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Captain H.C. Gray Balloon Basket

Wicker, wood, rope, metal
4'9" tall x 3'2" square
Country of Origin:
United States of America
Credit Line:
Transferred from the U.S. Army Air Corps, War Department
Inventory Number:
Restrictions & Rights:
See more items in:
National Air and Space Museum Collection
Data Source:
National Air and Space Museum
Online Media:

Western Union Telegraph Company Records

United Telegraph Workers.  Search this
Western Union Telegraph Company  Search this
452 Cubic feet (871 boxes and 23 map folders)
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Administrative records
Photograph albums
Technical documents
circa 1820-1995
The collection documents in photographs, scrapbooks, notebooks, correspondence, stock ledgers, annual reports, and financial records, the evolution of the telegraph, the development of the Western Union Telegraph Company, and the beginning of the communications revolution. The collection materials describe both the history of the company and of the telegraph industry in general, particularly its importance to the development of the technology in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. The collection is useful for researchers interested in the development of technology, economic history, and the impact of technology on American social and cultural life.
Scope and Contents:
The collection is divided into twenty-six (26) series and consists of approximately 400 cubic feet. The collection documents in photographs, scrapbooks, notebooks, correspondence, stock ledgers, annual reports, and financial records, the evolution of the telegraph, the development of the Western Union Telegraph Company, and the beginning of the communications revolution. The collection materials describe both the history of the company and of the telegraph industry in general, particularly its importance to the development of the technology in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. The collection is useful for researchers interested in the development of technology, economic history, and the impact of technology on American social and cultural life.
The collection is divided into twenty-six series.

Series 1: Historical and Background Information, 1851-1994

Series 2: Subsidiaries of Western Union, 1844-1986

Series 3: Executive Records, 1848-1987

Series 4: Presidential Letterbooks and Writings, 1865-1911

Series 5: Correspondence, 1837-1985

Series 6: Cyrus W. Field Papers, 1840-1892

Series 7: Secretary's Files, 1844-1987

Series 8: Financial Records, 1859-1995

Series 9: Legal Records, 1867-1968

Series 10: Railroad Records, 1854-1945

Series 11: Law Department Records, 1868-1979

Series 12: Patent Materials, 1840-1970

Series 13: Operating Records, 1868-1970s

Series 14: Westar VI-S, 1974, 1983-1986

Series 15: Engineering Department Records, 1874-1970

Series 16: Plant Department Records, 1867-1937, 1963

Series 17: Superintendent of Supplies Records, 1888-1948

Series 18: Employee/Personnel Records 1852-1985

Series 19: Public Relations Department Records, 1858-1980

Series 20: Western Union Museum, 1913-1971

Series 21: Maps, 1820-1964

Series 22: Telegrams, 1852-1960s

Series 23: Photographs, circa 1870-1980

Series 24: Scrapbooks, 1835-1956

Series 25: Notebooks, 1880-1942

Series 26: Audio Visual Materials, 1925-1994

Series 27: Materials for Interfile (Series 1; Series 3; Series 13; Series 15-23; Series 25-26)
Biographical / Historical:
In 1832 Samuel F. B. Morse, assisted by Alfred Vail, conceived of the idea for an electromechanical telegraph, which he called the "Recording Telegraph." This commercial application of electricity was made tangible by their construction of a crude working model in 1835-36. This instrument probably was never used outside of Professor Morse's rooms where it was, however, operated in a number of demonstrations. This original telegraph instrument was in the hands of the Western Union Telegraph Company and had been kept carefully over the years in a glass case. It was moved several times in New York as the Western Union headquarters building changed location over the years. The company presented it to the Smithsonian Institution in 1950.

The telegraph was further refined by Morse, Vail, and a colleague, Leonard Gale, into working mechanical form in 1837. In this year Morse filed a caveat for it at the U.S. Patent Office. Electricity, provided by Joseph Henry's 1836 "intensity batteries", was sent over a wire. The flow of electricity through the wire was interrupted for shorter or longer periods by holding down the key of the device. The resulting dots or dashes were recorded on a printer or could be interpreted orally. In 1838 Morse perfected his sending and receiving code and organized a corporation, making Vail and Gale his partners.

In 1843 Morse received funds from Congress to set-up a demonstration line between Washington and Baltimore. Unfortunately, Morse was not an astute businessman and had no practical plan for constructing a line. After an unsuccessful attempt at laying underground cables with Ezra Cornell, the inventor of a trench digger, Morse switched to the erection of telegraph poles and was more successful. On May 24, 1844, Morse, in the U.S. Supreme Court Chambers in Washington, sent by telegraph the oft-quoted message to his colleague Vail in Baltimore, "What hath God wrought!"

In 1845 Morse hired Andrew Jackson's former postmaster general, Amos Kendall, as his agent in locating potential buyers of the telegraph. Kendall realized the value of the device, and had little trouble convincing others of its potential for profit. By the spring he had attracted a small group of investors. They subscribed $15,000 and formed the Magnetic Telegraph Company. Many new telegraph companies were formed as Morse sold licenses wherever he could.

The first commercial telegraph line was completed between Washington, D.C., and New York City in the spring of 1846 by the Magnetic Telegraph Company. Shortly thereafter, F. O. J. Smith, one of the patent owners, built a line between New York City and Boston. Most of these early companies were licensed by owners of Samuel Morse patents. The Morse messages were sent and received in a code of dots and dashes.

At this time other telegraph systems based on rival technologies were being built. Some companies used the printing telegraph, a device invented by a Vermonter, Royal E. House, whose messages were printed on paper or tape in Roman letters. In 1848 a Scotch scientist, Alexander Bain, received his patents on a telegraph. These were but two of many competing and incompatible technologies that had developed. The result was confusion, inefficiency, and a rash of suits and counter suits.

By 1851 there were over fifty separate telegraph companies operating in the United States. This corporate cornucopia developed because the owners of the telegraph patents had been unsuccessful in convincing the United States and other governments of the invention's potential usefulness. In the private sector, the owners had difficulty convincing capitalists of the commercial value of the invention. This led to the owners' willingness to sell licenses to many purchasers who organized separate companies and then built independent telegraph lines in various sections of the country.

Hiram Sibley moved to Rochester, New York, in 1838 to pursue banking and real estate. Later he was elected sheriff of Monroe County. In Rochester he was introduced to Judge Samuel L. Selden who held the House Telegraph patent rights. In 1849 Selden and Sibley organized the New York State Printing Telegraph Company, but they found it hard to compete with the existing New York, Albany, and Buffalo Telegraph Company.

After this experience Selden suggested that instead of creating a new line, the two should try to acquire all the companies west of Buffalo and unite them into a single unified system. Selden secured an agency for the extension throughout the United States of the House system. In an effort to expand this line west, Judge Selden called on friends and the people in Rochester. This led, in April 1851, to the organization of a company and the filing in Albany of the Articles of Association for the "New York and Mississippi Valley Printing Telegraph Company" (NYMVPTC), a company which later evolved into the Western Union Telegraph Company.

In 1854 there were two rival systems of the NYMVPTC in the West. These two systems consisted of thirteen separate companies. All the companies were using Morse patents in the five states north of the Ohio River. This created a struggle between three separate entities, leading to an unreliable and inefficient telegraph service. The owners of these rival companies eventually decided to invest their money elsewhere and arrangements were made for the NYMVPTC to purchase their interests.

Hiram Sibley recapitalized the company in 1854 under the same name and began a program of construction and acquisition. The most important takeover was carried out by Sibley when he negotiated the purchase of the Morse patent rights for the Midwest for $50,000 from Jeptha H. Wade and John J. Speed, without the knowledge of Ezra Cornell, their partner in the Erie and Michigan Telegraph Company (EMTC). With this acquisition Sibley proceeded to switch to the superior Morse system. He also hired Wade, a very capable manager, who became his protege and later his successor. After a bitter struggle Morse and Wade obtained the EMTC from Cornell in 1855, thus assuring dominance by the NYMVPTC in the Midwest. In 1856 the company name was changed to the "Western Union Telegraph Company," indicating the union of the Western lines into one compact system. In December, 1857, the Company paid stockholders their first dividend.

Between 1857 and 1861 similar consolidations of telegraph companies took place in other areas of the country so that most of the telegraph interests of the United States had merged into six systems. These were the American Telegraph Company (covering the Atlantic and some Gulf states), The Western Union Telegraph Company (covering states North of the Ohio River and parts of Iowa, Kansas, Missouri, and Minnesota), the New York Albany and Buffalo Electro-Magnetic Telegraph Company (covering New York State), the Atlantic and Ohio Telegraph Company (covering Pennsylvania), the Illinois & Mississippi Telegraph Company (covering sections of Missouri, Iowa, and Illinois), and the New Orleans & Ohio Telegraph Company (covering the southern Mississippi Valley and the Southwest). All these companies worked together in a mutually friendly alliance, and other small companies cooperated with the six systems, particularly some on the West Coast.

By the time of the Civil War, there was a strong commercial incentive to construct a telegraph line across the western plains to link the two coasts of America. Many companies, however, believed the line would be impossible to build and maintain.

In 1860 Congress passed, and President James Buchanan signed, the Pacific Telegraph Act, which authorized the Secretary of the Treasury to seek bids for a project to construct a transcontinental line. When two bidders dropped out, Hiram Sibley, representing Western Union, was the only bidder left. By default Sibley won the contract. The Pacific Telegraph Company was organized for the purpose of building the eastern section of the line. Sibley sent Wade to California, where he consolidated the small local companies into the California State Telegraph Company. This entity then organized the Overland Telegraph Company, which handled construction eastward from Carson City, Nevada, joining the existing California lines, to Salt Lake City, Utah. Sibley's Pacific Telegraph Company built westward from Omaha, Nebraska. Sibley put most of his resources into the venture. The line was completed in October, 1861. Both companies were soon merged into Western Union. This accomplishment made Hiram Sibley leader of the telegraph industry.

Further consolidations took place over the next several years. Many companies merged into the American Telegraph Company. With the expiration of the Morse patents, several organizations were combined in 1864 under the name of "The U.S. Telegraph Company." In 1866 the final consolidation took place, with Western Union exchanging stock for the stock of the other two organizations. The general office of Western Union moved at this time from Rochester to 145 Broadway, New York City. In 1875 the main office moved to 195 Broadway, where it remained until 1930 when it relocated to 60 Hudson Street.

In 1873 Western Union purchased a majority of shares in the International Ocean Telegraph Company. This was an important move because it marked Western Union's entry into the foreign telegraph market. Having previously worked with foreign companies, Western Union now began competing for overseas business.

In the late 1870s Western Union, led by William H. Vanderbilt, attempted to wrest control of the major telephone patents, and the new telephone industry, away from the Bell Telephone Company. But due to new Bell leadership and a subsequent hostile takeover attempt of Western Union by Jay Gould, Western Union discontinued its fight and Bell Telephone prevailed.

Despite these corporate calisthenics, Western Union remained in the public eye. The sight of a uniformed Western Union messenger boy was familiar in small towns and big cities all over the country for many years. Some of Western Union's top officials in fact began their careers as messenger boys.

Throughout the remainder of the nineteenth century the telegraph became one of the most important factors in the development of social and commercial life of America. In spite of improvements to the telegraph, however, two new inventions--the telephone (nineteenth century) and the radio (twentieth century)--eventually replaced the telegraph as the leaders of the communication revolution for most Americans.

At the turn of the century, Bell abandoned its struggles to maintain a monopoly through patent suits, and entered into direct competition with the many independent telephone companies. Around this time, the company adopted its new name, the American Telephone and Telegraph Company (AT&T).

In 1908 AT&T gained control of Western Union. This proved beneficial to Western Union, because the companies were able to share lines when needed, and it became possible to order telegrams by telephone. However, it was only possible to order Western Union telegrams, and this hurt the business of Western Union's main competitor, the Postal Telegraph Company. In 1913, however, as part of a move to prevent the government from invoking antitrust laws, AT&T completely separated itself from Western Union.

Western Union continued to prosper and it received commendations from the U.S. armed forces for service during both world wars. In 1945 Western Union finally merged with its longtime rival, the Postal Telegraph Company. As part of that merger, Western Union agreed to separate domestic and foreign business. In 1963 Western Union International Incorporated, a private company completely separate from the Western Union Telegraph Company, was formed and an agreement with the Postal Telegraph Company was completed. In 1994, Western Union Financial Services, Inc. was acquired by First Financial Management Corporation. In 1995, First Financial Management Corporation merged with First Data Corporation making Western Union a First Data subsidiary.

Many technological advancements followed the telegraph's development. The following are among the more important:

The first advancement of the telegraph occurred around 1850 when operators realized that the clicks of the recording instrument portrayed a sound pattern, understandable by the operators as dots and dashes. This allowed the operator to hear the message by ear and simultaneously write it down. This ability transformed the telegraph into a versatile and speedy system.

Duplex Telegraphy, 1871-72, was invented by the president of the Franklin Telegraph Company. Unable to sell his invention to his own company, he found a willing buyer in Western Union. Utilizing this invention, two messages were sent over the wire simultaneously, one in each direction.

As business blossomed and demand surged, new devices appeared. Thomas Edison's Quadruplex allowed four messages to be sent over the same wire simultaneously, two in one direction and two in the other.

An English automatic signaling arrangement, Wheatstone's Automatic Telegraph, 1883, allowed larger numbers of words to be transmitted over a wire at once. It could only be used advantageously, however, on circuits where there was a heavy volume of business.

Buckingham's Machine Telegraph was an improvement on the House system. It printed received messages in plain Roman letters quickly and legibly on a message blank, ready for delivery.

Vibroplex, c. 1890, a semi-automatic key sometimes called a "bug key," made the dots automatically. This relieved the operator of much physical strain.
Related Materials:
Materials in the Archives Center

Additional moving image about Western Union Telegraph Company can be found in the Industry on Parade Collection (AC0507). This includes Cable to Cuba! by Bell Laboratory, AT & T, featuring the cable ship, the C.S. Lord Kelvin, and Communications Centennial! by the Western Union Company.

Materials at Other Organizations

Hagley Museum and Library, Wilmington, Delaware.

Western Union International Records form part of the MCI International, Inc. Records at the First Data Corporation, Greenwood Village, Colorado.

Records of First Data Corporation and its predecessors, including Western Union, First Financial Management Corporation (Atlanta) and First Data Resources (Omaha). Western Union collection supports research of telegraphy and related technologies, and includes company records, annual reports, photographs, print and broadcast advertising, telegraph equipment, and messenger uniforms.

Smithsonian Institution Archives

Western Union Telegraph Expedition, 1865-1867

This collection includes correspondence, mostly to Spencer F. Baird, from members of the Scientific Corps of the Western Union Telegraph Expedition, including Kennicott, Dall, Bannister, and Elliott; copies of reports submitted to divisional chiefs from expedition staff members; newspaper clippings concerning the expedition; copies of notes on natural history taken by Robert Kennicott; and a journal containing meteorological data recorded by Henry M. Bannister from March to August, 1866.
Separated Materials:
Artifacts (apparatus and equipment) were donated to the Division of Information Technology and Society, now known as the Division of Work & Industry, National Museum of American History.
The collection was donated by Western Union in September of 1971.
Collection is open for research.

Gloves must be worn when handling unprotected photographs and negatives. Special arrangements must be made to view some of the audio visual materials. Contact the Archives Center at 202-633-3270.
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Electric engineering  Search this
Electric engineers  Search this
Electrical equipment  Search this
Communication -- International cooperation  Search this
Electrical engineers  Search this
Electrical science and technology  Search this
Communications equipment  Search this
Telegraphers  Search this
Telegraph  Search this
Scrapbooks -- 20th century
Administrative records
Photographs -- 19th century
Photograph albums
Photographs -- 20th century
Scrapbooks -- 19th century
Technical documents
Western Union Telegraph Company Records, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
See more items in:
Western Union Telegraph Company Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Online Media:

Data Processing at Department of Botany for Flora North America Program

Connolly, Vincent P  Search this
Shetler, Stanwyn G  Search this
Read, Robert W. 1931-  Search this
Smithsonian Institution Photographic Services Division  Search this
National Museum of Natural History (U.S.)  Search this
National Museum of Natural History (U.S.) Department of Botany  Search this
Physical description:
Black-and-white negatives
January 23, 1973
Electronic data processing  Search this
Information storage and retrieval systems  Search this
Local number:
SIA Acc. 11-009 [73-689]
Restrictions & Rights:
No access restrictions Many of SIA's holdings are located off-site, and advance notice is recommended to consult a collection. Please email the SIA Reference Team at
No Copyright - United States
Data Source:
Smithsonian Institution Archives

Agency history, 1963-

National Museum of Natural History (U.S.) Assistant Director for Automatic Data Processing  Search this
Mello, James F. 1936-  Search this
Gautier, T. Gary 1942-  Search this
Daniels, Bruce A  Search this
Mixed archival materials
Museums--Automatic data processing  Search this
SELf GEnerating Master (SELGEM)  Search this
Natural History Information Retrieval system (NHIR)  Search this
Smithsonian Institution Information Retrieval System(SIIRS)  Search this
Local number:
SIA AH00089
Data Source:
Smithsonian Institution Archives

Records and Manuscripts, 1897-1990, with related materials dating from circa 1828

National Museum of Natural History (U.S.) Department of Anthropology  Search this
Stewart, T. D (Thomas Dale) 1901-1997  Search this
Mason, Otis Tufton 1838-1908  Search this
Hough, Walter 1859-1935  Search this
Setzler, Frank M (Frank Maryl) 1902-1975  Search this
Evans, Clifford 1920-1981  Search this
Ubelaker, Douglas H  Search this
Kaeppler, Adrienne Lois  Search this
Ortner, Donald J  Search this
Fitzhugh, William W. 1943-  Search this
Holmes, William Henry 1846-1933  Search this
Riesenberg, Saul H  Search this
Wedel, Waldo R (Waldo Rudolph) 1908-1996  Search this
Woodbury, Richard B (Richard Benjamin) 1917-  Search this
Section of Animal Products  Search this
River Basin Surveys  Search this
Federal Antiquities Act  Search this
Division of Cultural Anthropology (NMNH) Department of Anthropology (NMNH)  Search this
Anthropology Laboratory (NMNH) Department of Anthropology (NMNH)  Search this
Conservation and Restoration Laboratory (NMNH) Department of Anthropology (NMNH)  Search this
Smithsonian Institution Bureau of American Ethnology  Search this
Urgent Anthropology Program  Search this
Department of Anthropology (NMNH) Smithsonian Office of Anthropology (NMNH)  Search this
Division of Ethnology (NMNH) Department of Anthropology (NMNH)  Search this
Division of Anthropology (NMNH) Department of Anthropology (NMNH)  Search this
Department of Anthropology (NMNH) Bureau of American Ethnology  Search this
Department of Anthropology (NMNH) Division of Ethnology (NMNH)  Search this
United States National Museum Department of Anthropology  Search this
Physical description:
95.9 linear meters
Collection descriptions
1897-1990, with related materials dating from circa 1828
Local number:
Restrictions & Rights:
These records are located in the Smithsonian's National Anthropological Archives
Data Source:
Smithsonian Institution Archives

Samuel P. Langley Collection

Langley, S. P. (Samuel Pierpont), 1834-1906  Search this
Chanute, Octave, 1832-1910  Search this
Herring, Augustus Moore, 1867-1926  Search this
Huffaker, Edward C., 1856-1937  Search this
Langley, S. P. (Samuel Pierpont), 1834-1906  Search this
Manly, Charles Matthews, 1876-1927  Search this
Watkins, J. Elfreth (John Elfreth), 1852-1903  Search this
24.28 Cubic feet (64 boxes)
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
bulk 1891-1900
This collection includes information about Samuel P. Langley and his colleagues, as well as documentation of Langley's work. The collection includes biographies of Langley and his assistant Charles Manly, newspaper clippings, correspondence, manuscripts regarding Langley's aircraft, photographs and drawings, work requisitions for the Aerodromes, a sketchbook, specifications and measurements for Langley's experiments, the Langley Memoirs on Mechanical Flight and the Langley "Waste Books."
Scope and Contents:
This collection includes information about Langley and his colleagues, as well as documentation of Langley's work. The collection includes the Aerodrome project waste books, biographies of Langley and his assistant Charles Manly, newspaper clippings, correspondence), manuscripts regarding Langley's aircraft, photographs and drawings, work requisitions for staff labor on the project, a sketchbook, specifications and measurements for Langley's experiments, and manuscript material from the Langley Memoir on Mechanical Flight.

The National Air and Space Museum's Samuel P. Langley Collection was drawn from several sources in the Smithsonian Institution. Parts of the collection were separated at undetermined dates from the institutional records of Langley's time as Secretary (now held by the Smithsonian Institution Archives [SIA], as the Samuel P. Langley Papers, 1867-1906, Record Unit 7003) for several purposes:

Design papers and notes from Langley's aerodrome project were used for restoring the Langley Aerodromes for exhibits beginning in 1917.

Correspondence from the papers was consulted when controversies arose between the Wright brothers and the Smithsonian, and over credit for the design of the motor built by Stephen M. Balzer and extensively modified by Charles Manly, which was used on Aerodrome A.

Technical drawings of the Aerodromes were drawn from the SIA in the 1970s for conservation purposes.

Other material was added to the collection over the years:

Correspondence, memoranda, notes and label scripts from Langley exhibits from 1913 through the 1960s.

Design notes and work records from Langley's workshop were stored with the Aerodromes in the Museum's collections, and were later transferred to the Archives Division.

