Ruth Law was the third American woman to earn her pilot's license. The Ruth Law Collection chronicles her aviation career with most materials dating from 1916 to 1919. The largest part of the collection is a scrapbook, with additional loose materials, containing the following types of items: photographs; newspaper clippings; correspondence; magazine articles; programs; and ribbons.
Scope and Contents:
This collection chronicles Ruth Law's life in 1916-1918, covering mostly her aviation career but also touching upon other aspects of her life. The scrapbook contains the following types of material: photographs; newspaper clippings; correspondence; magazine articles; programs; and ribbons, including a first-place ribbon won by her dog at a dog show. Additional groups of loose photographs were integrated with the collection in 1998. The photographs contain images of Ruth Law in all stages of her life, both in aerial and studio views, as well as images of her contemporaries in aviation, various World War I era aircraft, and circa-1919 photographs of her brother, Frederich Rodman Law.
The Ruth Law Collection is arranged as follows:
Ruth Law Scrapbook
Biographical / Historical:
Ruth Law (1891-1970) bought her first aircraft, a Wright Model B, from Orville Wright in 1912. She enrolled in the Burgess Flying School in June 1912, made her first flight on July 5, and soloed on August 12. She was the third American woman to earn her pilot's license. Among Law's accomplishments are the first woman to "loop the loop", the first person to fly a plane at night, and a one-time holder of the Chicago -- New York aerial speed record in 1916.
In 1917, Law offered her services to the United States in World War I. She was the first woman authorized to wear a military uniform, but she was denied permission to fly in combat. Instead, she raised money for the Red Cross and Liberty Loan drives with exhibition flights. After World War I, Law was active in the Ruth Law Flying Circus, a three-plane troupe that traveled to state and county fairs. She toured Asia in 1919 and had the honor of carrying the first official air mail to the Philippine Islands. Her husband, Charles Oliver, persuaded her to retire from flying to "home and hearth" in 1922.
Ruth Law Estate?, gift?, unknown, NASM.XXXX.0387, unknown
No restrictions on access
The Starr Ockenga Collection includes materials generated or compiled by Ockenga for the writing of her books, 'Earth on Her Hands: The American Woman in Her Garden' (1998, Clarkson Potter) and 'Eden on Their Minds: American Gardeners with Bold Visions" (2001, Clarkson Potter).' Both books feature several individual chapters, each describing a garden owner and their garden.
Scope and Contents Note:
The Starr Ockenga Collection includes photographic images, notes, correspondence, questionnaires, garden plans, planting lists, releases and drafts generated or compiled by Ockenga for the writing and illustrating of her books, 'Earth on Her Hands: The American Woman in Her Garden' (1998, Clarkson Potter) and 'Eden on Their Minds: American Gardeners with Bold Visions' (2001, Clarkson Potter). Both books consist of several individual chapters, each describing a garden owner and their garden and featuring a portrait of the garden owner in their garden. The nearly 40 gardens included in the collection are located across the United States. In addition to the hundreds of images published in 'Eden' and 'Earth,' the Ockenga Collection includes thousands of additional images that, together with the research notes and garden descriptions in the books, provide a rich source of documentation. A number of the images show panoramic garden views.
The collection was organized into two major components by Starr Ockenga, representing materials generated for two books she authored and illustrated, 'Earth on Her Hands: The American Woman in Her Garden' and 'Eden on Their Minds: American Gardeners with Bold Visions.' Within each of the two divisions, the garden files and book chapters, garden images, and garden owner portraits are arranged according to specific garden.
Starr Ockenga is a writer, photographer, and lecturer. Her photographs have been exhibited in museums and galleries and are included in both public and private collections. Her images and writings have appeared in numerous publications including Life, Esquire, Camera, and Horticulture. She is the author of several books including 'Earth on Her Hands: The American Woman in Her Garden,' 'Eden on Their Minds: American Gardeners with Bold Visions,' and 'Amaryllis.' Earth on Her Hands received the American Horticultural Society's Annual Book Award in 1999. Ockenga received her Master's degree in photography from the Rhode Island School of Design and has been awarded fellowships from the National Endowment for the Arts and the Massachusetts Artists Foundation. She is a former associate professor of photography at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Her studio is located in New York City.
Collection of photographic images and garden files generated by Starr Ockenga during the course of writing and illustrating her books, 'Earth on Her Hands: The American Woman in Her Garden' and 'Eden on Their Minds: American Gardeners with Bold Visions,' donated by Ockenga to the Archives of American Gardens in 2014.
Access to original material by appointment only. Researcher must submit request for appointment in writing. Certain items may be restricted and not available to researchers. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: email@example.com.
Archives of American Gardens encourages the use of its archival materials for non-commercial, educational and personal use under the fair use provision of U.S. copyright law. Use or copyright restrictions may exist. It is incumbent upon the researcher to ascertain copyright status and assume responsibility for usage. All requests for duplication and use must be submitted in writing and approved by Archives of American Gardens.
Smithsonian Institution, Archives of American Gardens, Starr Ockenga Collection.
21 Cubic feet (64 document boxes, one oversize folder)
United States -- Race relations
Papers and photographs documenting the lives and descendants of Samuel and Mamie Anderson Bridgewater of Helena, Montana.
