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Beverly Hallam papers

Creator:
Hallam, Beverly, 1923-2013  Search this
Names:
Ogunquit Art Association (Ogunquit, Me.)  Search this
Sarton, May, 1912-  Search this
Smart, Mary, 1915-  Search this
Extent:
24.2 Linear feet
2.73 Gigabytes
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Gigabytes
Video recordings
Motion picture film
Interviews
Sound recordings
Sketchbooks
Date:
1899-2013
Summary:
The papers of painter, printmaker, photographer, and educator Beverly Hallam measure 24.2 linear feet and 2.73 Gigabytes, and date from 1899-2013. The collection includes biographical material, correspondence, personal business records, writings, journals, teaching materials, printed material, photographs, film, video, and sound recordings, guest books, and artwork.
Scope and Contents:
The papers of painter, printmaker, photographer, and educator Beverly Hallam measure 24.2 linear feet and 2.73 Gigabytes, and date from 1899-2013. The collection includes biographical material, correspondence, personal business records, writings, journals, teaching materials, printed material, photographs, film, video, and sound recordings, guest books, and artwork.

Biographical material includes family histories for both Hallam and Mary-Leigh Smart, as well as Hallam's family estate management, in addition to résumés and travel documents. Correspondence is both professional and personal, including extensive letters with the writer May Sarton. Personal business records include gallery and exhibition records, including some consignments, loans and price lists, as well as donation records. Writings include a master's thesis, artist statements, articles and lectures by Beverly Hallam, as well as student assignments and writings by others. Hallam's journals include travel and artwork journals, as well as heavily annotated and interleaved yearly planners. Teaching materials date back to Hallam's earliest lessons delivered while obtaining her bachelor's degree of education Massachusetts College of Art, and include her work at Lassell Junior College and her tenure teaching at Massachusetts College of Art.

The printed material series includes extensive clippings regarding Hallam's career as well as family history and the careers of notable friends and colleagues, in addition to those regarding regional artists and the art scene in Maine. Also included are invitations and catalogs for Beverly Hallam's exhibitions, and early research into polyvinyl acetate. Photographs include those of Beverly and her friends and family, as well as artwork and albums documenting installations for exhibitions throughout Hallam's career. Some albums more closely document the homes and estates of Surf Point belonging to Hallam and Smart, as well as Wild Knoll belonging to May Sarton. Also included are photographs Hallam created as illustrations for writing projects by Sarton.

The film, video, and audio recording series includes numerous home movies documenting Hallam's family life and her home at Surf Point, as well as some reels documenting her artwork and exhibitions and a few audio recordings most likely of artist talks. Guest books document attendance for select exhibitions in Hallam's career, as well as of her various homes. The artwork series is comprised of sketchbooks including those detailing Hallam's airbrush works, holiday cards drawn and designed by Hallam, and prints of later computer-generated works.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged in eleven series:

Series 1: Biographical Material, circa 1899-2012 (1.0 linear foot: Box 1; 0.349 GB: ER01)

Series 2: Correspondence, circa 1930s-2013 (4.3 linear feet: Boxes 2-6; 0.376 GB: ER02-ER11)

Series 3: Personal Business, circa 1952-2012, circa 1952-2012 (0.7 linear feet: Box 6; 0.066 GB: ER12-ER14, ER16)

Series 4: Writings, circa 1920s-2006 (1.4 linear feet: Boxes 7-8, 22; 0.001 GB: ER15)

Series 5: Journals, circa 1941-1999 (2.7 linear feet: Boxes 8-10)

Series 6: Teaching Material, circa 1944-1962 (0.7 linear feet: Box 11)

Series 7: Printed Material, circa 1920s-2010 (4.3 linear feet: Boxes 11-15, 22)

Series 8: Photographs, circa 1900-2013 (4.7 linear feet: Boxes 15-20; 1.95 GB: ER17-ER30)

Series 9: Film, Video, and Sound Recordings, circa 1970s-1990 (2.6 linear feet: Box 17, FC25-FC47)

Series 10: Guest Books, 1954-2004 (0.8 linear feet: Boxes 17, 21)

Series 11: Artwork, circa 1940s-2008 (1.0 linear foot (Boxes 21, 23-24)
Biographical / Historical:
Beverly Linney Hallam (1923-2013) was a painter, photographer, printmaker, and art educator in York, Maine. Hallam was born in Lynn, Massachusetts to parents Alice Linney Hallam and Edwin Hallam, who was an engineer. Beverly Hallam gravitated toward art making at a young age, and pursued a bachelor's degree in education from the Massachusetts College of Art. Shortly after graduation Hallam accepted a position at Lasell Junior College where she was Chairman of the Art Department until 1949. In 1948 she attended a summer study program at Cranbrook Academy of Art in Michigan. In 1953 she received her M.F.A. at Syracuse University where she wrote her thesis on the use of polyvinyl acetate as an artistic medium. For this and other early efforts she would be known as a pioneer for the medium of acrylic paint, which polyvinyl acetate would come to be known. From 1949-1962 Ms. Hallam was professor at the Massachusetts College of Art from 1949-1961 where she taught Painting, Drawing and Design, and Photography. She is particularly well known as a printmaker, and especially for her large-scale airbrush paintings of flowers.

Around the early 1960s with Hallam's departure from teaching, she relocated permanently to Ogunquit, Maine where she kept a studio and home known as Stonecrop, which is currently an art gallery by the same name. In 1971 Hallam and lifelong friend and companion Mary-Leigh Smart completed the construction of Surf Point, which served as both a home as well as a studio for Hallam. Surf Point was situated near the property known as Wild Knoll which was home to Hallam's close friend and correspondent, the poet and writer May Sarton, who lived there from 1974-1995. Sarton and Hallam Smart was a founder of The Barn Gallery, under the Ogunquit Art Association, for which both Hallam and Smart were board members. Smart also was also a collector and art consultant, passionate about Maine regional artists. In 1988 Mary-Leigh Smart established a Trust that would ensure their home and surrounding land would be turned into an artist residency upon their deaths, known as the Surf Point Foundation, modelled after the MacDowell Colony.
Related Materials:
The originals of some letters from May Sarton, 1954, and 1966-1994, included in this collection as photocopies, appear in the May Sarton papers held at New York Public Library's Archives and Manuscripts.
Provenance:
Material on reel 1428 was lent for microfilming in 1978. The majority of the collection was donated in 1992 and 1996 by Beverly Hallam, and in 2014 by the Beverly Hallam estate via executor Mary-Leigh Smart.
Restrictions:
This collection is open for research. Access to original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C. Research Center. Researchers interested in accessing born-digital records or audiovisual recordings in this collection must use access copies. Contact References Services for more information.
Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Occupation:
Educators -- Massachusetts -- Boston  Search this
Painters -- Maine -- York  Search this
Photographers -- Maine  Search this
Printmakers -- Maine  Search this
Topic:
Women artists  Search this
Acrylic painting  Search this
Airbrush art  Search this
Genre/Form:
Video recordings
Motion picture film
Interviews
Sound recordings
Sketchbooks
Citation:
Beverly Hallam Papers, 1899-2013. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.hallbeve
See more items in:
Beverly Hallam papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-hallbeve

Betty J. Meggers and Clifford Evans Papers

Creator:
Meggers, Betty Jane  Search this
Evans, Clifford, 1920-1981  Search this
Extent:
129 Linear feet
Culture:
American Indian -- South America  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Field notes
Place:
Venezuela -- archeology
Peru -- Archeology
Date:
1893-2012
Summary:
The Betty J. Meggers and Clifford Evans Papers document their research and professional activities from 1946-2012 and primarily deal with their archaeological and anthropological research in South America. Their work at the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History and their frequent collaboration with other researchers and professional organizations is also represented. In addition, this collection contains detailed records on South American research conducted by the Smithsonian Institution from the 1950s through the 2010s. The collection consists of research and project files, raw data and analysis, graphs and illustrations, photographs, correspondence, maps and charts, and administrative files.
Scope and Contents:
The Betty J. Meggers and Clifford Evans papers document their research and professional activities from 1946-2012 and primarily deal with their archaeological and anthropological research in South America. There is also significant material detailing research conducted in South America by the National Museum of Natural History (particularly the Department of Anthropology). Material documenting their publication and collaboration efforts with researchers and other colleagues is represented as well. There is also limited material related to Meggers and Evans time in graduate school at Columbia University and their brief careers before starting at the Smithsonian Institution in the early 1950s. The collection consists of research and project files, raw data and analysis, graphs and illustrations, photographs, correspondence, maps and charts, and administrative files.
Arrangement:
This collection is arranged in 12 series: Series 1. Personal, 1893-2012, undated; Series 2. Writings, 1944-2011, undated; Series 3. Research, 1930-2011, undated; Series 4. Correspondence, 1922-2012; Series 5. Conferences and Seminars, 1949-2010, undated; Series 6. Museum and Institute Subject Files, 1973-2011, undated; Series 7. Smithsonian Institution Amazon Ecosystem Program, 1962-2008, undated. Series 8. National Program of Archeological Research in Brazil, 1961-1989, undated; Series 9. Paleoindian Research: Paleoclimatology and Paleofauna Programs, 1960-1992, undated; Series 10. Latin American Archaeology Fund, 1971-1991, undated; Series 11. Photographs, 1937-2008, undated; Series 12. Maps and Charts, 1957- circa 2009, undated.
Biographical / Historical:
Clifford Evans Chronology

1920 -- Born in Dallas, Texas.

1941 -- Bachelors degree in anthropology from the University of Southern California.

1946 -- Married Betty Meggers.

1948-1949 -- Field research: Lower Amazon archaelogical expedition to Marajo, Mexiana, Caviana, and Territory of Ampa, Brazil. With Betty Meggers.

1950 -- Ph.D., Columbia University.

1950-1951 -- Instructor, Anthropology, University of Virginia.

1951-1962 -- Associate Curator, Smithsonian Department of Anthropology.

1952-1953 -- Field research: Archaelogical and ethnographic investigations in British Guiana. With Betty Meggers.

1954 -- Field research: Archaelogical survey and excavations on coastal Ecuador. With Betty Meggers and Emilio Estrada.

1956 -- Field research: Archaelogical survey and excavations along the Rio Napo, Eastern Ecuador. With Betty Meggers.

1957 -- Field research: Archaelogical survey and excavations on coastal Ecuador. With Betty Meggers and Emilio Estrada.

1958 -- Field research: Archaelogical survey and excavations on coastal Ecuador. With Betty Meggers and Emilio Estrada.

1961 -- Field research: Archaelogical survey and excavations on coastal Ecuador. With Betty Meggers and Emilio Estrada.

1962-1964 -- Curator of the Division of Archaeology.

1963 -- Field research: Archeological investigations of megalithic structures on Nan Madol, Ponape, Caroline Islands. With Betty Meggers.

1964-1970, 1975-1981 -- Supervising Curator of the Department of Anthropological Research.

1965-1970 -- Co-principal investigator with Betty Meggers of PRONAPA.

1966 -- Field research: Archeological survey on Dominica. With Clifford Evans.

1968-1975 -- Co-principal investigator with Betty Meggers of the Proyecto Andino de Estudios Arqueologicos.

1970-1975 -- Chairman of the Department of Anthropology.

1971 -- Creates the Latin American Archaeology Fund with Betty Meggers.

1972 -- Creates the Paleo-Indian, Paleoecology, and Paleoenvironmental Research Program.

1974 -- Creates the Amazon Ecosystems Research Program.

1975-1980 -- Co-principal investigator with Betty Meggers of PRONAPABA.

1976 -- Field research: Paleoindian and Archaic sites and museum collections in Peru, Chile, Argentina, Uruguay, and Brazil. With Betty Meggers and Dennis Stanford.

1981 -- Dies in Washington, D.C.

Betty Meggers Chronology

1921 -- Born December 5 in Washington, D.C.

1943 -- A.B. in anthropology, University of Pennsylvania

1944 -- M.A., University of Michigan

1948-1949 -- Field research: Lower Amazon archaelogical expedition to Marajo, Mexiana, Caviana, and Territory of Ampa, Brazil. With Clifford Evans.

1950-1951 -- Instructor, Anthropology, American University

1952 -- Ph.D., Columbia University

1952-1953 -- Field research: Archaelogical and ethnographic investigations in British Guiana. With Clifford Evans.

1954 -- Field research: Archaelogical survey and excavations on coastal Ecuador. With Clifford Evans and Emilio Estrada.

1954-2012 -- Research Associate, Department of Anthropology, national Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution

1956 -- Field research: Archaelogical survey and excavations along the Rio Napo, Eastern Ecuador. With Clifford Evans.

1957 -- Field research: Archaelogical survey and excavations on coastal Ecuador. With Clifford Evans and Emilio Estrada.

1958 -- Field research: Archaelogical survey and excavations on coastal Ecuador. With Clifford Evans and Emilio Estrada.

1961 -- Field research: Archaelogical survey and excavations on coastal Ecuador. With Clifford Evans and Emilio Estrada.

1963 -- Field research: Archeological investigations of megalithic structures on Nan Madol, Ponape, Caroline Islands. With Clifford Evans.

1965-1970 -- Co-principal investigator with Clifford Evans of PRONAPA.

1966 -- Field research: Archeological survey on Dominica. With Clifford Evans.

1968-1975 -- Co-principal investigator with Clifford Evans of the Proyecto Andino de Estudios Arqueologicos.

1975-1980 -- Co-principal investigator with Clifford Evans of PRONAPABA.

1976 -- Field research: Paleoindian and Archaic sites and museum collections in Peru, Chile, Argentina, Uruguay, and Brazil. With Clifford Evans and Dennis Stanford.

1976-1996 -- Committee for Research and Exploration, National Geographic Society

1982-1985 -- Consultant, Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi, Belem, Brazil

2012 -- Dies in Washington, D.C.

Betty J. Meggers and Clifford Evans were anthropologists specializing in the archeology of lowland South America. Their combined careers at the Smithsonian Department of Anthropology totaled over 100 years. Evans was born in 1920 in Texas. He received his bachelor's degree in anthropology and archaeology from the University of Southern California in 1941. Following his service as a bombardier during World War II, he enrolled in the anthropology doctoral program at Columbia University where he met Meggers, a fellow student in the department. Meggers was born in 1921 in Washington, D.C., and was the daughter of well-known archaeologist William Frederick Meggers. She graduated from the University of Pennsylvania with a bachelors degree in anthropology in 1943 and from the University of Michigan with a masters in anthropology in 1944 before being admitted to Columbia.

Meggers and Evans did their dissertation research together in South America— Meggers worked on the island of Marajo at the mouth of the Amazon River while Evans did archaeological research in the Amapa territory of Brazil. The two were married on September 13, 1946.

After Evans received his Ph.D. in 1950, he was hired by the Smithsonian Institution as an associate curator in the Department of Anthropology in 1951. After graduating in 1952, Meggers worked as an anthropology instructor at American University for one year before being hired as a research associate in the Smithsonian Department of Anthropology in 1954.

Evans was named Curator of the Division of Archaeology in 1962, and Supervising Curator of the newly created Office of Anthropological Research in 1964. Under his leadership, standardized operating procedures were created that centralized accessioning, cataloging, storing, and lending of objects. This freed curators from many complicated and routine activities. In 1970, Evans was appointed the Chairman of Anthropology for a five year term, where he initiated many large-scale research programs with Meggers that continued to operate many years after his chairmanship ended.

The first program that Evans and Meggers created was the "Paleo-Indian, Paleoecology, and Paleoenvironmental Research Program" in 1972, which was designed to study prehistoric peoples in the Western Hemisphere. The second program, implemented in 1974 was the "Amazon Ecosystems Research Program," which organized Brazilian scientists and Smithsonian staff members interested in environmental studies of the Amazon region.

Meggers and Evans conducted much of their field work together, which resulted in hundreds of articles, essays, presentations, and books. The majority of their work was done in the Amazon and Andean regions of South America, particularly Brazil, Ecuador, Venezuela, and Ecuador. Aside from these publications, they were also able to collect many archaeological specimens that are still part of the Smithsonian's holdings.

The conclusions that Meggers and Evans drew from their research and field work, while ground-breaking, were often controversial. In the early 1960s local businessman and amateur archaeologist Emilio Estrada excavated pottery from the Valdivia area in Ecuador and shared his results with Meggers and Evans. After finding significant similarities between Valdivian artifacts and those from Japan's ancient Jomon culture, they theorized that there was transpacific contact between Japan and South America around the beginning of the third millennium B.C. Their theory remains controversial.

Meggers and Evans also argued that despite the rich forests of the Amazon region, the river basin's thin, poor soil could not hold enough nutrients to sustain intensive agriculture. As a result, they argued, large and complex societies could not have existed in the Amazon River basin as other archaeologists and anthropologists have suggested.