Biographical material on Langley, and correspondence to the Museum on Langley and the Aerodromes.

Material from the foundation of the Langley Aerodynamic Laboratory (now NASA's Langley Research Center) in 1913.

In addition to Record Unit 7003, researchers may wish to consult these Smithsonian Institution Archives' collections:

Record Unit 31, Office of the Secretary, Correspondence, 1866-1906, with related records to 1927.

Record Unit 34, Office of the Secretary, Correspondence, 1887-1907

Record Unit 7268, J. Elfreth Watkins Collection, 1869, 1881-1903, 1953, 1966 and undated.

The Archives Division of the National Air and Space Museum holds the Charles M. Manly Papers, (Acc. 1999-0004). Manly was Samuel Langley's assistant in the Aerodrome project from 1898 to 1903.

Note: The digital images in this finding aid were repurposed from scans made by an outside contractor for a commercial product and may show irregular cropping and orientation in addition to color variations resulting from damage to and deterioration of the original objects.
The Samuel P. Langley Collection is arranged in the following series:

Series 1 - Waste Books: Langley and his staff used waste books - bound ledgers - to keep records of their work on the aeronautical projects, which Langley inspected frequently.

Series 2 - Scrapbooks: A collection of 18 scrapbooks containing newspaper and magazine clippings on "Aerial Navigation". Projects by Langley, Maxim, Lilienthal and many obscure aeronautical experimenters are included. Other clippings are included in Series VIII and XI.

Series 3 - Aeronautical Research and the Aerodromes: This series consists of notes, data, drawings and memoranda from Langley's aeronautical research at both the Smithsonian and the Allegheny Observatory. Subseries 2 contains material used in various Smithsonian exhibitions of the Langley Aerodromes. Some additional material is included in Series 11.

Subseries 3.1 - Design and Construction

Subseries 3.2 - Langley Aerodrome Exhibits

Series 4 - Correspondence: Letters and memoranda written by and sent to S. P. Langley and his assistants, C. M. Manly and J. E. Watkins. Additional correspondence is included in Series 11.

Subseries 4.1 - S. P. Langley Correspondence

Subseries 4.2 - S. P. Langley's Assistants' Correspondence

Subseries 3 - Miscellaneous Correspondence

Series 5 - Manuscripts, Papers, Articles: Manuscripts, published articles and papers by Langley and others. See also Series 11.

Subseries 5.1 - Works by S. P. Langley

Subseries 5.2 - Miscellaneous Manuscripts, Articles, and Notes

Series 6 - Photographs: Photographs, mainly of Langley's Aerodromes. Additional photographs are included with Series 11.

Series 7 - Trade Catalogues and Ephemera: Trade catalogues and price lists from various suppliers and dealers found stored with the "Aerodrome A" at the Museum's Paul E. Garber Facility in Suitland, Maryland.

Series 8 - Miscellaneous Files

Series 9 - Flat Boxes and Oversized Material: Ledgers, drawings, test data, publications

Series 10 - Shorthand Diaries: A collection of 37 notebooks containing notes in an unidentified shorthand system, dating from 1898 to 1902, with 8 notebooks bearing partial dates or undated.

Series 11 - Additional Material: After the publication of the Langley Collection finding aid, two additional boxes of correspondence, manuscript material, drawings and photographs were found in the Museum's rare book room, the Ramsey Room. This material has been included as a separate series.
Biographical / Historical:
Samuel Pierpont Langley (1834-1906) was an astronomer, a pioneer of aeronautical research, and Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution (1887-1906). As a young man, Langley studied civil engineering and pursued this as a career until 1864, when his interest in astronomy led him to positions at the Harvard Observatory, the Naval Academy, the Western University of Pennsylvania and the Allegheny Observatory in Pittsburgh. In 1887, Langley was named Secretary of the Smithsonian, and spent the following years in the research, construction and tests of flying machines. On May 6, 1896, his unpiloted Aerodrome No. 5, powered by a 1hp steam engine, flew nearly three quarters of a mile. This flight surpassed by more than ten times the best efforts of any predecessor. In 1898, at the request of the Army's Board of Ordnance and Fortifications, Langley started work on another design - the Great Aerodrome, also known as Aerodrome A. However, two attempts at launching the aircraft in 1903 failed. In addition to his scientific experiments, Langley's writings include Experiments in Aerodynamics and The Internal Work of the Wind, and the Langley Memoir on Mechanical Flight, published posthumously. Samuel P. Langley died in Aiken, South Carolina, on February 27, 1906.

A Timeline of Early Aeronautical Milestones and Samuel P. Langley's Life and Career

August 22, 1834 -- Samuel Pierpont Langley born to Samuel Langley and Mary Sumner Williams Langley in Roxbury Massachusetts.

1843 -- William Henson and John Stringfellow publish their design for the "Aeriel", a steam-powered "Aerial Steam Carriage".

1845 -- Langley begins to attend the Boston Latin School.

1847 -- Henson tests a model of his aircraft.

1848 -- Stringfellow and Henson build and test a steam powered model aircraft. It has a wingspan of 10 feet (3.5 meters), and it flies 131 feet (40 meters) before crashing into a wall.

1849 -- Sir George Cayley tests a towed triplane glider. In one test, it flies several yards with a local boy as a passenger.

1851 -- Langley graduates from the Boston High School; begins work as an apprentice with a Boston architect.

circa 1852-1864 -- Langley works for architectural and engineering firms in St. Louis and Chicago.

1853 -- Cayley's coachman flies a glider across Brompton Dale, Yorkshire. The coachman resigns his position after the flight. Cayley conceives the rubber band–powered model airplane. Michel Loup designs a powered twin propeller monoplane with a wheeled undercarriage.

1853-1854 -- L C. Letur tests his parachute-glider design. Letur is killed in a test flight in 1854.

1855 -- Joseph Pline coins the word "aeroplane" to describe a propeller-driven dirigible.

1857 -- Jean-Marie Le Bris, a sea captain inspired by the flight of the albatross, builds a glider he names the "Albatros Artificiel" and makes two short hops, breaking his leg in the second. Félix du Temple, a French naval officer, flies a clockwork model aircraft - the first sustained powered flights by a heavier-than-air machine.

1862 -- Gabriel de la Landelle coins the word "aviation", and later, "aviateur" - aviator.

1864 -- Langley returns to Roxbury. He begins work, with his younger brother John, on a five foot focal length telescope, which they complete over three years.

1864-1865 -- Samuel and John Langley tour Europe.

circa 1865 -- Langley is hired as observatory assistant at the Harvard University Observatory, Cambridge, Massachusetts.

January 1866 -- The Aeronautical Society of Great Britain (later named the Royal Aeronautical Society) is founded.

circa 1866 -- Langley is hired as assistant professor of mathematics at the U.S. Naval Academy, Annapolis, Maryland. Duties include restoring the Academy's astronomical observatory to operation.

1867 -- Langley is named professor of Astronomy and Physics at the Western University of Pennsylvania, Pittsburgh. Duties include directorship of the Allegheny Observatory. His tenure at Allegheny will begin his work at the popularization of science through lectures and writing newspaper and journal articles.

1868 -- Stringfellow builds a model triplane.

1869 -- Langley proposes a system of standard time distribution via the telegraph to railroads and cities. The Pennsylvania Railroad signs on for the service. Langley joins a U.S. Coast Survey expedition to Oakland, Kentucky, to observe the August 7th solar eclipse. He observes later eclipses in 1870, 1878, and 1900.

1870 -- The Allegheny Observatory begins twice-daily time signals to the Pennsylvania Railroad's offices. Other railroads, businesses, and government offices later subscribe to the service. The income from the system aids the operation of the Allegheny Observatory and Langley's research work. Langley travels to Jerez de la Frontera, Spain, to observe a solar eclipse.

1870 -- Alphonse Pénaud designs his rubber-powered "Hélicoptère".

August 18, 1871 -- Pénaud demonstrates his "Planophore", a rubber-powered model, at the Tuileries, Paris. It flies 40 meters (approximately 131 feet) in 11 seconds.

1871 -- Francis Wenham designs the first wind tunnel; it is built by John Browning.

1873 -- Langley makes a detailed drawing of a sun spot. Famous for its accuracy of detail, the drawing is widely reproduced for many years.

1876 -- Pénaud and Paul Gauchot patent a design for an inherently stable steam-powered full-sized airplane.

1878 -- Bishop Milton Wright presents a toy based on the Pénaud "Hélicoptère" to two of his sons – eleven year old Wilbur and seven year old Orville.

1879-1880 -- Langley designs and builds his bolometer for the measurement of the energy of incident electromagnetic radiation.

1879 -- Victor Tatin designs and flies a compressed air-powered seven foot long model.

1881 -- Langley organizes an expedition to Mount Whitney in California's Sierra Nevada Range for solar observations and other scientific studies.

1883 -- Alexandre Goupil builds a bird-shaped unpowered airplane that briefly lifts off in a tethered test while carrying two men.

1884 -- The U.S. Signal Service publishes Langley's report on the Mount Whitney expedition.

1886 -- Langley's interest in aeronautics is kindled by a paper on bird flight by a Mr. Lancaster at a meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science in Buffalo, New York. Lancaster also describes making small flying models which he describes as "floating planes" and "effigies".

1887 -- Langley designs and builds his large whirling table at the Allegheny Observatory for the study of aerodynamics; begins aeronautical experimental work. He coins the term Aerodromics for the art of building flying machines from the Greek aerodromoi.

January 12, 1887 -- Langley is appointed Assistant Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution.

April 1887 -- Langley begins to build small Pénaud type rubber-powered flying models.

November 18, 1887 -- Langley is named Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution on the death of Secretary Spencer F. Baird. He retains the directorship of the Allegheny Observatory, dividing his time between Washington and Allegheny until 1891 when James E. Keeler becomes director of the observatory.

1887 -- Hiram Maxim, an American living in Great Britain and inventor of the Maxim machine gun, begins work on a large powered biplane test rig.

1888 -- Langley publishes The New Astronomy.

1889 -- The National Zoological Park is founded, due to Langley's support. A site in Washington's Rock Creek Park is selected by Langley and Frederick Law Olmstead. The Zoo becomes part of the Smithsonian in 1890, and is opened in 1891.

1890 -- Langley founds the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory; its first home is in a wooden building behind the Smithsonian Castle. In 1955, SAO moves to Cambridge, Massachusetts.

1890 -- Clément Ader completes his "Éole', a full-sized airplane. It has a fifty foot wing span, and is equipped with a lightweight 20-horsepower steam engine of Ader's design and a four-bladed propeller. At Armainvilliers on October 9, the Éole lifts off the ground to an altitude of approximately one foot and skims the ground for about 50 meters (165 feet). Ader later claims a second flight of 100 meters in September, 1891; there is no evidence for the second flight.

March 28, 1891 -- First successful flight of one of Langley's rubber-powered models.

1891 -- Work begins on Langley's "Aerodrome No. 0", powered by two small steam engines. Construction is halted before the aircraft is completed.

1891 -- Otto Lilienthal, a German mechanical engineer, begins a program of flight research using piloted hang gliders of his own design. He and his brother Gustav will go on to design and build 18 gliders over the next five years, making approximately 2,000 flights. Langley's Experiments in Aerodynamics is published by the Smithsonian.

1892 -- Langley's "Aerodrome No. 1" designed and built. Not flown.

1892-1893 -- "Aerodrome No. 2" and "Aerodrome No. 3" are designed and built. "No. 3" is powered by compressed air. Neither is flown.

1893 -- A 38 foot scow is converted into a houseboat with a workshop and launch platform for Aerodrome testing. In May, it is towed down the Potomac to a point near Quantico, Virginia, off Chopawamsic Island. In November, "Aerodrome No. 4" is taken to the houseboat for testing.

November 20, 1893 -- Test flight of "Aerodrome No. 4" - it falls in the water.

December 7, 1893 -- Second flight of "Aerodrome No. 4" – it falls in the water.

July 31, 1894 -- Maxim's large test rig rises briefly from its support rails during a test run.

August 1-4, 1894 -- Octave Chanute and Albert Zahm sponsor the Conference on Aerial Navigation in Chicago, bringing together an international assembly of aeronautical researchers.

October 1894 -- Test flight of modified "Aerodrome No. 4", using improved catapult. Aircraft falls in the water. "Aerodrome No. 5", with a one horsepower gasoline burning steam engine, is also tested. It flies 35 feet for three seconds before stalling and falling into the river.

November 12, 1894 -- Lawrence Hargrave, an Australian researcher, links together four of his box kites, adds a simple seat, and flies to an altitude of 16 feet in the device.

1894 -- Chanute publishes his book Progress in Flying Machines.

1895 -- James Means publishes the first of his three >Aeronautical Annuals.

May 6, 1896 -- "Aerodrome No. 6" is launched from the houseboat's catapult; the left wing collapses and the aircraft lands in the water. Aerodrome No. 5 is launched at 3:05 PM and flies about half a mile in a minute and a half at an altitude reaching 100 feet – the first sustained flight of a heavier than air apparatus. In a second flight at 5:10, Aerodrome No. 5 makes three circles, climbs to about 60 feet, and is airborne for one minute and thirty-one seconds. The flight is witnessed and photographed by Alexander Graham Bell (box 45, folder 9).

June 1896 -- Chanute and Augustus Herring establish a camp at the Lake Michigan dunes near Miller, Indiana to conduct flight tests on a number of gliders – several of Chanute's designs, including his multiwing "Katydid", Herring's copy of a Lilienthal design, and a Chanute-Herring triplane collaboration.

August 9, 1896 -- Lilienthal's glider stalls and crashes from an altitude of about 50 feet. Lilienthal dies of his injuries the next morning. His last words are "Opfer müssen gebracht warden" - "Sacrifices must be made".

November 28, 1896 -- "Aerodrome No. 6" is flown from the houseboat – it flies 4800 feet in one minute and forty-five seconds.

July 1897 -- Ader completes his "Avion III", also known as the "Aquilon". It features two 20-horsepower steam engines and twin tractor propellers, and a wingspan of nearly 56 feet. The aircraft weighs approximately 880 pounds. Ader attempts a flight on October 14; "Avion III" is unable to rise off the ground.

March 25, 1898 -- Assistant Secretary of the Navy Theodore Roosevelt suggests the military use of the Langley "Aerodrome" to Navy Secretary John D. Long (box 40, folder 10).

April 6, 1898 -- Langley proposes a scaled-up version of the "Aerodrome" for military use to a joint Army-Navy board meeting at the Smithsonian. He requests $50,000 to build a large, piloted version of his earlier designs. The proposed aircraft is called the "Great Aerodrome", or "Aerodrome A".

June 1898 -- Charles M. Manly, a Cornell University engineering student, is hired as Langley's "assistant in charge of experiments".

October 1898 -- Major work begins on the "Great Aerodrome", also known as "Aerodrome A".

December 12, 1898 -- A contract is signed between Langley and Stephen M. Balzer of New York. Balzer is to design and build a 12 horsepower motor to power the "Aerodrome". On the same date, Langley writes to the U.S. Army Board of Ordnance and Fortifications, agreeing to design and build a flying machine. He estimates a cost of $50,000 to build his machine.

May 1899 -- A new, larger houseboat equipped with a turntable and catapult is delivered in Washington.

May 30, 1899 -- Wilbur Wright sends a letter to Langley at the Smithsonian, requesting material pertaining to aeronautical research. He says in his letter that he wishes "… to begin a systematic study of the subject in preparation for practical work." Assistant Secretary of the Smithsonian Richard Rathbun directs his staff to assemble a package of papers, including Langley's Story of Experiments in Mechanical Flight and Experiments in Aerodynamics. The Wright brothers receive the package three weeks later. They later credit the material they received from the Smithsonian with giving them a "good understanding of the nature of the problem of flying."

June 7 - August 3, 1899 -- Additional flights of "Aerodrome No. 5" and "No. 6" are made from the houseboat at Chopawamsic Island.

July 1899 -- Langley visits Ader's workshop in Paris.

July 1899 -- The Wright Brothers build a five foot biplane kite.

October 2, 1899 -- Percy Pilcher dies of his injury after his Lilienthal-type glider breaks up in flight.

May 1900 -- Langley and the staff of the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory observe the May 28 solar eclipse in Wadesboro, North Carolina.

August 1900 -- The Wrights begin to build their first glider, a biplane design with a 17 foot wingspan.

September 1900 -- The Wrights arrive at Kitty Hawk, North Carolina, to test their glider on the dunes. They begin test flights in early October.

July 1901 -- The Wrights return to Kitty Hawk with a new biplane glider.

August 1901 -- Langley creates the Children's Room, with exhibits designed to inspire interest in science, technology and natural history, in the Smithsonian Castle.

Autumn 1901 -- The Wright brothers return to Dayton and begin a program to develop their own fundamental aeronautical data, building a wind tunnel and a test rig mounted on a bicycle.

September 19, 1902 -- The Wrights complete assembly of their new glider and begin flights the same afternoon. They continue the flights through the autumn. After an early crash, continual modifications improve the design. Wilbur writes to his father, "We now believe the flying problem is really nearing its solution." On their return to Dayton, the brothers file a patent on their design.

July 14, 1903 -- The houseboat is towed down the Potomac to a spot opposite Widewater, Virginia, about 40 miles from Washington.

August 8, 1903 -- Langley's "Quarter-Size Aerodrome" makes a successful flight from the houseboat.

September 3, 1903 -- Work is begun on erecting the "Great Aerodrome" on the houseboat catapult.

October 7, 1903 -- The "Great Aerodrome", piloted by Manly, is launched by the houseboat catapult at 12:20 PM. The aircraft is snagged by the catapult launch car, and drops into the river. Langley was in Washington, and does not witness the attempt. The wreckage of the "Aerodrome" is salvaged.

December 8, 1903 -- The refurbished "Great Aerodrome" is readied for flight on the houseboat, now moored below Washington at Arsenal Point at the confluence of the Potomac and Anacostia rivers. At 4:45 PM, the aircraft, with Manly at the controls, is launched. The tail assembly drags along the launch track, and the "Aerodrome's" tail begins to collapse. The "Aerodrome" drops into the river. Manly is briefly trapped by the wreckage, but cuts himself free and is rescued. In the aftermath of the crash, Langley is ridiculed in the press. Though the Army withdraws its support, Langley receives offers of financial support from businessmen to continue his aeronautical work. He politely refuses these offers and ends his aeronautical activities.

December 17, 1903 -- The Wright brothers make four flights at Kitty Hawk, North Carolina. The first flight covered a distance of 120 feet and lasted 12 seconds; in the fourth flight, the "Flyer" traveled 852 feet in 59 seconds.

June 1905 -- The Smithsonian's accountant, W. W. Karr, is accused of embezzling Institutional funds. He is later convicted and imprisoned. Langley holds himself responsible for the loss, and thereafter refuses to accept his salary.

November 1905 -- Langley suffers a stroke.

February 1906 -- Langley moves to Aiken, South Carolina to convalesce.

February 27, 1906 -- After suffering another stroke, Langley dies.

March 3, 1906 -- Samuel Pierpont Langley is buried in Forest Hill Cemetery, Boston.

May-October 1914 -- The "Great Aerodrome" is refurbished and is tested on Lake Keuka, Hammondsport, New York; the tests are conducted by Glenn Curtiss. Using the Manly-Balzer motor and mounted on pontoons instead of using a catapult launch, the "Aerodrome" makes several short flights, the longest lasting about five seconds. Later a Curtiss 80-hp engine is substituted for the Manly-Balzer motor and a flight of about 3,000 feet is made on September 17. The Smithsonian Institution later displays the "Aerodrome" with an exhibit label that reads "The first man-carrying aeroplane in the history of the world capable of sustained free flight." This claim causes a rift between the Institution and Orville Wright (Wilber Wright had died in 1912) that is not fully mended until 1942. The Wright 1903 "Flyer" is presented to the Smithsonian Institution on December 17, 1948. Today, the "Flyer" is on exhibit in the Milestones of Flight Gallery of the National Air and Space Museum's Mall Building; Samuel Langley's "Great Aerodrome" is displayed at the Museum's Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center in Chantilly, Virginia.
The Smithsonian Aeronautical Staff:
Langley's staff engaged in his aeronautical work as listed in waste books, drawings and correspondence:

The Smithsonian Aeronautical Staff

F. C. Bache -- Laborer with the U.S. Fish Commission, then located at the Smithsonian.

Carl Barus -- Formerly of the U.S. Geological Survey and the Weather Bureau. Hired in 1893 as a physicist; acted as the liaison between Langley and the Aerodrome project staff. Part of the crew on the houseboat.

Louville Eugene Emerson -- Laborer.

George L. Fowler -- An engineer, Fowler was hired by Langley to help design an engine for the Aerodromes.

William Gaertner -- Instrument maker.

Heed, Jr. -- Name found in a shorthand diary dated 1899 - presumably, a Smithsonian secretary or assistant.

Augustus Moore Herring -- An independent aeronautical experimenter and skilled designer and pilot of gliders; hired by Octave Chanute in 1894 and by Langley as chief assistant in 1895. Herring resigned (or was dismissed) in November 1895 and resumed work with Chanute. In 1908, he competed with the Wrights for the Army Flyer contract, but did not complete a finished aircraft.

Edward Chalmers Huffaker -- An engineer and aeronautical experimenter; built gliders based on the observation of bird flight; had delivered a paper at the International Conference on Aerial Navigation in Chicago, 1893. Recommended by Chanute, Huffaker was hired by Langley in December, 1894. He resigned from the Smithsonian in 1898 and went to work for Chanute.