Scope and Contents:
The collection documents the lives of the family and descendants of Samuel and Mamie Anderson Bridgwater. The papers primarily belonged to the family and descendants of their daughter Mary Emma (1893-1981), who married Charles H. Harrell (1878-1948), a Pullman porter. The collection includes materials from collateral relatives and from those who married into the Bridgewater and Harrell families. The women of these families were extensively involved in community, religious, and social organizations. The collection contains materials about social and religious life in the relatively small African-American communities surrounding Helena, Montana. It also contains family papers including Samuel and Mamie's marriage certificate from 1892; educational memorabilia and school diplomas; scrapbooks and photogaphs documenting family members, vacations, life events and friends; baptismal records; hand-written birth and death entries; and correspondence between family members and friends living in other states.
The collection includes records of many of Montana's social and religious organizations from the 1890s to the 1950s, including the Colored Women's Clubs of America; the Pleasant Hour Club in Helena; the Helena Negro Chorus; the local chapter of the Society for the Relief of Worthy, Aged, Indigent Colored Persons, Pleasant House Club; and numerous Baptist and Roman Catholic congregations. Generations of women in the Bridgewater and Harrell families were members or officers of these organizations. The collection contains records and photographs relating to several African-American and integrated churches in Helena. Friends and community members, primarily other African-American Montanans, are represented in the collection as well.
Photographs and other documents record the lives of nearby neighbors and friends as well as lives of more distant family members and friends. Subjects covered in the collection are: the formerly enslaved parents of Samuel and Mamie Bridgwater; Samuel Bridgwater and his fellow Buffalo soldiers; Octavia Bridgewater's experiences at the Lincoln School of Nursing in New York City; Octavia Bridgewater's service with a segregated unit of the Army Nurse Corps in World War II while stationed at the Tuskegee Air Base, Alabama and her later life after returning to civilian life in Helena when she worked mostly as a midwife.
Some of the arrangement of the collection was done by family members prior to its donation to the Archives Center. The families had a vigorous and wide ranging network of family and friends in Montana and elsewhere in the United States, and materials related to all family members and friends may be found across multiple series.
Subseries 2.8: Harrell, Richard Francis, 1960-1996, undated
Subseries 2.9: Harrell, Cornelius Eckart, 1940-2001
Subseries 2.10: Harrell, Jr., Charles Henry, 1925-2005
Subseries 2.11: Family Memorabilia, 1960-1990, undated
Subseries 2.12: Photographs, 1929-1996, undated
Series 3, Trahan Family, 1923-1995, undated
Series 4, Family Friends, 1912-1979, undated
Series 5, Photographs, 1907-1992, undated
Biographical / Historical:
The Bridgewater family is a multi-generation African American family descended from Samuel (1862-1912) and Mamie Anderson Bridgwater (1872-1950) (note: later family members spelled the name with an "e"). The son of slaves, Bridgwater was born in Dixon Springs, Smith County, Tennessee, on February 25, 1862. He later enlisted in the all-Black 24th Infantry Regiment, USCI (United States Colored Infantry), one of the famous "Buffalo Soldier" regiments. The 24th Infantry served in the Department of Texas from 1869-1889, Indian Territory from 1880-1888 and following 1888 in the Department of Arizona. In 1892 he married Mamie E. Anderson the daughter of Levi Anderson and Emma Lucy in Fort Huachuca, in what later became the state of Arizona.
Bridgwater fought in the Philippines during the Spanish-American War, where he was wounded. He retired from the United States Army at Fort Harrison, Montana, after twenty years of service on August 22, 1906. The family remained in Helena, Montana purchasing a home at 502 Peosta Avenue. The 1910 United States Census lists Samuel has having retired from the United States Army and lists Mamie as being a matron in the US Army hospital. They raised five children, three boys and two girls.
Samuel died on June 9, 1912. His widow and family remained in Montana becoming active in community affairs. Their descendants continued their parents' involvement in community and religious affairs as well as their fathers' tradition of military service. Their daughter Octavia served in an all-black unit of the Army Nurse Corps during World War II and then served her community as a nurse-midwife for the rest of her life. Members of the family continued to live in the home at 502 Peosta well into the twentieth century.
Donated to the Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian by Janet Harrell Campbell and Jules Harrell, descendants of Samuel and Mamie Anderson Bridgewater, 2016.
The collection is open for research.
Unrestricted research access on site by appointment. Unprotected photographs must be handled with gloves. Researchers must use reference copies of audio-visual materials. When no reference copy exists, the Archives Center staff will produce reference copies on an "as needed" basis, as resources allow.
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Rafael Osuba, a Puerto Rican artist, talked about his family and where they lived; why left New York and moved to Raleigh-Durham area of North Carolina; his first impressions of North Carolina; and how North Carolina has changed. Osuba described his adjustment to North Carolina, building networks, and discovering food, music, and community that made Raleigh-Durbam feel like home. He talked about initiatives he spearheaded in regards to television, radio, and art; how he created community in North Carolina; what drives him to continue; and serving as intermediary for his workers in North Carolina. Osuba also talked about what makes him happy, proud; lessons he has learned; and what he does for fun. Clips of this interview were included in 'Professional Pursuits' and 'Local Media' sections of the exhibition.
Interview. Related to exhibition 'Gateways/Portales.' The MP4 video files are grouped with related SMI files, PPN files, XML documents, and BIM files. Dated 20160322.
Use of the materials requires an appointment. Some items are not accessible due to obsolete format and playback machinery restrictions. Please contact the archivist to make an appointment: ACMarchives@si.edu.
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.