After finishing his tenure as chairman of the Department of Anthropology, Clifford Evans died in 1981 of a heart attack at the age of 60. Following his death, Meggers continued in her position as research associate in the Department of Anthropology for another 30 years. Though she did not conduct additional fieldwork after her husband's death, Meggers wrote prolifically and was heavily involved in analyzing field work data and collaborating with colleagues working throughout South America. She made it possible for many researchers to study and conduct research at the National Museum of Natural History, and presented in many conferences and seminars locally and internationally. In addition, Meggers advocated on the behalf of colleagues to the National Geographic Society and other organizations to procure funding for archaeological and anthropological expeditions all over the world. Betty Meggers died in 2012 at the age of 90.
Related Materials:
There are about 25 slide cases, each containing about 200 to 300 kodachrome slides, that are currently stored at the Department of Anthropology at the National Museum of Natural History. These were created in the late 1940s and early 1950s and contain images of field work and other trips to South American locations such as Peru, British Guiana, the Peru Highlands, Ecuador, Brazil, Chile, Hondouras, Venezuela, Ecuador, and Mexico. Contact repository for more information.
Separated Materials:
2 rolls of 16mm film, 22 audio cassettes, and 1 VHS of South and Central American research were transferred to the Human Studies Film Archives in 2015.
Provenance:
The papers were donated to the National Anthropological Archives by the estate of Betty J. Meggers in 2013.
Restrictions:
The Betty J. Meggers and Clifford Evans papers are open for research. Personal correspondence, however, is RESTRICTED until 2026.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Paleoindian  Search this
Archaeology  Search this
Archeology -- Meso-America  Search this
Archaeology -- Ponape, Nan Matol  Search this
Archeology -- British Guiana  Search this
Archaeology -- Ecuador  Search this
Amazonia  Search this
Indians of South America -- Brazil  Search this
Paleo-Indians -- North America  Search this
Names, place -- geographic -- South America  Search this
Genre/Form:
Field notes
Citation:
Betty J. Meggers and Clifford Evans Papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.2013-01
See more items in:
Betty J. Meggers and Clifford Evans Papers
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-2013-01

Edward C. Green papers

Creator:
Green, Edward C. (Edward Crocker), 1944-  Search this
Extent:
8.12 Linear feet (20 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Place:
Mozambique
Asia
Dominican Republic
Africa
Europe, Eastern
Suriname
South America
Swaziland
Middle East
Date:
circa 1970-2016
Summary:
The papers of Edward C. Green, circa 1970-2016, document his work as an applied medical anthropologist and research consultant focusing principally on the distribution and prevention of AIDS and sexually transmitted diseases in Africa and South America. Much of Green's research and policy focus lay in understanding indigenous health belief systems and instituting locally-designed approaches to major health concerns. The collection consists of correspondence, field diaries and typed research, sound recordings, photographs, and published reports and articles, including material from his dissertation research among the Matawai Maroons of Suriname.
Scope and Contents:
The papers of Edward C. Green, circa 1970-2016, document his field research in Africa, Asia, Europe, the Middle East, and South America and his career as an applied medical anthropologist and research consultant focusing principally on the distribution and prevention of AIDS and sexually transmitted diseases. The collection consists of correspondence, field diaries and typed research, photographs, sound recordings, and published reports and articles.

The bulk of the material covers Green's field research undertaken predominantly in the Dominican Republic, Mozambique, Suriname, and Swaziland. Of note are sound recordings of interviews, songs, and rituals recorded in Suriname between 1971 and 1973. These recordings document the Matawai dialect of the Saramaccan language, an endagered creole dialect derived from Portuguese, English, and Afro-Caribbean sources. Correspondence in the collection dates from 1973 to 2015 and is a mix of personal and professional correspondence with colleagues and friends. Publications retained in the collection consist primarily of reports on healthcare policy and education, produced between 1978 and 2016 and written for state agencies and non-governmental organizations for which Green worked as a consultant. The bulk of the reports were produced with funding from the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) or one of its subsidiary funds.
Arrangement:
This collection is arranged in 3 series:

(1) Field notes, circa 1970-2016

(2) Publications, circa 1978-2016

(3) Correspondence, 1973-2015
Biographical Note:
Edward Crocker "Ted" Green is an applied medical anthropologist who has served as the director of the AIDS Prevention Research Project at the Harvard Center for Population and Development Studies (2006-2010) and as the founder and president of the New Paradigm Fund (2010-). He was born in 1944 to the Hon. Marshall Green, a United States diplomat, and Lispenard "Lisa" Crocker Green. He earned his bachelor's degree in anthropology from George Washington University (1967), his master's in anthropology from Northwestern University (1968), and his PhD in anthropology from the Catholic University of America (1974). Green produced his dissertation on the Matawai Maroons of Suriname. He served as the National Institute of Mental Health Fellow at Vanderbilt University from 1978-1979 and as the Takemi Fellow at Harvard University from 2001-2002.

Green's career focused on healthcare education and international policy surrounding sexually transmitted diseases and AIDS in addition to family planning, maternal and child health, primary health care, children impacted by war, and water and sanitation. Much of Green's research and policy focus lay in understanding indigenous health belief systems and in instituting locally-designed approaches to major health concerns. He has served with the Department of Population and Reproductive Health at Johns Hopkins University and as the Senior Research Scientist for International Health at the Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health. He has also served on over a dozen advisory boards or boards of directors, including the UNAIDS Steering Committee, AIDS2031 (2008-2009); the Presidential Advisory Council for HIV/AIDS (2003-2007); the Office of AIDS Research Advisory Council, National Institutes of Health (2003-2006); and the Global Initiative for Traditional Systems of Health, Oxford University (2000-). Green has also worked as a consultant and as a public health advisor to the governments of Mozambique and Swaziland.

Sources Consulted:

George Washington University Department of Anthropology. Edward Green Curriculum Vitae. Accessed December 20, 2016. https://anthropology.columbian.gwu.edu/edward-c-green

MedAnth: Medical Anthropology Wiki. "Edward C. (Ted) Green." Accessed December 20, 2016. https://medanth.wikispaces.com/Edward+C.+(Ted)+Green.

New Paradigm Fund. "Edward C. Green Bio." Accessed December 20, 2016. http://newparadigmfundorg.startlogic.com/about/leadership/dr-edward-c-green-bio/.

Chronology

1944 -- Born to the Hon. Marshall Green and Lispenard Crocker Green in Washington, D.C.

1967 -- B.A. George Washington University (Anthropology)

1968 -- M.A. Northwestern University (Anthropology)

1971-1973 -- Ethnographic field research among the Matawai Maroons of Suriname

1974 -- Ph.D. The Catholic University of America (Anthropology)

1976 -- Visiting Assistant Professor, University of Kentucky Department of Anthropology

1976-1978 -- Visiting Assistant Professor, West Virginia University Department of Anthropology and Sociology

1978-1979 -- National Institute of Mental Health Fellow, Vanderbilt University

1981-1983 -- Social Scientist, Swaziland Ministry of Health and the Academy for Educational Development

1984-1985 -- Personal Services Contractor, U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), Swaziland

1986-1989 -- USAID SOMARC (Social Marketing for Change) Project Senior Staff, with John Short and Associates and The Futures Group

1991-1993 -- Advisor for Family Health International (FHI) and AIDS Control and Prevention Project (AIDSCAP) in South Africa and Tanzania

1994-1995 -- Advisor to the Mozambique Ministry of Health, under sponsorship of the Swiss Development Cooperation

1996-2001 -- Board Member, World Population Society

1997-1998 -- Advisor for AIDSCAP and USAID in Southeast Asia

2000- -- Advisory Board Member, Global Initiative for Traditional Systems of Health, Oxford University

2001-2002 -- Takemi Fellow, Harvard School of Public Health

2002-2006 -- Senior Research Scientist, International Health, Harvard Center for Population and Development Studies

2003-2006 -- Member, Office of AIDS Research Advisory Council, National Institutes of Health

2003-2007 -- Member, Presidential Advisory Council on HIV/AIDS

2004-2009 -- Behavior Change and Evaluation Specialist, President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) in Uganda, Rwanda, and Ethiopia

2006- -- Senior Consultant for W.K. Kellogg Foundation programs in southern Africa

2006-2010 -- Director, AIDS Prevention Project, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health

2008-2009 -- Member, UNAIDS Steering Committee, AIDS2031

2009- -- Consultant for World Bank programs in southern Africa

2010- -- Director, New Paradigm Fund, Washington DC

2011 -- Elizabeth Eddy Visiting Professor of Anthropology, University of Florida

2011-2014 -- Research Associate, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health Department of Population, Family, and Reproductive Health

2014- -- Research Professor, George Washington University Department of Anthropology
Separated Materials:
1 VHS and 1 DVD ("What Happened in Uganda?"), and 1 DVD ("Miss HIV: Botswana Education Version") were tranferred to the Human Studies Film Archives (HSFA).
Provenance:
These papers were donated to the National Anthropological Archives by Edward C. Green in 2016. Additional digital material was donated by Edward Green in 2018.
Restrictions:
The Edward C. Green papers are open for research. Use of archival audiovisual recordings with no duplicate access copy requires advance notice. Digital media (including 1 computer disc of photographic slides, 1 DVD, and 3 USB flash drives) are restricted for preservation reasons.

Access to the Edward C. Green papers requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Maroons -- Suriname  Search this
HIV infections -- Prevention  Search this
Saramaccan language  Search this
AIDS (Disease) -- Prevention  Search this
Public health  Search this
Medical policy  Search this
AIDS (Disease)  Search this
Medical anthropology  Search this
Applied anthropology  Search this
Sexually transmitted diseases  Search this
Traditional medicine  Search this
Language and languages -- Documentation  Search this
Citation:
Edward C. Green papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.2016-31
See more items in:
Edward C. Green papers
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-2016-31
Online Media:

Francis P. Conant Papers

Creator:
Conant, Francis  Search this
Names:
Hunter College. Department of Anthropology  Search this
Goldschmidt, Walter, 1913-2010  Search this
Naguib, Mohammed, 1901-  Search this
Extent:
20 Linear feet ((43 boxes) plus 25 digital storage media and 5 map folders )
Culture:
Southern Bauchi languages  Search this
Suk (African people)  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Field recordings
Maps
Field notes
Manuscripts
Electronic records
Correspondence
Sound recordings
Photographs
Place:
Africa, French-speaking West
Sahara
Egypt
Ethiopia
Uganda
West Pokot District (Kenya)
Bauchi Province (Nigeria)
Belgian Congo
Finland
Morocco
Sudan
Date:
1946-2011
bulk 1953-2008
Summary:
The papers of Francis P. Conant document his anthropological work and, to a lesser extent, his previous career as a journalist and photographer. Francis Paine Conant was a cultural anthropologist who pioneered the use of satellite data in anthropology. He conducted fieldwork in Nigeria and Kenya, and his research interests spanned cultural ecology, AIDS, malaria, and sex and gender studies. He was also Professor Emeritus of Anthropology at Hunter College, where he taught from 1962 to 1995.
Scope and Contents:
The papers of Francis P. Conant document his anthropological work and, to a lesser extent, his previous career as a journalist and photographer. The bulk of the collection consists of his field work in Africa, specifically his doctoral research among the Barawa in Nigeria during the 1950s; his work among the Pokot in Kenya for Walter Goldschimdt's Culture and Ecology in East Africa Project during the 1960s; and his later research among the Pokot during the 1970s incorporating remote sensing tools. These materials include his dissertation, field notes, kinship charts, maps, correspondence, photographs, and sound recordings. The collection also contains photographs, correspondence, and writings relating to the Bernheim-Conant expedition through Africa. Among the photos are Polaroids of Mohammad Naguib, first president of Egypt. Also present in the collection are his published and unpublished academic writings, his writings and correspondence as a news correspondent in Finland, and files from courses that he taught. In addition, the collection contains some of Conant's digital files, which have not yet been examined. Overall there is little correspondence in the collection, aside from some letters scattered throughout the collection relating to his research and writings (both as an academic and a journalist).
Arrangement:
Collection is organized into 9 series: 1) Nigeria, 1956-1960, undated; 2) Kenya, 1961-1974, undated; 3) Remote Sensing, 1967, 1971, 1976-1984, 1991-1992, 2002; 4) Bernheim-Conant Expedition, 1953-1956; 5) Writings, 1960-1966, 1974-1995, 2000-2006, undated; 6) University Files, 1956-1957, 1961, 1970, 1972, 1982-1995, undated; 7) Biographical Files and Letters, circa 1940, CIRCA 1946-1947, 1951, 1955, 1979, 1989-1991, 1996-2000, 2007-2011, undated; 8) Sound Recordings, 1956-1965, 1971, 1977-1978, undated; 9) Digital Files
Biographical / Historical:
Francis Paine Conant was a cultural anthropologist who pioneered the use of satellite data in anthropology. He conducted fieldwork in Nigeria and Kenya, and his research interests spanned cultural ecology, AIDS, malaria, and sex and gender studies. He was also Professor Emeritus of Anthropology at Hunter College, where he taught from 1962 to 1995.

Conant was born on February 27, 1926 in New York City. After graduating from Phillips Exeter Academy, he deferred college to enlist in the U.S. Army in 1944. He served as a field artillery observer for the 294th Field Artillery Battalion and helped liberate two concentration camps during World War II. After he was honorably discharged in 1946, he attended Cornell University, where he obtained his B.A. in 1950. While at Cornell, a Finnish student invited Conant to Finland to help relocate families, farms, and livestock further from the Russian border, a protective measure against another Russian invasion. Conant accepted his invitation and took time off from his academic studies to spend several months in Finland in 1947, as well as a summer in 1949.

After graduating from Cornell, Conant attended University of Iowa's graduate writing program for a short time. Dissatisfied with the program, he worked briefly for the Carnegie Endowment, during which time he occasionally served as a personal driver for Alger Hiss. In 1951, he returned to Finland to pursue a career in journalism. He worked for United Press International until 1953.

From December 5, 1953 to May 26, 1954, Conant traveled throughout Africa as part of the Bernheim-Conant Expedition for the American Museum of Natural History (AMNH). The expedition was led by Claude Bernheim, the father of his first wife, Miriam. They traveled 16,000 miles through Northern Central and Eastern Africa, collecting film footage and material culture for the museum. Conant served as the writer and photographer for the expedition, publishing illustrated articles in the New York Times and Natural History Magazine.

He later returned to Africa as a doctoral student at Columbia University, where he earned his PhD in Anthropology in 1960. After studying the Hausa language at the International African Institute in London, he traveled to Nigeria as a Fellow of the Ford Foundation to carry out his fieldwork in Dass Independent District, Bauchi Province. Working among the Barawa that live in the mountains of Dass, he focused on their religion and its impact on the technology, social and political organization, and structure of their society. His dissertation was titled "Dodo of Dass: A Study of a Pagan Religion of Northern Nigeria." During his fieldwork, he also collected data on rock gongs, which were first identified and written about by Bernard Fagg in 1955.

In 1961 to 1962, Conant was a research associate for Walter Goldschmidt's Culture and Ecology in East Africa Project. The purpose of the project was to conduct a controlled comparison of four different East African societies and the farmers and pastoralists within each tribe. Conant was assigned to conduct ethnographic research among the Pokot in West Pokot District in Kenya. This research would form the basis of his remote sensing work in the same area more than a decade later. Conant was first introduced to remote sensing data in 1974 when his colleague Priscilla Reining showed him Landsat imagery of one his former fieldwork sites. He was inspired by the potential applications of satellite data to study cultural and ecological relationships. In 1975, he and Reining organized a workshop on "Satellite Potentials for Anthropological Studies of Subsistence Activities and Population Change." He incorporated remote sensing tools in his 1977 to 1980 study of the changing cultivation patterns and management of livestock in West Pokot District. His research combined traditional fieldwork (which included data he had collected in the 1960s), LANDSAT data, and geospatial data collected from the ground.

Later in his career, Conant's research interests expanded to include the spread of diseases, specifically AIDS and malaria. He, along with Priscilla Reining, John Bongaarts, and Peter Way found that uncircumcised men were 86% more likely to contract HIV than circumcised men. Their findings were published in their paper "The Relationship Between Male Circumcision and HIV Infection in African Populations" (1989). His research on malaria focused on the spread of the disease during African prehistory.

Conant taught briefly at Columbia University and was an Assistant Professor at University of Massachusetts, at Amherst in 1960-1961. Most of his academic career was spent at Hunter College, where he served as Chair of the Anthropology Department several times. He also founded and headed the college's Research Institute in Aruba.

Conant was a Fulbright Senior Research Fellow at Oxford University's Pitts Rivers Museum in 1968-1969. He was also a fellow of the American Anthropological Association, the American Association for the Advancement of Science, the International African Institute, the New York Academy of Sciences, and the Royal Anthropological Institute. In addition, he was actively involved with the Human Ecology: An Interdisciplinary Journal.

Conant died at the age of 84 on January 29, 2011.

Sources Consulted

Bates, Daniel G. 2011. Francis P. Conant: A Tribute to a Friend of Human Ecology. Human Ecology 39(2): 115.

Bates, Daniel and Oliver Conant. Francis P. Conant. Anthropology News. 52(5): 25.

Conant, Veronika. Email message to Lorain Wang, October 22, 2013.

[Curriculum Vitae], Series 7. Biographical Files and Letters, Francis Conant Papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution

Francis P. Conant. http://www.hunter.cuny.edu/anthropology/faculty-staff/in-remembrance/francis-p.-conant [accessed August 23, 2013].

1926 -- Born February 27 in New York City, New York

1944-1946 -- Enlists in Army and serves in World War II as a flash ranger in 294th Field Artillery Battalion

1950 -- Earns B.A. from Cornell University in English and Russian, minor in Engineering

1953-1954 -- AMNH Bernheim-Conant Expedition to northern Africa

1957 -- Conducts language studies at the International African Institute

1957-1959 -- Conducts fieldwork in northern Nigeria

1960 -- Earns PhD in Cultural Anthropology from Columbia University

1960-1961 -- Assistant Professor, Anthropology, University of Massachusetts at Amherst

1961-1962 -- Research Associate for Culture and Ecology in East Africa Project directed by Walter Goldschimdt

1962 -- Joins faculty at Hunter College

1968-1969 -- Fulbright Senior Research Fellow, Oxford University, Pitt-Rivers Museum

1977-1980 -- Sets up remote sensing monitoring area in West Pokot district in Kenya. Studies changing cultivation patterns and management of livestock

1995 -- Retires from Hunter College; Emeritus Professor

2011 -- Dies on January 29 at the age of 84
Related Materials:
For additional materials at the National Anthropological Archives relating to Francis Conant, see the papers of Priscilla Reining and John Lawrence Angel. His film collection is at the Human Studies Film Archives.