L. C. Maltby -- Machinist, 1891-1899; assisted in motor design and oversaw the fabrications of the metalwork for the Aerodromes. Part of the crew on the houseboat.

Charles Matthews Manly -- Graduate of Cornell University (1896). Hired by Langley and placed in charge of construction of the Great Aerodrome in 1898. Piloted the Great Aerodrome on its two launch attempts, 1903. Manly resigned from the Smithsonian in 1905. He served as a consulting aviation engineer for different government agencies and corporations, including the British War Office, 1915; the Curtiss Aeroplane and Motor Corporation 1915-1919 (from 1919-1920 as the assistant general manger); and as a member of the US Commission to the International Aircraft Conference, London, 1918. Manly also completed and edited Langley's Memoir on Mechanical Flight which was published by the Smithsonian in 1911.

Charles B. Nichols -- Smithsonian cabinet maker (1890-1893), in charge of construction of the small rubber powered models.

R. Luther Reed -- Smithsonian carpenter foreman (1880-1904). In charge of construction of Aerodromes No. 5 and 6 following between Herring's departure and Manly's arrival. Worked on design of the Great Aerodrome and the second houseboat. Part of the crew on the houseboat.

B.L. Rhinehart -- Smithsonian mechanic. Built a small steam motor for Aerodrome No. 0 in 1891. Performed design work on an experimental gasoline motor, c.1896.

William L. Speiden -- Draftsman or designer (1893-1899).

John Elfrith Watkins -- Assistant engineer of construction with the Pennsylvania Railroad. Joined the Smithsonian as an honorary curator in the Steam Transportation section in 1885. Named curator of Transportation in 1887. He rejoined the Pennsylvania Railroad in 1892, and later worked at the Field Columbian Museum as director of Industrial Arts. Watkins returned to the Smithsonian in 1895 as the National Museum's curator of Technological Collections. In 1898, he was named curator of the Division of Technology. Watkins also served the Smithsonian as Engineer of Property, 1888-1889, and Chief of Buildings and Superintendence, 1896-1903. Watkins carried on much of the Aerodrome project's correspondence, and was the project's expert in steam engine design.

George B. Wells -- Smithsonian messenger (1894-1903). Most of the collection's shorthand notebooks (Series X) bear his name; possibly, he acted as Langley's stenographer.

William Crawford Winlock -- Curator, Bureau of International Exchange (1889-1899).
Related Materials:
Parts of the collection were separated at undetermined dates from the institutional records of Samuel Langley's time as Secretary (now held by the Smithsonian Institution Archives [SIA], as the Samuel P. Langley Papers, 1867-1906, Record Unit 7003).

In addition to Record Unit 7003, researchers may wish to consult these Smithsonian Institution Archives' collections:

Record Unit 31, Office of the Secretary, Correspondence, 1866-1906, with related records to 1927.

Record Unit 34, Office of the Secretary, Correspondence, 1887-1907

Record Unit 7268, J. Elfreth Watkins Collection, 1869, 1881-1903, 1953, 1966 and undated.

The Archives Division of the National Air and Space Museum holds the Charles M. Manly Papers, (Acc. 1999-0004). Manly was Samuel Langley's assistant in the Aerodrome project from 1898 to 1903.

Langley Technical Files: The Archives Division's technical files are housed in the Archives-Library reading room of the Museum's Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center. Material on Langley and his Aerodromes are housed in folders in the technical files Aircraft Series and in the Biographies Series. Because material from the Samuel P. Langley Collection is thought to have been transferred into the Technical Files, these file headings are included here. In the listings, "Images Available" refers to digital image files available through the Archives Division's image database; these images may be viewed in the Museum's reading rooms.

Langley Technical Files: Aircraft Series Technical Files

Langley (Samuel P.), General -- Photos, Images Available. Folder(s): AL-198600-80

Langley (Samuel P.), General, NASM -- Photos, Photo Dupes. Folder(s): AL-198601-80, AL-198601-99

Langley (Samuel P.) Aerodrome A (Great Aerodrome, Man-Carrying Aerodrome) -- Documents, Photos, Negatives, Photo Dupes, Images Available. Folder(s): AL-198603-01, AL-198603-80, AL-198603-85, AL-198603-99

Langley (Samuel P.) Aerodrome A, Curtiss 1914 Rebuild -- Documents, Photos, Photo Dupes, Photo Dupes, Photo Dupes, Photo Dupes, Images Available. Folder(s): AL-198605-01, AL-198605-80, AL-198605-96, AL-198605-97, AL-198605-98, AL-198605-99

Langley (Samuel P.) Aerodrome A, NASM -- Documents, Photos, Photo Dupes, Images Available. Folder(s): AL-198607-01, AL-198607-80, AL-198607-99

Langley (Samuel P.) Aerodromes, Numbered, General -- Photos, Photo Dupes. Folder(s): AL-198610-80, AL-198610-99

Langley (Samuel P.) Aerodrome No 0 (1891) -- Photo Dupes, Images Available. Folder(s): AL-198612-99

Langley (Samuel P.) Aerodrome No 1 (1891) -- Images Available.

Langley (Samuel P.) Aerodrome No 2 (1892) -- Images Available.

Langley (Samuel P.) Aerodrome No 3 (1892) -- Images Available.

Langley (Samuel P.) Aerodrome No 4 (1895) -- Images Available.

Langley (Samuel P.) Aerodrome No 5 (1895-96) -- Documents, Photos, Transparencies, Photo Dupes, Photo Dupes, Images Available. Folder(s): AL-198622-01, AL-198622-80, AL-198622-90, AL-198622-98, AL-198622-99

Langley (Samuel P.) Aerodrome No 6 (1895-96) -- Documents, Photos, Photo Dupes, Images Available. Folder(s): AL-198624-01, AL-198624-80, AL-198624-99

Langley (Samuel P.) Clockwork Model -- Photos. Folder(s): AL-198628-80

Langley (Samuel P.) Gliding Model Aerodromes (1895) -- Images Available.

Langley (Samuel P.) Ladder Kite (1896) -- Photos, Photo Dupes, Images Available. Folder(s): AL-198635-80, AL-198635-99

Langley (Samuel P.) Model Aerodromes, General -- Documents, Photos, Photo Dupes, Images available. Folder(s): AL-198640-01, AL-198640-80, AL-198640-99

Langley (Samuel P.) Model Aerodrome No 4 (1895) -- Photo Dupes, Images available. Folder(s): AL-198648-99

Langley (Samuel P.) Model Aerodrome No 11 -- Images available.

Langley (Samuel P.) Model Aerodrome No 13 -- Images available.

Langley (Samuel P.) Model Aerodrome No 14 -- Images available.

Langley (Samuel P.) Model Aerodrome No 15 -- Photo Dupes, Images available. Folder(s): AL-198670-99

Langley (Samuel P.) Model Aerodrome No 19 -- Photos, Images available. Folder(s): AL-198678-80

Langley (Samuel P.) Model Aerodrome No 20 -- Images available.

Langley (Samuel P.) Model Aerodrome No 21 -- Images available.

Langley (Samuel P.) Model Aerodrome No 22 -- Photos, Images available. Folder(s): AL-198684-80

Langley (Samuel P.) Model Aerodrome No 23 -- Photos, Images available. Folder(s): AL-198686-80

Langley (Samuel P.) Model Aerodrome No 24 -- Images available.

Langley (Samuel P.) Model Aerodrome No 25 -- Images available.

Langley (Samuel P.) Model Aerodrome No 26 -- Photo Dupes, Images available. Folder(s): AL-198692-99

Langley (Samuel P.) Model Aerodrome No 27 -- Images available.

Langley (Samuel P.) Model Aerodrome No 28 -- Photos, Images available. Folder(s): AL-198696-80

Langley (Samuel P.) Model Aerodrome No 30 -- Images available.

Langley (Samuel P.) Model Aerodrome No 31 -- Images available.

Langley (Samuel P.) Proposed Man-Carrying Aerodrome (1898-99) -- Documents, Photo Dupes, Images available. Folder(s): AL-198710-01, AL-198710-99

Langley (Samuel P.) "Quarter-Size" Aerodrome (1900-01 -- Documents, Photos, Negatives, Photo Dupes, Images available. Folder(s): AL-198720-01, AL-198720-80, AL-198720-85, AL-198720-99

Langley (Samuel P.) "Rubber-Pull" Model Aerodrome (1895-96) -- Photos, Photo Dupes, Images available. Folder(s): AL-198730-80, AL-198730-99

Langley (Samuel P.) Whirling Arm (1888-90) -- Photos, Photo Dupes, Images available. Folder(s): AL-198740-80, AL-198740-99

Langley Technical Files: Biographies Series Technical Files

Langley, Samuel Pierpont, general -- Documents. Folder(s): CL-094000-01

Langley, Samuel Pierpont (articles by) -- Documents. Folder(s): CL-094000-02

Langley, Samuel Pierpont (articles by/Aero) -- Documents. Folder(s): CL-094000-03

Langley, Samuel Pierpont (articles by/Aero) -- Documents. Folder(s): CL-094000-04

Langley, Samuel Pierpont (articles by/Astro) -- Documents. Folder(s): CL-094000-05

Langley, Samuel Pierpont (articles by/Astro) -- Documents. Folder(s): CL-094000-06

Langley, Samuel Pierpont (articles by/Rocket) -- Documents. Folder(s): CL-094000-08

Langley, Samuel Pierpont (articles by/French) -- Documents. Folder(s): CL-094000-09

Langley, Samuel Pierpont (articles on) -- Documents. Folder(s): CL-094000-10

Langley, Samuel Pierpont (articles on) -- Documents. Folder(s): CL-094000-11

Langley, Samuel Pierpont (articles on) -- Documents. Folder(s): CL-094000-12

Langley, Samuel Pierpont (articles on) -- Documents. Folder(s): CL-094000-13

Langley, Samuel Pierpont (articles on) -- Documents. Folder(s): CL-094000-14

Langley, Samuel Pierpont (Awards and Honors) -- Documents. Folder(s): CL-094000-15

Langley, Samuel Pierpont (Wright Controversy) -- Documents. Folder(s): CL-094000-16

Langley, Samuel Pierpont (Obituaries) -- Documents. Folder(s): CL-094000-17

Langley, Samuel Pierpont -- Photo Dupes. Folder(s): CL-094000-40

Langley, Samuel Pierpont -- Photos. Folder(s): CL-094000-80

Langley, Samuel Pierpont -- Negatives. Folder(s): CL-094000-85

Langley, Samuel Pierpont -- Images available.
Smithsonian generated, transfer, unknown.
No restrictions on access
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permission Requests.
Aeronautics  Search this
Aeronautics -- pre-1903  Search this
Aeronautics -- 1903-1916  Search this
Aeronautics -- Records  Search this
Langley Aerodrome Family  Search this
Langley Aerodrome No 5 (1895-96)  Search this
Periodicals  Search this
Samuel P. Langley Collection, NASM.XXXX.0494, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
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Samuel P. Langley Collection
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George H. Clark Radioana Collection

Clark, George Howard, 1881-1956  Search this
Electricity and Modern Physics, Division of, NMAH, SI.  Search this
American Marconi Company.  Search this
Radio Corporation of America.  Search this
Former owner:
Electricity and Modern Physics, Division of, NMAH, SI.  Search this
220 Cubic feet (700 boxes)
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Technical manuals
Letters patent
Sale catalogs
Technical drawings
circa 1880-1950
The collection forms a documentary record of over half a century of the history of radio, with the greatest emphasis on the period 1900-1935. The collection includes materials that span the entire history of the growth of the radio industry. It is useful for those historians and other researchers interested in technological development, economic history, and the impact of applications of technology on American life.
Scope and Contents:
The materials accumulated in this collection represent the overriding collecting passion of one individual, George H. Clark. The collection forms a documentary record of over half a century of the history of radio, with the greatest emphasis on the period 1900-1935.

The collection includes materials that span the entire history of the growth of the radio industry. It is useful for those historians and other researchers interested in technological development, economic history, and the impact of applications of technology on American life.

In particular, the collection is rich in biographical information on the men who developed the technical aspects of radio and the industry; information on the inception, growth, and activities of radio companies, most notably the National Electric Signaling Company and RCA; and in photographs of all aspects of Radioana.

While most materials document technical aspects of radio, there is much information (e.g. Series 109, 134) on broadcasting and on the early history of television.

The collection, housed in over 700 boxes (about 276 linear feet), was organized into 259 numbered "classes" or series by Clark. Sixty series numbers were never used or were eliminated by Clark and combined with other series. The unused numbers are scattered throughout the filing system. The collection also includes material from series that were eliminated. These materials were never reclassified and are included as an unprocessed series at the end of the series descriptions. The collection also contains material that was never assigned a "class" designation by Clark (Lettered Series: D, E, F, G, H).

The arrangement of the collection is Clark's own; his adaptation of the Navy filing system he helped devise in 1915. Clark periodically revised the filing system and reclassified items within it.

Clark assigned class numbers to types of equipment (e.g. broadcast receivers), systems (impulse-excited transmitters and systems), scientific theories (circuit theory), and topics (company history, biography). Box 1 contains descriptions of the classification system.

When Clark classified an item and filed it he also assigned a serial number. This classification begins with 1 (or 1A) for the first item in the class and continues with successive numbers as items were added. As a consequence, the order of individual items within a series reflects the order in which Clark filed them, not any logical relationship between the items. Clark created cross references for items dealing with more than one subject by making notations on blank sheets of paper placed in related series.

Clark made cross references between series when there was no logical relationship between them; that is, when a person using the collection would not normally look in the series. For example no cross reference would be made of an engineer from series 87 (portraits) to series 4 (biography), but one would be made from series 87 to series 142 (history of television) if the item showed the engineer, say, working on a television installation.

Clark created the insignia "SRM" as the sign on the bottom of all sheets of paper numbered by him for binding. SRM stood for Smithsonian Radio Museum. This replaced the earlier though not greatly used sign "CGM." For a time about 1930, the class number on each sheet was preceded by these: "C.G.M.", for Clark, Martin, and Goldsmith, the earliest contributors to what would become the Clark Radioana Collection. After about 1933-34 Clark used C.W.C. for Clark Wireless Collection.

There are many photographs located in most series throughout the collection. But there are also three exclusive photographic series. Lettered series A, B, C. See index; and also series descriptions under lettered series.
The collection is divided into 223 series.

Numbered Series 1-233:

Series 1, Library Operating System, 1915-1950

Series 2, Apparatus Type Numbers, 1916-1931

Series 3, Photographic Lists, 1925-1928

Series 4, Biographies of Radio Personages, Technical Index to Correspondents in Series 4

Series 5, History of Radio Companies, 1895-1950

De Forest Radio Company, 1905-1930s

Jenkins Televsion Corporation, 1924-1931

Marconi Wireless Telegraph Company, 1908-1929

National Electric Signaling Company, 1896-1941

Wireless Specialty Apparatus Company, 1906-1929

Radio Corporation of America, 1895-1950

Series 6, Shore Stations, 1900-1940

Series 7, Marine Stations, 1900-1930s

Series 8, Broadcasting Stations, 1910s-1940s

Series 9, Amateur Stations, 1910s-1940s

Series 10, Miscellaneous Information, 1911-1914

Series 11, Radio Antiques, 1921-1938

Series 13, Specifications of Radio Apparatus, 1910s-1930s

Series 14, General History, 1899-1950s

Series 15, Radio Companies Catalogues & Bound Advertisements, 1873-1941

Series 16, Log Books, 1902-1923

Series 17, Radio Companies' House Organs, 1896-1942

Series 18, Prime Movers, 1904-1911

Series 19, Batteries, 1898-1934

Series 20, Rectifiers, 1875-1935

Series 21, Motor Generators, 1898-1936

Series 22, Nameplates of Apparatus, 1928

Series 23, Switchboards and Switchboard Instruments, 1910-1935

Series 24, Radio Frequency Switches, 1905-1905-1933

Series 25, Transmitter Transformers, 1893-1949

Series 26, Operating Keys, 1843-1949

Series 27, Power Type Interrupters, 1902-1938

Series 28, Protective Devices, 1910-1925

Series 30, Message Blanks, 1908-1938

Series 31, Transmitter Condensers, 1849-1943

Series 32, Spark Gaps, 1905-1913

Series 33, Transmitter Inductances, 1907-1922

Series 34, Transmitter Wave Changers, 1907-1924

Series 37, ARC Transmitters, 1907-1940

Series 38, Vacuum Tube Type of Radio Transmitter, 1914-1947

Series 39, Radio Transmitter, Radio-Frequency, Alternator Type, 1894-1940

Series 41, Vacuum Tubes, Transmitting Type, 1905-1948

Series 43, Receiving Systems, 1904-1934

Series 45, Broadcast Receivers, 1907-1948

Series 46, Code Receivers, 1902-1948

Series 47, Receiving Inductances, 1898-1944

Series 48, Receiving Condensers, 1871-1946

Series 49, Audio Signal Devices, 1876-1947

Series 50, Detectors, 1878-1944

Series 51, Amplifiers, 1903-1949

Series 52, Receiving Vacuum Tubes, 1905-1949

Series 53, Television Receivers, 1928-1948

Series 54, Photo-Radio Apparatus, 1910-1947

Series 59, Radio Schools, 1902-1945

Series 60, Loudspeakers, 1896-1946

Series 61, Insulators, 1844-1943

Series 62, Wires, 1906-1945

Series 63, Microphones, 1911-1947

Series 64, Biography, 1925-1948

Series 66, Antennas, 1877-1949

Series 67, Telautomatics, 1912-1944

Series 69, Direction Finding Equipment, Radio Compasses, 1885-1948

Series 71, Aircraft Transmitters, 1908-1947

Series 72, Field or Portables Transmitters, 1901-1941

Series 73, Mobile Radio Systems, 1884-1946

Series 74, Radio Frequency Measuring Instruments, 1903-1946

Series 75, Laboratory Testing Methods and Systems, 1891-1945

Series 76, Aircraft Receivers, 1917-1941

Series 77, Field Portable Receivers, 1906-1922

Series 78, Spark Transmitter Assembly, 1909-1940

Series 79, Spark Transmitter System, 1900-1945

Series 82, Firsts in Radio, undated

Series 85: Distance Records and Tests, 1898-1940

Series 87, Photographs of Radio Executives, and Technical Types, 1857-1952

Series 90, Radio Terms, 1857-1939

Series 92, Static Patents and Static Reducing Systems, 1891-1946

Series 93, Low Frequency Indicating Devices, 1904-1946

Series 95, Articles on Radio Subjects, 1891-1945

Series 96, Radio in Education, 1922-1939

Series 98, Special Forms of Broadcasting, 1921-1943

Series 99, History of Lifesaving at Sea by Radio, 1902-1949

Series 100, History of Naval Radio, 1888-1948

Series 101, Military Radio, 1898-1946

Series 102, Transmitting & Receiving Systems, 1902-1935

Series 103, Receiving Methods, 1905-1935

Series 108, Codes and Ciphers, 1894-1947

Series 109, Schedules of Broadcasting & TV Stations, 1905-1940

Series 112, Radio Shows and Displays, 1922-1947

Series 114, Centralized Radio Systems, 1929-1935

Series 116, United States Government Activities in Radio, 1906-1949

Series 117, Technical Tables, 1903-1932

Series 120, Litigation on Radio Subjects, 1914-1947

Series 121, Legislation, 1914-1947

Series 122, History of Radio Clubs, 1907-1946

Series 123, Special Applications of Radio Frequency, 1924-1949

Series 124, Chronology, 1926-1937

Series 125, Radio Patents & Patent Practices, 1861-1949

Series 126, Phonographs, 1894-1949

Series 127, Piezo Electric Effect, 1914-1947

Series 128, ARC Transmitting & Reciving Systems, 1904-1922

Series 129, Spark Systems, 1898-1941

Series 130, Vacuum Tubes Systems, 1902-1939

Series 132, Radiophone Transmitting & Receiving System, 1906-1947

Series 133, Photo-Radio, 1899-1947

Series 134, History of Radio Broadcasting, 1908-

Series 135, History of Radiotelephony, Other Than Broadcasting

Series 136, History of Amateur Radio

Series 138, Transoceanic Communication

Series 139, Television Transmitting Stations

Series 140, Radio Theory

Series 142, History of Television

Series 143, Photographs

Series 144, Radio Publications

Series 145, Proceedings of Radio Societies

Series 146: Radio Museums

Series 147, Bibliography of Radio Subjects and Apparatus

Series 148, Aircraft Guidance Apparatus

Series 150, Audio Frequency Instruments

Series 151, History of Radio for Aircrafts

Series 152, Circuit Theory

Series 154, Static Elimination

Series 161, Radio in Medicine

Series 162, Lighting

Series 163, Police Radio

Series 169, Cartoons

Series 173, Communications, Exclusive of Radio (after 1895)

Series 174, Television Methods and Systems

Series 182, Military Portable Sets

Series 189, Humor in Radio (see

Series 169)

Series 209, Short Waves

Series 226, Radar

Series 233, Television Transmitter

Lettered Series

Series A, Thomas Coke Knight RCA Photographs, circa 1902-1950

Series B, George H. Clark Collection of Photographs by ClassSeries C, Clark Unorganized and/or Duplicate Photographs

Series D, Miscellaneous

Series E, News Clippings Series F: Radio Publications

Series G, Patent Files of Darby and Darby, Attorneys, circa 1914-1935

Series H, Blank Telegram Forms from many Companies and Countries Throughout the World

Series I (eye), Miscellaneous Series

Series J, Research and Laboratory Notebooks

Series K, Index to Photographs of Radio Executives and Technical Types

Series L, Index to Bound Volumes of Photos in Various Series

Series M, Index to David Sarnoff Photographs
Biographical / Historical:
George Howard Clark, born February 15, 1881, at Alberton, Prince Edward Island, Canada, emigrated to the United States at the age of fourteen. He worked as a railroad telegraph operator for the Boston and Maine Railroad during high school and college. In his unpublished autobiography he wrote:

In 1888, when I was a lad of seven, I suddenly blossomed out as a scrapbook addict, and for years I gave up boyhood games for the pleasure of sitting in a lonely attic and 'pasting up' my books ... By 1897, in high school, I graduated to beautiful pictures, and made many large size scrapbooks ... Around that time, too, I became infatuated with things electrical, and spent many evenings copying in pen and ink the various electrical text books in the Everett, Mass., Public Library. Clark began collecting material pertaining to wireless or radio in 1902. In 1903 he graduated from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology with a Bachelor of Science degree in Electrical Engineering. During his last year of college he specialized in radio work under the instruction of Professor John Stone Stone and after graduation went to work for Stone's radio company, the Stone Telegraph and Telephone Company, of Boston.

