the bends," caused by the immense forces of compression and decompression experienced while working in the tunnels (9). This problem was so prevalent that as construction progressed the rate of worker deaths caused by "the bends" rose to twenty-five percent (10). Materials in the collection document worker complaints and deaths resulting from this disease as well as providing a technical record of the construction of the tunnel. The highlight of the materials relating to the Hudson River Tunnel is an album that contains photographs of workers in the tunnel and a detailed daily report of the construction progress on the tunnel that was maintained by Hutton's assistant, Walton Aims. The first hand account in these reports provides insight not only into the construction of the tunnel, but also the problems encountered.
Another project featured in the Hutton collection that was devised in response to the population explosion in the City of New York in the nineteenth century is the Harlem River Bridge, or as it is now known, the Washington Bridge. Known as one of the longest steel arch bridges of its time, the Harlem River Bridge also represents that spirit of invention and innovation that was prevalent in the civil engineering field during the nineteenth century. The collection provides an invaluable resource for those wishing to track the construction of the bridge from early concept drawings and proposals to finalized plans. Also present are photographs of the construction and workers. Societal response to the bridge in the form of newspaper and magazine clippings help to create the narrative of the Washington Bridge, and these are supplemented by correspondence from the builders, suppliers, and planners.
This collection also includes diaries, 1866-1901; letterpress copybooks, 1858-1901; correspondence on the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, Hudson River Tunnel, Washington Bridge over the Harlem River, and Maryland and Colorado railroads, 1861-1901, and on Hutton's financial and real estate affairs, 1835-1921; construction photographs of the Harlem River, Cairo, Poughkeepsie, Niagara bridges and the Hudson River Tunnel, Washington Aqueduct, and Capitol Dome (in the form of albumen, cyanotype, salted paper print); data and drawings; rolled land profile drawings; canal notes, 1828-1892; Hudson River Tunnel construction reports, 1889-1891; publications, drawings, and maps of railroad routes; pamphlets and reprints on hydraulic works and water supply; road, railway, bridge, and hydraulic construction specifications, 1870-1900; drawings (linen, oil cloth, and heavy drawing paper), and blueprints; account books, 1891-1899; and plans, drawings, field notebooks, and publications on American and European construction projects, especially in Maryland, New York, and France; personal correspondence detailing his role as executor for the estates of Benjamin H. Hutton, Joseph Hutton, Annie Theller, and the Countess H. De Moltke-Hvitfeldt and his relationships with his children, siblings, cousins, and colleagues, 1850-1942.
Materials are handwritten, typed, and printed.
Special note should be made that any materials dated after the year 1901 were added to the collection by another creator who is unidentified. It can be speculated that professional materials added after this date were contributed by his brother and colleague Nathanial Hutton or his son Frank Hutton. Personal materials contributed after this date may have been added by his wife, daughters, or other members of his extended family.
Series 1, Letterpress Copybooks, 1858-1901, consists of twenty seven letterpress copybooks containing correspondence between Hutton and other engineers, architects, and building suppliers. The letterpress copybooks in this series have been arranged chronologically. The books involve a process by which ink is transferred through direct contact with the original using moisture and pressure in a copy press. The majority of the correspondence is business- related. Some letterpress copybooks are devoted to specific projects such as the Washington/Harlem River Bridge, Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, Baltimore and Drum Point Railroad, Annapolis and Elk Ridge Railroad, and the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad. The letterpress copybooks provide a record of correspondence written by Hutton, which makes it distinctive from the other correspondence in the collection. Most of the other correspondence has Hutton as recipient.
The letterpress copybooks also document Hutton's various residences throughout his life and provide a glimpse into the civil engineering profession at the time by demonstrating how engineers shared ideas and comments about projects. This can be supplemented with the printed materials in the collection as many of the authors also appear in the correspondence. Other topics covered in the letterpress copybooks include business reports (specifically the report of the president and directors of the Baltimore and Drum Point Railroad), records of people and companies involved in projects, pasted in engineering sketches, engineering specifications and notes, travel expenses and estimates, construction histories and progress, legal issues with family estates, tax information, Colorado Railroad, payment certificate schedules, St. Paul Railroad, personal correspondence, title guarantees, Hudson River Tunnel, financial matters, real estate matters, insurance information, sketches and drawings, supply lists, cost estimates, the Memorial Bridge, Coffin Valve Company, engineering expenses, engineering calculations, payroll notes for Kingston Water Supply, proposals, account information, Hutton Park, reservoirs, contract drafts, French Society of Civil Engineers, inspection results (specifically Piedmont Bridge), land descriptions, damage reports, Morse Bridge, Illinois Central Railroad, North Sea Canal, moveable dams, iron works, site histories, Potomac Lock and Dock Company, Kanawha River canal (lock quantities, specifications, payroll information), Pennsylvania Canal, and bills for services.
Series 2, Professional Correspondence, 1861-1901, consists of correspondence that relates to Hutton's architectural and engineering projects. This series is further subdivided into two subseries: Project Correspondence and General Correspondence. Subseries 1, Project Correspondence, 1876-1899, correspondence is divided by project and arranged alphabetically. Subseries 2, General Correspondence, 1861-1901, is arranged chronologically. Both series contain handwritten and typed letters. Some letters are on letterpress copybook pages and are most likely copies. Some materials are in French and Spanish. Special note should be made that this series does not contain all of the professional correspondence in the collection. Some correspondence has been separated according to project and placed in Series 8, Professional Projects, 1830-1965, in order to make it easier for researchers to access materials related to those subjects.
Subseries 1, professional correspondence topics include comparisons between construction projects (specifically comparisons of the Kanawha River Canal to other canals), supply lists, location recommendations, sketches, construction plans and modifications, bills for supplies and works, leaks in the gates, cost estimates, Brooklyn Water Supply, use of lake storage (Ramapo Water Supply), water supply to states and counties, damages to water supply pipes, estimates of water quantities, responses to construction reports, legal issues related to projects, Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, and payment for services.