Artifacts and film collected during the Bernheim-Conant Expedition, his doctoral research in Nigeria, and his fieldwork in Kenya during the 1960s and 70s are at the American Museum of Natural History. He also deposited collections at the Pitts River Museum at the University of Oxford.
Provenance:
These papers were donated to the National Anthropological Archives by Francis Conant's widow Veronika Conant in 2012.
Restrictions:
The Francis P. Conant Papers are open for research. Access to the Francis P. Conant Papers requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Remote sensing  Search this
Journalism  Search this
Musical instruments -- Nigeria  Search this
Language and languages -- Documentation  Search this
Subsistence farming -- Kenya  Search this
Subsistence herding -- Kenya  Search this
Human ecology  Search this
Landsat satellites  Search this
Genre/Form:
Field recordings
Maps
Field notes
Manuscripts
Electronic records
Correspondence
Sound recordings
Photographs
Citation:
Francis P. Conant Papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.2012-13
See more items in:
Francis P. Conant Papers
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-2012-13
Online Media:

Donald J. Ortner Papers

Creator:
Ortner, Donald J.  Search this
Names:
Paleopathology Association  Search this
Smithsonian Institution Department of Anthroplogy  Search this
University of Bradford  Search this
Frohlich, Bruno, 1945-  Search this
Putschar, Walter G. J., 1904-1987  Search this
Extent:
44.37 Linear feet (96 boxes, 3 map-folders)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Maps
Photographs
Slides (photographs)
Negatives (photographic)
Manuscripts
Sound recordings
Correspondence
Place:
Virginia
England
Jordan
Peru
Date:
1963-2013
Summary:
The Donald J. Ortner Papers, dated 1963 to 2013, document his research and professional activities while working in the Division of Physical Anthropology in the Department of Anthropology at the Smithsonian Institution National Museum of Natural History. They primarily deal with his contributions to the field of paleopathology and his work with specimens from Bab edh-Dhra, Jordan and Chichester, England. The bulk of this collection consists of correspondence, files related to Ortner's publications, specimen observations and analysis, and photographs.
Scope and Contents:
The Donald J. Ortner Papers primarily document his projects, research, and correspondence working as a biological anthropologist in the Division of Physical Anthropology of the Department of Anthropology from 1963 until his death in 2012. The bulk of the projects represented relate to his work in paleopathology, such as the Near Eastern skeletal biology program in Jordan and the medieval skeletal disease project in England. The collection consists of notes, research materials, correspondence, data and data analysis, transcripts of specimen observations, maps, blueprints, artwork, negatives, slides, photographs, CD-Roms, floppy discs, and sound cassettes.
Arrangement:
This collection is arranged in 8 series: Series 1. Correspondence, 1966-2012; Series 2. Subject files, 1965-2013, undated; Series 3. Near Eastern Skeletal Biology Program, 1977-2010, undated; Series 4. Medieval Skeletal Disease Project, 1988-2006, undated; Series 5. Other publications, projects, and research, 1963-2011, undated; Series 6. Professional activities, 1971-2007, undated; Series 7. Biographical and office files, 1963-2011, undated; Series 8. Artwork, 1978, undated
Biographical Note:
Donald J. Ortner was a biological anthropologist in the Department of Anthropology at the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History (NMNH). By the time of his death, Ortner had served in many positions at the Museum, including Acting Director (1994-1996). His areas of expertise included human paleopathology, human health in medieval England, bioarcheology of the ancient Near East, and the history and evoluton of human infectious diseases. Ortner was a founding member of the Paleopathology Association.

Ortner was born in 1938 in Stoneham, Massachusetts and arrived at the NMNH in 1963, working primarily with J. Lawrence Angel who had recently started as Curator in the Division of Physical Anthropology. While working at the Museum, Ortner completed his Master's in Anthropology in 1967 and received his Ph.D. from the University of Kansas in 1970. His doctoral dissertation was on The Effects of Aging and Disease on the Micromorphology of Human Compact Bone.

Ortner worked with Walter G. J. Putschar, a pathologist based at Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston, on a series of short-courses (1971-1974) on paleopathology at the Smithsonian. During the summer of 1974, Putschar and Ortner traveled to Europe (London, Edinburgh, Zurich, Strasbourg, Vienna, Prague) studying and photographing examples of skeletal pathology in museums and other repositories. The result of this research was the book Identification of Pathological Conditions in Human Skeletal Remains published in 1981, with later editions in 1985 and 2003.

In 1977, Ortner joined the Expedition to the Dead Sea Plain directed by archaeologists Walter E. Rast and R. Thomas Schaub, focusing on the site of Bab edh-Dhra. Ortner studied the tombs and skeletons for data indicating cultural and biological changes, especially urbanization and connection to the development of other "Western civilizations." Ortner participated in two more field seasons in Bab edh-Dhra in 1979 and 1981. From his research at Bab-edh-Dhra, Ortner published many scholarly articles and recreated two tombs for the Hall of Western Civilization at NMNH.

In 1988, Ortner began his collaboration with the University of Bradford in Bradford, England, teaching short-courses on paleopathology. While a Visiting Professor at the University, he also participated in a project on human health and disease in Medieval England. The project focused on leprosy and syphilis in skeletons from St. James Hospital's leprosarium cemetery in Chichester, Wharram Perry, and Magistrates' Court in Kingston-upon-Hull. He received an Honorary Doctorate of Science from the University in 1995.

Donald J. Ortner died on April 29th, 2012 in Maryland.

Sources consulted:

Ubelaker, D. H. "Obituary: Donald J. Ortner (1938–2012)." American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 149 (2012): 155–156.

Arnoldi, Mary Jo and Ann Kaupp. "Donald J. Ortner, Sr. (1939-2012)." Anthropolog: Newsletter of the Department of Anthropology, Spring 2012: 1-3.

Chronology

1938 -- Born on August 23 in Stoneham, Massachusetts.

1960 -- Received B.A. in Zoology from Columbia Union College in Takoma Park, Maryland.

1963 -- Began working at the Smithsonian Institution.

1967 -- Received M.A. in Anthropology from Syracuse University.

1969 -- Promoted to Assistant Curator.

1970 -- Received Ph.D. from the University of Kansas.

1971 -- Promoted to Associate Curator.

1971-1975 -- Taught part-time at the University of Maryland.

1974 -- Spent summer with Dr. Walter G. J. Putschar studying pathological specimens in Europe.

1976 -- Promoted to Curator in the Anthropology Department, National Museum of Natural History.

1977 -- First field season at Bab edh-Dhra cemetery site in Jordan.

1979 -- Second field season at Bab edh-Dhra cemetery site in Jordan.

1981 -- Third field season at Bab edh-Dhra cemetery site in Jordan.

1988 -- Began association with the University of Bradford in Bradford, England.

1988-1992 -- Chairman of the Department of Anthropology, National Museum of Natural History.

1994-1996 -- Acting Director of the National Museum of Natural History.

1995 -- Awarded an Honorary Doctorate of Science degree from the University of Bradford.

1999-2001 -- President of the Paleopathology Association.

2005 -- Received Eve Cockburn Award from the Paleopathology Association in recognition of his contributions in the field of paleopathology.

2012 -- Died on April 29 in Maryland.
Related Materials:
The following photo lots depicting Donald J. Ortner can be found at the NAA:

Photo Lot 7D: Photograph of attendees after American Anthropological Association annual meeting, 1965

Photo Lot 7A: Portraits made at the annual meeting of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists, 1970

Photo Lot 77-45: Photograph of Smithsonian Institution physical anthropologists, circa 1977

Photo Lot 4822: Division of Physical Anthropology collection of photographs of physical anthropologists, undated

Sound recordings of Donald J. Ortner at the NAA:

John Lawrence Angel Papers, Sound Recordings, "How Humans Adapt: A Biocultural Odyssey," November 9, 1981

Other collections at the NAA in which Donald J. Ortner is a correspondent or creator of material:

Records of the Department of Anthropology, 1877-1980

Department of Anthropology Annual Reports, 1920-1983

John Lawrence Angel Papers, 1930s-1980s

Three films that document Ortner's work in Bab edh-Dhra are located in the Human Studies Film Archives (HSFA):

Film number 2000.9.1, The Bones of Bab edh-Dhra, ca. 1970s

Film number 2000.9.3, Bab edh-Dhra Film Project, 1970-1980

Film number 2014.3, City of the Dead, 1978

The Smithsonian Institution Archives holds the original City of the Dead in Accession 05-282, Office of Telecommunications, Productions.
Provenance:
These papers were transferred to the NAA from the Department of Anthropology in 2014.
Restrictions:
The Donald J. Ortner Papers are open for research.

Access to the Donald J. Ortner Papers requires an appointment.

Requests to view forensic files are subject to review by the NAA. Forensic files can only be viewed in the National Anthropological Archives reading room. No copies are permitted unless permission is granted by the agency the report was written for.

Electronic records are unavailable for research. Please contact the reference archivist for additional information.

Use of audiovisual recordings with no duplicate access copy requires advance notice.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Anthropologists -- United States  Search this
Archaeology  Search this
Human remains (Archaeology)  Search this
Excavations (Archaeology) -- Middle East  Search this
Scurvy  Search this
Leprosy -- Research  Search this
Physical anthropology  Search this
Bāb edh-Dhrā Site (Jordan)  Search this
Excavations (Archaeology) -- England  Search this
Forensic anthropology  Search this
Paleopathology  Search this
Bronze age  Search this
Chichester (England)  Search this
Diseases  Search this
Genre/Form:
Maps
Photographs
Slides (photographs)
Negatives (photographic)
Manuscripts
Sound recordings
Correspondence
Citation:
Donald J. Ortner Papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NAA.2014-07
See more items in:
Donald J. Ortner Papers
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-2014-07

S. Ann Dunham papers

Creator:
Dunham, S. Ann (Stanley Ann)  Search this
Extent:
18 Linear feet ((44 boxes))
Culture:
Javanese (Indonesian people)  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Place:
Indonesia
Date:
1965-2013
Summary:
The S. Ann Dunham papers, 1965-2013, primarily document her work as an economic anthropologist in Indonesia. The papers include her dissertation research on blacksmithing and materials relating to her professional work as a consultant for organizations like the Ford Foundation and Bank Raykat Indonesia (BRI). Her work included projects on microcredit, women in development, and rural industries. Materials consist of field notebooks, correspondence, reports, research proposals, case studies, surveys, lectures, photographs, research files, and floppy disks.
Scope and Contents:
The S. Ann Dunham papers, 1965-2013, primarily document her work as an economic anthropologist in Indonesia. The papers include her dissertation research on blacksmithing and materials relating to her professional work as a consultant for organizations like the Ford Foundation and Bank Raykat Indonesia (BRI). Her work included projects on microcredit, women in development, and rural industries. Materials consist of field notebooks, correspondence, reports, research proposals, case studies, surveys, lectures, photographs, research files, and floppy disks.

The field notebooks are mostly written in English, but also contain a mixture of Indonesian and Javanese, and include notes from her years of fieldwork in central Java, work-related travel, experiences as a consultant, and notes on readings.

The bulk of the professional materials relate to Dunham's work at the Ford Foundation as Program Officer for Women and Employment in Jakarta from 1981-1984. Her work with the Provincial Development Program in the Indonesian Department of Industries, a consultancy in Pakistan, at Bank Rakyat Indonesia (BRI), and at Women's World Banking are represented to a lesser degree.

Academic materials primarily deal with Dunham's work toward her PhD, including her comprehensive exams and her dissertation.

The personal and biographical materials include limited material regarding her son, President Barack Obama, and a comprehensive collection of her resumes and qualifications.

The bulk of the photographs relate to Dunham's early field research for dissertation, and subsequently her work as a consultant.

Materials related to Dunham's computer files from 1991-1995 includes floppy disks, inventories, copies of floppy disks on CDs with content lists, and printouts of selected documents. They include final versions of her dissertation and files relating to her work with Women's World Banking and DAI (Development Alternatives Incorporated). The floppy disks and CD-roms are unavailable for research. The printed inventories, content lists, and documents are available.

The reference and research materials were collected by Dunham over the course of her career and studies. A bibliography of the majority of the reference and research materials is filed with the materials.

The collected materials about S. Ann Dunham comprise files posthumously collected by Bronwen Solyom about Dunham and her legacy. These include academic files, publication files, biographical material, and files relating to the recognition of Dunham and her work.
Arrangement:
This collection is arranged in 8 series: Series 1. Field notebooks, 1977-1994; Series 2. Professional, 1974-1994, undated; Series 3. Academic, 1973-1992, undated; Series 4. Personal and biographical, 1965-1994, undated; Series 5. Photographs, 1978-1992, undated; Series 6. Computer files, 1991-2012, undated; Series 7. Reference and research, circa 1969-2012, undated; Series 8. Collected materials about S. Ann Dunham, 1972-2013, undated.
Biographical Note:
Chronology

1942 November 29 -- Born in Wichita, Kansas

1961 August 4 -- Son Barack Hussein Obama, Jr. born in Hawaii

1967 -- BA, Department of Anthropology, University of Hawaii

1967 -- First trip to Indonesia

1970 August 15 -- Daughter Maya Soetoro born in Indonesia

1972-1973 -- Asia Foundation grant

1973-1974 -- Part-time instructor in handicrafts, Bishop Museum, Honolulu

1973-1978 -- East-West Center, Technology and Development Institute grant

1975 -- M.A. in Anthropology, University of Hawaii

1975 -- Went to Indonesia for PhD fieldwork

1979-1980 -- Consultant on international development, U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID)

1981-1984 -- Program Officer for Women and Employment, Ford Foundation Regional Office for Southeast Asia, Jakarta

1986-1987 -- Rural Development Consultant to the Agricultural Development Bank of Pakistan, under the Gujranwala Integrated Rural Development Project (GADP), credit component

1988-1992 -- Research Coordinator and Consultant to the Bank Rakyat Indonesia (under 3 separate contracts funded by the World Bank and USAID in microfinance)

1992 -- PhD, Department of Anthropology, University of Hawaii

1992-1994 -- Research and Policy Coordinator, Women's World Bank, New York City

1995 November 7 -- Died in Honolulu

Stanley Ann Dunham was an anthropologist who worked primarily in Indonesia conducting research for her PhD in economic anthropology while also building a professional career as an international consultant with various non-governmental organizations. Born in 1942 in Kansas, Dunham attended high school in Mercer Island, WA and moved to Honolulu, HI with her family. She attended the University of Hawaii at Manoa where she received her BA in 1967, her MA in 1975, and her PhD in 1992, all in anthropology.

Dunham's research and work dealt mostly with Indonesian handicrafts and small non-argricultural rural industries, including the study of economic and technical aspects that were important to enabling and sustaining development and village level microfinance programs.

Her dissertation Peasant Blacksmithing in Indonesia: Surviving Against all Odds was completed in 1992. The first half of her dissertation was published posthumously in 2009.

Dunham is the mother of President Barack Obama.

She died on November 7, 1995 in Honolulu, Hawaii.

(Chronology courtesy of the Ann Dunham Chronology by Ellen Chapman, S. Ann Dunham papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution.)
Separated Materials:
Objects have been transferred to the Anthropology Collections department. For more information please contact the department at 301.238.1340.
Provenance:
These papers were donated to the NAA by Ann Dunham's daughter, Maya Soetoro-Ng, in 2011.
Restrictions:
The S. Ann Dunham papers are open for research.

Electronic records are unavailable for research. Please contact the reference archivist for additional information.

Access to the S. Ann Dunham papers requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Women anthropologists  Search this
Economic anthropology  Search this
Mothers of presidents -- United States  Search this
Microfinance  Search this
Blacksmithing  Search this
Citation:
S. Ann Dunham papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NAA.2011-04
See more items in:
S. Ann Dunham papers
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-2011-04
Online Media:

Copyright, certification of registration US copyright office

Collection Creator:
Dunham, S. Ann (Stanley Ann)  Search this
Container:
Box 10
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1993
Collection Restrictions:
The S. Ann Dunham papers are open for research.

Electronic records are unavailable for research. Please contact the reference archivist for additional information.

Access to the S. Ann Dunham papers requires an appointment.
Collection Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Collection Citation:
S. Ann Dunham papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
S. Ann Dunham papers
S. Ann Dunham papers / Series 3: Academic / 3.2: Dissertation materials
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-2011-04-ref57

Professional

Collection Creator:
Dunham, S. Ann (Stanley Ann)  Search this
Extent:
2.5 Linear feet
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1974-1994, undated
Scope and Contents:
This series documents Ann Dunham's professional work, primarily as a consultant on projects related to microcredit, women in development, and rural industries. Dated from 1974-1994, the materials include correspondence, reports, memos, research proposals, case studies, surveys, publications, clippings, lectures, manuals, drawings, and some photographs.

