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Washington -- Enid A. Haupt Garden

Donor:
Haupt, Enid A. (Enid Annenberg), 1906-2005  Search this
Principal architect:
Carlhian, Jean Paul  Search this
Consultant:
Collins, Lester, -1993  Search this
Stonecarver:
Seferlis, Constantine, 1928-2005  Search this
Architect:
Renwick, James, 1818-1895  Search this
Creator:
Ripley, S. Dillon (Sidney Dillon), 1913-2001 (Smithsonian secretary)  Search this
Sasaki Associates, landscape architecture firm  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Digital images
Slides (photographs)
Photographic prints
Negatives
Place:
United States of America -- District of Columbia -- Washington
Varying Form:
Victorian Garden, formerly known as.
General:
The Enid A. Haupt Garden was dedicated on May 22, 1987. It is located between the Freer Gallery of Art and the Arts and Industries Building, and south of the Smithsonian Institution Building, commonly referred to as the Castle. This 4.3 acre area actually sits atop the Quadrangle complex - an underground facility made up of three Smithsonian museum spaces: the Arthur M. Sackler Gallery, the National Museum of African Art, and the S. Dillon Ripley Center. Above-ground kiosk entrances to the Sackler and African Art museums are located in the Haupt Garden itself. The Haupt Garden contains three discrete gardens within it: the Parterre, the Moongate Garden, and the Fountain Garden.
After the Castle's construction was completed in 1855, the area to its south became known as the South Yard. In 1887, it functioned as a zoo for bison to promote the conservation of their over-hunted population. The bison were moved to the newly-established National Zoological Park in 1889, and for nearly a century, the South Yard was home to a number of different buildings including the Aerodrome Shop, a solar radiation lab, a bug house (where beetles cleaned skeletal remains of animal specimens), temporary storage and collection buildings, a U.S. Army hangar, and a greenhouse and Quonset hut for the Office of Horticulture. In 1976, the Smithsonian's Office of Horticulture (now Smithsonian Gardens) planted the Victorian Garden parterre on the South Yard, in celebration of America's Bicentennial and to complement a Victoriana exhibition on horticulture in the adjacent Arts and Industries Building. This garden was inspired by a similar parterre made for the 1876 Centennial celebration in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. In 1979, President Jimmy Carter authorized $500,000 for the planning and construction of the Quadrangle - an underground complex built in the South Yard - to house the Arthur M. Sackler Gallery, the National Museum of African Art, and the S. Dillon Ripley Center. In 1982, the Victorian Garden was removed. Construction on the Quadrangle spanned from June 21, 1983 to 1987. Architect Jean Paul Carlhian of the firm Shepley, Bulfinch, Richardson and Abbot was in charge of designing the Quadrangle complex which incorporated an initial design concept by Japanese architect Junzo Yoshimura.
Once basic construction was complete and soil returned to the ground-level (i.e. roof) of the Quadrangle, it was clear that there was more room for gardens beyond the reincorporated parterre. Smithsonian Secretary S. Dillon Ripley invited philanthropist Enid A. Haupt to tour the garden site, hoping Mrs. Haupt would finance a Zen garden west of the parterre. In fact, she financed the entire design and construction of the new garden with a $3 million endowment, stipulating that the garden be mature when it opened in 1987. With funds in place, work on the garden began, with the primary goal being to harmonize the stylistically varied buildings in and around the Quadrangle (the three entrance pavilions to the underground museums, the Smithsonian Castle, Freer Gallery of Art, and the Arts and Industries Building). The design of the garden was a collaborative effort between principal architect Jean Paul Carlhian, the landscape architectural firm Sasaki Associates, Inc., landscape architect Lester Collins, and James R. Buckler, Director of the Smithsonian's Office of Horticulture. Together they designed the three gardens described below.
Enid A. Haupt (1906-2005) was a publishing heiress and philanthropist who especially supported American horticulture. In addition to this garden, Mrs. Haupt's horticultural philanthropy created and/or preserved several renowned garden spaces including The Enid A. Haupt Glass Garden at the Howard A. Rusk Institute, NYU Medical Center in New York City; the Enid A. Haupt Conservatory at the New York Botanical Garden in the Bronx, New York; The Haupt Fountains on the Ellipse in Washington, D.C.; River Farm in Alexandria, Virginia; and The Cloisters in New York City. In 1994, the American Horticultural Society awarded her the Liberty Hyde Bailey award for her philanthropy.
The Parterre is the Victorian-style centerpiece of the Haupt Garden. It is a carefully manicured garden with a changing palette of colors and textures, laid out in symmetrical patterns that are redesigned every few seasons. Designs incorporate such motifs as diamonds, fleurs-de-lis, and scallops. While parterre is a French term meaning "on the ground," parterres as an ornamental garden style originated in 16th century Renaissance Italy.
The Moongate Garden is next to the Arthur M. Sackler Gallery, and was inspired by the Temple of Heaven in Beijing, China. The Temple of Heaven was designed using a geometrical, axial layout, centered on the cardinal points of the compass. The Moongate Garden's dominant features are stone and water, which symbolize the body and spirit of the earth in Chinese culture. Two 9-foot-tall pink granite moon gates stand on the southwest and northeast corners of the garden; two more lie as benches in the opposite corners. A circular platform lies in the center of a granite-paved square pool, connected by bridges to each side of the square.
The Fountain Garden is next to the National Museum of African Art, and was modeled after the Court of the Lions at Alhambra, a 13th-century Moorish palace in Granada, Spain. As with most Islamic gardens, the Fountain Garden is symmetrical and includes a central fountain with four water channels. Respectively, these channels represent paradise itself, and the four rivers of paradise described in the Koran: water, milk, honey, and wine. At the garden's north end is a chadar - a patterned, sloping stone ramp that has water running down it.
The Renwick Gates are cast iron carriage gates at the garden's entrance on Independence Avenue. The gates were erected in 1979, based on an 1849 drawing by James Renwick, Jr., architect of the Castle. The design includes piers made of the same sandstone that went into the Castle's great reddish walls from a quarry in Seneca, Maryland.
A European linden tree once stood in the northeast corner of the South Yard. When construction on the Quadrangle began, Secretary Ripley directed that the tree remain unharmed. Construction personnel and arborists minded the tree, helping it live through the end of construction. However, it died of old age two years later, in 1989.
The Downing Urn was originally erected on the National Mall in 1856 in memory of landscape designer and horticulturist Andrew Jackson Downing (1815-1852). The urn was restored in 1972. In 1989, it was moved to where the linden tree had stood in the Haupt Garden.
Plantings include saucer magnolia (Magnolia x soulangeana), Wollemi pine (Wollemia nobilis), weeping Higan cherry (Prunus pendula 'Pendula Rosea'), golden shrimp plant (Pachystachys lutea), coneflower (Echinacea), dusty miller (Senecio cineraria), and pansy (Viola x wittrockiana).
Persons associated with the garden include: Enid A. Haupt (donor, 1987). Jean Paul Carlhian (principal architect, 1987). Lester Collins (landscape architect consultant, 1987). Constantine Seferlis (stonecarver, 1979). James Renwick Jr. (architect, 1849). James Goode (SI Castle keeper, design and construction supervisor, 1979-1987). S. Dillon Ripley (Smithsonian Secretary, 1964-1984). Michael Riordan (horticulturist, 1995- ).
Related Materials:
Enid A. Haupt Garden related holdings consist of 3,124 35mm slides (photographs), 979 photographic prints, 15 contact sheets, 12 transparencies, and digital images
Collection Restrictions:
Access to original images by appointment only. Researcher must submit request for appointment in writing. Certain items may be restricted and not available to researchers. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu
Collection Rights:
Archives of American Gardens encourages the use of its archival materials for non-commercial, educational and personal use under the fair use provision of U.S. copyright law. Use or copyright restrictions may exist. It is incumbent upon the researcher
Topic:
Gardens -- District of Columbia -- Washington  Search this
Genre/Form:
Digital images
Slides (photographs)
Photographic prints
Negatives
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Gardens Image Library, Archives of American Gardens, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAG.SGI, File SG001
See more items in:
Smithsonian Gardens Image Library
Smithsonian Gardens Image Library / Series 1: Garden Images / United States of America / District of Columbia
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Gardens
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aag-sgi-ref4