Subseries 2, general correspondence topics include employment opportunities, committee meetings and elections, land surveys, sketches, engineering plans and ideas, work on projects, dismissal from projects, notes on supplies, Washington Aqueduct, construction progress, land purchases, Civil War, Jones Falls, cost of water pumps, steam drills, lots divisions and prices, repairs, report of the engineering bureau, tidewater connection at Annapolis, bridge construction, construction costs, statement of vessels that entered and cleared Baltimore, technical questions from colleagues, Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, supply costs, letters of introduction, requests for reference, changes to plans and designs, survey reports, St. Andrew's lot, Canal Coal Company, publication process, American Society of Civil Engineers and its members, responses to project inquiries, Graving Dock gross revenue, job offers, specifications, trade figures, contracts, water levels, appointment dates and times, moveable dams, proposals for membership, salaries, Piedmont Coal Lands, maps, land profiles, Washington Bridge, board payments, Nicaragua Canal, Grant Coal Company, statistics, engineering notes, Hartford Bridge, water pressures, coal deposits, Colorado Coal, pipe lines, reservoirs, boat costs for canals, floods, bridges, letters of resignation, engines, Ruxton Viaduct, Colorado and Midland Railroad, Morse Bridge, share values, railroad locations, membership invitations, call for submissions, structural tests, record of accounts for room and board, appointments, water rights (Putnam County), publications, blueprints, visitation programs, cotton compresses, street trenches, pressures in dams, level tests, Portland Transportation bureau, trade information, concrete steel, Chicago drainage canal, ship canals, Augusta Cotton and Compress Company, Sooysmith case, Consolidated Gas Company, masonry, book binding, Columbia Railway Company, jetties, land grades, Chesapeake and Delaware canal, water wheels, pneumatic lock, tunnel arches, rifton power, Hutton's health, elevators, Brooklyn Bridge Terminals, girder weights, legal issues and their results, rating table for the Potomac, land profiles, transmission lines, transformers, water turbines, and water power on the Potomac River.
Correspondents for this series include the following: Captain Montgomery C. Meigs, Captain T.W. Symons, William Bryan, Ernest Flagg, John Hurd, Jake Wolfe, J.C. Saunders, J.H. Dolph, Charles J. Allen, G.H. Mendell, Virgil S. Bogue, B.A. Mounnerlyn, Edward Burr, H.G. Prout, R. William, H. Dodge, C.R. Suter, M. Mink, W.R. King, John Lyons, Alex Brown and Sons, John G. Butler, D. Condon, Bernard Carter, R.P. McCormick, D.R. Magruder, Andrew Banks, Isaac Solomon, C.J. Mayer, C.W. Kern, John Herring, James S. Mackie, D.R. Magunde, D. Rittaguide, R.S. Stevens, J.L. Raudolph (Baltimore and Ohio Railroad), J.M. Lane, W.D. Stuart, W.G.P. Palmer (Committee Church of the Ascension), C. Crozet, General W. Hughes, V.R. Maus, J.M. Hood (Western Maryland Railroad Company), Ernest Pontzen, M. Haus, William F. Craighill, Harry Hutton, John W. Pearce, Reverend James A. Harrald, William Watson, A.L. Rives, Thomas Monro, A.F. Croswan (Commander United States Navy), H.R. Garden, William McAlpine, James Forrest, Wm. Bloomsfield, Daniel Ammen, Linel Wells, A. and Otto Sibeth, Alfred Noble, Clemens Hershel, Sidney Warner, E.H. de Rheville, Theodore Cooper, William Findlay Shunk, Lewis S. Wolfe, Rufus Mead, Theodore F. Taylor, John Bogart, J. Whaler, B. Williamson, Colonel F.V. Greene, Robert H. Sayre (Lehigh Valley Railroad Company), Charles W. Pussey, Louis Q. Rissel, V.C. Bogue, H.C. Eckenberger, Melville E.G. Leston, Edwin Parson, Rudolph Hering, R.S. Hale, F.M. Turner, Thosl Martindale, Justus C. Strawbridge, William M. Ayresm, R.L. Austin, A.M. Miller, P. Livingston Dunn, T.J. Cleaver, C.S. Dutton, H.A. Carson, William Bainbridge Jaudon, H.A. Presset, Thomas H. McCann, Russel Sturgis, H.G. Prout, Alexis H. French, John K. Cowen, F.W. Williams, J. Waldorf, B.H. Byrant, B.H. Jones, M.H. Rogers, J.W. Ogden, General W. Cashing, William Longhudge, A.J. Cameron, T.L. Patterson, J.J. Hagerman, H. Wigglesworth, Charles B. Rowland, E. Bantz, W.G. Lathrop, Clarence King, George Rowland, George A. Tibbals (Continental Iron Works), George N. Vanderbilt, Eugene C. Lewis, F.P. Burt, Colonel John C. Clarke, Lieutenant Thomas Turtle, W.S.M. Scott, E. Bates Dorsey, Bernard Carter, George M. Shriver (Baltimore and Ohio Railroad), Russel Sturgis, Macmillan Publishing, James Abernethy, B. Baker, J.G.W. Fynje, A. Mallet, Jean Hersuy, L.F. Vernon Horcourt, Robert Lilley, A.J. Johnson, F.M. Colby, Henry D. Loney, A.S. Cameron, James A. Harrald, William Watson, John B. Lervis, A.L. Rives, Edwin F. Bidell, Frank H. Stockett, E. McMahon, C.F. Elgin, Enrique Budge, G. Clayton Gardiner, Dwight Porter, William A. Chapman, T.E. Sickels, Theodore Cooper, C.J. Warner, Institution of Civil Engineers, Robert Gordon, United States Coast of Geodetic Survey Office, C.P. Pattun, J.N. Putnam, Sidney B. Warner, H.D. Fisher, Union Pacific Railway Company, Lewis S. Wolle, George E. Waring Junior, The American Exhibition, G.F. Swain, American Society of Civil Engineers, N.H. Whitten, U.S. Engineer Office, Government Works Committee, J.J. Hagerman, D. Jackson, Sterling Iron and Railway Company, E.P. Alexander, E. Williamson, Central Railway Company of New Jersey, William A. Underwood, F. Collingwood, James Dun (Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railroad Company), Henry F. Kilburn, Louis A. Bissell, Virgil G. Boque, H.C. Eckenberger, Melville Egleston, Charles Parson, George Swain, Continental Iron Works, Rudolph Hering, J.B. Gordon, Mayor's Office (Baltimore), Harry Robinson, Pennsylvania Railway Company, W.H. Gahagan, L. Luiggi, B.H. Bryant, T.J. Cleaver (Chesapeake and Delaware Canal Company), H.A. Carson, H.A. Presset (Department of the Interior, United States Geological Survey), John K. Cowen, Vernon H. Brown, J. Waldorf, B.H. Bryant, L.F. Root, P.W. White, Metropolitan Railroad Company, Charles F. Mayer (Consolidated Coal Company, Cumberland and Pennsylvania Railroad Company), J.M. Lane (Western Maryland Railroad), Dr. R.S. Stewart (Annapolis and Elk Ridge Railroad), Baltimore and Drum Point Railroad (John Lyons, John G. Butler, D. Candon, R.P. McCormick, Andrew Banks), Thomas F. Rowland, J.A. Bensel, Walton Aims, S.D. Coykendall, H.C. Rogers, John F. Ward, T.B. Jewell, H.A. Pressey, C.S. Armstrong, J. Nennett, V.G. Bague.