The bulk of the materials relate to Dunham's work at the Ford Foundation as Program Officer for Women and Employment in Jakarta from 1981-1984. Her work with the Provincial Development Program in the Indonesian Department of Industries, a consultancy in Pakistan, her work at Bank Rakyat Indonesia (BRI), and at Women's World Banking are represented to a lesser degree. Also included are lectures Dunham gave in work-related situations and to academic and cultural organizations from 1980-1989.
Arrangement:
This series is arranged in 5 subseries: 2.1 Ford Foundation, 1974-1984, undated; 2.2 Provincial development program, 1980, undated; 2.3 Lectures, 1980-1989; 2.4 Pakistan, 1986-1987; 2.5 Banking, 1988-1994.
Collection Restrictions:
The S. Ann Dunham papers are open for research.

Electronic records are unavailable for research. Please contact the reference archivist for additional information.

Access to the S. Ann Dunham papers requires an appointment.
Collection Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Collection Citation:
S. Ann Dunham papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NAA.2011-04, Series 2
See more items in:
S. Ann Dunham papers
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-2011-04-ref479

Grayce Uyehara Papers

Topic:
Social Justice
Creator:
Uyehara, Grayce  Search this
Donor:
Uyehara, Paul M.  Search this
Uyehara, Paul M.  Search this
Names:
Japanese American Citizens' League  Search this
Extent:
18 Cubic feet (18 boxes)
Culture:
Japanese Americans -- Evacuation and relocation, 1942-1945  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Articles
Audio cassettes
Awards
Compact discs
Letters (correspondence)
Memoranda
Minutes
Newsclippings
Newsletters
Oral history
Pamphlets
Photographs
Reports
Slides
Speeches
Videocassettes
Date:
1929-2008
Summary:
The papers document the life and activism of Grayce Uyehara who was a pivotal figure within the Redress Movement and sought reparations for the incarceration of Japanese Americans during World War II.
Content Description:
The papers document the life and activism of Grayce Uyehara who was a pivotal figure within the Redress Movement and sought reparations for the incarceration of Japanese Americans during World War II. The collection materials span different social justice topics that Uyehara was involved with outside of Japanese American communities. Geographically, the materials are primarily from her time in Stockton, California; Rohwer, Arkansas; Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; and Washington, D.C., as well as other places.

The papers include materials relating to Uyehara's own incarceration; her lobbying work with the Japanese American Citizens League; other activism and grass roots activities; speeches; campaign materials; articles; memos; financial reports; work journals; photographs of the Uyeharas; community newspapers; film slides of redress; personal letters; internal correspondence; leadership conference notes; educational materials; interviews; awards; student theses; pamphlets; booklets; oral histories; maps; meeting minutes; newsletters; directories; and congressional records.
Arrangement:
The collection is unarranged.
Biographical:
Grayce Uyehara was a social worker and pivotal Redress Movement activist who helped lead the reparations campaign for the wrongful incarceration of Japanese Americans during World War II. Uyehara was born Ritsuko Kaneda on July 4th, 1919, in Stockton, California. Her parents named her Ritsu, which roughly translates to notions of law and independence, informed by their understanding of the significance of Independence Day. Her father, Tsuyanoshi Kaneda, worked in agriculture and business and performed domestic tasks. Through this, he developed a reliable business working for lawyers, doctors, and school administrators. Her mother, Tome Kaneda, raised their children. Her mother was strict but also encouraged her children to excel at whatever they did. She enrolled them in Japanese and music classes and expected them to help out at church and in the community. Uyehara was the second of seven children, and as the eldest daughter was expected to be a role model for her younger siblings.

In high school, Uyehara belonged to a Japanese student club, excelled in her schoolwork, and was part of the marching band, playing the bassoon. She also played piano for Sunday school at church, which had both English and Japanese services. She became involved in the Japanese American Citizens League (JACL), participating in its oratorical contests. Because of her community service, the elders and her peers in the Japanese American community respected Uyehara.

Uyehara majored in music at the University of the Pacific. She believed music would allow her to start a career as a local Japanese American piano teacher and church organist. She worked many jobs to pay for tuition while her parents helped cover her costs. While in college, she became involved in the Japanese American Young People's Christian Conference (YPCC) in Northern California. Uyehara continued to be recognized for her leadership and competence by becoming the chairperson of the Sacramento YPCC as a college senior.

In January 1942, after the bombing of Pearl Harbor, Uyehara was asked by the university president to become an instructor to teach Japanese to young men in military service at the local army base. Citing her patriotic duty, she accepted the position. She was able to finish school before being incarcerated, partly because her mother pushed her to do well and to stay in school. When the Uyehara family prepared to leave their home in April, one of her professors offered to hold their household belongings. Although she satisfied her graduation requirements, she received her degree in absentia. Two of her siblings were also in college when their academic careers were interrupted. She was very upset that her parents did not get to see her graduate because they had sacrificed so much.

The Kaneda family was forcibly relocated to the Stockton Temporary Detention Center in May 1942. At the Stockton Center, she put her service skills to work and assisted other Nisei inmates in organizing a makeshift school for Japanese American youth. Located on the site of the county fairgrounds, the school was forced to hold classes in the grandstands. Through one of her father's contacts, she was able to secure a donation of books, and she became the supervisor in charge of elementary education. Some of the young soldiers that she taught at the base also came to visit her. She spent four months there, and in September of 1942, her family was notified that they would be forcibly moved to Rohwer, Arkansas. While her family traveled ahead, she stayed behind to help close the Stockton Temporary Detention Center.

At Rohwer, Uyehara remained active and continued to hone her leadership and organizational skills. She helped create church services for young people, played the piano at various events, and taught music in junior high-level classes. During this time, she realized that her previous career path as a piano teacher was not realistic. She discovered that the Minnesota State Teachers College was offering scholarships to eligible camp inmates and decided to pursue the opportunity. She left the camp in January 1943 with three other young Nisei. She lived at a boarding house with another Nisei student from the Tule Lake incarceration camp. She had an active social life but found the classes to be unchallenging. During the summer in St. Paul, she stayed with a woman who was active with the Women's International League for Peace and Freedom, a liberal group who spoke out against war. Unsure of what to do next, she then returned to Rohwer where she worked at the camp hospital, continually checking for jobs. She found a job listing in Virginia where one of her younger sisters was attending school, and she left Rohwer for the last time. In Virginia, she worked as an editorial secretary. She was grateful that it was not a service job, which was the norm for young Japanese American women. Uyehara's brother, Ben, was attending Temple University in Philadelphia during this time. He assured her that the Quakers would help the Kaneda family with moving from the camp. Convinced, she packed up again and moved further north.

In Philadelphia, Uyehara found an apartment in the Fellowship House, an organization providing workshops on race relations in the city. She began working for Family Services, a social service agency in the Germantown area of Philadelphia as a receptionist and typist, but she also conducted intake interviews with the clients of the agency. She further continued her role as a community leader by becoming involved with the International Institute which assisted immigrants settling in Philadelphia, and became concerned with the needs of the Japanese American population moving in. Working closely with the Institute, she helped form the Philadelphia Nisei Council, which coordinated with the War Relocation Authority. She was the Nikkei representative of the Philadelphia Committee of Social Service Agencies whose role was to assist with relocation problems. Uyehara developed a handbook that detailed practical issues such as the cost of living in the city, how to rent an apartment, and where to find jobs. The Council began a newsletter, so the community could be aware of new people moving in to the area and of community events. She also started youth groups to provide activities and social interaction for high school and college-age youth coming out of the camp experience.

In Philadelphia, Uyehara became re-acquainted with Hiroshi Uyehara, whose mother knew Grayce's mother. They briefly met in Rohwer. He worked at a nearby Westinghouse factory as a draftsman. He had to receive an Army and Navy clearance, and during the wait went on strike. He became a volunteer at the International Institute where they reconnected. They married in 1946. Later, she and her husband were among those who formed the Philadelphia Chapter of the Japanese American Citizens League (JACL) to influence more people on social issues affecting Japanese Americans in a national context. Afterwards, the director of the International Institute arranged for the board to pay her graduate school tuition at the University of Pennsylvania while she worked as a social worker for the agency. She graduated in 1947 with a Masters in Social Work. Within two years of working in the community, she was asked to serve on the Philadelphia Fellowship Commission. She used this opportunity to highlight the perspectives of Japanese Americans.

The Uyehara's first son, Chris, was born in May of 1948. In 1950, they had a second child, Lisa. The International Institute asked her to return as a volunteer, and she started a program to help American servicemen and Japanese brides returning from Japan to adjust to a new life. She worked directly with Japanese women in teaching American customs, including etiquette and cooking lessons. She also provided individual counseling. She was very active with the local Parent Teacher Association (PTA) and became president, creating parent education programs and raising funds for the local school library. Uyehara was also very active in the National Association of Social Workers, the Cub Scouts, the local Presbyterian church, the West Chester Human Relationships Council, and the League of Women Voters. Later, she had two more children, Larry, in 1952, and Paul, in 1955. During this time, she was asked to help in establishing the first day care center for working mothers in West Chester. Despite the low pay, she was instrumental in establishing the center. In addition, she got involved in civil rights issues for African Americans, especially for school desegregation and upgrading placement rates for African American students.

In 1972, Uyehara served as the governor for the Eastern District Council of the JACL. She was on the National Board, and was the vice-president for General Operations, Chapter President, the National Civil Rights Committee, and the National Scholarship Committee. In 1974, Uyehara was the first woman to hold a JACL elected office. From 1973 to 1974, she was on the National Education Committee. She used her organizational skills to rearrange some existing educational programs so that the history of Japanese Americans could become more well known throughout the country. She also prioritized projects within the committee to make the programs more attractive to potential funders. Her ability to effectively organize with the JACL was influenced by the lessons learned in reading Years of Infamy by Michi Weglyn, and in the organizing lessons within African American communities after Brown v. Board of Education was passed.

In 1978, Uyehara was present at the 1978 Salt Lake City Convention when JACL decided to pursue redress, and was asked to be on the National Committee for Redress. Using her experience in improving school districts for African Americans, she worked hard to generate educational materials, bombard congressional offices and speak at various events and community organizations. She was also effective in gaining support from the Presbyterian Church and Jewish organizations. By 1985 she devised a plan to reach people on the East Coast, since there weren't many JACL chapters in major cities there. She retired from her job as a school social worker in order to help the JACL achieve redress. In the spring, she transferred to the Legislative Education Committee (LEC). Her philosophy was "If you're going to do it, you do it right. You just don't talk about it".

Uyehara did a lot of traveling between Philadelphia and Washington, D.C. Her husband was very supportive during this time. The leadership in Washington consisted of JACL officials and four Nikkei congressmen, who recognized Uyehara's work in coalition building and developing political relationships. Whenever a new member of Congress signed on to the Civil Liberties Act, she would send out a press statement, and any significant chapter events would be announced through her "Action Alerts." She also led congressional meetings with people like Senator Inouye, Ralph Neas, and Mike Masaoka because she was very familiar with the legislative process.

Uyehara sent information "vernaculars" to newspapers and newsletter organizations in New York and Los Angeles as well as the Pacific Citizen, so that people could see progress taking place within the redress effort. She urged people to initiate contacts in states like Florida and North Carolina to ensure votes were not lost. If an area had lower numbers of Japanese American constituents, she would ask different contacts to support the redress effort and lobby congress to vote for it. She also used her existing relationships with the American Friends Service Committee, American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU), Jewish war veterans, the Anti-Defamation League (ADL) of B'nai B'irth and the American Jewish Committee. Greatly aided by her efforts, the Civil Liberties Act of 1988 was passed. It issued a formal apology from the government and $20,000 to each surviving incarceree. This act also required monuments, museums, and classrooms to teach the history of Japanese American incarceration so similar discrimination would never happen again to others.

After redress was passed, Uyehara was still actively involved in community organizing. She chaired the JACL Legacy Fund campaign, which raised over $5 million to support other JACL programs. She engaged with the Japanese House and Garden in Philadelphia's Fairmount Park, speaking at educational engagements about redress and organizing efforts for residents in her retirement community through the Diversity Committee and the Mental Health Committee. She also helped coordinate the Philadelphia area fundraising effort for the National Japanese American Memorial Foundation. In addition, she enjoyed spending more time with family, gardening, and playing the piano.

In 2014, Uyehara was honored by Asian Americans United with its Standing Up for Justice Award. Uyehara passed away on June 22, 2014, at Virtual Memorial Hospital in Mount Holly, New Jersey. Japanese Americans remember Uyehara for her effectiveness and dedication as an activist, community leader, and the mother of Redress. Her experiences of being discriminated against and having to work to support the family at a young age sensitized her to the plight of working women and the economically disadvantaged. This greatly informed her service not only for Japanese Americans, but for all communities in America.

Sources

Susan Nakaoka. "Nisei Political Activists: The Stories of Five Japanese American Women Master of Arts., (University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), 1999) found in Grayce Uyehara Papers, Box 1, Folder N, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.

Gammage, Jeff. "Grayce Uyehara, fought for interned Japanese-Americans." The Philadelphia Inquirer, https://www.inquirer.com/philly/obituaries/20140624_Grayce_Uyehara fought_for_interned_Japanese-Americans.html June 23, 2014. Last Accessed March 18, 2019.
Provenance:
Collection donated to the Archives Center in 2019 by Paul M. Uyehara.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Civil rights movements  Search this
Concentration camps -- United States  Search this
Newspapers -- 20th century  Search this
Reparations for historical injustices  Search this
Genre/Form:
Articles -- 20th century
Audio cassettes
Awards
Compact discs
Letters (correspondence) -- 20th century.
Memoranda
Minutes
Newsclippings
Newsletters
Oral history
Pamphlets
Photographs
Reports -- 20th century
Slides
Speeches -- 20th century
Videocassettes
Citation:
Grayce Uyehara Papers, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1480
See more items in:
Grayce Uyehara Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1480
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N W Ayer Advertising Agency Records

Creator:
Ayer (N W) Incorporated.  Search this
Names:
American Telephone and Telegraph Company -- Advertisements  Search this
Cunningham & Walsh.  Search this
Hixson & Jorgenson  Search this
United Air Lines, Inc. -- Advertisements  Search this
Ayer, Francis Wayland  Search this
De Kooning, Willem, 1904-  Search this
O'Keeffe, Georgia, 1887-1986  Search this
Extent:
270 Cubic feet (1169 boxes )
7 Film reels
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Film reels
Business records
Interviews
Oral history
Print advertising
Proof sheets
Proofs (printed matter)
Scrapbooks
Trade literature
Tear sheets
Advertisements
Date:
1817-1851
1869-2006
Summary:
Collection consists of records documenting one of the oldest advertising agencies created in Philadelphia. The company then moves to New York and expanses to international markets. During its history NW Ayer & Sons acquires a number of other advertising agencies and is eventually purchased. The largest portion of the collection is print advertisements but also includes radio and television. NW Ayer is known for some of the slogans created for major American companies.
Scope and Contents:
The collection consists primarily of proof sheets of advertisements created by NW Ayer & Son, Incorporated for their clients. These materials are in series one through thirteen and consist primarily of print advertisements. There are also billboards, radio and television commercials. The advertisements range from consumer to corporate and industrial products. The majority of the advertisements were created for Ayer's New York, Chicago, Los Angeles and international offices. Printed advertisements created by Cunningham & Walsh, Hixson & Jorgensen and Newell-Emmett are also included among these materials. Researchers who are interested in records created by Ayer in the course of operating an advertising agency will find these materials in Series fourteen-nineteen.

Series fourteen consists of advertisements created by NW Ayer & Son to promote their services to potential clients.

Series fifteen are scrapbooks of some of the earliest advertisements created by the company. Series sixteen are publications. Some of the publications were created by Ayer while others were about Ayer or the advertising industry in general. Provides good background materials and puts the company in perspective. Series eighteen are the legal records. Materials relating to employees including photographs, oral histories etc. are found in series nineteen.

Series twenty is one of the smallest amounts of materials and includes information relating to the history of NW Ayer & Son.

The container lists for series one-thirteen are part of a database and are searchable. The list has been printed for the convenience of the researcher and is included in this finding aid. Series fourteen-twenty container lists are also a part of the finding aid but are not in a searchable format.

Series 1, Scrapbooks of Client Advertisements, circa 1870-1920, is arranged into three boxes by chronological date. There are two bound scrapbooks and one box of folders containing loose scrapbook pages. NW Ayer & Son compiled an assortment of their earliest ads and placed them into scrapbooks. Besides the earliest advertisements, the scrapbooks contain requests to run advertisements, reading notices and listings of papers Ayer advertised in. The early advertisements themselves range from medical remedies to jewelry to machines to clothing to education and more. Most of the advertisements in the bound scrapbooks are dated.

Series 2, Proofsheets, circa 1870-1930, NW Ayer was fond of creating scrapbooks containing proofsheets. The series contains proofsheets created between 1892 and 1930, organized into 526 boxes. For convenience of storage, access and arrangement, the scrapbooks were disassembled and the pages placed in original order in flat archival storage boxes. The proofsheets are arranged by book number rather than client name. Usually the boxes contain a listing of the clients and sometimes the dates of the advertisements to be found within the box.