In 1908 Clark took a competitive examination open to all wireless engineers in the United States and entered the civilian service of the Navy. He was stationed at the Washington Navy Yard, with special additional duty at the Navy's Bureau of Steam Engineering and at the National Bureau of Standards.

In 1915 Clark helped devise a classification system for Navy equipment, assigning a code number to each item. This system of classification for blueprints, photographs, reports, and general data, was prepared by Arthur Trogner, Guy Hill, and Clark, all civilian radio experts with the US Navy Department in Washington. In 1918 Clark adopted the 1915 Navy classification system for organizing the radio data he was accumulating. Clark created the term "Radioana" at this time. He began spending his evenings and weekends pasting up his collection and numbering pages. At this time he bound the accumulated material. It totaled 100 volumes.

In July 1919, after resigning from the Navy, Clark joined the engineering staff of the Marconi Telegraph Company of America, which became part of the Radio Corporation of America (RCA) later the same year. His first work was at Belmar and Lakewood, New Jersey, assisting the chief engineer, Roy A. Weagant, in his development of circuits to reduce the interference caused by static (static reduction). Clark and his wife were assigned to the unheated Engineer's Cottage. His wife decided not to stay and left for Florida. Clark moved his trunks of wireless material to the heated RCA hotel at Belmar and spent most of the winter "pasting." As Clark mentions, "From that time on I was wedded to scraps."

After a year of work in New Jersey, Clark was assigned to the sales department in New York, where he devised the "type number system" used by RCA. This type number system, for example, gave the designation UV 201 to the company's first amplifier tube.

From 1922 to 1934 Clark was in charge of RCA's newly created Show Division, which held exhibits of new and old radio apparatus at state fairs, department stores, and radio shows. About 1928 Clark started an antique radio apparatus museum for RCA. RCA's board of directors announced:

Recognizing the importance of providing a Museum for the Radio Art to house the rapidly disappearing relics of earlier days, and the desirability of collecting for it without further delay examples of apparatus in use since the inception of radio, the Board of Directors of RCA has made an initial appropriation of $100,000, as the nucleus of a fund for the establishment of a National Radio Museum. A plan for ultimately placing the museum under the wing of the Smithsonian Institution was coupled with the goal of the Institution's gathering the largest possible library of wireless data.

Around 1933 the RCA traveling exhibition program ended and Clark started classifying his collected "radioana" material. The objects of the museum were eventually turned over for exhibit purposes to the Rosenwald Museum in Chicago and the Henry Ford Museum in Dearborn, Michigan, when space was not forthcoming at the Smithsonian. A list of objects sent to the two museums (with tag and case numbers) is in Series 1, Box A. The "radioana" collection remained under Clark's care during the 1930s, and became of increasing use to RCA. Clark continued to add to the material.

Between 1934 and 1942 Clark was in court many times regarding patent infringements. Clark's wireless data was useful and he testified frequently, for example, in RCA's suit against the United States in the Court of Claims over the Marconi tuning patents and in the Westinghouse Company's suit against the United States over the heterodyne. Patent specifications and material regarding these and other radio industry suits are found throughout this collection.

In 1946 RCA retired George Clark and denied him space to house his "radioana" collection. Clark wished to remain in New York and house the collection somewhere in the city where it would be open at all times to the public and where it would be maintained. He hoped to continue cataloguing the collection and writing books from its information. He wanted to keep the collection under his control for as long as he was capable of using it.

George H. Clark died in 1956 and his collection was subsequently given to the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. In 1959 the collection was given to the Smithsonian's new Museum of History and Technology, where space was available to house it. The collection remained in the Division of Electricity until the spring of 1983 when it was transferred to the Archives Center.
Brief Company Histories From The Radio Industry, 1900-1930s:

At the end of the nineteenth century, when Guglielmo Marconi began his first wireless company, Western Union, Postal Telegraph, and the American Telephone and Telegraph Company (AT&T) were the major enterprises in electrical communications. General Electric, Western Electric, and Westinghouse were the major producers of electrical equipment. All these earlier developments set the stage for the expansion of the radio industry.

General Electric, which dominated the lighting industry, was formed in 1892 as a merger of the Edison and Thomson-Houston companies. It was active in building central power station equipment; controlled nearly all the important early patents in electric railways; took a leading part in the introduction of trolley systems; and was the principal supplier of electric motors. Westinghouse promoted the alternating current system and installed the first AC central station in Buffalo, NY, during the winter of 1866-1867. After years of patent litigation, in 1896 GE and Westinghouse agreed to share their patents on electrical apparatus.

American Bell Telephone Company purchased Western Electric in 1881. Western Electric had a strong patent position in telephone equipment and in industrial power apparatus, such as arc lamps, generators, motors, and switchboard equipment.

Until RCA was formed in 1919, these established electrical companies played no active part in the early development of the American radio industry. They were in difficult financial positions, reorganizing, or concentrating their efforts and resources on improving their existing products.

The revolution in "wireless" technology, which began in earnest after 1900, centered in New York City, home of the Lee de Forest and American Marconi companies, and in Boston, headquarters of John Stone Stone and Reginald Fessenden.

Information in this section was compiled from the Clark Collection; the Invention and Innovation in the Radio Industry by W. Rupert Maclaurin, Macmillan Company, New York, 1949; and Radio Pioneers, Institute of Radio Engineers, Commemorating the Radio Pioneers Dinner, Hotel Commodore, New York, NY, November 8, 1945.

The De Forest Companies

Lee De Forest (1873-1961), inventor of the three-element vacuum tube or triode (1906) and the feedback circuit, was one of the first Americans to write a doctoral thesis on wireless telegraphy: "The Reflection of Short Hertzian Waves from the Ends of Parallel Wires," Yale University, 1899. The grid-controlled tube or audion of De Forest was first a radio detector, 1906-1907; in 1912 was adapted to an amplifier; and later to an oscillator. When it was perfected as a high vacuum tube, it became the great electronic instrument of electrical communications.

De Forest began work in the Dynamo Department at the Western Electric Company in 1899. Six months later he was promoted to the telephone laboratory. In 1900 De Forest went to work for the American Wireless Telegraph Company where he was able to carry out work on his "responder." However, after three months when De Forest refused to turn over the responder to the company, he was fired.

In the following year De Forest had a number of jobs, was active as an inventor, and created numerous firms to manufacture his inventions. In 1901 De Forest joined with Ed Smythe, a former Western Electric colleague and a collaborator in his research, to found the firm of De Forest, Smythe, and Freeman. Between 1902 and 1906 De Forest took out thirty-four patents on all phases of wireless telegraphy. The responder that he had been working on for so long never proved satisfactory.

The numerous De Forest companies, reflected his many interests and his inability to carry one project through to a conclusion. Unlike Marconi, but similar to Fessenden, De Forest had great inventive skill which resulted in a great number of companies; but none lasted long. The original partnership of 1901 led to the Wireless Telegraph Co. of America (1901), the De Forest Wireless Telegraph Company (Maine) (1902), and the American De Forest Wireless Telegraph Company (1903), to name a few.

The American De Forest Wireless Telegraph Company was incorporated after De Forest met a stock promoter, Abraham White. While many stations were built by this company, many never sent a message due to static interference. In 1907 two speculators from Denver with large holdings of company stock put the company out of business. The assets were sold to a new company that these speculators organized, the United Wireless Telephone Company. De Forest was forced to resign. He took the triode patents with him.

De Forest joined with one of White's stock salesmen, James Dunlop Smith, and together with De Forest's patent attorney, Samuel E. Darby, they formed a new corporation, the De Forest Radio Telephone Company in 1907. This company set out to develop wireless communication by means of the radio telephone.

In January 1910 De Forest staged the first opera broadcast, with Enrico Caruso singing. The Radio Telephone Company went bankrupt in 1911 following an aborted merger with North American Wireless Corporation. In 1913 he reorganized the company as the Radio Telephone and Telegraph Company and began producing the triode.

The Marconi Company brought a patent suit, claiming the triode infringed on the Fleming valve to which it had rights. In 1916 the court decided that Marconi had infringed the three element De Forest patent and that De Forest had infringed the two element Fleming valve. The result was that neither company could manufacture the triode.

In 1920 RCA acquired the De Forest triode rights through cross-licensing agreements with AT&T which had recently purchased the rights to it. De Forest's company was no match for GE, Westinghouse, and RCA. The De Forest Radio Company (1923) went bankrupt in 1928, was reorganized in 1930, and went into receivership in 1933. RCA eventually purchased its assets.

Marconi Companies

Guglielmo Marconi (1874-1937) came from a wealthy and well connected Italian family. He was able to spend his time developing his inventions and following his own course of action. Marconi spent his entire life developing wireless communication into a "practical" reality. In 1905 Marconi invented a directional antenna. In 1909 he shared with Karl Ferdinand Braun the Nobel prize in physics. And in 1912 he invented the time spark system for the generation of continuous waves. The principal patents in his name were improved types of vertical antennas; improved coherer; magnetic detector for the detection of wireless signals; and improvements on methods of selective tuning. Two other inventions of great importance to the Marconi companies' patent structure were the Oliver Lodge tuning patent and the Ambrose Fleming valve.

In 1895 Marconi made the first successful transmission of long wave signals. The following year he met William Preece, engineer-in-chief of the British Post Office, who was interested in inductive wireless telegraphy. This meeting led to the formation in 1897 of the Marconi Wireless Telegraph Company Ltd. In 1898 he transmitted signals across the English Channel. In 1899 an American subsidiary was formed. The various Marconi companies were the dominant enterprises in both British and American wireless until 1919 when RCA was formed.

From a business standpoint, wireless did not become profitable until long distance communications were accomplished. On December 12, 1901 in St. John's, Newfoundland, Marconi received a telegraph signal in the form of repetitions of the Morse telegraphic letter "S" transmitted from the Marconi station at Poldhu, Cornwall, England. This success, however, was met by opposition from vested interests, particularly the Anglo-American Telegraph Company whose cables terminated in Newfoundland.

So as not to restrict his company's future to one front alone, Marconi decided to exploit the field of communication with ships at sea. In order to control this field he decided in 1900 to lease his apparatus rather than sell it outright. This strategy did not work. Competition developed in Germany (Telefunken Corporation) and the United States (American De Forest and its successor, United Wireless) and Marconi was forced to sell rather than lease apparatus to the navies of various countries. He nevertheless retained numerous restrictions. This led to further friction. At the height of this debacle English stations worldwide refused to communicate with ships without Marconi equipment. This absurd and dangerous situation had to change and coastal stations opened up to all senders in 1908.

Marconi's system was based on spark technology. He saw no need for voice transmission. He felt the Morse code adequate for communication between ships and across oceans. He, along with most others, did not foresee the development of the radio and the broadcasting industry. He was a pragmatist and uninterested in scientific inquiry in a field where commercial viability was unknown.

For these reasons Marconi left the early experimentation with the radio telephone to others, particularly Lee De Forest and Reginald Fessenden.

National Electric Signaling Company

Canadian-born Reginald Fessenden (1866-1932), one of the principal early radio inventors and the first important inventor to experiment with wireless, left the University of Pittsburgh in 1900 to work for the U.S. Weather Bureau. There he invented the liquid barretter, an early radio receiver, and attempted to work out a means for wireless transmission of weather forecasts. After a squabble over patent rights, Fessenden resigned in 1902.

The National Electric Signaling Company (NESCO), primarily intended to support Fessenden's work on wireless, telegraphy, and telephony, was formed by Fessenden and two Pittsburgh capitalists, Hay Walker, Jr. and Thomas H. Given. It began as an inventor's laboratory and never proved successful as a business venture.

Fessenden recognized that a continuous wave transmission was required for speech and he continued the work of Nikola Tesla, John Stone Stone, and Elihu Thomson on this subject. Fessenden felt he could also transmit and receive Morse code better by the continuous wave method than with a spark-apparatus as Marconi was using.

In 1903 Fessenden's first high-frequency alternator needed for continuous wave transmission was built to his specifications by Charles Steinmetz of GE. In 1906 Fessenden obtained a second alternator of greater power from GE and on Christmas Eve broadcast a program of speech and music. The work on this alternator was given to Ernst F. W. Alexanderson. It took years for Alexanderson to develop an alternator capable of transmitting regular voice transmissions over the Atlantic. But by 1916 the Fessenden-Alexanderson alternator was more reliable for transatlantic communication than the spark apparatus.

Fessenden also worked on continuous-wave reception. This work arose out of his desire for a more effective type of receiver than the coherer, a delicate device that was limited by its sensitivity on a rolling ship at sea. In 1903 he developed a new receiving mechanism - the electrolytic detector.

As his work progressed Fessenden evolved the heterodyne system. However, due to faulty construction and the fact that it was ahead of its time, heterodyne reception was not fully appreciated until the oscillating triode was devised, thus allowing a practical means of generating the local frequency.

Between 1905 and 1913 Fessenden developed a completely self-sustaining wireless system. However, constant quarrels between Fessenden, Walker, and Given culminated in Fessenden's forming the Fessenden Wireless Company of Canada. He felt a Canadian company could better compete with British Marconi. As a result, his backers dismissed Fessenden from NESCO in January of 1911. Fessenden brought suit, won, and was awarded damages. To conserve assets pending appeal, NESCO went into receivership in 1912, and Samuel Kintner was appointed general manager of the company.

In 1917 Given and Walker formed International Signal Company (ISC) and transferred NESCO's patent assets to the new company. Westinghouse obtained majority control of ISC through the purchase of $2,500,000 worth of stock. The company was then reincorporated as The International Radio Telegraph Company. The Westinghouse-RCA agreements were signed in 1921 and International's assets were transferred to RCA.


The development of the radio industry accelerated after 1912. This was due to several factors, the most important of which was the passage of legislation by the US government requiring ships at sea to carry wireless. This created a market incentive and spurred the growth of the industry. Also, with the outbreak of World War I, the larger electrical companies turned their manufacturing output to radio apparatus, supporting the war effort. Three firms were prominent in this industrial endeavor: AT&T, GE, and Westinghouse.

AT&T's early contributions to this effort centered on their improvements of De Forest's triode, particularly in the evolution of circuits, the redesign of the mechanical structure, and an increase in the plate design. The importation of the Gaede molecular pump from Germany created a very high vacuum. The resulting high-vacuum tube brought the practical aspects of the wireless telephone closer to reality. By August 1915 speech had been sent by land wire to Arlington, Va., automatically picked up there via a newly developed vacuum-tube transmitter, and subsequently received at Darien, Canal Zone. By 1920 AT&T had purchased the rights to the De Forest triode and feedback circuit, and had placed itself in a strong position in the evolution of radio technology.

GE centered its efforts on the alternator, assigning Ernst F. W. Alexanderson to its design, and on further development of vacuum tube equipment for continuous wave telegraph transmission. By 1915 Alexanderson, Irving Langmuir, William D. Coolidge, and others had developed a complete system of continuous wave transmission and reception for GE.

As can be seen, both AT&T and GE were diverting major time and expenditures on vacuum tube research. This inevitably led to patent interferences and consequently, to cross-licensing arrangements.

Westinghouse was not in the strategic position of GE and AT&T. Nevertheless, during the war it did manufacture large quantities of radio apparatus, motors, generators, and rectifiers for the European and American governments. Postwar moves led Westinghouse into full partnership with the other two companies.

By the end of the war, all three companies had committed significant resources to wireless. They were hampered internationally, however, by the Marconi Company's dominant status, and in the United States they were blocked by opposing interests with control of key patents.

The US government also was concerned with this lack of solidarity in the wireless industry and over the British domination of the field worldwide. This impasse set a fascinating and complicated stage for the formation of the RCA.

Owen D. Young, legal counselor for GE, was instrumental in breaking the impasse. Through an innovative and far-reaching organizational consolidation, Young was able to persuade British Marconi that persistence in monopoly was a fruitless exercise, because of the strong US government feelings. Marconi, realizing the harm of a potential American boycott, finally agreed to terms. GE purchased the controlling interest in American Marconi, and RCA was formed. Young was made chairman of the board of RCA, while Edwin J. Nally and David Sarnoff of the old American Marconi were appointed president and commercial manager respectively.

On July 1, 1920, RCA signed a cross-licensing agreement with AT&T. The telephone company purchased one half million shares of RCA common and preferred stock for several considerations -- the most important being that all current and future radio patents of the two companies were available to each other royalty-free for ten years. Many provisions of these agreements were ambiguous and led to later squabbles between the RCA partners.

In May 1920 Westinghouse, which had an efficient radio manufacturing organization, formed an alliance with the International Radio and Telegraph Company (NESCO's successor). Westinghouse's part ownership gave them control of Fessenden's patents, particularly continuous-wave transmission and heterodyne transmission. Westinghouse also wisely purchased in October of 1920 Armstrong's patents on the regenerative and superheterodyne circuits -- which also included some of Columbia University professor Michael Pupin's patents. This placed Westinghouse in a strong bargaining position vis-à-vis RCA and in their new consolidated corporation. Westinghouse joined the growing group of radio companies on June 30, 1921. With these mergers, RCA agreed to purchase forty percent of its radio apparatus from Westinghouse and sixty percent from GE.

Through these and other legal arrangements, RCA obtained the rights to over 2,000 patents. These amounted to practically all the patents of importance in the radio science of that day. As a result, other firms in the radio industry, for example, the United Fruit Company and the Wireless Specialty Apparatus Company, entered into cross-licensing arrangements with RCA.

RCA also made arrangements internationally with the three dominant companies in radio communication in their respective countries. British Marconi, Compagnie Generale de Telegraphie sans fil, and Telefunken. Each corporation was given exclusive rights to use the other companies' patents within their own territories.

The rise of amateur radio in the 1920s and, to a greater extent, the demand for new products by the general public contributed to the rise of the broadcasting industry. This put a strain on the earlier agreements between the major radio corporations and between 1921 and 1928 there was a struggle over patents for control of the evolving medium.

An initial attempt by AT&T to control the broadcasting industry -- using its earlier cross-licensing agreements to manufacture radio telephone transmitting equipment -- began with AT&T's disposal of RCA stock holdings in 1922-1923. It ended in 1926 with a new cross-licensing agreement which gave AT&T exclusive patent rights in the field of public service telephony and gave GE, RCA, and Westinghouse exclusive patent rights in the areas covered by wireless telegraphy, entertainment broadcasting, and the manufacture of radio sets and receiving tubes for public sale.

In 1926 after the agreements were finalized, RCA, GE, and Westinghouse joined forces and established the National Broadcasting Company (NBC). Fifty percent of the stock went to RCA, thirty percent to GE, and twenty percent to Westinghouse. The new company was divided into three divisions: the Red, Blue, and Pacific Networks. Independent, competing networks soon emerged. William S. Paley and his family formed the Columbia Broadcasting System (CBS) in 1927. The Mutual Broadcasting System was formed in 1934.

By 1928 RCA had strong patent positions in all major areas of the radio industry, including the research, development and manufacture of vacuum tubes and speakers. Most small companies entering the industry in the 1920s produced their products based on prior research by others and on expired patents. An RCA license, therefore, was essential for the manufacture of any modern radio set or vacuum tube.

In the late 1920s new developments in the reproduction of sound, produced significant changes in the phonograph industry. Among those new developments were the introduction of the electronic record, and the marketing of the Radiola 104 Loudspeaker in 1926. In 1929 RCA purchased the Victor Talking Machine Company. This changed not only the quality but the sales of the phonograph and the phonograph record. A new entertainment industry was born and an ever-expanding market for consumer products was created with cultural implications that continue today.


German industrialists were eager to break the Marconi Company's monopoly. Although Marconi had patents on his inventions in Germany, the Germans developed a rival system through the Telefunken Corporation, incorporated in 1903, based on the inventions of Professor Ferdinand Braun, Dr. Rudolf Slaby, and Count George von Arco.

Before 1903 the Braun-Siemens and Halske system had been developed by Gesellschaft fur Drahtlose Telegraphie (GFDT). The Slaby-Arco system had been developed by Allgemeine Electrizitats-Gesellschaft. After litigation over patents, the German court handed down a decision in favor of the GFDT. The Kaiser, with national interests in mind, ordered that the rivalry cease. The two systems were amalgamated under GFDT, and became known as the Telefunken.