Minutes

Creator::
Smithsonian Institution. Board of Regents  Search this
Extent:
8.70 cu. ft. (9 document boxes) (7 12x17 boxes) (1 16x20 box)
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Manuscripts
Date:
1846-1995
Descriptive Entry:
These records are the official minutes of the Board. They are compiled at the direction of the Secretary of the Smithsonian, who is also secretary to the Board, after approval by the Regents' Executive Committee and by the Regents themselves. The minutes are edited, not a verbatim account of proceedings. For reasons unknown, there are no manuscript minutes for the period from 1857 through 1890; and researchers must rely on printed minutes published in the Annual Report of the Smithsonian Institution instead. Minutes are transferred regularly from the Secretary's Office to the Archives. Minutes less than 15 years old are closed to researchers. Indexes exist for the period from 1907 to 1946 and can be useful.
Historical Note:
The Smithsonian Institution was created by authority of an Act of Congress approved August 10, 1846. The Act entrusted direction of the Smithsonian to a body called the Establishment, composed of the President; the Vice President; the Chief Justice of the United States; the secretaries of State, War, Navy, Interior, and Agriculture; the Attorney General; and the Postmaster General. In fact, however, the Establishment last met in 1877, and control of the Smithsonian has always been exercised by its Board of Regents. The membership of the Regents consists of the Vice President and the Chief Justice of the United States; three members each of the Senate and House of Representatives; two citizens of the District of Columbia; and seven citizens of the several states, no two from the same state. (Prior to 1970 the category of Citizen Regents not residents of Washington consisted of four members). By custom the Chief Justice is Chancellor. The office was at first held by the Vice President. However, when Millard Fillmore succeeded to the presidency on the death of Zachary Taylor in 1851, Chief Justice Roger Brooke Taney was chosen in his stead. The office has always been filled by the Chief Justice since that time.