Series 3, Proofsheets, circa 1920-1975, is organized into 532 oversize boxes, and contain proofsheets and tearsheets created between 1920 and 1972. Within this series, materials are arranged alphabetically by company name (occasionally subdivided by brand or product), and thereunder chronologically by date of production. Many major, national advertisers are represented, including American Telephone & Telegraph, Armour Company, Canada Dry, Cannon Mills, Carrier Corporation, Domino Sugar, Caterpillar tractor company, Ford Motor Company, General Electric, Goodyear, Hills Bros. Coffee, Ladies Home Journal, National Dairy, Plymouth (Chrysler Corporation), Steinway, TV Guide, United Airlines and the United States Army. Also contained in this series are three scrapbooks of client advertisements including Canada Dry, Ford Motor, and Victor Talking Machine.

Series 4, 2001 Addendum, circa 1976-2001, is organized into ninety three oversized boxes,one folder and contains proofsheets for select Ayer clients, created between 1975 and 2001. Within this series, materials are arranged alphabetically by client name and there under chronologically by date of production. Major national advertisers represented include American Telephone & Telegraph, Avon, the United States Army, DeBeers Consolidated Diamond Mines, Dupont, TV Guide, Sealtest, Kraft Foods, Gillette, General Motors, Cannon Mills.

Series 5, Billboards, circa 1952-1956, consists of mounted and un-mounted original art/mock-ups. Twenty-two pieces of original art created as mock-ups for Texaco billboards.

Series 6, Film and Video Commercials, 1967-1970,

Series 7, Radio and Television Materials, 1933-1993, undated, is arranged into eight boxes and includes radio scripts, television scripts, and story boards for commercials.

Subseries 7.1, Scripts and storyboards for Radio and Television Commercials, dates Scripts for radio and television commercials includes title, date, length of commercial, advertising agency, client information

NW Ayer's radio and television materials mainly focus on the American Telegraph and Telephone account. Some of Ayer's materials relate to Bell Telephone Hours.

Storyboards are used in television and film to assist the director in working with crew to tell the story. To show the viewer through the use of figures, visual effects and camera angles. When directors first start thinking about their storyboard they create a story in their mind. They think of all the camera angles, visual effects and how the figures will interact in their mind. They try to create an extraordinary story in their head to attract the viewer (YOU) In order for the storyboard to be entirely effective it can't be a passive document. When done properly, a storyboard serves as a central design, meeting the needs of many team members including graphics artists, video personnel and programmers.

Another function of a storyboard is to help the team communicate during the training development process. This communication is very important in working with a large team as in the movie King, produced in 1996. Figures help the director explain to the crew how they are going to record the film and how to present it to the audience. Sometimes the director wants special effects to be added to the film, but his budget might not be that big so the director will have to change the story to fit their budget.

The Visual Effects are an important part in the storyboards it adds a special touch of creativity to your film. Camera angles are an important expects in your film because the camera angles determine where the viewing audience will look. If you want your audience to look at a certain object you must turn their attention to it by focusing on that object and maybe you might try blocking something out. Then you will have your audience's attention and you may do whatever else you have to, it could be scaring them are just surprising them or whatever you do.

Also included is talent information and log sheets relating to the storage of the commercials.

Bell Telephone Hour Program, 1942-[19??], The Bell Telephone Hour, also known as The Telephone Hour, was a five minute musical program which began April 29, 1940 on National Broadcasting Company Radio and was heard on NBC until June 30, 1958. Sponsored by Bell Telephone showcased the best in classical and Broadway music, reaching eight to nine million listeners each week. It continued on television from 1959 to 1968.

Earlier shows featured James Melton and Francia White as soloists. Producer Wallace Magill restructured the format on April 27, 1942 into the "Great Artists Series" of concert and opera performers, beginning with Jascha Heifetz. Records indicate that the list of talents on the program included Marian Anderson, Helen Traubel, Oscar Levant, Lily Pons, Nelson Eddy, Bing Crosby, Margaret Daum, Benny Goodman, José Iturbi, Gladys Swarthout and .The series returned to radio in 1968-1969 as Bell Telephone Hour Encores, also known as Encores from the Bell Telephone Hour, featuring highlights and interviews from the original series.

National Broadcasting television specials sponsored by the Bell System, 1957-1987includes information relating to Science series, Bell system Theshold Series, Bell telephone hour and commercial and public sponsored programs

Series 8, Chicago Office Print Advertisements, 1954-1989, is arranged alphabetically by the name of the client in ninety boxes and six oversize folders. Clients include Illinois Bell Telephone (1955-1989), Microswitch (1969-1989), Teletype (1975-1984), John Deere (1974-1989) and Caterpillar (1966-1972) are particularly well represented. Other clients of interest include Dr. Scholl's shoes (circa 1968-1972), the Girl Scouts (1976-1980), Sunbeam Personal Products Company (1973-1981), Bell and Howell (1974-1983) and Alberto Culver shampoos (1967-1971), Honeywell, Incorporated, Blue Cross and Blue Shield Associations, Kraft, Incorporated, Sears, Roebuck and Company, and YMCA.

Series 9, Los Angeles Office Materials, 1950s-1987, include printed advertisements created by this office and information relating to the employees.

Subseries 9.1, Print Advertisements, 1977-1987, printed advertisements arranged in one box alphabetically by client. There is a sparse sampling of clients from this particular Ayer branch office. The majority of the advertisements contained within this series are from Pizza Hut (1986-1987). Also included are Computer Automation (1977-1978), State of the Art, Incorporated (1982) and Toshiba (1986).

Subseries 9.2, Personnel Files, 1950s-1970s, includes cards of employees who worked in the Los Angeles office. Information on the cards includes name, address, telephone number, birthday, date hired, departure date and why (retired, terminated, resigned, etc) and position. Not all cards have all information. There is also a photograph of the employees on the cards.

Series 10, Foreign Print Advertisements, 1977-1991, undated, NW Ayer maintained partnerships with international companies such as Sloanas Ayer in Argentina, Connaghan & May Paton Ayer in Australia, Moussault Ayer in Belgium, NW Ayer, LTD. in Canada, GMC Ayer in France, Co-Partner Ayer in Germany, Wong Lam Wang in Hong Kong, MacHarman Ayer in New Zealand, Grupo de Diseno Ayer in Spain, Nedeby Ayer in Sweden, and Ayer Barker in United Kingdom. This group of material is a small sampling of advertisements created from these International offices. It is arranged alphabetically by client. There are quite a few automobile advertisements (i.e. Audi, Fiat, General Motors, Mercedes-Benz, and Volkswagen). In addition there are numerous advertisements for various personal items from MacLean's toothpaste to Quick athletic shoes to Labello lip balm, etc. Most of the advertisements have the creator's name printed on the advertisements.

Series 11, Cunningham & Walsh, Incorporated Materials, 1915-1987, undated contains 98 boxes 11 folders materials from the New York advertising agency acquired by NW Ayer in the 1960s. The company began with Newel-Emmett, an agency of nine men which broke up in 1949. Two of the men Fred Walsh and Jack Cunningham formed this agency in bearing their names in 1950. The agency created "let your fingers for the walking campaign for American Telephone & Telegraph, Mother Nature for Chiffon, and Mrs. Olson for Folgers's coffee and let the good times roll for Kawasaki motorcycle. In 1986, NW Ayer Incorporated purchased Cunningham & Walsh Incorporated.

Subseries 11.1, Print Advertisements, 1915-1987, are contained in ninety eight boxes of primarily print advertisements arranged alphabetically by client name. Clients that are particularly well represented are Graybar (electrical implements, circa1926-1937), Johns-Manulle (circa1915-1971), Smith and Corono typewriters (circa 1934-1960), Sunshine Biscuit Company (circa 1925-1961), Texaco Company (circa 1936-1961), Western Electric (circa 1920- 1971) and Yellow Pages (circa 1936-1971). Cunningham and Walsh also represented several travel and tourism industry clients, including Cook Travel Services (circa 1951-1962), Italian Line (circa 1953-1961), Narragansett and Croft (circa 1956-1960) and Northwest Airlines (circa 1946-1955). There are photographs of Texaco advertisements dating from 1913-1962. There is also a scrapbook of advertisements from the Western Electric Company dating from 1920-1922.

Subseries 11.2, Radio and Television Advertisements, 1963-1967, consist of materials created for Western Electric. Materials are arranged in chronological order.

Subseries 11.3, Company Related Materials, 1962-1986, undated include client lists, information relating to NW Ayer purchase and annual report 1962.

Series 12, Hixson & Jorgensen Materials, 1953-1971, a Los Angeles advertising company, merged with Ayer in 1969. This series is housed in one box. Within the box are four scrapbooks and folders with a hodgepodge of materials relating to advertising. Of most interest are the scrapbooks. Two scrapbooks deal with Hixson and Jorgensen's self promotion ad campaign "the right appeal gets action" (1953-1957). The other two scrapbooks contain news clippings about the company and its activities (1959-1971).

Series 13, Newell-Emmet, 1942-1957, founded in 1919 and governed in the 1940s by a partnership of nine men. The partnership broke up in 1949 when the men went their separate ways. The materials consist of print advertisements for one of client, Permutit Company, a water conditioning company. The materials are arranged in one box in chronological order.

Series 14, House Print Advertisements, 1870-1991, 16 boxes consists of advertisements or self-promotion advertisements to campaign for new clients. The series is arranged chronologically by date into fifteen boxes. Within the series are two scrapbooks containing self promotion ads from 1888-1919 and 1892-1895. Numerous house ads relate to Ayer's "Human Contact" campaign. In addition to the self promotion ads, Ayer ran advertisements expounding about particular concepts or themes for example, one month the concept would "understand" while another month would be "teamwork" and yet another would be on "imagination". Some of the self promotion ads target specific groups like Philadelphia businessmen. Other advertisements incorporate the fine arts.

Series 15, Scrapbooks, 1872-1959, relates to company events, records and news clippings about Ayer's history. The six boxes are arranged by chronological date. Two of the boxes focus solely on the death of founder F.W. Ayer (1923). Another box houses a scrapbook that showcases Ayer's annual Typography Exhibition (1931-1959). One box contains a scrapbook that specifically deals with correspondences relating to Ayer's advertising. Yet another box's contents are folders of loose pages from scrapbooks that have newspaper clippings, order forms, correspondences and other company records. In one box, a bound scrapbook houses a variety of materials relating to Ayer and advertising (i.e. newspaper clippings, competitor's advertisements, NW Ayer's advertisements, correspondences for advertisements, clippings regarding the "theory of advertising."

Series 16, Publications, 1849-2006, are housed in thirty four boxes and are arranged into three main categories.

Subseries 16.1, House Publications, 1876-1994, covers diverse topics; some proscriptive works about the Ayer method in advertising, some commemorating people, anniversaries or events in the life of the agency. Materials consist of scattered issues of the employee newsletter The Next Step 1920-1921. The materials are arranged in chronological order by date of publication. Ayer in the News, The Show Windows of an Advertising Agency, 1915, book form of advertisements published on the cover of Printer's Ink, highlighting Ayer's relations with advertisers. The Story of the States, 1916, Reprint in book form of a series of articles published in Printer's Ink for the purpose of adding some pertinent fact, progressive thought and prophetic vision to the Nationalism of Advertising highlights major businesses, manufacturer, natural resources and other qualities or attractions of each state. The Book of the Golden Celebration, 1919, includes welcome address and closing remarks by founder F. Wayland Ayer, The Next Step, 1920 employee newsletter with photographs, employee profiles, in-house jokes, etc., Advertising Advertising: A Series of Fifty-two Advertisements scheduled one time a week. Twenty-seven, thirty and forty inches, a day of the week optional with publisher, 1924

Subseries 16.2, Publications about NW Ayer, 1949-2006, includes a book first published in 1939. Includes articles, documenting events and is arranged chronologically by date of publication.

Subseries 16.3, General Publications about Advertising, 1922-1974, are arranged chronologically by date of publication and relate primarily to the history of advertising.

Subseries 16.4, Publications about Other Subjects, 1948-1964, include four books about the tobacco industry primarily the history of the American Tobacco Company and Lorillard Company from the Cunningham and Walsh library.

Series 17, Business Records, circa 1885-1990s

Subseries 17.1, Contracts, 1885-1908, undated, are arranged alphabetically and span from 1885-1908. The majority of the contracts are with newspaper and magazine publishers from around the country.

Subseries 17.2, General client information, 1911-1999, undated, including active and cancelled lists with dates, client gains, historical client list, (should move this to series 20) Ayer Plan User Guide Strategic Planning for Human Contact, undated

Subseries 17.3, Individual Client Account Information, 1950s-1990s, undated, contain information used by Ayer to create advertisements for some of its clients. American Telephone &Telegraph Corporate Case History, American Telephone &Telegraph Corporate advertisement memo, commissioned artists for DeBeers advertisements, DeBeers information relating to the creative process and photography credits, a case history for DeBeers Consolidated Mines, Ltd., The Diamond Engagement Ring, Managing Communication at all levels, DuPont publications, JC Penny Marketing Communication Plan Recommendation, Leaf, Incorporated, Saturn presentation, and USAREC oral presentation.

Subseries 17.4, Potential Clients, 1993, includes grouping has a questionnaire sent to Ayer by a potential client. Questionnaire response for Prudential Securities, 1993 Prudential Securities advertising account review, 1993.

Subseries 17.5, Financial Records, 1929-1938, includes balance sheet, 1929 May 1 Balance sheet and adjustments Consolidated statement of assets and liabilities, Expenses 191936-37 Business review and expenses, 1937 and 1938 Business review and expenses comparative statement, 1937 and 1938.

Series 18, Legal Records, circa 1911-1982, Ayer's legal records are arranged by twelve subject groupings within four boxes. The twelve groupings are advertising service agreements (circa 1918-1982), bylaws, copyright claims, correspondences, international correspondences, dissolution of trusts, stock information, agreements between partners, incorporation materials, reduction of capital, property information and miscellaneous materials. The bulk of the materials are the advertising service agreements. These agreements are between Ayer and their clients and state the services Ayer will offer and at what cost. The bylaws are Ayer's company bylaws from 1969 and 1972. The copyright claims are certificates stating Ayer's ownership over certain published materials (i.e. "Policy", Media Equalizer Model, and Don Newman's Washington Square Experiment). The correspondences relate to either the voting trust and receipts for agreement or the New York Corporation. The international correspondences are from either Ayer's Canadian office or London office. The dissolutions of trusts contains materials about the dividend trust of Wilfred F. Fry, the investment trust of Winfred W. Fry, the voting trust, and the New York corporation. The stock information has stock certificates and capital stock information. The agreements between partners (1911-1916) specify the terms between F.W. Ayer and his partners. The incorporation materials (circa 1929-1977) deal with Ayer advertising agency becoming incorporated in the state of Delaware. The reduction of capital grouping is a notification that shares of stock have been retired. The property information grouping contains property deeds and insurance policy (circa 1921-1939), a property appraisal (1934), and a bill of sale (1948). The miscellaneous grouping contains a house memo regarding a set of board meeting minutes and a registry of foreign companies in Commonwealth of Pennsylvania (1929-1954).

Subseries 18.1, Advertising Service Agreements, 1918-1982

Subseries 18.2, Bylaw Materials, 1969-1972

Subseries 18.3, Copyright Claims, 1962-1969

Subseries 18.4, Correspondence, 1928-1933

Subseries 18.5, International Office Correspondence, 1947-1948

Subseries 18.6, Dissolution of Trusts, 1934-1937

Subseries 18.7, Stock Information, 1934-1974

Subseries 18.8, Agreements between Partners, 1911-1916

Subseries 18.9, Incorporation Materials, 1929-1977

Subseries 18.10, Certificates of Reduction of Capital, 1937; 1975

Subseries 18.11, Property Information, 1921-1948

Subseries 18.12, Miscellaneous Materials, 1929-1977

Series 19, Personnel Records, circa 1889-2001, are arranged into eight groupings within eight boxes. The groupings are employee card files, photographs, Ayer alumni, biographies, speeches, recollections, oral histories, and miscellaneous. Typed manuscript of book A Copy Writer Speaks by George Cecil, NW Ayer, Incorporated copy head 1920s-1950s

Subseries 19.1, Employee card files, circa 1892-1915; 1929-1963, consists of index cards with the name, age, job title, date and wage increases, date of hire/fire, as well as remarks about the employee's service and/or reasons for seeking or leaving the job. Materials are arranged alphabetically by the last name of the employee within three boxes.

Subseries 19.2, Photographs, circa 1924-1984, undated, are housed in two boxes. The photographs grouped together by subjects i.e. personnel, company events, Ayer buildings, and miscellaneous. This grouping primarily consists of personnel photographs. Includes a glass plate negative dated 1924 of NW Ayer.

Subseries 19.3, Ayer Alumni, circa 1989-98, include employees who have left Ayer. There is a listing of Ayer "graduates" and their current job. Emeritus, Ayer's alumni newsletter 1989-1996, makes up the majority of materials in this grouping. The newsletter keeps the alumni up to date with the happenings of Ayer and what has become of former Ayer employees. Emeritus is a quarterly newsletter devoted to the activities, thoughts and feelings of Ayer alumni a body of people who consists of retirees and former employees.

Subseries 19.4, Biographical Information, circa 1889-1994, undated, prominent members of Ayer's operations had biographical sketches completed of them. This was true for the bio sketches of Robert Ervin, Louis T. Hagopian, and George A. Rink. There is a substantial file on Dorothy Dignam ("Mis Dig"), a leading woman in the advertising world from the 1930s to the 1950s. Also of interest is a video ("The Siano Man") compiled by Ayer employees to commemorate Jerry Siano's retirement from Ayer in 1994. The series is arranged alphabetically by last name.