Chronology of Some Significant Events In The History of The Radio Industry

1895 -- Marconi experiments with Hertz's oscillator and Branley's coherer.

1897 -- In March Marconi demonstrates his wireless system on Salisbury Plain, near London, and files a complete patent specification. In May trials of Marconi's system are made over water between Lavernock and Flatholm, a distance of three miles. On May 13, communication is established between Lavernock Point and Brean Down, a distance of eight miles. German scientist Professor Slaby is present. The first Marconi station is erected at the Needles, Isle of Wight. A distance of fourteen and one-half miles is bridged by wireless. In December the Marconi station at the Needles communicates with a ship eighteen miles at sea.

1898 -- In England Oliver Lodge files a complete specification covering inventions in wireless telegraphy.

1899 -- The New York Herald uses Marconi's wireless telegraphy to report the progress of the International Yacht races between the Columbia and the Shamrock off New York harbor in September. US. Navy vessels make trials of Marconi's wireless telegraph system. The cruiser New York and the battleship Massachusetts are equipped with apparatus. Fessenden develops improvements in methods of wireless telegraph signaling.

1900 -- The Marconi International Marine Communication Company is organized on April 25th in London. Reginald Aubrey Fessenden begins work at the United States Weather Bureau. Over the next two years he invents the liquid barretter, an improved radio receiver.

1901 -- In February on board the SS Philadelphia, Marconi receives wireless signals over a distance of 1,551 miles. In March Marconi wireless telegraph service begins between islands of the Hawaiian group. On December 12, Marconi receives transatlantic signal at St. John's, Newfoundland from Poldhu, Cornwall, England. The Canadian government orders two Marconi telegraph sets for use at coastal points along the Strait of Belle Isle.

1901 -- Fessenden procures US patent no. 706737 for a system of radio signaling employing long waves (low frequency). De Forest develops a system of wireless telegraphy in Chicago. 1903-06 10,000 to 50,000 cycle machines, 1 kW, are developed by Steinmetz and by Alexanderson of GE for Fessenden. 1905 Marconi procures patent number 14788 in England, covering the invention of the horizontal directional antenna.

1906 -- At Brant Rock, Massachusetts, Fessenden employs a generator of one-half kW capacity, operating at 75,000 cycles, for radio purposes. He succeeds in telephoning a distance of eleven miles by means of wireless telephone apparatus.

1907 -- De Forest procures a U. S. patent for an audion amplifier of pulsating or alternating current.

1908 -- Marconi stations in Canada and England are opened for radio telegraph service across the Atlantic. Fessenden constructs a 70,000-cycle alternator with an output of 2.5 kW. at 225 volts, for radio signaling purposes. He reports successful radio telephone tests between Brant Rock and Washington, DC, a distance of 600 miles.

1909 -- US House of Representatives passes the Burke Bill for the compulsory use of radio telegraphy on certain classes of vessels. The United Wireless Telegraph Company and the Radio Telephone Company of New York (De Forest and Stone systems) begin the erection of radio stations in the Central and Western states. Marconi shares with Ferdinand Braun of Germany the Nobel prize in recognition of contributions in wireless telegraphy.

1910 -- An act of the US government requires radio equipment and operators on certain types of passenger ships. The Glace Bay, Nova Scotia, Marconi station is opened in September. This station communicates with Clifden, Ireland. The transatlantic tariff is seventeen cents a word.

1911 -- A radio section is organized by the US Department of Commerce to enforce the provisions of national radio legislation. Marconi Wireless Telegraph Company acquires the Lodge-Muirhead patents.

1912 -- Rotary gap is used with Fessenden 100 kW 500 cycle spark set at NAA, the Navy's first high-power station at Arlington, Virginia. Marconi Wireless of America acquires property of the United Wireless Telegraph Company. British Marconi secures the important radio patents of Bellini and Tosi, Italian inventors. Wreck of the SS Titanic on April 15th. The act of 1910 is extended on July 23 to cover cargo vessels. requires an auxiliary source of power on ships and two or more skilled radio apparatus operators on certain types of passenger ships. On August 13, an act provides for licensing radio operators and transmitting stations.

1912-1913 -- High vacuum amplifying tubes (an improvement on De Forest's), using the findings of pure science, are produced almost simultaneously in two great industrial laboratories, by Dr. H. D. Arnold of AT&T and Irving Langmuir of GE.

1915 -- De Forest Ultra-audion three-step (cascade) audio amplifier is announced and introduced into practice.

1916 -- GE and the Western Electric Company develop the first experimental vacuum tube radiotelephone systems for the Navy.

1917-1918 -- First production of vacuum tubes in quantity, both coated filament and tungsten filament types, by Western Electric Company and GE.

1918 -- Lloyd Espenschied procures US patent number 1,256,889 for the invention of a duplex radio telegraph system. (See Lloyd Espenschied Papers, Archives Center, NMAH, Collection #13.) The House of Representatives passes a resolution on July 5, authorizing the President to take over management of telegraph and telephone systems due to war conditions.

1919 -- Bills are introduced in Congress for permanent government control of radio stations. The widespread resentment of amateurs has more to do with the defeat of these bills than the objections of commercial companies. Roy Alexander Weagant, New York, reports having developed means of reducing disturbances to radio reception caused by atmospherics or static. This is the first successful static-reducing system. GE purchases the holdings of the British Marconi Company in the Marconi Wireless Telegraph Company of America, the name of the latter company being changed to Radio Corporation of America (RCA) in October. Edward J. Nally is elected president of the new company.

1920 -- E. F. W. Alexanderson is appointed Chief Engineer of RCA. RCA begins the installation of 200-kW Alexanderson alternators at Bolinas, California, and Marion, Massachusetts. The Tropical Radio Telegraph Company, a subsidiary of the United Fruit Company, New York, operates ten long-distance radio stations at points in Central and South Americirca RCA purchases 6,000 acres at Rocky Point, Long Island, New York, and begins erection of a Radio Central station, comprising a number of operating units for communication with European stations and stations in South Americirca On May 15, RCA inaugurates radio telegraph services between installations at Chatham and Marion, Massachusetts, and stations at Stavanger and Jaerobe, Norway. Westinghouse Company's radio station KDKA, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, broadcasts returns of the national elections, November 2. Development, design, and manufacture by GE of the early receiving and transmitting tubes made available to the public by RCA (UV-200,201,202). Radio telegraph stations and properties taken over by the government under war time powers are returned to their owners at midnight, February 29. The government calls for bids for the sale of large quantities of surplus radio and telegraph and telephone apparatus purchased for war needs and not used.

1921 -- RCA develops Vacuum tubes UV-200(detector) and UV-201(amplifier) -- both triodes with brass shells known as the UV base, and incorporating a filament that required 1 ampere at 5 volts for operation -- for storage battery operation; and at the same time also released to the public the WD-11 for dry cell operation, which employed an oxide-coated tungsten filament. RCA station at Rocky Point, Long Island, opens on November 5. WJZ station established by the Westinghouse Company in Newark, NJ. RCA broadcast station at Roselle Park, NJ (WDY) opens on December 15. It continues operation until February 15, 1922, when its operation is transferred to WJZ, Newark, previously owned by Westinghouse. RCA installs 200-kW alternator at Tuckerton, NJ.

1922 -- First use of tube transmitters by RCA for service from the United States to England and Germany. RCA begins substitution of tube transmitters on ships to replace spark sets. RCA begins replacement of crystal receivers by tube receivers on ships.

1923 -- Broadcast stations WJZ and WJY opened in New York in May by RCA. WRC opens in Washington on August 1. The UV-201A, receiving tubes developed by GE and consuming only 1/4 of an ampere are introduced by RCA. Tungsten filaments coated and impregnated with thorium were employed.

1924 -- Edwin H. Armstrong, demonstrates the superheterodyne receiver on March 6th. In November RCA experiments with radio photographs across the Atlantic. RCA markets the superheterodyne receivers for broadcast reception.

1925-26 -- Dynamic loudspeakers introduced. Magnetic pick-up phonograph recording and reproduction developed. RCA opens radio circuit to Dutch East Indies. Direction-finders introduced on ships.

1927 -- Fully self-contained AC radio receivers introduced.
The collection was donated to the Smithsonian in 1959.
The collection is open for research use.

Gloves must be worn when handling unprotected photographs, negatives, and slides.
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
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Technical manuals -- Electrical equipment
Correspondence -- 1930-1950
Letters patent
Photographs -- 1850-1900
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George H. Clark Radioana Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
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Hills Bros. Coffee, Incorporated Records

Hills Bros. Coffee, Inc.  Search this
65 Cubic feet
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
1875 - 1965
Records of the Hills Bros. Coffee Company, Incorporated, documenting overall operations of the company, the creation of advertising materials, and development of the coffee trade.
Scope and Contents:
The collection is divided into thirteen series.

Series 1, Hills Family Papers, 1856-1942; undated, consists primarily of personal and business related materials of Austin H. Hills Sr., Austin Herbert Hills Jr. and Herbert Gray Hills. Austin Herbert Hills Sr. was the father of Austin Herbert Hills Jr. and Reuben Wilmarth Hills founders of Hills Bros. Coffee Company Incorporated. Herbert Gray Hills is the son of Austin Herbert Hills Jr. In addition, there are home movies created in 1933 by members of the Hills family. The series is divided into three subseries.

Subseries 1.1, Austin Herbert Hills, Sr. Papers, 1856-1875; undated, consists primarily of materials related to his business affairs. Born in Rockland, Maine and a ship builder by trade, Austin Sr. opened a butter, eggs and cheese business in 1863. These materials are a miscellaneous assortment of correspondence and accounting ledgers relating to the partnership of Hills, Rice & Company. In addition, there is an article from the Daughters of the American Revolution Magazine about Harriet Heal Hills (Mrs. Austin H. Hills). Mrs. Hills joined the Oakland chapter in 1904 and remained a very active member most of her life. Her father was John Heal who served as corporal in the continental army. The materials are arranged in chronological order by date.

Subseries 1.2, Austin Herbert Hills, Jr. Papers, 1875-1923, contain correspondence which relate to both business and personal matters. The correspondence is arranged in the order that Mr. Hills maintained which is in alphabetical order by the last name of the recipient or sender and then in chronological order. In addition, there is an accounting ledger for Austin Hill's diary business prior to the creation of the Hills Bros. Coffee Company. Subseries 1.3, Herbert Gray Hills Correspondence, 1923-1942, contain handwritten notes, letters, telegrams and other related materials. Subjects discussed include annual stockholders meetings, golf tournaments, quantities of merchandise shipped to various locations, programs for division managers' meetings, a copy of the proposed demands by office workers' union and I. L. A. 38-44 on San Francisco business and industrial establishments, and advertising. The materials are arranged in chronological order by date as they were maintained by Mr. Hills. Series 2, Background Materials, 1896-1988; undated, contain a substantial amount of information relating to the Hills family and the history of the coffee company. Most of these materials are unpublished chronologies, historical sketches, newspaper clippings, presentations written by T. Carroll Wilson, and magazine articles. There is also a genealogy of the Hills family which dates from 1602-1950. One of the more interesting histories is the informal memoirs of Frank Veirs, Jr., who began as a plant employee and later became a factory superintendent. Veirs maintained detailed notes on the company's activities dating from 1896 to 1946. These notes are personal in nature but add to the historical events of the company. Reminiscences of daily routines, the management styles of the Hills brothers and company loyalty among employees are major themes throughout his writings. In 1948, NW Ayer advertising agency created the Hills of San Francisco which commemorates the twenty fifth anniversary of NW Ayer & Sons service to Hills Bros. Coffee, Incorporated. Limited copies of this publication were distributed to Hills Bros. top executives. The 1967 publication of a Background Story of Hills Bros. Coffee, Incorporated was designed by Walter Landor and Associates and based on a slide presentation created by T. Carroll Wilson. The original script and slides are included among these materials. In addition, there are local newspaper clippings on the history of the family and the company dating from 1922 to 1931. In 1988, Hill Bros. Company, Incorporated hired history associates to create a catalogue of artifacts and archival materials in its holdings. With the assistance of T. Carroll Wilson key items were chosen and described in the catalogue. There are a number of folders divided by the sections of the catalogue and include original samples followed by a color photocopy of the catalogue and two black and white copies. Materials are arranged in chronological order by date.

Series 3, Coffee Reference Files, 1921-1980; undated, are materials relating to the cultivation, packaging, distribution, advertising, marketing and consumption of this beverage primarily in the United States. The materials provide an in-depth analysis of the history of the coffee trade and Hills Bros. Coffee Company's unique position in its developments. The series is divided into two subseries. Subseries one is material created by Hills Bros. primarily for the company but also includes information directed at the coffee trade and consumers. Subseries two is materials created by the coffee industry and other publishers primarily for the trade with a few materials directed toward consumers.

Subseries 3.1, Hills Bros. Coffee Company Literature, 1921-1976; undated, consist of publications created by the company for promotional and educational use. Such materials provide a significant amount of information on both the history of the coffee industry, and the history of Hills Bros. Coffee Company. Important publications include a copy of "Behind the Cup" (1928) which outlines the history of Hills Bros. from the establishment of the Arabian Coffee and Spice Mills to the building of the home office and plant on Harrison Street in 1926. This publication was also used as a companion piece to the film of the same title and was created by the NW Ayer advertising agency. Hills Bros. Coffee Company publications relating to the coffee trade include a 1922 booklet entitled Cultivation and Preparation of Coffee and Tea which was distributed widely to teachers and schools. The Art of Entertaining, another NW Ayer Advertising Agency creation, was designed to educate the consumer about coffee with tips on entertaining and coffee recipes. In addition, there are a series of inspirational books written by Coleman Cox for Hills Bros. which was distributed to its employees. A number of presentations written by T. Carroll Wilson for professional meetings and publications are also included among these materials. The materials are arranged in chronological order.

Subseries 3.2, Coffee Industry Literature, 1924-1980; undated, consists of publications including articles, annuals, proceedings from conventions, pamphlets and books. Topics of discussion include major growers, coffee roasting and packaging, the history of coffee as a consumer product, marketing, distribution and recipes. These materials assist in placing Hills Bros. and its major developments in the field in historical perspective. The majority of the publications was created by the Pan American Coffee Bureau and includes materials from the Coffee Industries of America, National Coffee Association, Federation of Coffee Growers of Columbia, American Coffee Bureau, Associated Coffee Industries of America and the Bureau of Coffee Information. Materials are arranged in chronological order.

Series 4, Advertising Materials, circa 1890s-1987; undated, comprise the largest series in the collection. These materials consist of scrapbooks, advertising cards, postcards, letterhead stationery, labels, proof sheets, advertising forms, advertising portfolios, printed advertisements, schedules for newspaper advertising, storyboards for television commercials and packaging. Researchers will be able to trace the evolution of Hills Bros. advertising campaigns using a variety of formats promoted through newspaper, magazine, radio and television. In addition, there are materials that document the decision making process. Records show the amount of money Hills Bros. allocated annually for advertising and budget proposals. This information supports evidence of the percentage of advertising costs versus the total overall operating budget. Correspondence between Hills Bros. and NW Ayer Advertising Agency provide insight into the client and advertising agency relationship. The series is organized into eleven subseries.

Subseries 4.1, Scrapbooks, 1906-1978; undated, consist of seven volumes containing materials created by the company to document their products and packaging. Six of the scrapbooks are conventionally sewn and are relatively small compared to the scrapbooks referred to by the company as its historical albums in series two. These volumes contain primarily circulars, labels, postcards, advertising cards and printed advertisements. A number of the materials relate to the teas and spices that were sold by the company as well as its coffee. In addition, there is a scrapbook of mostly newspaper clippings documenting the introduction of Hills Bros. High Yield coffee in 1978. All of these scrapbooks are in fairly good condition and the contents remained securely attached to the pages. Given the sound condition of the volumes, the only preservation measure that was taken was to box the volumes. The boxes provide physical protection during storage and assist in safe retrieval and transport. The outside of the scrapbooks are identified as labels but contain other types of material. The scrapbooks are arranged by the number assigned to it by the company and then in chronological order.

Subseries 4.2, Historical Albums, 1911-1967, were created by the company and provide an overview and rich source of the company's visual materials arranged in chronological order by year. The earlier volumes were created by one of the Hills brothers and later carried out by various members of the staff. The albums contain a variety of materials such as paperboard boxes, pamphlets, metal cans, newspaper clippings, photographs, printed advertisements, street car advertisements and labels. These albums presented a number of preservation concerns. Many of the materials in the albums are partially loose or detached from the scrapbook pages because the rubber cement has lost its adhesive properties. Some of the oversized items are folded to fit the scrapbooks and show signs of deterioration. The size of these mammoth volumes made it extremely difficult to handle and transport them. Structurally the volumes could not support the contents. Based on the assumption that these volumes were valuable research tools, the recommendation was to disband the scrapbooks. Still maintaining the original order of the volumes the pages were numbered and only fifty pages were housed per box. Loose materials were sleeved and also kept in order. Most of the materials in these scrapbooks can be found in other parts of the collection. Subseries 4.3, Ephemera, 1890s-1987, contain some of the earliest forms of advertising and materials also found in the scrapbooks and historical volumes. The material consists of advertising cards, advertising forms, artwork, business cards, envelopes, handbills, record cards, letterhead stationery, postcards, labels, and point of purchase displays. Some of the materials are for products sold by the company before they became exclusively involved in the coffee market. Materials are arranged in alphabetical order by type.

Subseries 4.4, Portfolios, 1919-1985, undated consist of packets of material created by Hills Bros. and generally directed toward retailer grocers. Salesmen would utilize these portfolios as a means of introducing advertising campaigns and convincing grocers of how well supported the products were. The portfolios often included printed advertisements; directions for window and store displays; price lists of products by the case; suggested stocking requirements and/or guidelines; schedules for newspaper, radio or television coverage; advertising forms; story boards; illustrations of colorful outdoor advertisements; coupons and premiums and literature explaining the theme of each campaign. Researchers will find these materials useful in understanding product advertising from the point of view of the retail grocer. The materials document Hills Bros. suggestions for selling their products, display methods and customer satisfaction techniques. Materials are arranged in chronological order by date.

Subseries 4.5, Proof sheets, 1922-1968, consist mostly of materials created by NW Ayer & Son Advertising Agency. Generally these proof sheets are black and white copies of what appeared in magazines or journals. At the bottom of each page pertinent information such as publication title, location and date is often included. The changing messages of advertising and shifts in target audiences can be seen through the use of storylines, particularly in the earlier proof sheets. Researchers should also consult the NW Ayer Collection finding aid located in the Archives Center reference room for copies of proof sheets not included among these materials. Materials are arranged in chronological order.

Subseries 4.6, Advertising Forms, 1922-1971; undated, consist of in-store wall posters or window displays to attract the attention of the customer and to assist in selling the products. Graphically interesting and colorful, noted artists such as Norman Rockwell created some of these advertising forms. All of the advertising forms are numbered and some are dated. There is also a scrapbook containing advertising forms. In addition, there are electrotypes, mats and multi-graph plates also included among the materials. Series five contains photographs of some of the advertising forms with information about intended use in the store. Materials are arranged first by size and then in order by the number assigned to each advertising form. Photographs of some of the advertising forms can be found in the reference room located in the Archives Center.

Subseries 4.7, Newspaper and Magazine Advertising, 1926-1971; undated, consists primarily of schedules for newspaper advertisements. The schedules date from 1928-1933 and were prepared by NW Ayer & Sons Advertising Agency for the Chicago, Denver, Kansas City, Los Angeles, Minneapolis, Portland and San Francisco divisions. These materials provide useful information including the name of the publication and the amount of money that was spent for a particular time period. There are estimates for advertising in both newspapers and magazines which were also prepared by NW Ayer & Sons. The estimates document the company's management of printed advertisements noting where they appeared, the date, length of publication and cost. Hills Bros. correspondence to salesmen and grocers discuss advertising campaigns and suggest ways to sell more coffee. In addition, there are recapitulation of newspaper advertising costs and circulation for the Chicago, Denver, Los Angeles, Minneapolis, Portland and San Francisco divisions. Other materials include a report, typescripts of newspaper advertisements, dealer materials for coffee guide newspaper advertisement, press releases for newspaper advertisements, mailers to dealers about newspaper advertisements, samples of newspaper advertisements for the Chicago market and newspaper advertising circulation for the Midwest market. Materials are arranged in chronological order by date.

Subseries 4.8, Sampling Campaigns, 1928-1941 consist primarily of materials related to the sampling campaign conducted in the fall of 1941. The plan for the campaign was developed by the Reuben H. Donnelley Corporation and consisted of mailings and home-to-home coffee distribution. The sampling territories were divided into three geographical locations. Section one, the Michigan campaign, comprised of Detroit and its suburbs including Wayne county and the cities of Jackson, Ann arbor, Ypsilanti, Pontiac, Port Huron, Lansing, Flint, Saginaw, Bay City and Midland. Section two, the Ohio and Indiana campaign, included Cleveland and its suburbs, Toledo and suburbs (including Adrian and Monroe, Michigan), Indianapolis and suburbs and Fort Wayne. Section three, North Dakota, Minnesota and upper Michigan peninsula campaign, included the towns around Fargo and Grand Forks, North Dakota from Houghton and Calumet, down to Escanaba and over to Sault Ste. Marie in the upper Michigan peninsula. The procedures for conducting the campaign; information relating to sampling territories; shipping schedules for coffee samples from the warehouse in Edgewater, New Jersey; notes relating to sampling figures; instructions for carriers; 1etters and booklets to grocers; radio announcements; coffee grams; pages from telephone directories for Grand Rapids, Michigan, Peoria, Illinois and Milwaukee, Wisconsin and an article from the Detroit News Booster dated September 1941 about the campaign are included among the materials. In addition, there is a small amount of material related to sampling campaigns conducted from 1928-1934. Materials are arranged in chronological order by date.