Series 3, Personal Correspondence, 1850-1942, contains correspondence with immediate and extended family, specifically the heirs to the Benjamin H. Hutton and Joseph Hutton estates and Adele Gorman. Correspondence is primarily arranged chronologically, but some files have been divided based on subject or author (the Deer Park and Adele Gorman files), or by form (the Telegrams, and Cablegrams file). Special note is made of the posthumous correspondence file, which includes correspondence both relating to Hutton's death and correspondence that was written by family members after the years of his death. The series contains both hand written and typed letters. Some correspondence is in French. The correspondence demonstrates his relationship with his children specifically Elizabeth (Bessie) Hutton, and illuminates his role in his family. This series also provides details about nineteenth century upper class society and activities. Special note should be made that this folder does not contain all of the personal correspondence contained in the collection. Some correspondence has been separated according to recipient, or subject in order to make researching these recipients or subjects easier.
Series 3 correspondence topics include: estate payments, distribution of assets, funds transfers, estate lines, conflicts with tenants, sketches, lot maintenance, real estate sales, deeds, real estate sales negotiations, congratulations wishes on new babies, family illnesses, family affairs and travels, traveling directions, personal investments, invitations for social occasions, family debts, professional interests, professional and personal appointments, family issues, requests for money, sketches, advice to children (specifically Frank Hutton), life insurance, books, letters of introduction, legal issues, funeral expenses, charity donations, advertisements, minutes from professional organizations, army enlistment, deaths of friends and family, recipes, estimates of personal expenses, renovations, stock certificates (Great Northern Railway Company, New York), food, social activities, the weather, marriages, real estate and construction plans, and loan agreements.
Correspondents include the following: Frank Hutton, Thomas B. Brookes, J.L. Marcauley, C.M. Matthews, Edward J. Hancy, John M. Wilson, H.A. Carson, William H. Wiley (of John Wiley and Sons Scientific Publishers, New York), Georgina Hutton, Pierre and Jane Casson, George McNaughlin, Henrietta Hutton, Aaron Pennington Whitehead, J.B. Wheeler, B. Williamson, Robert De Forest, Elizabeth (Bessie) Hutton, Grace Beukard, J.C. Saunders, Mary Hutton, William J. Pennington, C.S. Hurd, Henry C. Cooper, Henry J. Segers, S.F. Miller, Annie Theller, Alfred Noble, Maria Burton, Joseph Hobson, E. Lennon, F. Hulberg, Charles Gordon Hutton, Edward C. Ebert, A. William Lewin, E.R. Dunn, William P. Craighill, Theodore Cooper, P.I. Chapelle, Anita McAlpine, Clarence King, Victoria Raymond, and Adele Gorman.
Series 4, Personal Materials, 1835-1946, contains documentation about Hutton's personal finances, role as executor of the Benjamin H. Hutton, Joseph Hutton, Annie Theller, and Countess H. De Moltke-Hvitfeldt estates, Mary Augusta Hutton (wife), Mary Hutton (daughter), Frank Hutton, John Caulfield (son-in-law), and B.F. and C.H. Hutton. The series has been divided into four subseries: Financial Records, 1876-1901, Estate and Real Estate Records, 1835-1921, Other Huttons, 1876-1936, and Personal Material, 1878-1946. Subseries 2, Estate and Real Estate Records, 1835-1921, contains correspondence relating to specific family estates and family members. This correspondence was separated from Series 3, Personal Correspondence, 1850-1942, to make it easier for researchers to access all records relating to the family estates. This series includes hand written, typed, and printed materials. Some materials are in French. All material dated after 1901 has been added to the collection by other creators such as Hutton's wife and children.
Subseries 1, Financial Records, 1876-1901, includes account books, account records, correspondence related to bank accounts, bank statements, financial notes, bills and proofs of payment, rent receipts, tax bills (New York, Flatbush, Montgomery County), checks, money exchanges, receipts for tax payments, real estate receipts, stock and bond certificates, loan agreements, executor accounts, rebate calculation sheet, and tax and insurance payments.
Subseries 2, Estate and Real Estate Records, 1835-1921, includes property maps and information (rent, mortgage costs, deeds), correspondence, notes on estate distribution, estate assets, value of estate and estate payments, account records, loan agreements, receipts, proof of payments, checks, financial records, legal documents, insurance documents, tax bills, auction receipts, and wills relating to the estates of Benjamin H. Hutton, Joseph Hutton, Countess H. de Moltke-Hivtfeldt, Annie Theller, and William R. Hutton. Also included are correspondence, property maps and information, and deeds and mortgages on Hutton properties.
Subseries 2, the estate and real estate records correspondence topics include: Virginia state building codes, construction costs, construction notices, purchasing offers for property, real estate prices, receipts of payments, property lines, real estate purchases and sales, real estate sales negotiations, deeds insurance estimates and costs, loan costs, property estimates, renovation costs, mortgages, property damages and repairs, property tax payments, insurance rates and payments, rent payments, telephone installation, building permits, rental agreements, reports on property condition, contracts of sale, conflicts with tenants, changes of address, deeds, distribution of estate monies, details about the Countess' illness, estate arrangements, changes of address, problems arising out of estate distribution, payment of debts, will details, selling of mortgage shares, accounts, estate settlement, money cables and transfers, dealings with lawyers, rent on Hutton Park property, legal and accounting fees, power of attorney transfer, investments, property security, land appraisals, lists of assets, legacy taxes, mortgages transfers, property management, Flatbush property, property rent and values, and physicians bills.