Subseries 19.5, Speeches, circa 1919-1931; 1975, contains speeches made by Wilfred W. Fry and Neal W. O'Connor. Wilfred W. Fry had various speaking engagements connected with Ayer. Contained in this group is a sampling of his speeches from 1919 to 1931. Neal O'Connor's speech "Advertising: Who Says It's a Young People's Business" was given at the Central Region Convention for the American Association of Advertising Agencies in Chicago on November 6, 1975. The speeches are arranged alphabetically by the speaker's last name.

Subseries 19.6, Recollections, 1954-1984, undated, are arranged alphabetically by last name. These are recollections from Ayer employees about the company and its advertisements. Some recollections are specifically about certain types of advertisements, like farm equipment while others reflect on F. W. Ayer and the company.

Subseries 19.7, Oral History Interview Transcripts, 1983-1985; 1989-1991, include interviews with key NW Ayer personnel, conducted by Ayer alumnae Howard Davis, Brad Lynch and Don Sholl (Vice President creative) for the Oral History Program. The materials are arranged alphabetically by the last name of the interviewee.

Subseries 19.8, Oral History Interview Audio Tapes, 1985-1990, include interviews on audiotape the materials are arranged alphabetically by the last name of the interviewee.

Subseries 19.9, Internal Communications, 1993-1999, includes information sent to employees relating to retirements, management changes, awards won by the company, promotions, potential new accounts, free items, grand opening of Ayer Café, donation events, sponsorship programs, holiday schedules, discounts for employees from clients, Ayer joins MacManus Group.

Subseries 19.10, General Materials, 1940; 1970, includes agency directory entry including a list of the employees, 1970s, annual banquet program for the Curfew Club May 22, 1940 a group formed by the Philadelphia employee in 1938. It sponsored numerous sports, social and educational activities. Groups were formed in public speaking, music appreciation and a series of talks on Monday evenings title the modern woman. The front page was a series of talks for general interest. A list of officers, 1991, Twenty five year club membership, 1973 December 1, List of NW Ayer graduates, 1970, List of Officers, 1991 May 31, Obituary for Leo Lionni, 1999 October 17, List of photographers of advertisements, 2001

Series 20, Background and History Information, 1817-1999, undated includes a chronology, 1817-1990, quick reference timeline, 1848-1923, loose pages from a scrapbook containing examples of correspondence, envelopes, advertisements dating from 1875-1878; slogans coined by NW Ayer & Sons, Incorporated, 1899-1990, history of management, 1909-1923, articles and photographs about the building and art galleries, 1926-1976, publications about the Philadelphia building, 1929, pamphlet relating to memories of NW Ayer & Sons, Incorporated, 1930s-1950s, television history, 1940-1948, Article about the history of the company, 1950 January, pocket guide, 1982, AdWeek reports about standings for advertising agencies, information relating to Human Contact which is NW Ayer's Information relating to Human Contact, undated which is their philosophy on advertising.

Series 21, Materials Created by other Advertising Agencies, 1945-1978, undated, consists of print advertisements collected by Ayer from other major advertising companies. The companies include Doyle Dane Bernback, Incorporated, Leo Burnett Company, Grey Advertising Agency, D'Arcy Ad Agency, Scali, McCabe, Sloves, Incorporated and Erwin Wasey Company. The materials are arranged in alphabetical order by client and include products from Ralston Purina and Van Camp (Chicken of the Sea), Kellogg, American Export Lines and No Nonsense Fashions.

Series 22, 2010 Addendum of Print Advertisements, circa 1879s-1999, undated, includes material given to the Archives Center in 2010. It is organized into seventy one oversized boxes and contains proofsheets of print advertisements for select Ayer clients. These are arranged alphabetically by client name and include substantial quantities of materials from American Telephone &Telegraph (1945-1996), Bahamas Ministry of Tourism (1967-1987), Carrier (1971-1981), Citibank (1973-1991), DeBeers (1940s-1960s and1990s), Electric Companies Advertising Program [ECAP] (1942-1970s), General Motors (1989-1998), J.C. Penney (1983-1986), Newsweek (1966-1975), and Proctor and Gamble (1980s-1890s). There are also numerous other clients represented by smaller quantities of materials.

Subseries 22.1, Print Advertisements, 1930-1990, undated

Subseries 22.2, Print Advertisements on Glass Plate Negatives, 1879-1881, undated, include Cannon towels, Cheny Brothers silks, Cornish & Company organs and pianos, Enterprise Manufacturing Company, 1879 sad iron, an ad from Harper's Weekly 1881 for ladies clothing, Ostermoor & Company mattresses, Pear's soap, Porter's cough balsam, Steinway pianos.

Series 23, Microfilm of Print Advertisements, circa 1908-1985, consists of three boxes of printed advertisements for the American Telephone and Telegraph Company. Some of the same advertisements might also be found in series two, three and four.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into twenty-three series.

Series 1: Scrapbooks of Client Print Advertisements, circa 1870-1920

Series 2: Proofsheets, circa 1870-1930

Series 3: Proofsheets, circa 1920-1975

Series 4: 2001 Addendum, circa 1976-2001

Series 5: Billboards, circa 1952-1956

Series 6: Audiovisual Materials

Series 7: Radio and Television Materials, 1933-1993, undated

Series 8: Chicago Office Print Advertisements, 1954-1989

Series 9: Los Angeles Office Materials, 1950s-1987

Subseries 9.1: Printed Advertisements, 1977-1987

Subseries 9.2: Personnel Files, 1950s-1970s

Series 10: Foreign Print Advertisements, 1977-1991, undated

Series 11: Cunningham & Walsh Incorporated Materials, 1915-1987, undated

Subseries 11.1: Printed Advertisements, 1915-1987

Subseries 11.2: Radio and Television Advertisements, 1963-1967

Subseries 11.3: Company Related Materials, 1962-1986, undated

Series 12: Hixson & Jorgensen Materials, 1953-1971, undated

Series 13: Newell-Emmet, 1942-1957

Series 14: House Print Advertisements, 1870-1991

Series 15: Scrapbooks, 1872-1959

Series 16: Publications, 1849-2006

Subseries 16.1: House Publications, 1876-1994

Subseries 16.2: Publications about NW Ayer, 1949-1995

Subseries 16.3: General Publications about Advertising, 1922-2006

Subseries 16.4: Publications about other Subjects, 1948-1964

Series 17, Business Records, circa 1885-1990s

Subseries 17.1: Contracts, 1885-1908, undated

Subseries 17.2: General Client Information, 1911-1999, undated

Subseries 17.3: Individual Client Account Information, 1950s-1990s, undated

Subseries 17.4: Potential Clients, 1993

Subseries 17.5: Financial Records, 1929-1938

Series 18: Legal Records, circa 1911-1984

Subseries 18.1: Advertising Service Agreements, 1918-1982

Subseries 18.2: Bylaw Materials, 1969-1972

Subseries 18.3, Copyright Claims, 1962-1969

Subseries 18.4: Correspondence, 1928-1933

Subseries 18.5: International Office Correspondence, 1947-1948

Subseries 18.6: Dissolution of Trusts, 1934-1937

Subseries 18.7: Stock Information, 1934-1974

Subseries 18.8: Agreements between Partners, 1911-1916

Subseries 18.9: Incorporation Materials, 1929-1977

Subseries 18.10: Certificates of Reduction of Capital, 1937; 1975

Subseries 18.11: Property Information

Subseries 18.12: Miscellaneous Materials, 1929-1977

Series 19: Employee Materials, circa 1889-2001

Subseries 19.1: Employee Card files, circa 1892-1915; 1929-1963

Subseries 19.2: Photographs, circa 1924-1984, undated

Subseries 19.3: Alumni Publications, circa 1989-1998

Subseries 19.4: Biographical Information, circa 1889-1994

Subseries 19.5: Speeches, circa 1919-1931; 1975

Subseries 19.6: Recollections, 1954-1984, undated

Subseries 19.7: Oral History Interview Transcripts, 1983-1985; 1989-1991

Subseries 19.8: Oral History Audiotapes, 1985-1990

Subseries 19.9: Internal Communications, 1993-1999

Subseries 19.1: General Materials, 1940-2001

Series 20: History and Background Information about the Company, 1817-1999, undated

Series 21: Materials Created by other Advertising Agencies, 1945-1978, undated

Series 22: 2010 Addendum of Print Advertisements, circa 1879s-1990s, undated

Subseries 22.1: Print Advertisements, 1930-1990, undated

Subseries 22.2: Print Advertisements on Glass Plate Negatives, 1879-1881, undated

Series 23: Microfilm of Print Advertisements, circa 1908-1985
Biographical / Historical:
Founded in Philadelphia in 1869, NW Ayer & Son is one of the oldest and largest advertising agencies in America. For most of its history, it was the undisputed leader and innovator in the field of advertising. In 1876, NW Ayer & Son pioneered the "open contract", a revolutionary change in the method of billing for advertising which became the industry standard for the next hundred years. NW Ayer pioneered the use of fine art in advertising and established the industry's first art department. It was the first agency to use a full-time copywriter and the first to institute a copy department. The agency relocated to New York City in 1974. During its long history, the agency's clients included many "blue-chip" clients, including American Telephone & Telegraph, DeBeers Consolidated Diamond Mines, Ford Motor Company, Nabisco, R. J. Reynolds and United Airlines. However, in later years, the Ayer's inherent conservatism left the agency vulnerable to the creative revolution of the 1960s and 1970s, the advertising industry restructuring of the 1980s and the economic recession of the early 1990s. The agency was bought out by a Korean investor in 1993. In 1996, NW Ayer merged with another struggling top twenty United States advertising agency, Darcy, Masius, Benton & Bowles, under the umbrella of the McManus Group. Ayer continues to operate as a separate, full-service agency.

Through a series of buyouts and mergers, Ayer traces its lineage to the first advertising agency founded in the United States, a Philadelphia agency begun by Volney Palmer in 1841. Palmer began his career in advertising as a newspaper agent, acting as middleman between newspaper publishers and advertisers across the country. By 1849, Palmer had founded his own newspaper, V. B. Palmer's Register and Spirit of the Press, and had developed a complete system of advertising which included securing advertising space and placing ads in scores of commercial, political, religious, scientific and agricultural journals across the country. Palmer went one step further than the "space jobbers" of the day when he began offering "advertisements carefully drawn for those who have not the time to prepare an original copy." Always an enthusiastic promoter of advertising as an incentive to trade and American economic growth, Palmer promised advertisers that "every dollar paid for advertising in country newspapers will pay back twenty-fold" and encouraged skeptical consumers that "he who wishes to buy cheap should buy of those who advertise." When Palmer died in 1863, the agency was bought by his bookkeeper, John Joy, who joined with another Philadelphia advertising agency to form Joy, Coe & Sharpe. That agency was bought out again in 1868 and renamed Coe, Wetherill & Company. In 1877, Coe, Wetherill and Company was bought out by the newly formed NW Ayer & Son.

Francis Wayland Ayer was an ambitious young schoolteacher with an entrepreneurial streak. Having worked for a year soliciting advertisements on a commission basis for the publisher of the National Baptist weekly, Francis Ayer saw the potential to turn a profit as an advertising agent. In 1869, Ayer persuaded his father, Nathan Wheeler Ayer, to join him in business, and with an initial investment of only $250.00, NW Ayer & Son was born. Notwithstanding a smallpox epidemic in Philadelphia in 1871 and the general economic depression of the early 1870s, the agency flourished. The senior Ayer died in 1873, leaving his interest in the agency to his wife, but Francis W. Ayer bought her out, consolidating his interest in the company's management. In 1877, with Coe, Wetherill & Company (the successor to Palmer's 1841 agency) on the verge of bankruptcy and heavily indebted to Ayer for advertising it had placed in Ayer publications, Ayer assumed ownership of that agency. Thus did NW Ayer lay claim to being the oldest advertising agency in the country.

Both Nathan Wheeler and Francis Wayland Ayer began their careers as schoolteachers, and one of their legacies was a commitment to the cause of education: correspondence schools and institutions of higher learning were historically well-represented among Ayer clients. Just after World War I, the agency was heralded as "co-founder of more schools than any citizen of this country" for its conspicuous efforts to advertise private schools. Well into the 1960s, an "Education Department" at Ayer prepared advertisements for over three hundred private schools, camps and colleges, representing almost half the regional and national advertising done for such institutions. In fact, to its clients Ayer presented advertising itself as being akin to a system of education. In 1886, Ayer began promoting the virtues of the Ayer way advertising with the slogan, "Keeping Everlastingly at It Brings Success."

The agency's goals were simple: "to make advertising pay the advertiser, to spend the advertiser's money as though it were our own, to develop, magnify and dignify advertising as a business." Initially, Ayer's fortunes were tied to newspapers, and the agency began to make a name for itself as compiler and publisher of a widely used American Newspaper Annual. During the first years, Ayer's singular goal was "to get business, place it [in newspapers] and get money for it"; after several years as an independent space broker, however, Francis Ayer resolved "not to be an order taker any longer." This decision led NW Ayer and Son to a change in its mode of conducting business which would revolutionize the advertising industry: in 1876, Ayer pioneered the "open contract" with Diggee & Conard, Philadelphia raised growers and agricultural suppliers. Prior to the open contract, NW Ayer & Sons and most agencies operated as "space-jobbers," independent wholesalers of advertising space, in which the opportunities for graft and corrupt practices were virtually unlimited. In contrast, the open contract, wherein the advertiser paid a fixed commission based on the volume of advertising placed, aligned the advertising agent firmly on the side of the advertiser and gave advertisers access to the actual rates charged by newspapers and religious journals. The open contract with a fixed commission has been hailed by advertising pioneer Albert Lasker as one of the "three great landmarks in advertising history." (The other two were Lasker's own development of "reason-why" advertising copy and J. Walter Thompson's pioneering of sex appeal in an advertisement for Woodbury's soap.) Although the transition to the open contract did not happen overnight, by 1884, nearly three-quarters of Ayer's advertising billings were on an open contract basis. Since Ayer was, by the 1890s, the largest agency in America, the switch to direct payment by advertisers had a significant impact on the advertising industry, as other agencies were forced to respond to Ayer's higher standard. Just as important, the open contract helped to establish N W Ayer's long-standing reputation for "clean ethics and fair dealing" -- a reputation the agency has guarded jealously for over a century. The open contract also helped to establish Ayer as a full service advertising agency and to regularize the production of advertising in-house. From that point forward, Ayer routinely offered advice and service beyond the mere placement of advertisements. Ayer set another milestone for the industry in 1888, when Jarvis Wood was hired as the industry's first full-time copywriter. Wood was joined by a second full time copywriter four years later, and the Copy Department was formally established in 1900. The industry's first Art Department grew out of the Copy Department when Ayer hired its first commercial artist to assist with copy preparation in 1898; twelve years later Ayer became the first agency to offer the services of a full time art director, whose sole responsibility was the design and illustration of ads.

Ayer's leadership in the use of fine art in advertising has roots in this period, but achieved its highest expression under the guidance of legendary art director Charles Coiner. Coiner joined Ayer in 1924, after graduating from the Chicago Academy of Fine Arts. Despite early resistance from some clients, Coiner was adamant that "the use of outstanding palette and original art forms bring a greater return in readership, in impact and prestige for the advertiser." To this end, Coiner marshaled the talents of notable painters, illustrators and photographers, including N.C. Wyeth and Rockwell Kent (Steinway), Georgia O'Keefe (Dole), Leo Lionni (DuPont), Edward Steichen (Steinway, Cannon Mills), Charles Sheeler (Ford), and Irving Penn (DeBeers). Coiner believed that there was a practical side to the use of fine art in advertising, and his success (and Ayer's) lay in the marriage of research and copywriting with fine art, an arrangement Coiner termed "art for business sake." Coiner's efforts won both awards and attention for a series completed in the 1950s for the Container Corporation of America. Titled "Great Ideas of Western Man" the campaign featured abstract and modern paintings and sculpture by leading U.S. and foreign artists, linked with Western philosophical writings in an early example of advertising designed primarily to bolster corporate image. In 1994, Charles Coiner was posthumously named to the American Advertising Federation's Hall of Fame, the first full time art director ever chosen for that honor.

Coiner and fellow art director Paul Darrow also created legendary advertising with the "A Diamond Is Forever" campaign for DeBeers; ads featured the work of Pablo Picasso, Salvador Dali and other modernist painters. The "A Diamond is Forever" tagline was written in 1949 by Frances Gerety, a woman copywriter at Ayer from 1943 to 1970. In 1999, Ad Age magazine cited "A Diamond is Forever" as the most memorable advertising slogan of the twentieth century.

Coiner also earned respect for his volunteer government service during World War II; he designed the armbands for civil defense volunteers and logos for the National Recovery Administration and Community Chest. As a founding member of the Advertising Council in 1945, Ayer has had a long-standing commitment to public service advertising. In the mid-1980s, Ayer became a leading force in the Reagan-era "War on Drugs". Lou Hagopian, Ayer's sixth CEO, brokered the establishment of the Partnership for a Drug-Free America, a media coalition which generated as much as a million dollars a day in donated advertising space and time to prevent the use and abuse of illegal drugs. Famous names appear among NW Ayer's clientele from the very earliest days of the agency. Retailer John Wanamaker, Jay Cooke and Company, and Montgomery Ward's mail-order business were among the first Ayer clients. The agency has represented at least twenty automobile manufacturers, including Cadillac, Chrysler, Ford, General Motors, Plymouth, and Rolls-Royce. Other major, long-term clients through the years have included American Telephone & Telegraph, Canada Dry, Cannon Mills, Hills Bros. Coffee Company, Kellogg's, R. J. Reynolds, Steinway and Sons, United Airlines, and the United States Army. By the time of Ayer's hundredth anniversary in 1969, some of these companies had been Ayer clients for decades if not generations, and the longevity of those relationships was for many years a source of Ayer's strength.