Subseries 4.9, General Files, 1923-1978; undated consist of information used primarily by the company as reference materials. There is information on coffee advertising; the history of the National Broadcasting Company (NBC) advertising; correspondence; jig saw puzzle advertisements; printed advertisements; memorandum relating to original vacuum pack; excerpts of letters written by the advertising department in 1948; scrapbook of competitor's instant coffee advertisements in San Francisco; outline of merchandising, sales promotion activity in 1930-1952 with correlation bar chart and cross reference to advertising report, ground and instant coffee television advertising history; advertising plan for ground and instant coffee; budget proposal; information on outdoor advertising; scripts for radio commercials; advertising plans for instant coffee; dealers information on radio and television advertising and materials relating to electrotypes and mats. The materials are arranged in chronological order by date. Subseries 4.10, NW Ayer Advertising Agency Materials, 1943, 1958 consist primarily of the scrapbooks that were created by the agency in 1958 for Shirley Temple's Storybook. This program was a series of sixteen hour-long children's programs on National Broadcasting Company (NBC). Hills Bros. Coffee sponsored the programs which included Beauty and the Beast, Rumpelstiltskin, Nightingale, Legend of Sleepy Hollow, Dick Whittington and his Cat, Land of Green Ginger, Sleeping Beauty, Rip Van Winkle, Little Lame Prince, Magic Fishbone, Wild Swans, Hiawatha, Rapunzel, Ali Baba, Emperor's New Clothes and Mother Goose. The scrapbooks were assembled in the order that the programs aired and included clippings for the public and the trade. In addition, there is a menu for an event for Hills Bros. and NW Ayer employees in 1943.

Subseries 4.11, Foote, Cone & Belding Advertising Agency Materials, 1963-1968; undated, consists of material created for print, radio and television advertisements. There is a list of printed advertisements and examples of the ones that were created from 1963-1967. There are also scripts that were created for radio commercials dating from 1967-1968. Some of the printed advertisements are from the same campaigns as the radio commercials. The bulk of the material is storyboards created for television commercials and advertising instant coffee from 1965-1967. These materials are arranged in alphabetical order by title. In addition, there are also competitive consumer promotion and publicity reports prepared by the agency for Hills Bros. These materials informed Hills Bros. about the advertising activities of major competitors. The reports date from 1967-1968 and include information about Butter-Nut, Chase & Sanborn, Folgers, Maxim, Maxwell, MJB, Nescafe, Tasters Choice and Yubon. The materials are arranged in alphabetical order by the name of the company.

Series 5, Photographs, 1882-1973; undated, document advertising, company activities, office buildings, plants, packaging, grocery store displays, window and wall displays, employees and the coffee trade. Company photographer, Ken P. Allen, is credited with many of the company related images and some relating to the coffee trade. Most of the photographs are labeled and have negatives. Documentation for some of the photographs can also be found in other portions of the collection. The series is divided into twelve subseries.

Subseries 5.1, Employees, 1882-1961; undated, document the activities of people working for the company. Company employees consist of factory workers, salesmen, and executives. Company executives include Austin Hills, Reuben Hills, Edward E. Hills, Herbert Gray Hills, Leslie W. Hills and T. Carroll Wilson. A number of the employee photographs were created for company publications. Some of the company activities include female employees in the preparedness parade, the company basketball team, a groundbreaking ceremony, salesmen conventions, managers' meetings and coffee testing or cupping. The materials are arranged in chronological order by date.

Subseries 5.2, Division Offices, 1924-1931; undated, include images of Hills Bros. offices across the country including Butte, Chicago, Denver, El Paso, Kansas City, Los Angeles, Milwaukee, Phoenix, Portland, Salt Lake City, San Francisco, Seattle, Spokane, and Wichita. These photographs document both the work stations of the region and Hills Bros. personnel in their work environment. The interior and exterior of the division offices are also shown. There is one image of an unidentified office. Materials are arranged in alphabetical order by the name of the city in which the offices are located.

Subseries 5.3, Facilities and Vehicles, 1927-1973; undated, primarily document the work environment and social spaces for many of the plant and factory workers. There are a number of images of female employees engaged in work. Some of the photographs show machinery used for transporting bags of green coffee into the warehouse, controlled roasting, vacuum packing, and granulation control. The architectural design, construction and outside views of the Edgewater Plant, 1939-1940, are also included among these materials. The location of this plant was critical for shipping green coffee up the Hudson River from the New York Harbor to the plant. In addition, there are images of trucks used by the company. Images of the cafeteria dating from 1927 and exhibits for employees dating from 1938-1968 are also found among these materials. The materials are arranged in chronological order by date. Subseries 5.4, Advertising, 1925-1959; undated includes images of the various logos, designs, displays and illustrations used by Hills Bros. throughout the years. There are a number of images of the Arab trademark photographed in various settings. Many of the images have negatives and include advertising forms, point of purchase displays, outdoor displays, food show exhibits, newspaper advertisements, a 1940 medal award for newspaper campaign advertising and selling, service cards and displays installed by advertising service men. Most of the materials are dated and are arranged in chronological order.

Subseries 5.5, Sales, circa 1921-1939; undated, consist of photographic materials maintained by Hills Bros. for use in sales presentations. Included among these materials is an incomplete set of plates from a jobber portfolio for the Midwest area dating from 1921-1922. There are also a number of negatives of sales maps dating from 1931-1939 and telephones. Materials are arranged in chronological order by date.

Subseries 5.6, Packaging, 1884-1969; undated includes both prints and negatives of containers used by Hills Bros. to prepare and store coffee products. There are images of boxes, cans, glass jars, coffee guides and coffee pots. An evolution of packaging design as it relates to historical events is evident throughout the images. Of note are prints of the Hills Bros. coffee cans in the paintings by artist Fred Machetanz dating from 1969. The materials are arranged in chronological by date.

Subseries 5.7, Grocery Store Displays, circa, 1901-1935, contain the largest amount of materials in this series. Hills Bros. photographer, Ken Allen visited a number of retail grocers around the country to document Hills Bros. coffee displays. Some of these photographs were used in broadsides created by Hill Bros. entitled "Interesting Grocery Stores" and "Before and After." The broadsides were created from 1928-1933 with the retail grocer as the target market. Approximately 30,000 broadsides were mailed to customers. The photographs are identified by the name of the store and location. Most of the prints also have negatives and correspondence granting Hills Bros. permission to publish the photographs. Materials are arranged in alphabetical order by the name of the grocery store.

Subseries 5.8, Store Tests, 1938, consists of photographs, negatives, reports and drawings from merchandising tests conducted in grocery stores in California, Arizona, Oregon, Missouri and Minnesota. "Before" photographs document shelf displays while the "after" photographs document the new floor displays. Reports on the corresponding sales figures used to promote Hills Bros. merchandising service in retail grocery stores are also include among the materials. The materials were maintained in the order that they were created by the company.

Subseries 5.9, Window and Wall Displays, 1928, 1930, 1934, contain a large number of photographs documenting the installations of window and wall displays. The displays were created by the advertising department in San Francisco and given to advertising service representatives as patterns for the installations. Advertising service representatives operated throughout the entire marketing area from the Pacific Coast to Chicago. It was custom to visit every grocery store at least once a year. Representatives offered to install a window display or wall display free of cost to the store. The materials are arranged by number and include some duplicates.

Subseries 5.10, Publicity, 1933-1936; undated, include photographs and correspondence that were maintained by Hills Bros. for publicity purposes. A large portion of the photographs consist of Hollywood movie stills with scenes using Hills Bros. coffee primarily from the 1930s. There is a substantial amount of material on the Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Studios, Incorporated polar expedition (1933) for the production of the movie "Eskimo." Based on the novel of the same name by Peter Freuchen, a Scandinavian surveyor, the movie chronicles his experiences charting the North Arctic Zone for use in maps put out by the Danish government. The Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Studios, Incorporated crew was sent above the Arctic Circle to film the production using natives. A supply of Hills Bros. coffee was included among the food provisions to last the crew for a year. Photographs of the expedition and movie stills were later used by Hills Bros. for advertising in grocery stores. In addition, there is also a newspaper article from the Citizen News dated January 1934 that discusses the adventures of the cast and crew of Eskimo. The materials are arranged in chronological order by date.

Subseries 5.11, Miscellaneous, 1898-1949; undated, is a random mix of images including the return of troops from the Spanish American War on Market Street; Boeing Air Transportation, Incorporated; Frank Goss from the Columbia Broadcasting System; Fresno Bee National Recovery Administration; Infants' Choir; Kinner Airplane and Motor Corporation, Ltd.; gold miners with hot coffee by the camp fire; and Fred N. Palmiter. The materials are arranged in chronological order by date.

Subseries 5.12, Coffee and Tea Industry, 1900s-1947; undated, consist of prints and negatives relating primarily to the cultivation, growth and processing of green coffee. A number of these images document women laborers from Guatemala and El Salvador examining, hand picking and sorting coffee beans. The photographs were created to illustrate the production process in the 1930s. A photograph of Mr. and Mrs. C. H. Brown on a coffee buying trip in the 1900s is also included among the materials. There are photographs of coffee mills and Hills Bros. Company's participation in food shows. In addition, there are some images relating to the tea trade including the loading of tea in Asia. Materials are arranged in chronological order by date.

Series 6, Sales and Marketing Records, 1906-1989; undated, primarily consist of the materials that were created by the company to communicate with the sales force. Bulletins and correspondence make up the bulk of these materials. There are also materials that were used by salesmen on a daily basis while conducting business in the field. Some of the activities of the sales department including meetings and conventions are also documented. In addition, market research, reports and studies inform the sales department about the coffee industry and consumer consumption. The materials are divided into eight subseries.

Subseries 6.1, Bulletins for Salesmen, 1912-1969 were created and distributed by the company to keep the sales force informed about sales activities. Some of the earlier bulletins contain quotes by Reuben Hills. As the primary means of communication from management to the sales force, this body of materials is rather extensive and documents over a period of time issues, concerns, advertising, sales approach of the company and changes in price structure. Eventually the bulletin system phased out due to extensive use of telephone and computer communication. The San Francisco division has some of the earliest bulletins. The materials are arranged first in alphabetical order by division or city and then in chronological order by date.

Subseries 6.2, Division Bulletins and General Letters, 1925-1927 include the correspondence that was distributed to the different divisional regions including Denver, Kansas City, Los Angeles, Minneapolis, Portland and Salt Lake City. These materials were created for the salesmen and provide information on progress reports, goals of the company and sales techniques. The materials are arranged in alphabetical order by division and then in chronological order by date.

Subseries 6.3, Correspondence, 1919-1989, include general letters to sales representatives, memos, and management letters. The materials primarily document sales activities but also include the perspective of the entire company. Letters discuss trading in the green coffee market, special promotions, divisional sales performance, dealer coffee inventories, policy changes, etc. In 1962, the name of the management letters was changed from Monday to weekly; however, the company maintained the same format. The letters are arranged in chronological order by date.

Subseries 6.4, Conventions and Meetings, 1915-1971, consists primarily of programs and menus from sales conventions dating from 1915-1943. These materials provide valuable information about the activities at the sales conventions and include the location and agenda for each meeting. There are some song books that were used at the conventions. (See series five for photographs of the sales conventions). There is also information from the divisional managers' meetings which include new sales and marketing strategies and date from 1935-1956. In addition there are materials from a NED sales meeting, a District sales meeting in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania in 1966 and a sales meeting and marketing presentation in Buffalo, New York in 1971. The materials are arranged in chronological order.

Subseries 6.5, Salesmen Materials, 1906-1973; undated provide valuable information about the tools that informed the sales force. It includes materials given to salesmen upon employment and information needed to conduct daily business transactions in the field. Some of the earliest materials are a salesman's notebook dating from 1906 and a sales department territory book for the western region dating from 1907-1908. There are reference and instruction books dating from 1912-1949. Instruction books were created to provide tips and instructions on how to improve sales performance. Materials relating to salaries date from 1925-1937 and contain information on most of the sales representatives charted over this time period and presented in yearly earnings. There is a substantial number of price lists, pocket sized cards containing prices of various products, carried by each sales representative and dating from 1925-1969. An order form book, order forms and delivery forms also carried by the sales representatives are included among the materials. In addition there are monthly sales standing dating from 1931-1935, instructions on the pickup and disposition of unsalable coffee, a 1973 sales presentation and the territorial arrangement of the city of Chicago in 1930. Materials are arranged in chronological order by date.

Subseries 6.6, Reports and Studies, 1941-1978 primarily inform the company about the sales of the various coffee products primarily by division, territory or state. There is a study that compares the sales of ground and instant coffee by division. An exploratory study concerning consumer attitudes toward freeze dried coffee conducted in August and September in 1968 is also included among the materials. In addition, two studies from the 1970s relating to sales force capacity and high yield coffee can also be found among the materials. The materials are arranged in chronological order by date.

Subseries 6.7, Marketing Research, 1956-1978; undated consist of reports, research studies and surveys created by Hills Bros. and outside companies relating to various aspects of the coffee trade and consumer market. The materials include information on criteria for label design, packaging, types of coffee consumed, brand images, how advertising affects consumption and marketing plans. In addition there is a study investigating the economic and financial aspects of the United States coffee industry created in 1978 and an undated copy of the Brazilian coffee performance marketing plan. The materials are arranged in chronological order by date.

Subseries 6.8, Pricing Information, 1949-1965 include correspondence, press releases and company memos relating primarily to coffee importation and pricing. There is some correspondence between Hills Bros. and the Office of Price Stabilization relating to regulations from the federal government concerning the exchange rate of green coffee and coffee prices to the consumers. The materials are arranged in chronological order by date.

Series 7, Employee Records, 1934-1966, contain useful information relating to the employees and what it means to work for the company. Service and retirement materials include an executive employee service record created in 1934. It is a list of employees in upper management including the name, date of employment, and length of service. There is information on retirement plans for employees in 1953. A list of the retirement dates, birth dates, and employment dates for employees who were participants in the retirement plan from 1953-1959 is also included among the materials. A photograph of a silver plate commemorating the fiftieth anniversary in 1967 of Eugene F. Hoelter with the company is included among these materials. Employee guides from the 1960s provide information on the company's perception of its position in the coffee industry, short histories of the company, the organization of the company, and employee benefits. There is also general information and instructions for plant employees at the Edgewater, New Jersey plant which is undated. In addition, there is Herbert Grey Hills's company identification card and exhibitor's employee's pass. Materials are arranged in chronological order by date.

Series 8, Accounting and Financial Records, 1903-1960; undated include some of the earliest materials from the company that were not destroyed in the 1906 fire and documents the sale of other products such as tea. There is a distributor's notebook dating from 1903-1904 with a 1925 letter enclosed inside. Record books dating from 1904 provide information relating to coffee stock distribution. They also contain information relating to tea distribution by the company and pricing. Coffee acquisition ledgers dating from 1906-1917 are grouped according to the kind of coffee bean which refers to the general region or seaport from which the beans originate including Ecuador, Mexico, Costa Rica, El Salvador and Guatemala. There is one exception which is listed by stock number and contains mixed kind categories. The ledgers provide stock numbers, mark, quantity, location of coffee bean purchases, date of purchases, costs and grades. Entries are not consistently in chronological order by month. There are also a number ledgers maintained by the company that record information relating to retail grocers and how much they purchased from the company including product types, prices and quantities ordered. Analysis of expense account records date from 1917-1921. A tea acquisition ledger dating from 1920-1923 is divided into groups including natural leaf, Oarjeeling, Hilvilla Black, Ceylon, Java, Oolong, Gunpowder and sample (green and black). Information about stock numbers, mark, quantities, invoice weight, house weight, C.F.I. date, and where the tea was purchased can be obtained through these records. In addition there are financial statements dating from 1959-1960 and an undated coffee stock book. Materials are arranged in chronological order by date.

Series 9, Office Files, 1915-1970; undated consist of materials relating directly to the business of the company and some materials that were kept on file probably as reference information. The series is divided into two subseries. Subseries one is general materials and includes court documents, correspondence, manuals, maps and some images. Subseries two is T. Carroll Wilson's correspondence dating from 1941-1970.

Subseries 9.1, General, 1915-1969; undated includes information relating to the company's participation in the Panama Pacific International Exposition in 1915. At the exposition Hills Bros. installed and operated the first automatic machine created to vacuumed-pack coffee. Other materials from the expo include rules and regulations governing the delivery, location, installation, maintenance and transportation of exhibits and merchandise. The Museum's Division of Cultural History has some of the artifacts relating to the exposition.

Legal records including court documents for the Federal Trade Commission versus Hills Bros. Company case in 1925 and the United States Department of Justice, Anti-Trust Investigation, 1948 are included among the materials. There are correspondence granting Hills Bros. exclusive rights to use "Hot Coffee" for radio and advertising purposes. There is also information relating to the company's cooperation with the National Recovery Administration, President's reemployment agreement. In addition there is correspondence collected by the company relating to rumors, religion and race dating from 1958-1964 and correspondence about the jig-saw puzzle campaign.

Packaging materials dating from 1931-1969 primarily document the history and uses of various types of containers used by Hills Bros. for its products and labels. A paper written by Ralph Vilas discussing the historical evidence of vacuum packaging from 1931-1934, correspondence and photographs of packaging for the "Blue Brand", an article discussing the selling and merchandising of carton coffee, memos and newspaper clippings relating to vacuum packing, a paper discussing the tinplate used in can making, requirements for packaging and information relating to the coffee can using an Ansel Adams' photograph are all included among these materials.

In the 1930s Hills Bros. created the Arab Chronicle and Broadsides which were primarily distributed to retail grocers. The broadsides were the size of newspapers and folded to about one-sixth of a page for mailing. They consisted of photographs, advertisements, information relating to new advertising campaigns, advice to increase sales and news of events around the world. In addition to completed copies of the broadsides there are also drafts of the articles for each issue.

Hills Bros. opened a coffee house in 1958 at Disneyland in Anaheim, California. The Hills Bros. Coffee House operated as a restaurant for several years and provided a sandwich type menu with its coffee products. It was also used as a facility for taste-testing by the marketing research department.

In the 1960s Hills Bros. owned and operated three vans known as Hillsmobiles. The Hillsmobiles were used to promotion sales in various communities. The vans would ride through the neighborhoods distributing free samples of coffee. Included among the materials are letters and memos, manuals for the promotion and operation of the hillsmobiles as well as photographs, images and negatives of the vehicles.

Random materials include a Gertz Bros. Company catalogue dating from 1925, information about Chase and Sanborn coffee, maps illustrating where to go in New England, a marketing map of the United States used as a practical aid for economic sales and advertising and information about St. Augustine's oldest store museum. The materials are arranged in chronological order by date.

Subseries 9.2, T. Carroll Wilson Correspondence, 1941-1970 relate primarily to his association with the National Coffee Association. The materials date from April 7, 1941 to December 8, 1970. The correspondence is arranged in chronological order by date.

Series 10, San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge Materials, 1933-1986; undated, provide background information and a photographic almost daily account of the construction. Leslie Hills suggested placing a camera mount on the parapet of the building on Harrison Street at the beginning of the construction. From this position Ken P. Allen documented the progress until its completion in 1936. Allen also created motion film of the construction from the same position. The State Bridge Authority produced a movie in 1940 using the Hills Bros. materials. The series is divided into two subseries. Subseries one is the textual records that provide background information on the construction of the bridge. Subseries two is the photographic materials documenting to the construction.

Subseries 10.1, Background Information, 1933-1986; undated, include correspondence between Hills Bros., the State Department of Public Works and the California Commission for the Golden Gate International Exposition in reference to Hills Bros. providing the state with the original negatives of its films. The two organizations used these materials to develop a motion picture for the Golden Gate International Exposition. A list of the scenes for reels two and three and a script of the movie are also included. There are black and white photographs of the construction of the bridge and a photograph of Charles Henry Purcell, chief engineer, taken by Ken Allen. In addition there is a newspaper article from the San Francisco Chronicle dating from 1986. Materials are arranged in chronological order by date.

Subseries 10.2, Photographic Materials, 1933-1936; undated, consists of 8 x10 and 4 x 5 black and white negatives of the construction of the Bay Bridge. Most of the negatives are dated. The materials are arranged first by size and then by date in the order that they were created.

Series 11, Golden Gate International Exposition Materials, 1915-1940; undated, primarily document the construction and management of the Arabian Theater. The Arabian Theater was located inside the Food Pavilion on Treasure Island. A color and sound version of the film "Behind the Cup: The Story of Hills Bros." was created and shown in the theater. Materials include correspondence, blueprints, photographs, newspaper articles, forms, insurance documents, passes and visitors comments. Other materials relating to the Golden Gate International Exposition can also be found in volume seven of the historical albums in series four subseries two. The series is divided into nine subseries. The materials were maintained in the order created by the company.

Subseries 11.1, Coffee Theater, circa 1939, include correspondence between Hills Bros. and NW Ayer about the creation of the murals in the theater. There is also information concerning script creation, production, promotion and the success of the Behind the Cup film. In addition there is information relating to the theater staff, visitor comments and the general management of the theater. The materials are maintained in the order that the company kept them.