The Regents of the Smithsonian have included distinguished Americans from many walks of life. Ex officio members (Vice President) have been: Spiro T. Agnew, Chester A. Arthur, Allen W. Barkley, John C. Breckenridge, George Bush, Schuyler Colfax, Calvin Coolidge, Charles Curtis, George M. Dallas, Charles G. Dawes, Charles W. Fairbanks, Millard Fillmore, Gerald R. Ford, John N. Garner, Hannibal Hamlin, Thomas A. Hendricks, Garret A. Hobart, Hubert H. Humphrey, Andrew Johnson, Lyndon B. Johnson, William R. King, Thomas R. Marshall, Walter F. Mondale, Levi P. Morton, Richard M. Nixon, Nelson A. Rockefeller, Theodore Roosevelt, James S. Sherman, Adlai E. Stevenson, Harry S. Truman, Henry A. Wallace, William A. Wheeler, Henry Wilson.

Ex officio members (Chief Justice) have been: Roger B. Taney, Salmon P. Chase, Nathan Clifford, Morrison R. Waite, Samuel F. Miller, Melville W. Fuller, Edward D. White, William Howard Taft, Charles Evans Hughes, Harlan F. Stone, Fred M. Vinson, Earl Warren, Warren E. Burger.

Regents on the part of the Senate have been: Clinton P. Anderson, Newton Booth, Sidney Breese, Lewis Cass, Robert Milledge Charlton, Bennet Champ Clark, Francis M. Cockrell, Shelby Moore Cullom, Garrett Davis, Jefferson Davis, George Franklin Edmunds, George Evans, Edwin J. Garn, Walter F. George, Barry Goldwater, George Gray, Hannibal Hamlin, Nathaniel Peter Hill, George Frisbie Hoar, Henry French Hollis, Henry M. Jackson, William Lindsay, Henry Cabot Lodge, Medill McCormick, James Murray Mason, Samuel Bell Maxey, Robert B. Morgan, Frank E. Moss, Claiborne Pell, George Wharton Pepper, David A. Reed, Leverett Saltonstall, Hugh Scott, Alexander H. Smith, Robert A. Taft, Lyman Trumbull, Wallace H. White, Jr., Robert Enoch Withers.

Regents on the part of the House of Representatives have included: Edward P. Boland, Frank T. Bow, William Campbell Breckenridge, Overton Brooks, Benjamin Butterworth, Clarence Cannon, Lucius Cartrell, Hiester Clymer, William Colcock, William P. Cole, Jr., Maurice Connolly, Silvio O. Conte, Edward E. Cox, Edward H. Crump, John Dalzell, Nathaniel Deering, Hugh A. Dinsmore, William English, John Farnsworth, Scott Ferris, Graham Fitch, James Garfield, Charles L. Gifford, T. Alan Goldsborough, Frank L. Greene, Gerry Hazleton, Benjamin Hill, Henry Hilliard, Ebenezer Hoar, William Hough, William M. Howard, Albert Johnson, Leroy Johnson, Joseph Johnston, Michael Kirwan, James T. Lloyd, Robert Luce, Robert McClelland, Samuel K. McConnell, Jr., George H. Mahon, George McCrary, Edward McPherson, James R. Mann, George Perkins Marsh, Norman Y. Mineta, A. J. Monteague, R. Walton Moore, Walter H. Newton, Robert Dale Owen, James Patterson, William Phelps, Luke Poland, John Van Schaick Lansing Pruyn, B. Carroll Reece, Ernest W. Roberts, Otho Robards Singleton, Frank Thompson, Jr., John M. Vorys, Hiram Warner, Joseph Wheeler.