But the advertising industry began to change in the late 1960s and 1970s, due in part to a "creative revolution." Small advertising agencies won attention with provocative copywriting and art direction that more closely resembled art than advertising. Advances in market research allowed clients to more narrowly tailor their advertising messages to distinct groups of consumers, and this led to a rise in targeted marketing which could more readily be doled out to specialized small agencies than to larger, established firms like NW Ayer & Son. The civil rights and anti-war movements also contributed to increasing public skepticism with the values of corporate America, and by extension, with some national advertising campaigns. Older, more conservative firms like Ayer were hard pressed to meet these new challenges.

About 1970, in an effort to meet these challenges and to establish a foothold on the West Coast, Ayer bought out two smaller agencies--Hixson & Jorgenson (Los Angeles) and Frederick E. Baker (Seattle). The agency relocated from Philadelphia to New York City in 1974 in an attempt both to consolidate operations (Ayer had operated a New York office since the 1920s) and to be closer to the historic center of the advertising industry. Riding the wave of mergers that characterized the advertising industry in the late 1980s and 1990s, Ayer continued to grow through the acquisition of Cunningham & Walsh in 1986 and Rink Wells in 19xx.

During this transitional period, Ayer received widespread acclaim for its work for the United States Army, which included the widely recognized slogan "Be All You Can Be". Ayer first acquired the Army recruitment account in 1967 and with help from its direct marketing arm, the agency was widely credited with helping the Army reach its recruitment goals despite an unpopular war and plummeting enlistments after the elimination of the draft in 1973. Ayer held the account for two decades, from the Vietnam War through the Cold War, but lost the account in 1986 amid government charges that an Ayer employee assigned to the account accepted kickbacks from a New York film production house. Despite Ayer's position as the country's 18th largest agency (with billings of $880 million in 1985), the loss of the agency's second largest account hit hard.

NW Ayer made up for the loss of the $100 million dollar a year Army account and made headlines for being on the winning end of the largest account switch in advertising history to date, when fast food giant Burger King moved its $200 million dollar advertising account from arch-rival J. Walter Thompson in 1987. Burger King must have had drive-thru service in mind, however, and Ayer made headlines again when it lost the account just eighteen months later in another record-breaking account switch. Another devastating blow to the agency was the loss of its lead position on the American Telegraph and Telephone account. Ayer pioneered telecommunications advertising in 1908, when the agency was selected to craft advertising for the Bell System's universal telephone service. Despite valiant efforts to keep an account the agency had held for most of the twentieth century, and for which they had written such memorable corporate slogans as American Telephone &Telegraph "The Voice with a Smile" and "Reach Out and Touch Someone", the agency lost the account in 1996.

After a wave of mergers and acquisitions in the late 1980s, the economic recession of the early 1990s hit Madison Avenue hard, and Ayer was particularly vulnerable. Despite the agency's long history and roster of "blue-chip" clients, Ayer was not known for cutting-edge creative work. Moreover, though the agency had offices overseas, Ayer had never built a strong multinational presence, and many of the smaller international offices were sold during the financial turmoil of the 1980s. This left a real void in the new climate of global marketplace consolidation. By about 1990, earnings were declining (although Ayer was still among the top twenty United States agencies in billings), and the agency was suffering from client defections, high management turnover, expensive real estate commitments and deferred executive compensation deals, all fallout of the high-flying 1980s. This was the atmosphere in 1993, when W.Y. Choi, a Korean investor who had already assembled a media and marketing empire in his homeland, began looking for an American partner to form an international advertising network. Jerry Siano, the former creative director who had recently been named Ayer's seventh CEO, was in no position to refuse Choi's offer of $35 million to buy the now floundering agency. The infusion of cash was no magic bullet, however. Choi took a wait-and-see approach, allowing his partner Richard Humphreys to make key decisions about Ayer's future, including the purging of senior executives and the installation of two new CEOs in as many years.

The agency's downward trend continued with the loss of another longtime client, the DeBeers diamond cartel in 1995. Adweek reported that Ayer's billings fell from $892 million in 1990 to less than $850 million in 1995. Several top executives defected abruptly, and the agency failed to attract major new accounts. Ayer was facing the loss not merely of revenue and personnel, but the loss of much of the respect it once commanded. Ayer remained among the twenty largest U.S. agencies, but an aura of uncertainty hung over the agency like a cloud. A new CEO was appointed, and Mary Lou Quinlan became the agency's first woman CEO in 1995. A year later, Ayer and another struggling top twenty agency, D'arcy, Masius, Benton & Bowles, combined as part of the McManus Group of companies. In 1998, the McManus Group had worldwide billings of more than $6.5 billion.

Under the McManus Group, Ayer was able to expand its international operations and begin to rebuild a stronger global presence. Several important new clients were won in 1997 and 1998, including Avon, General Motors, Kitchenaid, several Procter & Gamble brands and, most notably, Continental Airlines worldwide accounts. Born in the nineteenth century, Ayer may be one of a very few advertising agencies to successfully weather the economic and cultural transitions of both the twentieth and twentieth first centuries. Ayer was eventually acquired by the Publicis Groupe based in Paris, France which closed down the N.W. Ayer offices in 2002.
Related Materials:
Materials in the Archives Center

Warshaw Collection of Business Americana (AC0060)

Hills Bros. Coffee Incorporated Records (AC0395)
Provenance:
The collection was donated by N W Ayer ABH International, April 15, 1975 and by Ayer & Partners, October 30, 1996.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use.

Physical Access: Researchers must use microfilm copy. Researchers must handle unprotected photographs with gloves. Researchers must use reference copies of audiovisual materials. When no reference copy exists, the Archives Center staff will produce reference copies on an "as needed" basis, as resources allow.

Technical Access: Viewing the film portion of the collection without reference copies requires special appointment, please inquire; listening to audio discs requires special arrangement. Do not use original materials when available on reference video or audio tapes.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Reproduction permission from Archives Center: reproduction fees may apply. Publication and production quality duplication is restricted due to complex copyright, publicity rights, and right to privacy issues. All duplication requests must be reviewed and approved by Archives Center staff. Potential users must receive written permission from appropriate rights holders prior to obtaining high quality copies.
Topic:
Advertising agencies  Search this
advertising  Search this
Genre/Form:
Business records -- 1840-2000
Interviews -- 1980-2000
Oral history -- 1980-1990
Print advertising
Proof sheets
Proofs (printed matter)
Scrapbooks -- 1840-1990
Trade literature
Tear sheets
Advertisements
Citation:
NW Ayer & Sons, incorporated Advertising Agency Records, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0059
See more items in:
N W Ayer Advertising Agency Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0059
Online Media:

[Columbian] Harmony Cemetery, April 1960 [cellulose acetate photonegative]

Photographer:
Scurlock Studio (Washington, D.C.)  Search this
Creator:
Eastman Kodak Company (film manufacturer)  Search this
Names:
Columbian Harmony Cemetery (Washington, D.C.)  Search this
Subseries Creator:
Scurlock, Robert S. (Saunders), 1917-1994  Search this
Custom Craft  Search this
Scurlock, Addison N., 1883-1964  Search this
Scurlock, George H. (Hardison), 1919-2005  Search this
Scurlock Studio (Washington, D.C.)  Search this
Rice, Moses P.  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (Silver gelatin on cellulose acetate film sheet., 4" x 5".)
Container:
Box 28
Culture:
African Americans -- Washington (D.C.)  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Place:
Washington (D.C.) -- African Americans
Washington (D.C.) -- 1960-1970 -- Photographs
Date:
1960 April
Scope and Contents:
Building surrounded with trees and mausoleums. Sign in front of building reads, "All arrangements for lot care and services must be made in this office..." There are cars and trucks parked beside the building. The Columbian Harmony Cemetery was at 9th St. & New York Ave., N.E., Washington, DC, and the graves were moved in the 1970s to Harmony Memorial Park, Sheriff Rd., Landover, Md. Ink on negative: "#22". Caption in ink on envelope. "KODAK - SAFETY -- FILM" edge imprint.
Subseries Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.

Gloves must be worn when handling unprotected photographs and negatives. Special arrangements required to view negatives due to cold storage. Using negatives requires a three hour waiting period. Contact the Archives Center at 202-633-3270.
Subseries Rights:
When the Museum purchased the collection from the Estate of Robert S. Scurlock, it obtained all rights, including copyright. The earliest photographs in the collection are in the public domain because their term of copyright has expired. The Archives Center will control copyright and the use of the collection for reproduction purposes, which will be handled in accordance with its standard reproduction policy guidelines. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Cemeteries -- Washington (D.C.).  Search this
Tombstones -- Washington (D.C.)  Search this
Mausoleums -- Washington (D.C.)  Search this
Trees -- Washington (D.C.)  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- 1960-1970 -- Black-and-white negatives -- Acetate film
Subseries Citation:
Scurlock Studio Records, Archives Center, National Museum of American History. Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Scurlock Studio Records, Subseries 4.6: Black and white negatives in cold storage arranged by client
Scurlock Studio Records, Subseries 4.6: Black and white negatives in cold storage arranged by client / 4.6.1: Black and white negatives Part 1
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0618-s04-06-ref9256

Palestine Exploration Fund photograph collection of Biblical antiquities and sites

Collector:
Palestine Exploration Fund  Search this
Extent:
56 mounted prints (albumen)
Culture:
Palestinian Arabs  Search this
Jews  Search this
Samaritans  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Mounted prints
Photographs
Place:
Middle East -- Antiquities
Syria
Israel
Palestine
Date:
circa 1890-1895
Scope and Contents note:
Photographs collected by the Palestine Exploration Fund depicting sites and peoples in Syria, Israel, and Palestine that relate to Biblical events. Sites include the Great Mosque in Damascus, Nazareth, a Samaritan camp, remains of synagogues, Mount Gerizim, and Jerusalem. The photographs, which were either made or funded by members of the Palestine Exploration Fund, were collected by the United States National Museum for the Cotton States and International Exposition in Atlanta, Georgia, in 1895; many of them still have the accompanying text from that exhibit, including identification information and Biblical citations.
Biographical/Historical note:
The Palestine Exploration Fund was established in 1865 by a group of British academics and clergymen to "promote research into the archaeology and history, manners and customs and culture, topography, geology and natural sciences of biblical Palestine and the Levant."
Local Call Number(s):
NAA Photo Lot 158, USNM ACC 29586, USNM ACC 22944, USNM ACC 23302
Location of Other Archival Materials:
This collection has been relocated from Photo Lot 79-38.
Additional Palestine Exploration Fund photographs, previously filed in Photo Lot 97, have been relocated and merged with Photo Lot 158. These photographs were also funded and collected by the Palestine Exploration Fund and form part of this collection.
Images of exhibits at the Cotton States and International Exposition can be found in the National Anthropological Archives in the BAE historical negatives.
The Smithsonian Institution Archives holds the Exposition Records of the Smithsonian Institution and the United States National Museum, 1867-1940 (SIA RU000070).
Additional material from the Palestine Exploration Fund can be found in the Department of Anthropology in accession 35833.
The Palestine Exploration Fund archives holds additional photographs and artifacts relating to its studies.
Material found in Gus Van Beek's office can also be found in the National Anthropological Archives Photo Lot 79-34.
See others in:
Palestine Exploration Fund photograph collection of Biblical antiquities and sites, circa 1890-1895
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.

Access to the collection requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Citation:
Photo lot 158, Palestine Exploration Fund photograph collection of Biblical antiquities and sites, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NAA.PhotoLot.158
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-photolot-158

Forbes Watson papers

Topic:
Arts (Magazine)
Creator:
Watson, Forbes, 1880-1960  Search this
Names:
Art Students League (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Pepsi-Cola Company  Search this
Public Works of Art Project  Search this
Red Cross  Search this
United States. Dept. of the Treasury. Section of Fine Arts  Search this
United States. Dept. of the Treasury. Section of Painting and Sculpture  Search this
United States. Public Buildings Administration. Section of Fine Arts  Search this
Adams, Ansel, 1902-1984  Search this
Barr, Alfred H., Jr., 1902-1981  Search this
Beal, Gifford, 1879-1956 -- Photographs  Search this
Brancusi, Constantin, 1876-1957  Search this
Bruce, Edward, 1879-1943  Search this
Citron, Minna Wright, 1896-1991  Search this
Coleman, Glenn O., 1887-1932  Search this
Dows, Olin, 1904-1981  Search this
Genthe, Arnold, 1869-1942  Search this
Glackens, Ira, 1907-1990  Search this
Klonis, Stewart, 1901-1989  Search this
Kroll, Leon, 1884-1974 -- Photographs  Search this
Kuniyoshi, Yasuo, 1889-1953  Search this
Kuniyoshi, Yasuo, 1889-1953 -- Photographs  Search this
Mangravite, Peppino, 1896-  Search this
Manship, Paul, 1885-1966  Search this
Marsh, Reginald, 1898-1954 -- Photographs  Search this
Matisse, Henri, 1869-1954  Search this
Morgenthau, Henry, 1891-1967  Search this
Pène Du Bois, Guy , 1884-1958  Search this
Ray, Man, 1890-1976  Search this
Rowan, Edward Beatty, 1898-1946  Search this
Saint-Gaudens, Homer, b. 1880 -- Photographs  Search this
Shimin, Symeon, 1902-  Search this
Sterne, Maurice, 1878-1957  Search this
Tucker, Allen, 1866-1939  Search this
Watson, Nan, 1876-1966  Search this
Weber, Max, 1881-1961  Search this
Zorach, William, 1887-1966  Search this
Photographer:
Gallatin, A. E. (Albert Eugene), 1881-1952  Search this
Sheeler, Charles, 1883-1965  Search this
Extent:
13.92 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Notes
Photographs
Drafts (documents)
Scrapbooks
Place:
United States -- Social conditions -- 1933-1945
New York N.Y. -- Buildings, structures, etc., Photographs
Date:
1840-1967
bulk 1900-1960
Summary:
The papers of New York City art critic, writer, and lecturer Forbes Watson date from 1840-1967 with the bulk of materials dating from 1900-1960 and measure 13.92 linear feet. Found are biographical materials, correspondence, business records relating to the Arts Publishing Corporation, records documenting Watson's work for the Public Works of Art Project and the Section of Painting and Sculpture, reference files, an exhibition file from the Pepsi-Cola Company's Third Annual Exhibition, writings and notes, ten scrapbooks and loose pages, printed materials, and photographs.
Scope and Content Note:
The papers of New York City art critic, writer, and lecturer Forbes Watson date from 1840-1967 with the bulk of materials dating from 1900-1960 and measure 13.92 linear feet. Found are biographical materials, correspondence, business records relating to the Arts Publishing Corporation, records documenting Watson's work for the Public Works of Art Project and the Section of Painting and Sculpture, reference files, an exhibition file from the Pepsi-Cola Company's Third Annual Exhibition, writings and notes, ten scrapbooks and loose pages, printed materials, and photographs.

Biographical material includes Watson's Harvard diploma, documents concerning his service with the Red Cross in World War II, biographical accounts, and obituaries.

Correspondence is primarily with colleagues and includes scattered letters from Alfred H. Barr, Jr., Ira Glackens, Allen Tucker, and Max Weber. Other letters are from artists, art historians, and museum curators. A notebook contains shorthand drafts of letters from Watson.

Business records include personal business records consisting of various tax and stock records. The Arts Publishing Corporation records concern Watson's tenure as editor of The Arts magazine and contains a contract, correspondence, financial records, stockholders reports, press releases, a scrapbook, and issues of The Arts. Also included are business records pertaining to the Art in Federal Buildings, Inc..

The U.S. Treasury Department file is the largest series and documents Watson's federal employment as technical director, chief advisor, and consultant for Treasury Department's public art programs - the Public Works of Art Project and the Section of Painting and Sculpture. The files contain correspondence, financial reports, prospectuses, exhibition files, typescripts, clippings, exhibition catalogs, miscellaneous printed material, and photographs, and a scrapbook. The files contain a record of Watson's and other federal administrators' interactions with many artists during the Depression Era. Correspondence is primarily between Watson and Edward Bruce, Olin Dows, Henry and Elinor Morgenthau, and Edward B. Rowan. Found are scattered letters from artists including Yasuo Kuniyoshi, Paul Manship, and William Zorach, among many others. There are exhibition files for "Art for Bonds," "Army at War," and "War Against Japan." There are also photographs of U. S. Treasury Department events including a radio broadcast by John Dewey, Robert La Follette, Jr., and Sumner Welles.

Documents from the Pepsi-Cola Company's Third Annual Exhibition at the National Academy of Design contains a prospectus, an exhibition catalog and artists' statements.

Artist/Patron files contain reference material concerning painters, sculptors, photographers, dancers, composers, authors, art collectors, art dealers, and museum administrators. Files may include writings, notes, artworks, exhibition catalogs and other printed materials. Of particular note are photographs, which include portrait photographs of artists and of artists in their studios. Notable photographers include Ansel Adams, Arnold Genthe, Man Ray, photographs of New York City by Charles Sheeler and a photo of Henri Matisse by A. E. Gallatin. Files for Nan Watson, Symeon Shimin, and Glenn O. Coleman contain artworks. A file for Constantin Brancusi contains legal documents concerning U. S. Customs vs. Brancusi.