Subseries 11.2, Exposition Attendance, 1915-1940, contains comparisons of the 1915 and 1939 attendance figures, statistics on paid and non-paid admission, operating period, average gate receipt, total paid and non-paid admissions. Daily attendance records document numbers for the fair, theater, monthly totals and the weather. In addition, hourly attendance includes time, entrance, and cumulative totals. The materials are maintained in the order that the company kept them.

Subseries 11.3, Correspondence, 1937-1940; undated, includes both incoming and outgoing communications between Hills Bros. and the Golden Gate International Exposition Company. These letters discuss permits, contracts and agreements, payment, approval for construction, regulations, applications of exhibit colors, shipment procedures, etc. The materials are maintained in the order that the company kept them.

Subseries 11.4, Construction, 1937-1940; undated, contains information on the building of the food and beverage facility. There is correspondence and invoices relating to payments; removals; services including telephone, water, gas, electricity; estimates, and furniture. Fire insurance documents contain information on the types of coverage and public and regular liabilities. In addition there is information relating to exhibitors questionnaire and endorsements, cost of exhibit space, permission to dismantle forms, application for exhibit space and an application for a construction permit. The materials are maintained in the order that the company kept them.

Subseries 11.5, Blueprints, 1937-1939, were created by the architect Harry A. Thompsen Jr. These blueprints include the foundation plan, the main floor plan, the lobby, the auditorium, front and side elevations, details of the upper chenau, and the mezzanine. There are also plans of Vacationland, the health and education building and the science building. A small amount of material exists on the sandwich slide, prices of coffee, average revenue and expenses, coffee equipment, coffee making instructions, the production of sales, the menu and an inventory of cups and saucers and the heating and ventilation system. A description of Threlkeld's restaurant and a history of the Threlkeld's Commissary Company are also included. The materials are maintained in the order that the company kept them. Subseries 11.6, Behind the Cup, 1937-1940; undated, contains correspondence between Hills Bros. company executives and the Consulate General of El Salvador relating to filming in El Salvador and Guatemala for the "Behind the Cup" movie. There are also newspaper clippings from San Salvador, a translation of the script and a photograph of T. Carroll Wilson and Ken P. Allen. Other materials include correspondence between Ken Allen and T. Carroll Wilson, releases for photographs, camera reports, narration arrangements and contracts. A copy of the "Behind the Cup" booklet which was produced by the NW Ayer Advertising Agency is also included. The materials are maintained in the order that the company kept them. Subseries 11.7, Newspaper Cooperation, 1939, contain clippings about "Behind the Cup" in Chicago, Illinois; Denver, Colorado; Kansas City, Missouri; Los Angeles, California; Minneapolis, Minnesota; Portland, Oregon; and San Francisco, California. The materials are maintained in the order that the company kept them.

Subseries 11.8, Solicitations and Replies, 1938-1940, contain letters to Hills Bros. with replies attached. In addition there is information on the type of equipment or services available for use by Hills Bros. at the expo, business cards, postcards and promotional materials. The materials are maintained in the order that the company kept them.

Subseries 11.9, Miscellaneous, 1938-1940, contains a scrapbook including descriptions, images, a listing of business and industry participants, brochures, general summaries, construction of buildings, government involvement in the expo, personnel article and rules and regulations governing the transportation of exhibits. There is also information on the sandwich slide, model freight cars, Treasure Island employees and articles from the San Francisco Chronicle. The materials are maintained in the order that the company kept them.

Series 12, World War II Materials, 1942-1949; undated, primarily document the United State government's coffee rationing and wartime packaging requirements. The United States War Production Board issued regulations designed to control the use of metals during this time period which greatly affected the coffee industry. These materials reflect the impact of rationing and regulations not only on the coffee industry but Hills Bros. in particular. The company's response to these measures is documented among these materials. The series is divided into six subseries.

Subseries 12.1, Production and Quotas, 1942-1946, is a compilation of correspondence, memos and conservation orders from the War Production Board maintained in the files of Herbert Grey Hills and T. Carroll Wilson. These materials relate to production quotas of coffee for roasters; restrictions on manufacture, sale and delivery of glass containers; price differential in relation to ceiling prices; small buyers and consumers accounts; new accounts and the exchange of brands and sizes. A copy of the National Coffee Association Bulletin: War Production Board, Conservation orders M135 and a copy of the red can brand quota plan dating from 1944-1946 is also included among these materials. Materials are arranged in chronological order by date.

Subseries 12.2, Rationing, 1939-1946, consists primarily of correspondence, orders, instructions and forms from the War Production Board concerning quotas for coffee distribution and production, allowable inventory and operating inventory, ration stamps or certificates and army and navy re-orders. Post-rationing sales control and how it would affect or apply to consumers and the armed forces is also discussed. Materials are arranged in chronological order by date.

Subseries 12.3, Containers and Closures, 1942-1949; undated, is government orders relating to quotas on size and standards for glass jars and closures, shipping containers, cans and glass jar labels. Hills Bros. specifications based on these orders is also included. There are photographs of glass jar products, discussions on original art work for labels and considerations for packing and shipping. Materials are arranged in chronological order by date.

Subseries 12.4, Appeals, 1948, are a group of materials compiled as a presentation to the United States Department of Commerce by the Packaging and Container Committee of the National Coffee Association. This presentation was submitted on April 22, 1948. It is the National Coffee Association's attempt to use cans again.

Subseries 12.5, Advertising Campaigns, 1942; undated include correspondence relating to the "Gone with the Tin" advertising campaign. Along with the correspondence are announcements for the campaign, newspaper clippings and positive feedback from the public attesting to Hills Bros. participation in winning the war while still providing customers with the best possible products. There is also information relating to the "Waste is a Fighting Word Today" advertising campaign. Favorable responses and announcements for the advertisements are included among the materials. In addition there are some miscellaneous forms. Materials are arranged in chronological order by date.

Series 13, Machinists Strike Scrapbooks, 1945-1946, consist of three scrapbooks of press clippings covering the machinist's strike that occurred in San Francisco over more pay and less hours. Hills Bros. Coffee plant which was identified as one of the big "fringe shops" was impacted by the strike due to a few maintenance machinists' participation. Hills Bros. warned grocers and their customers not to expect large supplies of coffee due to the strike. The scrapbooks are arranged in chronological order by date.

Series 10, Audiovisual Materials, 1934-1984; undated, consists of film, vifro, and sound recordings including television and radio commercials, television and radio programs, promotional materials and Hills Bros. company activities. Hills Bros. had a photography and filming unit that began producing motion picture documentation of Hills Bros. activities in the early 1930s. This effort resulted in a detailed documentation of the construction of the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge (Bridging the Bay, 1938-39) and a promotional film that was shown at the Golden Gate International Exposition Fair (Behind the Cup, 1939). In addition, Hills Bros. became involved with radio programming and advertising in 1934 and television advertising in the early 1950s. The collection includes a substantial number of television commercials dating from 1951-1984 as well as television programs that were sponsored in part by Hills Bros. including Shirley Temples Storybook (1958) and Meet Me at Disneyland (1962). The series is divided into six subseries.

Subseries 13.1, Moving Images, 1951-1984 consists of television commercials, television programs, film and video documentation of corporate activities. The subseries is further organized into five subsubseries.

Subsubseries 13.1.1, Television Commercials, 1951-1984, consist of a representative sample of Hills Bros. television commercials beginning with their first efforts in the early 1950s. The commercials were created by a succession of adverting agencies beginning with N.W Ayer and including Doyle, Dane, Bernbach; Foote, Cone, and Belding; and Wells Rich Greene/West. Products advertised include Hills Brothers regular roast, instant, drip roast, high yield, and flavored "European Style" coffees.

Subsubseries 13.1.2, Television Programs, 1951-1967, consist of television programs that were sponsored, in part, by Hills Bros. coffee or that were related to Hills Bros. Hills Bros. major television sponsorship effort resulted in several series including Shirley Temple's Storybook (1958), Meet Me at Disneyland (1962), Bat Masterson (1959-60), and Lead off Man (1964). Hills Bros. also provided consultation services for the program Science in Action (1951) as well as major funding for NET Festival White House Red Carpet (1967).

Subsubseries 13.1.3, Promotional Materials, 1939-1977, include material created by the company to promote their products and activities. This series includes two films of particular interest. Behind the Cup: The Story of Hills Bros. Coffee (1939), created for the Golden Gate International Exposition Fair, was produced in 35mm Cinecolor for theatrical screening. Also of note are two short films probably produced for screening at a meeting of Hills Bros. employees. In the first Gene Barry, star of Bat Masterson and Hills Bros.' spokesman describes the next season's plans for Bat Masterson and presents a portion of a proposed episode. In the second film Walt Disney talks about his company's plans for the next year including additions to Disneyland and planned episodes of Walt Disney Presents.

Subsubseries 13.1.4, Hills Bros. Activities, 1930-1962, consists of primarily 16mm "home movie" documentation of activities as diverse as the 1941 Detroit Sampling Campaign, coffee production in El Salvador, and activities in the Hills Bros. processing plant.

Subsubseries 13.1.5, Miscellaneous Film and Video, 1938-1966, includes films about coffee, travelogues, and a substantial amount of film documenting the construction of the San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge.

Subseries 13.2, Sound recordings, 1934-1964; undated, include materials from Hills Bros. and other coffee manufacturers. There are the radio series Tune of the Day which includes Hills Bros. commercials, Hills Bros. radio commercials, Shirley Temple "Dreams Are Made for Children" produced by Columbia Pictures Corporation, Maxwell House Coffee programs and a coffee jingle from the Pan American Coffee Bureau.

Subsubseries 13.2.1, Radio commercials, undated, consists of the radio versions of commercials for various advertising campaigns.

Subsubseries 13.2.2, Radio Programs and Other Broadcasts, circa 1934-1964; undated, includes the Tune of the Day series, Ruth Ashton's Women's News Desk and two baseball broadcasts.
The collection is arranged in thirteen series.

Series 1, Hills Family Papers, 1856-1942; undated

Subseries 1.1: Austin Herbert Hills, Sr. Papers, 1856-1875; undated

Subseries 1.2,: Austin Herbert Hills, Jr. Papers, 1875-1923

Subseries 1.3: Herbert Gray Hills Correspondence, 1923-1942

Series 2: Background Materials, 1896-1988; undated

Series 3: Coffee Reference Files, 1921-1980; undated

Subseries 3.1,: Hills Bros. Coffee Company Literature, 1921-1976; undated

Subseries 3.2: Coffee Industry Literature, 1924-1980; undated

Series 4: Advertising Materials, circa 1890s-1987; undated

Subseries 4.1: Scrapbooks, 1906-1978; undated

Subseries 4.2: Historical Albums, 1911-1967

Subseries 4.3: Ephemera, 1890s-1987

Subseries 4.4: Portfolios, 1919-1985, undated

Subseries 4.5: Proof sheets, 1922-1968

Subseries 4.6: Advertising Forms, 1922-1971; undated

Subseries 4.7: Newspaper and Magazine Advertising, 1926-1971; undated

Subseries 4.8: Sampling Campaigns, 1928-1941

Subseries 4.9,: General Files, 1923-1978; undated

Subseries 4.10: NW Ayer Advertising Agency Materials, 1943, 1958

Subseries 4.11: Foote, Cone & Belding Advertising Agency Materials, 1963-1968; undated

Series 5: Photographs, 1882-1973; undated

Subseries 5.1: Employees, 1882-1961; undated

Subseries 5.2: Division Offices, 1924-1931; undated

Subseries 5.3, Facilities and Vehicles, 1927-1973; undated

Subseries 5.4: Advertising, 1925-1959; undated

Subseries 5.5: Sales, circa 1921-1939; undated

Subseries 5.6: Packaging, 1884-1969; undated

Subseries 5.7: Grocery Store Displays, circa, 1901-1935

Subseries 5.8: Store Tests, 1938

Subseries 5.9: Window and Wall Displays, 1928, 1930, 1934

Subseries 5.10: Publicity, 1933-1936; undated

Subseries 5.11: Miscellaneous, 1898-1949; undated

Subseries 5.12,: Coffee and Tea Industry, 1900s-1947; undated

Series 6: Sales and Marketing Records, 1906-1989; undated

Subseries 6.1, Bulletins for Salesmen, 1912-1969

Subseries 6.2, Division Bulletins and General Letters, 1925-1927

Subseries 6.3, Correspondence, 1919-1989

Subseries 6.4, Conventions and Meetings, 1915-1971

Subseries 6.5, Salesmen Materials, 1906-1973; undated

Subseries 6.6, Reports and Studies, 1941-1978

Subseries 6.7, Marketing Research, 1956-1978; undated

Subseries 6.8, Pricing Information, 1949-1965

Series 7: Employee Records, 1934-1966

Series 8: Accounting and Financial Records, 1903-1960; undated

Series 9: Office Files, 1915-1970; undated

Subseries 9.1: General, 1915-1969; undated

Subseries 9.2: T. Carroll Wilson Correspondence, 1941-1970

Series 10, San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge Materials, 1933-1986; undated

Subseries 10.1: Background Information, 1933-1986; undated

Subseries 10.2: Photographic Materials, 1933-1936; undated

Series 11: Golden Gate International Exposition Materials, 1915-1940; undated

Subseries 11.1,: Coffee Theater, circa 1939

Subseries 11.2: Exposition Attendance, 1915-1940

Subseries 11.3: Correspondence, 1937-1940; undated

Subseries 11.4: Construction, 1937-1940; undated

Subseries 11.5: Blueprints, 1937-1939

Subseries 11.6: Behind the Cup, 1937-1940; undated

Subseries 11.7: Newspaper Cooperation, 1939

Subseries 11.8: Solicitations and Replies, 1938-1940

Subseries 11.9: Miscellaneous, 1938-1940

Series 12,: World War II Materials, 1939-1949; undated

Subseries 12.1, Production and Quotas, 1942-1946

Subseries 12.2, Rationing, 1939-1946

Subseries 12.3, Containers and Closures, 1942-1949; undated

Subseries 12.4, Appeals, 1948

Subseries 12.5, Advertising Campaigns, 1942; undated

Subseries 12.6, Machinists Strike Scrapbooks, 1945-1946

Series 13: Audio Visual Materials, 1930-1984; undated

Subseries 13.1, Moving Images

Subsubseries 13.1.1, Television Commercials, 1951-1984

Subsubseries 13.1.2, Television Programs, 1951-1967

Subsubseries 13.1.3, Promotional Materials, 1939-1977

Subsubseries 13.1.4, Hills Bros. Activities, 1930-1962

Subsubseries 13.1.5, Miscellaneous Film and Video, 1938-1966

Subseries 13.2, Sound Recordings, 1934-1964; undated

Subsubseries 13.2.1: Radio Commercials

Subsubseries 13.2.2, Radio Programs and Other Broadcasts
Biographical / Historical:
These records were donated to the Archives Center, National Museum of American History by Hills Bros. Coffee, Incorporated.
Collection is open for research.
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
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Hills Brothers Coffee Incorporated Records, 1875-1965, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian.
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Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
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Collection Creator:
Downtown Gallery  Search this
22 Linear feet (Boxes 1-22; Reels 5488-5545)
Archival materials
1926-1974, undated
Scope and Contents note:
This series consists of the business and personal correspondence of Edith Gregor Halpert and the Downtown Gallery. For the most part, this series is general business correspondence concerning routine activities of the Downtown Gallery, including the American Folk Art Gallery and the Daylight Gallery, both operated by the Downtown Gallery on the same premises. Included are correspondence with clients, employees, other galleries, and colleagues concerning sales, loans, purchases, appraisals, and so forth; arrangements for shipping, framing, photography, reproduction permissions, and insurance; and gallery housekeeping and improvements, ordering of supplies, and other administrative concerns.

Also included is personal correspondence of Edith Gregor Halpert. There are letters and greeting cards from nieces, nephews, and other relatives; correspondence with longtime friends, including some who were art collectors, museum curators, or museum directors; and correspondence concerning upkeep and improvement of her Newtown, Connecticut, country home and entertaining there.

See Appendix A for a list of selected correspondents from Series 1
Arrangement note:
Letters (with enclosures) are arranged chronologically, with those of the same date alphabetized by name of correspondent; undated material is arranged alphabetically, followed by unidentified correspondents and letters bearing illegible signatures.

Box numbers provided in the Container Listing are approximate.
Appendix A: List of Selected Correspondents in Series 1:
Names and titles indicated in this list are those that appear on the letters. Where appropriate, terms have been standardized and cross-referencing provided. Because filing is not always consistent, researchers are advised to check both the name of an individual and the institution that he or she represented.

Abate Associates, Inc., 1956

Abbot and Land, 1965

Abbot, B. Vincent, 1944

Abbot, Bernice, 1957

Abbot, John E., 1945, 1948

Abbot Laboratories, 1950, 1952

ABC Employment Agency, 1951

Richard Abel and Co., Inc., 1968

Abendroth, Robert W., 1966-1967

Abercrombie and Fitch Co., 1962

Abilene Museum of Fine Arts, undated, 1949, 1954

Abingdon Square Painters, 1965

Abraham and Straus, 1930, 1960, 1965-1966, 1968

Abraham, Mae C., 1965

Abrahamsen, Mrs. David, 1962

Abramowitz, M., 1958

Harry N. Abrams, Inc., 1958-1960, 1965-1966, 1968-1969

ACA Gallery, undated, 1946-1947, 1949, 1958,1962-1963, 1965-1966, 1968-1969

Academic Books Store, 1954

Accademia dei Virtuosi al Pantheon, 1965

Accurate Envelope Company, 1966

Ace Window Cleaning Co., 1956, 1964

Acheson, Alice S. and/or Dean, 1945-1946, 1949, 1957

Ackerman, John J., 1950

Ackerman, Sharon, 1963

Ackley, Edward C., undated, 1943

Ackley, Edward James, 1961

Ackley, Edward W., 1955

Nicholas M. Acquavella Galleries, 1963

Adams, Ansel, 1961

Adams, Charles C., 1946

Adams, Davidson and Company, Inc., 1966-1967

Adams, F. B., Jr., 1946

Adams, Lula J., 1943

Adams, Ray E., 1960

Adamson, Gordon, 1942

Addison Gallery of American Art, undated, 1935-1938, 1940-1943, 1945-1958, 1961-1966, 1968

Adelman, Lucy, 1963

Adler, Herbert S., 1967-1968

Adler, Lee, 1967

Adelstein, Leonard, 1958, 1964

Adkins, Eugene B., 1966, 1969

Adler, Henrietta, 1963

Adler, Herbert S., undated, 1968

Adler, Lillian, 1960

Adler, O., 1964

Adler, Sylvia (Mrs. Jack C.), 1957

Adlow, Dorothy, 1940, 1941, 1958, 1960

Adult Education Council of Greater Chicago, 1960

AEtna Casualty and Surety Company, 1955, 1960-1963, 1967

Aetna Life, 1968

Affiliated Photographic Company, 1946

Affiliated Restauranteurs, Inc., 1956

Aftergut, Fay, 1961

Aged Home for Destitute Childless People, 1964

Agee, Marie N. (Mrs. S. R.), 1958

Agence Maritime Delamare and Cie., 1964

Agricultural and Technical College of North Carolina, 1960

Ahlander, Leslie Judd, 1963

Ahlen, Gosta, 1963

Ahrens, George, 1952

Aichele, Robert E., undated, 1959, 1965, 1967-1969

Aiken, Mrs. Larry K., 1966

Air Force, 1943

Aisenberg, A.D., 1955

Akeley, Edmund S., 1943

Akron Art Institute, 1946-1947, 1950-1953, 1956, 1958, 1961-1962, 1967-1968

Akston, Mr. and Mrs. Joseph James, 1966

Alabama Polytechnic Institute, 1949

Alabama, University of (see: University of Alabama)

Alan, Charles, undated, 1947, 1951, 1953, 1956, 1961

Alan Gallery, 1953-1955, 1957-1958, 1961-1962 (see also: Landau-Alan Gallery)

Alaska Methodist University, 1962, 1964

Alaska, University of (see: University of Alaska)

Albany Institute of History and Art, 1943, 1946-1947, 1951, 1959, 1962-1963, 1965, 1967

Albee, Edward, 1964-1965, 1967

Albert, Adelaide, 1965

Albert, Mr., 1936

Alberta, University of (see: University of Alberta)

Albertina, 1952 (see also: Graphische Sammlung Albertine)

Alberts, Jane Debran, 1955

Albion College, 1942, 1953, 1955, 1961, 1964-1965, 1968

Albright Art Gallery, 1939-1962 (see also: Albright-Knox Art Gallery)

Albright Art School, 1947 see also: Buffalo Fine Arts Academy)

Albright-Knox Art Gallery, 1962-1967 (see also: Albright Art Gallery)