Citizen Regents have been: David C. Acheson, Louis Agassiz, James B. Angell, Anne L. Armstrong, William Backhouse Astor, J. Paul Austin, Alexander Dallas Bache, George Edmund Badger, George Bancroft, Alexander Graham Bell, James Gabriel Berrett, John McPherson Berrien, Robert W. Bingham, Sayles Jenks Bowen, William G. Bowen, Robert S. Brookings, John Nicholas Brown, William A. M. Burden, Vannevar Bush, Charles F. Choate, Jr., Rufus Choate, Arthur H. Compton, Henry David Cooke, Henry Coppee, Samuel Sullivan Cox, Edward H. Crump, James Dwight Dana, Harvey N. Davis, William Lewis Dayton, Everette Lee Degolyer, Richard Delafield, Frederic A. Delano, Charles Devens, Matthew Gault Emery, Cornelius Conway Felton, Robert V. Fleming, Murray Gell-Mann, Robert F. Goheen, Asa Gray, George Gray, Crawford Hallock Greenwalt, Nancy Hanks, Caryl Parker Haskins, Gideon Hawley, John B. Henderson, John B. Henderson, Jr., A. Leon Higginbotham, Jr., Gardner Greene Hubbard, Charles Evans Hughes, Carlisle H. Humelsine, Jerome C. Hunsaker, William Preston Johnston, Irwin B. Laughlin, Walter Lenox, Augustus P. Loring, John Maclean, William Beans Magruder, John Walker Maury, Montgomery Cunningham Meigs, John C. Merriam, R. Walton Moore, Roland S. Morris, Dwight W. Morrow, Richard Olney, Peter Parker, Noah Porter, William Campbell Preston, Owen Josephus Roberts, Richard Rush, William Winston Seaton, Alexander Roby Shepherd, William Tecumseh Sherman, Otho Robards Singleton, Joseph Gilbert Totten, John Thomas Towers, Frederic C. Walcott, Richard Wallach, Thomas J. Watson, Jr., James E. Webb, James Clarke Welling, Andrew Dickson White, Henry White, Theodore Dwight Woolsey.
Topic:
Museums -- Administration  Search this
Museum trustees  Search this
Genre/Form:
Manuscripts
Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Record Unit 1, Smithsonian Institution. Board of Regents, Minutes
Identifier:
Record Unit 1
See more items in:
Minutes
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-sia-faru0001
1 Page(s) matching your search term, top most relevant are shown: View entire project in transcription center
  • View Minutes digital asset number 1
Online Media:

A Surprising New Oasis Blossoms at the Smithsonian

Author:
Buckler, James R  Search this
Photographer:
Lautman, Robert C  Search this
Subject:
Haupt, Enid A  Search this
Adams, Robert McCormick 1926-2018  Search this
Downing, A. J (Andrew Jackson) 1815-1852  Search this
Renwick, James 1818-1895  Search this
Ripley, Sidney Dillon 1913-2001  Search this
Horticultural Services Division  Search this
Renwick Gates  Search this
Smithsonian Institution Quadrangle Complex  Search this
S. Dillon Ripley International Center  Search this
Arthur M. Sackler Gallery (Smithsonian Institution)  Search this
National Museum of African Art (U.S.)  Search this
International Center  Search this
South Yard  Search this
Smithsonian Institution Building (Washington, D.C.)  Search this
Physical description:
Number of pages: 7; Page numbers: 120-124, 126-127
Place:
Washington (D.C.)
Enid A. Haupt Garden (Washington, D.C.)
Mall, The (Washington, D.C.)
Date:
July 1987
Topic:
Gifts  Search this
Benefactors  Search this
Gates  Search this
Gardens, Victorian  Search this
Horticulturists  Search this
Architecture--Design and plans  Search this
Gardens  Search this
Secretaries  Search this
Horticulture  Search this
Architecture--Washington (D.C.)  Search this
Architects  Search this
Building  Search this
Publisher:
Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution
Data Source:
Smithsonian Archives - History Div
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sic_11659

Quadrangle Construction Authorized

Subject:
Arthur M. Sackler Gallery (Smithsonian Institution)  Search this
National Museum of African Art (U.S.)  Search this
S. Dillon Ripley International Center  Search this
United States Congress  Search this
Place:
Enid A. Haupt Garden (Washington, D.C.)
Date:
June 22, 1982
Topic:
Smithsonian Institution Quadrangle Complex  Search this
Architecture  Search this
Buildings  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Archives - History Div
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sic_1636

Enid A. Haupt Garden Opens

Subject:
Smithsonian Institution Building (Washington, D.C.)  Search this
South Yard  Search this
Place:
Enid A. Haupt Garden (Washington, D.C.)
Date:
May 22, 1987
Topic:
Special events  Search this
Benefactors  Search this
Gardens  Search this
Grounds  Search this
Horticulture  Search this
Major Events in Smithsonian History  Search this
Openings  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Archives - History Div
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sic_1760

Five-Year Perspective Approved

Subject:
Board of Regents  Search this
Date:
January 22, 1979
Topic:
Smithsonian Institution Quadrangle Complex  Search this
Expenditures, Public  Search this
Reports  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Archives - History Div
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sic_1778

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