Art and Architecture files consist of reference material including photographs and notes concerning miscellaneous unattributed art works, American architecture, and furnishings.

Notes and writings consist of miscellaneous notes and typescripts of lectures and published articles, and notebooks.

Nine scrapbooks and loose scrapbook pages contain clippings of articles written by Watson, lists, and exhibition announcements and catalogs. Additional printed material includes clippings, copies of the Hue and Cry newspaper, exhibition announcements and catalogs, press releases, calendars of events, brochures for the Art Students League, book catalogs, published books, and miscellaneous printed material.

Photographs are of Forbes Watson; family members including his wife, painter Nan Watson; and members of the Art Students League including Peggy Bacon, Minna Citron, Stewart Klonis, Yasuo Kuniyoshi, and Reginald Marsh. There are also photographs of juries for the Carnegie Institute International Exhibitions that include colleagues Alfred H. Barr, Jr., Gifford Beal, Guy Pene DuBois, Leon Kroll, Henri Matisse, Homer Saint-Gaudens, and Maurice Sterne.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged as 11 series:

Series 1: Biographical Material, 1902-1960 (Box 1; 4 folders)

Series 2: Correspondence, 1913-1960 (Box 1; 33 folders)

Series 3: Business Records, 1920-1944 (Box 1-3, 14, 22; 2.0 linear feet)

Series 4: U. S. Treasury Department File, 1926-1945 (Box 3-6, 14, 17, 22, OV 21; 3.4 linear feet)

Series 5: File for Pepsi-Cola Company's Third Annual Exhibition "Paintings of the Year," 1946 (Box 6; 5 folders)

Series 6: Artist/Patron Files, 1840-1967 (Box 6-9, 15, OV 21; 2.8 linear feet)

Series 7: Art and Architecture File, 1929-1930 (Box 9; 35 folders)

Series 8: Notes and Writings, 1875-1950 (Box 9-10, 22; 1.3 linear feet)

Series 9: Scrapbooks, 1904-1951 (Box 9, 11, 14, BV 18, BV 19, BV 20; 1.8 linear feet)

Series 10: Printed Material, 1900-1961 (Box 10, 12-13, 16-17, 22; 1.5 linear feet)

Series 11: Photographs, 1900-1950 (Box 13, 22; .4 linear feet)

All material is arranged chronologically, with the exception of the Artist/Patron Files which are arranged alphabetically.
Biographical Note:
Forbes Watson (1879-1960) worked primarily in New York City and Washington, D.C. as an art critic, writer, lecturer, and consultant to the U. S. Treasury Department's Public Works of Art Project and Section of Painting and Sculpture (Section of Fine Arts).

Forbes Watson was born on November 27, 1879 in Boston, the son of stockbroker John Watson and his wife Mary. Watson grew up in Cambridge, Massachusetts, attending the Phillips Academy in Andover, and graduating from Harvard University in 1902. After a brief period of freelance writing, he was hired by The New York Evening Post as an art critic in 1911 and worked there until 1917. In 1910, he married Agnes, professionally known as painter Nan Watson.

During World War I, Watson served with an American volunteer ambulance unit with the French army, later working with the American Red Cross in Paris. After the war, he moved back to New York City and worked as art critic for The World, from the early 1920s until 1931 and as editor of The Arts magazine from 1923-1933. Watson also lectured at the Art Students League, and at various universities and arts organizations.

In 1933, Watson moved to Washington, D.C. to serve as technical director of the U. S. Treasury Department's short-lived Public Works of Art Project. In October 1934, Watson was employed as Chief Adviser to the Treasury Department's Section of Painting and Sculpture (later renamed the Section of Fine Arts) and later as Consultant to the Secretary's Office of the Treasury. During World War II, he organized various traveling exhibitions including "Art for Bonds" that promoted the sale of war bonds. Watson retired in 1946 and lived in Gaylordsville, Connecticut.

Watson was the author of numerous essays and reviews, and several books including American Painting Today and Winslow Homer, a biography of the noted American artist. With Edward Bruce, he produced a pictorial volume Art in Federal Buildings, Vol. I: Mural Designs. At his death he was working on his autobiography.

Forbes Watson died on May 31, 1960 in New Milford, Connecticut.
Provenance:
The Forbes Watson papers were donated by Watson's widow, Nan Watson, in 1961. An additional folder of material was donated in 2018 by the Museum of Modern Art via Michelle Elligott, Chief of Archives, Library and Research.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment.
Rights:
The Forbes Watson papers are owned by the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Literary rights as possessed by the donor have been dedicated to public use for research, study, and scholarship. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Topic:
Art and state  Search this
Art, American  Search this
Art publishing  Search this
Art critics -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Arts administrators -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Architecture, New York State, New York -- Photographs  Search this
Architecture -- New York, N.Y. -- Photographs  Search this
New Deal, 1933-1939  Search this
World War, 1939-1945 -- Art and the war  Search this
Authors -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Federal aid to the arts  Search this
Genre/Form:
Notes
Photographs
Drafts (documents)
Scrapbooks
Citation:
Forbes Watson papers, 1840-1967, bulk 1900-1960. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.watsforb
See more items in:
Forbes Watson papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-watsforb

Oral history interview with Richard Reinhardt, 1991 Aug. 22

Interviewee:
Reinhardt, Richard H., 1921-1998  Search this
Interviewer:
Pacini, Marina  Search this
Subject:
Fleming, Erik  Search this
Withers, Margret Craver  Search this
Cute, Virginia  Search this
Handy & Harman (Firm)  Search this
Philadelphia Museum of Art.School of Industrial Art  Search this
Type:
Sound recordings
Interviews
Topic:
Handicraft  Search this
Silverwork  Search this
Jewelry makers  Search this
Jewelry making  Search this
Silversmiths  Search this
Art  Search this
Decorative arts  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)12359
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)214621
AAA_collcode_reinha91
Theme:
Craft
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_oh_214621

Oral history interview with Rosanne Somerson, 2006 August 7 and 2007 June 22

Interviewee:
Somerson, Rosanne, 1954-  Search this
Interviewer:
Michie, Thomas S., 1956-  Search this
Subject:
Osgood, Jere  Search this
Melanson, Gracie  Search this
Szasz, Merlin  Search this
Keck, Hardu  Search this
Cooke, Ned  Search this
Fairbanks, Jonathan L.  Search this
Kranov, James  Search this
Follen, Eck  Search this
Sfirri, Mark  Search this
Dunnigan, John  Search this
Abramson, Ron  Search this
Jackson, Dan  Search this
Maruyama, Wendy  Search this
Joseph, Peter T. (Peter Thomas),  Search this
Frid, Tage  Search this
Capanigro, Paul  Search this
White, Leroy  Search this
Kagan, Richard  Search this
Wolf, Hans  Search this
Callahan, Harry M. (Harry Morey)  Search this
Siskind, Aaron  Search this
Swanson, Charlie  Search this
Mattia, Alphonse  Search this
Haystack Mountain School of Crafts  Search this
Rhode Island School of Design  Search this
Snyderman Gallery  Search this
Richard Kagan Gallery  Search this
Peters Valley (Craft center)  Search this
Nanette L. Laitman Documentation Project for Craft and Decorative Arts in America  Search this
Type:
Sound recordings
Interviews
Topic:
Fine woodworking  Search this
Furniture design  Search this
Educators  Search this
Women artists  Search this
Photography  Search this
Decorative arts  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)13618
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)271125
AAA_collcode_somers06
Theme:
Craft
Women
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_oh_271125
Online Media:

Oral history interview with Glen Kaufman, 2008 January 22-February 23

Interviewee:
Kaufman, Glen, 1932-  Search this
Interviewer:
Shea, Josephine, 1958-  Search this
Subject:
Lambert, Ed  Search this
Strengell, Marianne  Search this
Rossbach, Ed  Search this
Thompson, Bill  Search this
Page, Charlene  Search this
Constantine, Mildred  Search this
Larsen, Jack Lenor  Search this
Grotell, Maija  Search this
Allrich, Louise  Search this
Cook, Camille J.  Search this
McCutchen, Earl  Search this
Liebes, Dorothy  Search this
Johnston, Meda Parker  Search this
Cranbrook Academy of Art  Search this
Nanette L. Laitman Documentation Project for Craft and Decorative Arts in America  Search this
Reserve Officers Training Corps  Search this
Type:
Sound recordings
Interviews
Topic:
Japan  Search this
Textile artists  Search this
Illinois  Search this
Ohio  Search this
Denmark  Search this
India  Search this
Europe  Search this
Art  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)16155
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)366203
AAA_collcode_kaufma08
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_oh_366203
Online Media:

Oral history interview with Rollin McNeil Crampton, 1965 January 29

Interviewee:
Crampton, Rollin McNeil, 1886-1970  Search this
Interviewer:
Trovato, Joseph S., 1912-1983  Search this
Subject:
Diller, Burgoyne  Search this
Federal Art Project (N.Y.)  Search this
New Deal and the Arts Oral History Project  Search this
Type:
Sound recordings
Interviews
Topic:
Arts administrators  Search this
Federal aid to the arts  Search this
Mural painting and decoration  Search this
Painters  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)12392
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)213381
AAA_collcode_crampt65
Theme:
New Deal
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_oh_213381

Jacques Seligmann & Co. records, 1904-1978, bulk 1913-1974

Creator:
Jacques Seligmann & Co.  Search this
Subject:
Waegen, Rolf Hans  Search this
Glaenzer, Eugene  Search this
de Hauke, César  Search this
Seligmann, Jacques  Search this
Seligmann, René  Search this
Parker, Theresa D.  Search this
Mackay, Clarence Hungerford  Search this
Liechtenstein, House of  Search this
Schiff, Mortimer L.  Search this
Haardt, Georges  Search this
La Fresnaye, Roger de  Search this
Seligman, Germain  Search this
Arenberg  Search this
Seligmann, Arnold  Search this
Trevor, Clyfford  Search this
MM. Jacques Seligmann & fils  Search this
Eugene Glaenzer & Co  Search this
Gersel  Search this
Germain Seligmann & Co  Search this
De Hauke & Co., Inc  Search this
Topic:
Art  Search this
Art, European  Search this
World War, 1939-1945  Search this
Decorative arts  Search this
Art treasures in war  Search this
Art galleries, Commercial  Search this
Art, Renaissance  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)9936
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)212486
AAA_collcode_jacqself
Theme:
The Art Market
Art Gallery Records
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_212486
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Online Media:

R. Sturgis Ingersoll papers related to Henry McCarter, 1896-1944, (bulk 1930-1943)

Creator:
Ingersoll, R. Sturgis (Robert Sturgis), 1891-  Search this
Subject:
Rattner, Abraham  Search this
Neumann, J. B. (Jsrael Ber)  Search this
Walsh, Lorna Gill  Search this
Roosevelt, Nicholas Guy  Search this
Barnes, Albert C. (Albert Coombs),  Search this
McCarter, Henry  Search this
Garber, Daniel  Search this
Hall, William Weeks  Search this
Cortissoz, Royal  Search this
Crane, Alexander  Search this
Herman, Leorna Owsky  Search this
Davis, Bernard  Search this
Biddle, Francis  Search this
Watkins, Franklin Chenault  Search this
Kendall, William Sergeant  Search this
Borie, Adolphe  Search this
Beaux, Cecilia  Search this
Ingersoll, Anna Warren  Search this
Cullen, Charles  Search this
Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts  Search this
Topic:
Art  Search this
Art, American  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)6513
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)215771
AAA_collcode_ingershm
Theme:
Lives of American Artists
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_215771

Bertha Schaefer papers and gallery records

Creator:
Schaefer, Bertha, 1895-1971  Search this
Names:
Bertha Schaefer Gallery (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
New Bertha Schaefer Gallery (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Barnet, Will, 1911-2012  Search this
Ben-Zion  Search this
Duchamp, Marcel, 1887-1968  Search this
Greene, Balcomb, 1904-1990  Search this
Picasso, Pablo, 1881-1973  Search this
Pollock, Jackson, 1912-1956  Search this
Reinhardt, Ad, 1913-1967  Search this
Vasilieff, Nicholas  Search this
Zóbel, Fernando  Search this
Extent:
4.6 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Scrapbooks
Sketches
Photographs
Date:
1909-1975
bulk 1940-1965
Summary:
The Bertha Schaefer papers and gallery records measure 4.6 linear feet and date from 1909-1975, with the bulk of the material dating from 1940-1965. The collection documents the Bertha Schaefer Gallery as well as Bertha Schaefer, the interior designer, through correspondence with artists and galleries, artist files, client files, exhibition material, printed material, financial material, biographical material, photographs, and six scrapbooks.
Scope and Contents:
The Bertha Schaefer papers and gallery records measure 4.6 linear feet and date from 1909-1975, with the bulk of the material dating from 1940-1965. The collection documents the Bertha Schaefer Gallery as well as Bertha Schaefer, the interior designer, through correspondence with artists and galleries, artist files, client files, exhibition material, printed material, financial material, biographical material, photographs, and six scrapbooks. Also found here are oversized blue prints and sketched plans of interior design projects, as well as a number of oversized photographic prints and stereo slides. Correspondence contains handwritten notes by many notable artists, including Marcel Duchamp, Pablo Picasso, Jackson Pollock, Ad Reinhardt, and Fernando Zobel, with a bulk of the letters from Balcomb Greene.

Separated into three series, the Bertha Schaefer Gallery records document the artists represented by and function of the Bertha Schaefer Gallery. The Bertha Schaefer papers pertain to Bertha Schaefer as an interior designer through a large number of photographic materials and client files. Six scrapbooks document artists Will Barnet, Ben-Zion, Balcomb Greene, and Nicolai Vasilieff, as well as the Bertha Schaefer gallery and the New Bertha Schaefer Gallery.
Arrangement:
This collection is arranged as 3 series. Records are generally arranged by material type and chronologically thereafter.

Series 1: Bertha Schaefer Gallery Records, 1909-1971 (0.8 linear feet; Box 1)

Series 2: Bertha Schaefer Papers, 1914-1971 (2.6 linear feet; Boxes 1-3, 6-7, OV 8-9)

Series 3: Scrapbooks, 1944-1975 (1.2 linear feet; Boxes 3-5)
Biographical / Historical:
Bertha Schaefer (1895-1971) was an interior designer and director of the Bertha Schaefer Gallery in New York, New York. Schaefer was born in Yazoo City, Mississippi to Emil and Julia (Marx) Schaefer. She received her B.A. on June 1, 1914 from Mississippi State College for Women, and received a diploma for interior decorating from the Parsons School of Design in New York City. In 1924, after living in Paris for 5 months, she opened Bertha Schaefer Interiors in New York. In 1944, she opened the Bertha Schaefer Gallery of Contemporary Art, which featured American and European paintings and sculpture. "The Modern House Comes Alive" (1947-1948) is one of the key exhibitions she created. Schaefer designed furniture for Joe Singer of M. Singer and Sons Furniture Company in New York, 1950-1961.

Schaefer won design awards from the Museum of Modern Art (1952) and the Decorators Club of New York (1959). In 1958, she was given an award of recognition from the U.S. Department of State for her gallery's assistance in the American program for the Brussels Universal and International Exhibition, and an outstanding achievement in interior design award from the American Institute of Interior Designers. She was a member of several design organizations, including: the American Institute of Decorators, the Home Lighting Forum, the Illuminating Engineers Society, the American Federation of the Arts, and the Art Dealers Association of America. She was the president of the Decorators Club of New York from 1947-1948 and 1955-1957.

Schaefer was one of the first people to use fluorescent lighting in domestic spaces, with Percy Block as her first client, in 1939. In honor of Edison's birthday in 1953, she designed a bathroom for General Electric, applying new developments in lighting. She died on May 24, 1971, after which the gallery was renamed the New Bertha Schaefer Gallery.
Related Materials:
Also found in the Archives of American Art is an oral history interview with Bertha Schaefer conducted by Paul Cummings, April 20-22, 1970.
Separated Materials:
The Archives of American Art also holds material lent for microfilming. Reel N69-115 is comprised of papers concerning Alfred H. Maurer, including a scrapbook about Maurer from 1946 to 1969. Reel N70-60 contains material concerning Hale Woodruff, including correspondence, sketches and drawings, articles, photographs, catalogs, announcements, clipping, notes kept while a student of Diego Rivera, and a scrapbook. Lent material was returned to the lender and is not described in the collection container inventory.
Provenance:
The Bertha Schaefer papers and gallery records were donated in several installments from 1969 to 1974 by Bertha Schaefer and Bertha Schaefer Gallery Inc. She also loaned material for microfilming in 1970. Paul Creamer donated three scrapbooks from the Bertha Schaefer Gallery and the New Bertha Schaefer Gallery in 1979. Additional material was donated in 1984 by Syracuse University.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment.
Rights:
The Bertha Schaefer papers and gallery records are owned by the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Literary rights as possessed by the donor have been dedicated to public use for research, study, and scholarship. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Topic:
Gallery directors  Search this
Art galleries, Commercial -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Sculptors  Search this
Interior decoration -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Painters  Search this
Gallery owners  Search this
Interior decorators  Search this
Art, Modern -- 20th century -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Genre/Form:
Scrapbooks
Sketches
Photographs
Citation:
Bertha Schaefer papers and gallery records, 1909-1975, bulk 1940-1965. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.schabert
See more items in:
Bertha Schaefer papers and gallery records
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-schabert

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