Correspondents include the following: A.C. Weeks, Walter I. Green, John D. Probsh, A.G. Darwin, Thomas H. McCann, Allan Farguhar, Thomas Dawson, Potter and Crandall Real Estate and Insurance Brokers, George C. Tilyou, H.D. Olephant, F. Winston, Richard E. Calbraith, Frank P. Martin, Henry DeForest, Henry C. Cooper, Metropolitan Telephone and Telegraph Company, John Ecker, C.K. Avevill, Georgina Hutton, Edward J. Hancy, Robert Graham, W.M. Bennett, Willis E. Merriman, Nathan L. Miller, Harry Hutton, Marquise de Portes (Adele Gorman), Annie Theller, Samuel L. Theller, Mrs. R. Locke, Frank Z. Adams, John Palmer (Secretary of State, New York), J.T. Cammeyer, Frank P. Martin, Florence Theller, Francis H. Seger, Henry C. Cooper, D.W.G. Cammeyer, Campbell W. Adams, Jane Casson, Elizabeth Hutton, Rene de Portes, H.G. Atkins, Grace Beukard, Aaron Pennington Muikhead, J.E. Delapalme, T.H. Powers, Egerton L. Winthrop Junior, George B. Glover, William Jay and Robert W. Candler, B. Williamson, J.E. Knaff, Cornelius C. Vermeule, S.V. Hayden, Charles G. Landon[?], H.A. Hurlbert, F.A. Black, John L. Calwalder, the Health Department of New York, A.G. Darwin, William Laue, Frederick Frelinghuysen, Charles S. Brown, Henrietta Hutton, Edward Gelon.
Subseries 3, Other Huttons, 1874-1936, includes professional drawings and proposals, checks, insurance information, correspondence, tax information, medical information, tax bills, relating to Mary Augusta Hutton (wife), Mary Hutton (daughter), Henry and Harry Hutton, Frank Hutton (son), John Caulfield (son-in-law), B.F. Hutton, and C.H. Hutton.
Subseries 4, Personal Materials, 1878-1946, contains handwritten property notes, school notes, sermons, travel documents, menus, Christmas cards, jewelry box, postal guide, typed religious materials and flyers.
Series 5, Diaries, 1866-1901, contains twenty nine diary books that document both Hutton's personal and professional life. These diaries provide not only a record of Hutton's life, but were also used by Hutton himself as a reference tool. When working on projects he would refer to notes and observations he made in his diary (as evidenced by notes made in his diaries). The first pages of the diaries often list his height, weight and clothing sizes as they varied from year to year. A researcher could probably use the cashbooks (see Series 7) and the diaries in conjunction as both detail the purchases made by Hutton. Many of the diaries also include a short record of accounts in the back. The diaries are arranged chronologically.
Topics found in the diaries include short form accounts of daily activities and appointments, records of the weather, Chesapeake and Ohio Canal project, construction progress on projects, steam pumps, sketches and calculations, extension of Washington railroads, cost of food, work supplies, travel costs, costs of goods and food, work deadlines, home renovations, visits to family, cash accounts, accounts of household duties, produce on Woodlands property, records of deaths, debts owed, account of clearing Woodlands property, church visits, Hancock and Tonoloway Aqueduct, canals, Drum Point Railroad, Montgomery C. Meigs, Washington Aqueduct, Annapolis Water Works, telegram costs, wages for Chesapeake and Ohio Canal project, William Craighill, Morris Canal, Annapolis Railroad and Canal, professional duties (inspections), Kanawha River Canal, travel schedules, professional expenses, cash received from Chesapeake and Ohio Canal project, Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, John's Dam, cathedral construction (St. Patricks?), Piedmont Bridge, Cumberland, account of farm property belonging to Major Campbell Bruns, Cunard Pier, Marquise de Portes, rent costs, Baltimore Canal, Kingston Water Supply, Croton Orange Estate, Pierre Casson, Hudson River Tunnel, Washington/Harlem River Bridge, entertainment costs, Greenwood cemetery, train schedule, notes on illness, real estate sales, Hutton Park, Benjamin H. Hutton estate and heirs, estimates, accounts of correspondence received and sent, Central Railroad, rent on Orange properties, addresses, contracts and building supplies for projects, personal finances, Joseph Hutton property on Vanderbilt Avenue, New York, amounts paid and received, medical appointments, Ramapo Water Company, drawing progress of maps and diagrams, Harbor Board (New York), property repairs, inspection and test reports, reservoirs, lists of birthdays, Boston Tunnel, family financial issues, tax payments, and prayers.
Series 6, Notebooks, 1860-1900, document the engineering and architectural projects worked on by Hutton. The series has been divided into three subseries: Subseries 1, Engineering and Survey Field Notes, 1860-1899; Subseries 2, Notebooks, 1871-1886; and Subseries 3, Notes, 1863-1900. Subseries 1, Engineering and Survey Field Notes, 1860-1899, contains sixteen field notebooks used by Hutton. Subseries 2, Notebooks, 1871-1886, contains seven notebooks. Subseries three, Notes, 1863-1900, contains four documents.
Some notebooks correspond to specific projects such as the Kanawha River Canal (lockgate and Phoenix Waterline), Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, Buffalo Reservoir, Potomac Lock and Dock Company, Northern Adirondack Railroad account, Washington Aqueduct, Little Rock Bridge, Wilson-Adam Dock, Croten Brick Works, Hutton Park, Centennial Iron Works, Cumberland Canal, Williamsport Aqueduct, Catoctin Aqueduct, Alexandria Canal, Miller's Saw Mill, Seneca Dam, Union Tunnel, Cumberland Waterworks, Victoria Bridge, Welland Canal, North Sea Canal, Ramapo Water Company, Annapolis Water Company, Antietam Aqueduct, Interoceanic Canal, San Quentin Canal, Suez Canal, Amsterdam Canal, Harlem Bulkhead, Morris Canal, Blue Lake Canal, and Nicaragua Canal.
These notebooks should be used in conjunction with the other materials in the collection related to professional projects, as they often provide more detailed accounts of the construction and land surveys. Some of the notebooks contain entries from several different sources. The notebooks were probably shared among the engineers working on these projects. The notebooks also contain looseleaf ephemera such as hand written calculations, newspaper clippings, and blueprints. Languages found in this series are English and French.
Notebook topics include construction projects, supply needs, costs for labor, sketches (Woodland Mills, landscapes, dams, railway cars, Noland Tunnel), costs of crops, survey measurements, cost of livestock, aqueducts, inspections, canal bridges, seed prices, dams, measurements, coffer dam, canal maintenance, worker salaries, calculations, towpath sketches and measurements, shipping rates, worker accidents, water and coal used, geometrical sketches (Washington Aqueduct), locks, damage reports, interactions with other engineers (William Reading), coal shipments on the canal, travel expenses, land survey notes, drafts for correspondence, William Craighill, Victoria docks, lists of personal supplies used, construction time estimates, surveying expenses, telegram costs, sand pump, canal from Sherling to Tuxedo Bay, analysis of several artificial lakes and reservoirs, distances of reservoirs to main pipes, calculations for the Austin Wheel, engine construction, bridges, gauging water depth, results and observations of tests and performance, problems with construction, to-do lists, cost of land surrounding towpaths, Fawcett's Lock, Tarman's Lock, comparison of costs in transporting coal by water and by rail, inspection notes, iron work, drainages, leaks, cost of supplies, watergates, harbor ferries, railroad station distances, flood protection, Panama Canal via the Nicaraguan route, cost of jetties, water levels, pressure of steam, boilers, steam and water cycle, water depth, cement, Great Falls, Virginia, waterflow, soundings, time of floats, flow of currents, rain fall measurements, tunnel measurements, cost of trenching San Francisco water supply, record of livestock, cost of food, rates of sawing woods and mills, preliminary railroad line measurements, profile of final line, and railroad line profiles.
Series 7, Cash Books, 1856-1899, contains seven cashbooks which list prices for personal items purchased by Hutton. Topics include groceries, church dues, clothes, hygiene products, cigars, some short journal entries about his work (Williamstown), concerts, dinners, family addresses, cakes, meals, cars, stamps, office supplies (pencils and papers), valentines, glasses, gloves, fabric, medicine, needles, diapers, tobacco, shoes (adult and childrens), travel expenses, telegrams, candles, newspapers, liquor, coal oil, jewelry, allowances given to family members, bank deposits, monies paid and received, taxes, subscriptions, tailoring costs, deposits and payments into estate trusts, and notes about payments to Benjamin H. Hutton heirs. The cashbooks also contain some personal loose leaf ephemera such as prayers, sketches, and engineering notes collected by Hutton.
Series 8, Professional Projects, 1830-1965, contains documents about engineering and architectural projects throughout Hutton's career, including information about the professional organizations and the legal issues in which he was involved. This series has been divided into eight subseries based on project, document form, and document subject. Some materials are in French and Italian.
Series 8, Professional Projects, also includes correspondence related to specific projects, primarily the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, the Hudson River Tunnel, the Washington/Harlem River Bridge, and the Georgetown Incline.
Topics include construction and repair to the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, engineering and use of Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, worker contracts, supply and labor purchases, design plans and proposals, construction and repair costs, supply notes and costs of supplies, water pressure and power, shipping materials and routes (specifically the shipping of coal), inspections and their findings, condition of canal dam and locks, water supply, drainage, sketches, board proceedings, business meetings, deeds, cost comparisons to other shipping methods, hiring processes, wages, cost estimates, Hutton's consulting fees, measurements and calculations, funding issues, worker conflicts, negotiations with municipal governments, payment schedules, bills for services, air pressure in Hudson River Tunnel, permission for construction, specifications, mortality rate among workers on the Hudson River Tunnel, construction reports, outlet incline, proposals for construction, letters of introduction, railroad versus water for trade, controversy with Tiersey, construction contracts, construction schedules, construction issues, construction progress, construction damage, basis for estimates, supply requests, internal politics, changes to construction plans, contract and price adjustments, issues with suppliers, construction delays, work permits, bills, worker issues, engineering notes, construction excavations, expenses, construction instructions, Union Bridge Company, lighting installations, construction processes, hiring practices, electrical conductors, water proofing, hydraulics, cement, concrete, payment of contributors, processes of approval for construction, meeting dates of the Harlem River Bridge Commission, and contract restrictions.
Correspondents include the following: W.W.M. Kaig, Henry Dodge, E. Mulvany, John Shay, James Clarke, H.D. Whitcomb, Horace Benton, J. Rellan, J.R. Maus, W.E. Merrill, A.P. Gorman, J.H. Staats, Vernon H. Brown, Charles H. Fisher (New York Central and Hudson River Railway Company), B. Baker, John Fowler, Benjamin and John Dos Passos, Charles B. Colby, Charles B. Brush, S. Pearson, Stanford White, Horace E. Golding, R.H. Smith, Daniel Lord, A. Fteley, Herbert Hinds, J.R. Bartlett, D.M. Hirsch, M.H. Bartholomew, Thomas O. Driscoll, W.E. Porter, Thomas F. Rowland, George Edward Harding, R.H. Dames, William Watson, James B. Eads, J.D. Bright, H. Aston, Charles Suley, A.M. Maynard, W.R. Henton, G. Geddes, H.P. Gilbut, Malcolm W. Niver (Secretary of the Harlem River Bridge Commission), J.D. Patterson, George Devin (Assistant Engineer Washington/ Harlem River Bridge), J.B. Wheeler, John Bogart, Charles Burns, J. McClellon, Rob Bassee, B. Williamson, Theodore Cooper, Lewis Cass Ledyard, R.M. Hunt, John Cooper, Henry Wilson, A.A. Caille, Myles Tierney, W. Pentzen, L.B. Cantfield, George Q. Grumstaid Junior, M.J. Funton, George Pierce, W.O. Fayerweather, Noah S. Belthen, Herbert Steward, W.M. Habirsham.
Subseries 1, Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, 1828-1965, consists of plans, blueprints, land profiles, drawings, boat rates, contract forms, order forms, descriptions of the canal, design information, engineering data, sketches, cost estimates, land titles, microfilm, business papers, supply bills, patent bills, news clippings, reports, specifications, stockholder's reports, receipts, water leases, printed materials, and correspondence.
The Chesapeake and Ohio Canal project was started in 1828 and completed twenty two years later in 1850. The canal's main objective was to connect Georgetown to the coal banks above Cumberland, Maryland, providing a short and cheap trade route between the eastern and western United States. It was also hoped that the canal would provide greater communication and travel between these two regions. Plagued by natural disasters, and construction setbacks, the canal was never completed in time to be useful and became obsolete shortly after its completion. Canal trade was eventually put out of business by the increase of railroads. Although it was an important development in engineering at its inception, the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal is no longer in use and has become what locals affectionately refer to as "the old ditch." The canal was designated a National Historical Park in 1971 and consists of 184.5 miles of hiking and biking trails.
Subseries 2, Hudson River Tunnel, 1887-1901, consists of agreements for construction, certificates, contracts, and cost estimates, construction reports, engineering notebooks, engineering notes, sketches, land profiles, maps, progress profiles, plans, proposals, printed material, statements of expenses, and correspondence.
The Hudson River Tunnel project was started in 1874, and the final tubes were opened in 1910 after several construction setbacks. The tunnel connects Weehawken, New Jersey and Pennsylvania Station in Manhattan, New York City. Today the Hudson River Tunnel, known as the North River Tunnels is used by Amtrak's Northeast Corridor and New Jersey Transit rail lines.
Subseries 3, Harlem River Bridge, 1878-1982, consists of blueprints, printed materials, photographs, engineer's estimates, schedules, costs, reports, proposals, contracts, specifications, and correspondence.
The Harlem River Bridge project was started in 1885 and was completed in 1889. It spans the Harlem River in New York City, New York and connects the Washington Heights section of Manhattan with the Bronx. It was later named and is still known as the Washington Bridge and has been adapted over time to carry highway traffic. These adaptations have allowed the bridge to remain in use today.
Subseries 4, Other Projects, 1858-1832, consists of drawings, maps, blueprints, plans, proposals, cost estimates, bills, correspondence, sketches, land profiles, dimensions, engineering notes, account records, photostats, supply lists, calculations, legal documents, surveys, inspection reports, financial data, and measurements on architectural and engineering projects. Highlights of this subseries include: Western Maryland Railroad, Washington Aqueduct, Panama Canal, Ramapo Water Company, Piedmont Bridge, Northern Adirondack Railroad, Columbia Railroad, Morris Canal, Pittsfield and Williamstown Railroad, Suez Canal, St. Gothard Canal, Tansa Dam, Colorado Midland Railroad Company, Memorial Bridge, Mersey Tunnel, Little Rock Bridge, Kingston Water Supply, Kanawha River Canal, Florida Ship Canal, East Jersey Water Company, Consolidated Coal Company, Dismal Swamp Canal, Boston and Baltimore Tunnels, St. Patrick's Cathedral, Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, Annapolis Water Company, Baltimore and Drum Point Railroad Company, and the Baltimore Beltline.
Subseries 5, Unidentified Project Files, 1872-1900, consists of bills of sale, engineering forms and regulations, cement test results and methods, census bulletin, contracts, cost estimates, correspondence, notes on publications, engineering data and notes, drawings, surveys, sketches, payrolls, photographs, and reports.
Subseries 6, Specifications, 1870-1900, consists of documents related to some of Hutton's projects, including specifications for bridges, reservoirs, canals, viaducts, docks, buildings, water works, and tunnels. Some specifications are more general, and some are blank proposal/specification forms. There are also proposals for estimates and a "call" or advertisement to contractors to bid on certain projects. Many of the specifications deal with projects in New York State, but projects in Pennsylvania, the City of Baltimore, and Europe are represented. The materials are arranged alphabetically by project name. There is one folder of documentation for the Potomac River Bridge (Arlington Memorial Bridge) in Washington, D.C. The Arlington Memorial Bridge was part of the 1901 McMillan Commission's plan for restoring Pierre (Peter) Charles L'Enfant's original plan for the capital. Two decades passed before construction was initiated by the architectural firm McKim, Mead, and White. The documentation for the Memorial Bridge consists of calculations and monetary figures for materials such as granite.
Subseries 7, Legal Documents, 1886, contains documents related to a patent infringement suit for moveable dams involving Alfred Pasqueau vs. the United States. This file contains both a printed version of the case and a handwritten statement from Hutton.
Subseries 8, Professional Organizations, 1870-1902, contains documents related to professional organizations where Hutton held membership. Specific organizations represented are American Institute of Architects, American Society of Civil Engineers, Institution of Civil Engineers, Boston Society of Civil Engineers, Societe des Ingenieurs Civils de France, Librarie Polytechnique, American Agency of "Engineering" in London, Imperial Institute, League of Associated Engineers, Railroad Corporation, American Institute of Mining Engineers, and the Century Association. Material in the subseries includes correspondence, candidates for membership, membership payments, membership lists, meeting minutes, schedule of terms, professional practices, charges, articles of association, invitations for membership, and election notes. Some materials are in French.
Series 9, Printed Materials, 1850-1913, contains a variety of printed materials relating to engineering and architectural projects written by Hutton and fellow engineers. This series can be used to examine not only professional developments of the period and responses to those developments, but also to track how ideas were transferred between engineers across countries and continents. This series should be used in conjunction with the professional correspondence found in this collection, as many of the authors also appear there. Some materials are in French, German, Spanish, and Italian.
Subseries 1, Printed Materials by Hutton, 1852-1900, includes printed papers on the Missouri flood wave, the Ravine du Sud, the Potomac waterfront, the Colorado midlands, and the application of water supply machinery.
Subseries 2, Printed Materials by Others, 1826-1913, includes printed materials on the Chesapeake and Ohio Canals, Tehuantec Ship Railway, Interoceanic canals and railways, jetties, Nicaragua Canal, uses of cements, mortars, concretes, steam power, harbors, Niagara Falls, Kanawha River canal, Mississippi River, Hudson River Bridge, sewage disposal, Washington Aqueduct, specifications, construction progress reports, hydraulic experiments, water supply, drainage, road surfacing, sea walls, water-cooling apparatus, pollution reports, bridges, pipes, channels, reservoirs, irrigation, water power, and sewers.
Subseries 2 contains an issue of The North American Review in which Hutton has specifically highlighted an article entitled, "The Inter-Oceanic Canal." Please see the container list for names of authors.
Subseries 3, Printed Materials with No Author, 1852-1903, includes printed materials on harbor reports, Annapolis Water Company, Ramapo Water Company, water departments and boards, maps, engineer's reports, sea walls, preservation of structures, annual reports, Coal and Iron Railway Company, sewers, Baltimore and Drum Point Railroad, contract specifications, proposals, social club life, Croton Water Supply, law suits, water supplies, moveable dams, reservoirs, East River Bridge, Eastern Canal, water filtration, Kingston New Water Supply, water pipes, locks, docks, contracts, construction reports, Croton Water Supply, and surveys. Also included are issues of journals such as Le Correspondant, Circular of the Office of Chief Engineers, The Club, VIII Congres International de Navigation, Journal of the Association of Engineering Studies, and Journal of the Franklin Institute.
Subseries 4, Newspaper, Journals and Magazine Clippings, 1873-1900, contains clippings from a variety of newspapers such as Scientific American, andRailroad Gazette. Subjects included are the Union Tunnel opening in Baltimore, Drum Point Railroad, railroad company conflicts, Washington/Harlem River Bridge, Metropolitan Railroad, Western Maryland Railroad, crop prospects, lumber trade, North Avenue Bridge, Nicaraguan Canal, harbors, river improvements, reactions to engineering projects, Belt tunnel, city transit, Washington, D.C. flood in 1880, tunnel shields, Springfield Bridge, railroad patents, Panama Canal, jetties, Hudson Tunnel, steel boilers, composition and use of cement, and the Brooklyn Bridge.
Subseries 5, Oversized Printed Materials, 1889-1892, contains large printed materials related to the Washington Aqueduct, General Post Office Building, subway arches, cornices, Warwick's Castle, Neuschwanstein Castle, Renaissance paintings, botanical drawings, school buildings, church architecture, the Hospital for the Insane of the Army and Navy and the District of Columbia, the Panama Canal, Morningside Park, and the Mississippi Jetties. Also includes engravings of Hutton, T.N. Talfound, and F. Jeffrey and photographs of Montgomery C. Meigs, and Hutton. Some materials are in German and French.
1. Ward, George Washington, "The Early Development of the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal Project," Johns Hopkins University Studies in Historical and Political Science Series XVII, no. 9-11 (1899): 8.
2. Ibid., 88.
3. Ibid., 55.
4. Ibid., 90.
5. Sanderlin, Walter S., "The Great National Project: A History of the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal," Johns Hopkins University Studies in Historical and Political Science Series LXIV, no. 1 (1946): 21.
6. Ibid., 282.
7. Gies, Joseph, Adventure Underground (Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday and Company Inc., 1962): 134.
8. Ibid., 131-132.
9. Ibid., 135-136.
10. Ibid., 145.
The collection is arranged into ten series.
Series 1, Letterpress Copybooks, 1858-1901
Series 2, Professional Correspondence, 1861-1901
Subseries 1, Project Correspondence, 1876-1899
Subseries 2, General Correspondence, 1861-1901
Series 3, Personal Correspondence, 1850-1942
Series 4, Personal Materials, 1835-1946
Subseries 1, Financial Records, 1876-1901
Subseries 2, Estate and Real Estate Records, 1835-1921
Subseries 3, Other Huttons, 1874-1936
Subseries 4, Personal Materials, 1878-1946
Series 5, Diaries, 1866-1901
Series 6, Notebooks, 1860-1900
Subseries 1, Engineering and Survey Field Notes, 1860-1899
Subseries 2, Notebooks, 1871-1886
Subseries 3, Notes, 1863-1900
Series 7, Cashbooks, 1856-1899
Series 8, Professional Projects, 1830-1965
Subseries 1, Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, 1828-1965
Subseries 2, Hudson River Tunnel, 1887-1901
Subseries 3, Harlem River Bridge, 1878-1892
Subseries 4, Other Projects, 1858-1932
Subseries 5, Identified Project Files, 1872-1900
Subseries 6, Specifications, 1870-1900
Subseries 7, Legal Documents, 1886
Subseries 8, Professional Organizations, 1870-1902
Series 9, Printed Materials, 1826-1913
Subseries 1, Printed Materials by Hutton, 1852-1900
Subseries 2, Printed Materials by Others, 1826-1913
Subseries 3, Newspaper, Journals, and Magazine Clippings, 1855-1901
Not much is known about the history of William Rich Hutton outside of his role in architectural and engineering projects of the late 1800s and early 1900s. In many cases, he is spoken of only in reference to his projects, and the short biographies that have been written read more like a resume than a life story. Because of this lack of information, this note will focus on Hutton's professional accomplishments, but will attempt to make some comments on his personal life.
William Rich Hutton was born on March 21, 1826 in Washington, D.C., the eldest son of James Hutton (died 1843) and his wife, the former Salome Rich (1). He was educated at the Western Academy (Washington, D.C.) from 1837-1840 under George J. Abbot and then at Benjamin Hallowell's School in Alexandria, Virginia, where he received special training in mathematics, drawing, and surveying (2). Hutton began his professional career in California when he, along with his younger brother James, accompanied their uncle William Rich to work for the United States Army. His uncle was a paymaster for the army and Hutton became his clerk. They traveled around the new state paying the various platoons stationed there, but Hutton also occupied his time by drawing the landscapes and structures he saw in the settlements of Los Angeles, San Francisco, La Paz, Mazatlan, Santa Barbara, Monterey, San Pedro, San Diego, and Cape San Lucas (3). These drawings are now held by the Huntington Library in San Marino, California. Hutton held the position of clerk until the spring of 1849, and in July of that year he began working with Lieutenant Edward O.C. Ord and completed the first survey of Los Angeles and its surrounding pueblo lands and islands. Hutton continued surveying in California from 1850-1851. He was hired by William G. Dana to survey the Nipomo Ranch in San Luis Obispo County and also surveyed the ranches Santa Manuela and Huer-Huero, both owned by Francis Z. Branch. After his employment with Dana, he became the county surveyor for San Luis Obispo County, where he prepared the first survey and map of the region. He also continued to survey ranches for Captain John Wilson during this time. In August 1851, he resigned from his position as county surveyor and moved to Monterey where he worked as an assistant to Captain (later General) Henry W. Hallack, superintendent of the New Almaden Quicksilver Mine in Santa Clara County (4). He remained in this position until March, 1853 when he returned to Washington, D.C. by way of Mexico (5).
Hutton began his career as a civil engineer in Washington, D.C. He was first assigned to the position of assistant engineer on a survey of the projected Metropolitan Railroad in 1853, which was chartered to connect Washington, D.C. with the mainline of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad. In 1855 he began his professional relationship with Montgomery C. Meigs when he was appointed to the position of assistant engineer on the Washington Aqueduct. He also served as division engineer on this project until construction was shut down in 1861 because of the outbreak of the Civil War. Fortunately for Hutton, the construction on the Aqueduct was resumed in 1862, and when Congress transferred the supervision of the aqueduct project from the War Department to the Department of the Interior, Hutton was made chief engineer. By the end of the Civil War, Hutton's reputation as a civil engineer was established (6).
During this decade Hutton also served as the chief engineer for the Annapolis Water Works (1866) and as chief engineer for one of his most famous projects, the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal (1869-1871). Although some historians minimize Hutton as just one of many engineers to work on the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, he did make one major contribution to its construction: the Georgetown Canal Incline. Perhaps the final effort of the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal company to compete with the emerging and fast expanding railroad, the Georgetown Incline was designed to allow canal boats to travel through the canal with low water levels and to alleviate canal congestion. Unfortunately, by the time the incline was completed use of the canal had decreased so significantly that it was no longer needed to help control traffic (7). Despite this, Hutton continued to work as a consulting engineer for the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal Company until 1881, when he was let go because of the dwindling fortunes of the company (7).
In the 1870s and 1880s Hutton was busy with several engineering projects. During 1871-1873, he was the chief engineer in the completion of the Western Maryland Railroad to Hagerstown and Williamsport (9). He also practiced as an architect with his brother, the prominent Baltimore architect Nathanial Henry Hutton, during the years 1873-1880. He relocated to New York in 1880, serving as chief engineer for the Washington Bridge in 1888 and 1889 and the Hudson River Tunnel from 1889 to 1891. In 1886, he became the consulting engineer for the New Croton Aqueduct and served in the same position for the Colorado Midland Railway between the years of 1886-1889 (10).
As his personal and professional correspondence shows, Hutton continued to work on various engineering and architectural projects until his death on December 11, 1901. In addition to these projects, he also invented the innovative system of locks and moveable dams used in the Kanawha River Canal. He was awarded the Diplome d'Honneur for this featat the Paris Exposition in 1878 (11). His correspondence also demonstrates how Hutton was respected within his professional community. These letters refer to the accuracy of his work, his willingness to help other colleagues and supply them with reference materials and information, and, in addition to all this, his politeness. It seems that these qualities defined not only his personality but also his ideology. In one of the cashbooks in the collection, dated 1899, a hand written note contains a religious parable of "The Straw." The phrase in this parable that speaks most to Hutton's work ethic, and to the spirit of inventors everywhere, is this: "Even so however lowly may be the act, however little opportunities we may have of assisting others, we may still do something. Let us beg to fulfil our duty in this regards by making ourselves useful to others by some little act of thoughtful charity..." (12). Hutton, in his dedication to civil engineering, seems to have lived up to this virtue, and in his work he changed the landscape of Washington, D.C. and New York.
The Fairy Godfather: Hutton's Personal History
His professional records reveal a man who was fiercely dedicated to his work. His obituary references his professional life more than his personal life (13). Despite his reputation in the professional engineering community, his personal records demonstrate that Hutton was also dedicated to his family and children. In 1855, he married Montgomery County native Mary Augusta Clopper (died 1915). Together they lived on her family's estate known as the Woodlands, and had five children: Frank C. Hutton, Mary Hutton, Elizabeth Hutton (later Caulfield), Rosa Hutton, and Annie Salome Hutton (14). It is at this estate that Hutton died and was buried. The personal letters to his wife found in the Woodlands Collection held at the Montgomery County Historical Society show a man in love and willing to take time from his work to write to his wife. His letters to his children show a similar interest and compassion. In the many letters found in this collection from his daughter Elizabeth (Bessie) one can see a father who is interested in not only his daughter's activities abroad, but also in her opinion. This interest also extends to his son Frank Hutton, as their correspondence shows Hutton offering his son advice on his own engineering projects.
Hutton also served as executor to many of his extended family's estates. Many letters show the conflicts that Hutton had to mediate and the dependence of his cousins on him for advice and money. Although his family was wealthy (his cousin was Benjamin H. Hutton whose daughters married into the court of Napoleon III), they were volatile, and his records seem to indicate that he served as a mediator for many of their disputes. In addition to this, as his nickname of Fairy Godfather suggests, Hutton was always willing to lend his family either financial or moral support when needed. Unfortunately, little other documentation concerning Hutton's personal life exists outside of this collection and the one held at the Montgomery County Historical Society.
1. Waters, Willard O., "Introduction," California 1847-1852 (San Marino: The Huntington Library, 1942).
2. Waters, Willard O., "Memoir," Glances at California 1847-1853 (San Marino: The Huntington Library, 1942): ix.
3. Waters, Willard O., "Introduction," California 1847-1852 (San Marino: The Huntington Library, 1942). and Waters, Willard O., "Memoir," Glances at California 1847-1853 (San Marino: The Huntington Library, 1942): x-xi.
4. Waters, Willard O., "Introduction," California 1847-1852 (San Marino: The Huntington Library, 1942).
5. Waters, Willard O., "Memoir," Glances at California 1847-1853 (San Marino: The Huntington Library, 1942): xvii.
6. Waters, Willard O., "Memoir," Glances at California 1847-1853 (San Marino: The Huntington Library, 1942): xvii-xviii.
7. Skramstad, Harold, "The Georgetown Canal Incline," Technology and Culture, Vol. 10, no. 4 (Oct. 1969): 555.
8. Business Correspondence, Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, 22 February 1881, William R. Hutton Papers, 1830-1965, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution, box number 27, folder number 29.
9. "William Rich Hutton," The Club: A Journal of Club Life for Men and Women,(July 1894):37
12. Cashbook, 1899, William R. Hutton Papers, 1830-1965, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution, box number 23, folder number 5.
13. The Woodlands Collection, Montgomery County Historical Society.
Materials in the Archives Center
The Montgomery C. Meigs Papers, 1870-1890, (AC0987). Contains materials relating to the construction of the Washington Aqueduct including a book of drawings illustrating reservoirs, tunnels, culverts, and other structural elements, a Government Senate Document relating to construction progress, scrapbooks created by Meigs that include newspaper clippings about the Washington Aqueduct project, water supply, engineering projects, building construction, architecture and other subjects. Collection is currently unprocessed, but is available for research.
Materials in Other Organizations:
The William Rich Hutton Papers, 1840-1961, are located at the Huntington Library in California (see http://catalog.huntington.org).
The collection contains 95 drawings, 13 letters, and 39 facsimile copies of letters and manuscripts. The illustrative material includes both watercolor and pencil drawings of California (including Los Angeles, Monterey, San Francisco, the New Almaden Quicksilver Mine, and the California missions), Baja California, Mexico, and Peru. There are also five pieces in the collection related to the author María Amparo Ruiz de Burton. In 1942, the Huntington Library published Glances at California 1847--853: Diaries and Letters of William Rich Hutton, Surveyor and California 1847--852: Drawings by William Rich Hutton.
The Hutton family papers are located at the Montgomery County Historical Society, Sween Library (see http://www.montgomeryhistory.org/sites/default/files/Family_Files.pdf).
The collection contains account books from the Woodlands estate, recipe books, livestock records, records of Mary Augusta Hutton (wife), Mary and Rose Hutton (daughters), newspaper clippings (including his obituary), correspondence, record books, deeds, bills and receipts, engineering papers, religious momentos (funeral service cards), and insurance papers.
The collection was donated by Mr. and Mrs. James J. Madine, a relative of Hutton's and last owners of the Woodlands estate; the Department of Forests and Parks, Maryland; Louis Fischer; and Mr. and Mrs. Mayo S. Stuntz, 1965-1966, 1974.
The collection is open for research. Gloves must be worn when handling unprotected photographs and negatives.
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.