Alderman and Alderman, 1949

Alderman Studios, 1960

Aldrich, Larry, 1959

Larry Aldrich Museum Foundation, Inc., 1966

Aldrich, Lucy, 1935

Alemann Films, 1964

Alexander, Bill, 1963

Alexander, Lilian (Mrs. E. R.), 1941

Alexander, Mary (Mrs. William J. R.), undated, 1931

Alexander, Olga T., 1956

Alexander, Susan, 1959

Algase, Benjamin, 1945

Alger, Mrs. Russell, undated, 1941

Alhorn, Richard E., 1964

Allan, Ralph, 1947

Allara, Pamela E., 1966-1967

Allegheny Conference on Community Development, 1960

Allen, Arthur D., 1930

Allen, Mrs. Curtis, 1960

Allen, Dorothy Fox, undated

Allen, Mr. and/or Mrs. Eugene, 1961, 1963

Allen, Harold, 1947

Allen, Jennie R. (Mrs. Louis), 1958, 1963-1965

Allen, Lawrence, undated, 1955-1956, 1959-1961

Allen, Leith, 1959

Allen, Phyllis (Mrs. Sidney J.), 1954

Allen, Theodore E., 1961

Allen, W. G. Russell, 1937, 1939, 1942, 1953

Allen's Lane Art Center, 1958

Allentown Art Museum, 1960-1963, 1965-1966, 1968

Allerton, Robert, 1942-1943, 1947, 1958, 1960

Allied Craft, 1960

Allied Publications, Inc., 1961, 1963, 1965

Allyn and Bacon, Inc., 1963

Alpern, Anne X., 1936

Alpers, Nathan, 1960

Alpert, Barbara O. (Mrs. Burton), undated, 1957

Alsdorf Foundation, 1964

Alsdorf, James W. and/or Marilyn, 1956-1959, 1961

Alsterlund, Henrietta, 1966

Altamura, Frank P., 1960

Alter, M., 1966

Altha, Joseph Samuel, 1950

B. Altman, Co., 1956, 1966

Altschul, Arthur, 1967

Altschul, Louis, 1957, 1961

Aluner, Paul, 1965

Alverno College, 1961

Alverthorpe Gallery, 1958

Alyea, Dorothy (Mrs. Ethan D.), 1962

Amato, Sam, 1955

Ambassador Hotel, 1952, 1957

Amdale Furnace and Chimney Co., 1965

Ameniya, Madelein (Mrs. Yosei), undated

America -- , 1964

America Illustrated -- , 1960

America-Israel Cultural Foundation, Inc., undated, 1959-1960, 1963, 1965-1969

America-Israel World's Fair Association, 1964

American Academy in Rome, undated, 1956-1957

American Academy of Arts and Letters, undated, 1946, 1954-1956, 1959, 1961-1963, 1965-1968

American Airlines, 1945, 1966-1967

American Art and Architecture, 1937

American Art Dealers Association, Inc., 1932-1933, 1953

American Art Expositions, Inc., 1959

American Artist -- , undated, 1942, 1968

American Artists Group Incorporated, 1945-1946, 1950, 1958

American Artists Professional League, undated

American Association for State and Local History, 1969

American Association for the United Nations, Inc., 1962

American Association of Museums, 1964-1965

American Association of University Women, 1948, 1950

American Bank and Trust Company, 1968

American Book Bindery Inc., 1930

American-British Art Center, Inc., 1944

American Bureau of Collections, 1965

American Cancer Society, 1967

American Chess Foundation, 1960

American Color Print Society, undated, 1956-1959, 1961-1968

American Committee for the Casa Italiana Anna Frank, 1963

American Contemporary Art Exhibition in the U.S.S.R., 1934

American Contemporary Gallery, 1942-1943

American Council of Learned Societies, 1943, 1965

American Craftsmen's Council, 1963

American Craftsmen's Educational Conference, Inc., 1945

American Embassy, Israel, 1959

American Embassy, London, 1963-1965

American Embassy, Oslo (see: Embassy of the United States of America, Oslo)

American Embassy, Paris, 1965

American Examiner -- , 1956, 1961

American Factors, Ltd., 1962

American Federation of Arts, 1944-1947, 1950, 1952-1970

American Folk Art Gallery, 1941

American Foundation, 1957

American Friends of the Hebrew University, Inc., 1956-1958

American Gallery, 1955-1956

American Heart Association, Inc., 1966

American Heritage -- , 1955, 1958, 1960-1961, 1965, 1967

American Institute for Research, 1961

American Institute of Architects, 1959, 1962

American Institute of Decorators, 1947, 1959

American Institute of Graphic Arts, 1958

American International Marine Agency of New York, Inc., 1951

American Jewish Historical Society, 1961, 1966

American Library Editions, undated, 1959

American Magazine of Art -- , 1942

American-Marietta Company, 1956

American Masters Gallery, 1966

American Miller and Processor, 1947

American Motors Corporation, 1963

American Museum in Britain, 1964

"American National Exhibition in Moscow," 1959

American Peoples Encyclopedia -- , 1952

American Print Makers, 1928, 1930-1931

American Radiator and Standard Sanitary Corporation, 1940

American Red Mogen David for Israel, 1961

American Republic Insurance Company, 1967-1968

American Shipping Company, Inc., 1957

American Society for Technion, 1958

American Society of Composers, Authors and Publishers, 1967

American University, 1946, 1948-1949, 1952, 1954, 1956

American University Union, 1935

American Youth Hostels, Inc., 1949

Americana -- , 1932

Americans for Progressive Israel, 1956-1958

Amerika -- , 1949

Ames, Winslow, 1934, 1949, 1957, 1962, 1966

Amft, Robert, 1946

Amherst College, 1955-1959

Amidar, Gertrude, 1963, 1967

Amott, H. R., 1950

Amsel, Edward Lloyd, 1965

Amsler and Ruthardt, 1929

Amsterdam Municipal Museums (see: Municipal Museums of Amsterdam; Stedelijk Museum)

Amsterdamsche Bank N.V., 1960

Anchorage, undated

Anchorage Galleries, undated

Anderson and Company, 1968

Anderson Art Association, 1945

Anderson, David, 1950

Anderson, Gerald, 1967

Anderson, Harriet, 1960

Anderson, Jean, 1956

Anderson, Lee, 1938

Anderson, M. R., 1952

Anderson, Margaret W., undated

Anderson, Marian, 1941

Anderson, Walter E., 1934

Anderson, Dr. and Mrs. Walter Palmer, 1964

Anderson, Wayne V., 1956

Anderson's Fine Art Collection, 1969

Andrews, Dr., 1962

Andrews, Edith, 1941

Andrews, Edward Demming and/or Faith, 1962-1963

Andrews, Ruth P., 1959

Angle, Catherine D., 1949

Angle, Gertrude F. (Mrs. John E.), undated, 1960

Anixter, Mrs. William, 1963

Ankrum Gallery, undated, 1956, 1963-1969

Annenberg, Walter, 1953

Annis, Milton, 1957

Annot Art School, 1934-1935

Ansbacher, L. J., 1960

Anselm Gallery, Inc., 1965

Frederick Anthon Gallery, 1964

Anthony, C. E., 1959

Anthony, Leslie C., 1957

Antique and Decorative Arts League, Inc., 1934

Antiques Magazine -- , 1947, 1957

Antiques on Peaceable St., 1962

Antles, Marc, 1964

Anton, Werner, 1958

Antovel Painting Company, Inc., 1960-1961

Apollo Magazine -- , 1964

Apostolides, Zoë, 1962

Appel, Benjamin, undated, 1957

Applebaum, Leon, 1959-1960

Appleton and Co., Inc., 1962

Apt, Joan, 1969

Aqua Sprinkler and Fire Alarm Co., Inc., 1963

Aquin, Hubert, 1955

Arakaki, Toshio, 1963

Aram, Mrs. Philip Werner, 1962

Archer, Edmund, 1942

Architectural Catalog Co., Inc., 1961

Architectural Designs -- , 1958

Archives of American Art, 1955, 1958-1959, 1961-1962, 1964-1968

Archives of Maine Art, 1963

Archivio Storico d'Arte Contemporanea, 1964

Arco Van Lines, Inc., 1960

Arden, Alonzo, 1943

Arechi Publishing House, 1955

Arenberg, Albert L., 1954-1956

Arenberg, Milton K., 1952-1964

Arens, Egmont, 1940, 1953

Arensberg, Walter C., 1934, 1937-1939, 1942

Argraves, Hugh, undated, 1957

Ariss, Bruce, undated

Arista Roofing and Sheet Metal Co., 1957, 1962

Arizona State College, 1956, 1962

Arizona State University, 1960-1961, 1963-1964

Arizona, University of (see: University of Arizona)

Arkansas Arts Center, 1961-1965

Arkansas, University of (see: University of Arkansas)

Arleigh Gallery, 1966

Arlyn Press, Inc., 1956, 1959

Armbuster, Sally, 1958

Armitage, Merle, undated, 1931-1932, 1946, 1955, 1960

"Armory Show 50th Anniversary Exhibition," 1962-1963

Arms, John Taylor, 1944-1945

Armstrong, Clark, 1953

Army and Navy Union, U.S.A., 1958

Army Medical Purchasing Offices, 1944

Army Newspaper Group, 1945

Arnason, H. Harvard, 1959-1960, 1964, 1966

Arnason, Harvey and Elizabeth, undated

Arnot Art Gallery, 1967

Arnstein, Mrs. Daniel, undated, 1957

Arons, George, 1953, 1955

Aronson, Cyril, 1946

Aronson, David, 1953, 1961

Arrow-Lifschutz, 1966

Art Academy of Cincinnati, 1959

Art Accessories, 1968

Art Adventures, 1961

Art and Antiques Show, 1945

Art Appreciation Movement, 1942

Art Association of Indianapolis, Indiana, 1933-1934, 1945-1946, 1963, 1967 (see also: The John Herron Art Institute)

Art Bulletin -- , 1941

Art Center Gallery, 1956

Art Centre School, 1949

Art Collectors and Artists Association, 1948

Art Dealers Association of America, Inc., undated, 1961-1969 (see also: Colin, Mr. and/or Mrs. Ralph F.)

Art Digest -- , 1943, 1946-1947, 1951, 1953-1955

Art Directors Club of New York, 1962

L'Art du Mond -- , 1959

Art Editors, 1946

Art for America, 1946

"Art for the Home Front," 1943-1945

theARTgallery, 1958, 1960-1961, 1963-1965, 1967-1968

Art Gallery of Hamilton, 1964

Art Gallery of Toronto, 1949-1950, 1955-1956, 1960

Art in America -- , undated, 1941, 1944, 1946, 1954-1956, 1958-1968

Art in Industry, 1948

Art Information Center, undated, 1962, 1964, 1966-1969 (see also: The Artists' Gallery and Art Information Center)

Art Institute of Chicago, 1941, 1944-1965, 1967, 1969

Art Institute of Zanesville, Ohio, 1955, 1960

Art International, undated, 1960-1962

Art League of Washington, 1934

Art Mart, undated, 1959

Art Museum of the New Britain Institute, 1942-1943, 1950, 1952, 1958-1960 (see also: New Britain Institute of Art)

Art News -- , 1935, 1941-1943, 1945-1948, 1950, 1953- 1956, 1958-1959, 1961-1962, 1964-1965

Art Now, 1958

Art Quarterly -- , 1938-1939

Art School of the Detroit Society of Arts and Crafts, 1931-1933 (see also: Society of Arts and Crafts)

Art School of the John Herron Art Institute, 1951 (see also: John Herron Art Institute)

Art Students' League of New York, undated, 1934, 1944, 1957, 1959, 1964, 1967-1968

Art Times -- , 1959

Art Today -- , 1957

"Art: USA: 59," 1959

Art Voices from around the World -- , 1962-1964

Artcraft Lighting Co., Inc., 1965-1966

Arte Moderna, undated

Artex Prints, Incorporated, 1946-1947

Artforum -- , 1962-1963

Artis, S. S., 1965

Artis, William, 1941

Artist Jr., 1964, 1967

Artists Coordinating Committee, 1941

Artists Equity Association, Inc., 1947-1949, 1951-1952, 1955, 1957-1958, 1960

Artists Equity Bureau, 1950

Artists for Victory, Inc., 1944-1946

Artists' Gallery, undated, 1940, 1947

Artists' Gallery and Art Information Center, 1962 (see also: Art Information Center)

Artists Incorporated, 1962

Artists Information Services, 1963

Artists League of America, 1947

Artists' Village in Israel, 1963

Arts -- , undated, 1956-1957, 1959, 1961, 1963, 1965

Arts and Crafts Club of New Orleans, 1930-1931, 1946

Arts Appreciation, 1946

Arts Club of Chicago, 1941-1944, 1951, 1954, 1960,1965

Arts Council of Great Britain, 1956, 1962, 1964

Arts in Society -- , undated, 1964-1965

Arts International, Ltd., 1965

Arts Yearbook -- , 1964

Ahda Artzt Gallery, Ltd., 1959

Arvin, Mrs. Gerald M., 1965

Arwin Galleries, Inc., 1966

Asbell, Leo, 1954-1955

Asch, B. M., 1946

Asch, George, 1946

Aschenbach, Paul, 1961

Ascher, Mary, 1961

Ashe Emeth Memorial Temple, 1929

Asher, Betty M. (Mrs. Leonard M.), 1961

Asherman, David G., 1958

Ashley, Alta, 1965, 1966

Ashmore, Jerome, 1957

Ashville School, 1961, 1967

Asia Society, 1961, 1963-1964

Askenazy, Dorothy, undated

Askew, Kirk, 1957

Asmar, Alice, undated

Associated American Artists Galleries, 1950, 1953, 1956

Associated American Artists, Inc., 1940, 1944-1947, 1965-1967

Associated Blind, Inc., 1957

Associated Hospital Services of New York, 1960-1964, 1966, 1968

Associated Merchandising Corporation, 1964

Association of Art Museum Directors, 1960

Association of Dealers in American Art, 1947-1948

Aston, Albert E., 1963

Astor, Mr. and/or Mrs. Vincent, 1938, 1948, 1951

Astro Envelope Co., 1963

Whitney Atchely and Burton Wolf, 1953

Atelier Chapman Kelley, 1967

Atha, Joseph S., 1957

Athenaeum Publishers, 1963, 1965

Atherton, Mrs. George H., 1957

Atherton, John, 1947

Atkins Museum of Fine Arts, 1955-1956

Atkinson, Marion K. (Mrs. D. T.), 1933-1934, 1936-1937

Atlanta Art Association, 1951, 1954-1959, 1961-1965 (see also: High Museum of Art)

Atlanta Art Association and High Museum of Art, 1942 (see also: Atlanta Art Association; High Museum of Art)

Atlantic Monthly -- , 1957, 1960, 1965

Attica Jr.-Sr. High School, 1961

Auchincloss, Bayard C., 1954

Alfred Auerbach Associates, 1955-1957

Auburn University, 1962, 1965, 1968

Augustana College, 1956

R. C. Auletta and Co., Inc., 1968

Ault, Dorothy and/or Lee A., undated, 1947-1949, 1960, 1966, 1968

Ault, Louise, 1949

Aument, Henrietta Bruce (Mrs. Carroll), 1948

Ausstellungsleitung/Museum Fridericianum, 1968

Austin College, undated, 1959

Austin Productions Incorporated, 1955

Avella-Guglietti, Rosina, 1960

Joan Avenet Galleries, 1954, 1964-1965, 1969

Avenet, Lester, 1964, 1967-1969

Avegino, Mrs. L. B., 1961

Avery, James, 1967-1968

Ayer, C. M., 1942

N. W. Ayer and Son, Inc., 1940-1941, 1944-1947, 1952-1954, 1959-1960, 1965

Ayers, Shirley (Mrs. Lemuel), 1957

Aylin Advertising Agency, 1955-1956

Babbidge, Marcia A., undated

Babcock Galleries, 1957, 1960, 1962-1963

Babcock, Margaret (Peggy) M., undated, 1960

Bach, Harry, 1968, 1969

Bach, Mrs. William J., 1944

Bachelder, Julia, 1964

Leo Baeck Temple, 1959, 1961, 1964-1965, 1967

Baekland, Frederick, 1962

Baer, Martin, 1937, 1954-1956

Bahan, Blanche C. and/or Emmons R., undated, 1951, 1954-1955, 1963

Bahm, Henry, 1959

Bahr, A. W., 1958

Baigell, Matthew, 1955-1967, 1968-1969

Bain and Hoopes, 1955

Bain, Helen C. (Mrs. Edgar C.), 1966

Baird, D. Grant, 1959

Baird, Joseph Armstrong, Jr., 1966

Bakelite Corporation, 1945, 1953

Baker and Taylor Co., 1959

Baker, Ernest Hamlin, 1964

Baker, John, 1963

Baker, Keith H., 1960, 1962-1965

Baker, Marilyn, 1965, 1968

Baker, Oliver, 1956, 1960

Oliver Baker Associates, 1962, 1964

Oliver Baker Studios, 1962-1963

Baker, Sylvia, 1962

Baker, Wayne A., 1964

Bakwin, Dr. and Mrs. Harry, 1965

Balaceanu, Petre, 1963

Baldinger, Wallace S., 1950

Baldini, G. A., 1934

Balken, Edward Duff, 1931, 1934

Ball, Barbara Shelvin, 1946

Ball, Charles, 1961

Ball, Elizabeth, 1939

Ball State Teachers College, 1952-1953, 1956-1958, 1960-1962

Ball, Mrs. T. H., 1953

Ballard, Frederic L., 1937

Ballin, Hugo, 1937

Ballinger, Mrs. Roy A., undated, 1961-1962

Baltimore Municipal Museum (see: Municipal Museum of the City of Baltimore)

Baltimore Museum of Art, undated, 1936, 1938-1940, 1943-1944, 1948, 1951-1955, 1959-1966, 1968

Bamberger, Henry J., 1950

Bamberger's, 1966-1967

Bandler, David B., 1953

Banfer Gallery, 1965

Bank of Broadway, 1963

Bank of California, 1966

Bank of the Commonwealth, 1964

Bankers Trust Company, 1961

Banks, James N., 1950

Banks, Russell, undated, 1969

Banowit, Samuel W., 1956

Bantam Books, Inc., 1969

Baragli, Alvaro, 1963

Baranik, Rudolf, 1964

Baranova, Anne, undated, 1962

Barbee, Stanley N., 1940, 1944-1945, 1947-1949, 1951

Barclay, Mrs. John, undated, 1955-1956

Barclay, Josephine E., 1956, 1959

Bard College, undated

Bardi, F., 1951

Bareiss, Walter, 1950, 1961

Barlow, Elizabeth, 1939

Barlow, Jarvis, 1953

Barnard College, 1939, 1955

Barnard-P. E. A. Theatre Benefit, 1956

A. S. Barnes and Co., 1965

Barnes, Albert C., 1930-1931, 1942

Barnes, Edward Larrabee, 1950-1951

Barnes, Katrina, undated

Barnes, Otto W., 1961

Barnet, Richard, 1961-1963

Barnett Arden Gallery, 1944, 1946-1947 (see also: Arden, Alonzo)

Barnum, J. W., 1967

Barnum, John, 1962

Barr, Alfred H., 1943, 1949-1950

Barrett, J. M., 1959

Barrie, Erwin, 1934

Barrin, Barton, Durstine and Osborn, Inc., 1959

Barriscale, Richard, 1953, 1955

M. Barrows and Company, Inc., 1961

Albert Barry and Associates, 1965

Barry, Carver S., 1956, 1959

Barry, Harriet R., 1965

Bartels, Jacqueline, 1957

Barthé, 1941, 1944

Bartholet, Mrs. E. Ives, 1961

Bartholf, Susan P. (Mrs. Herbert B.), 1958

Bartlett, David, 1962

Bartlett, Dewey F., 1960

F. A. Bartlett Tree Expert Company, undated

Bartlett, Florence Dibbell, 1953

Bartlett, George V., 1944

Barton, Bruce, Jr., undated, 1963

Barton-Cotton, Inc., 1960

Barton, Francis L., 1968

Barton, Trumbell, undated

Barton, Tugwell, 1964

Barzansky, Charles, 1962

Barzin, Betty, 1958

Basave, Marta, 1965

Basel, Amos S., 1964

Basic Arts Incorporated, 1950

Baskerville, Charles, 1946

Bassenge, Gerda, 1963

Bassham, Ben, 1965

Bassler, Frances Sterner (Mrs. Robert E., Jr.), 1996

Basso, Hamilton, 1957

Ted Bates and Company, Inc., 1959

Bath Garden Club, Zorach Fountain Committee (see: Zorach Fountain Committee, Bath Garden Club)

Battcock, Gregory, 1965

Batten, Barton, Durstine and Osborn, Inc., 1959

Batten, H. A., 1937

Battle Creek Art Center, 1948-1949

Battle Creek Sanitarium, 1940

Battle, Lucius D., 1963- 1964

Bauer, Charles A., 1949, 1961-1962, 1966

Bauer, Lucie, 1963

Baughman, Milo, undated

Bauhaus, Geraldine, 1959

Baum, Alvin H., 1963, 1967

Baum, Frederick, 1952-1956, 1958-1959, 1961-1966, 1968 (see also: Rubin, Baum and Levine; Rubin, Wachtel, Baum and Levine)

Baum, Hank, 1967

Baum, Harry, 1937, 1947, 1968

Baum, Nathaly (Mrs. Harry), undated, 1955, 1959-1960, 1962-1964, 1966, 1968

Baum, Patricia Ann (Patsy), undated, 1957, 1961-1962 (see also: Vanderbes, Patsy Baum)

Bauman, Gilbert, 1964

Bauman, Lionel R., 1943, 1967

Baumann, S. R., 1939

Baur, John I. H., undated, 1953, 1962, 1965

Baxter, Elizabeth (Mrs. Eugene H. H.), undated, 1948

Bayer, William S., 2nd, undated, 1957

Bayerisches Staatsministerium für Unterricht und Kultus, 1964

Bayles, Mrs. Peter, 1961

Baylor University, 1964

Baylous, George B., 1950

Baynard, Ed, 1965

Bayonne Jewish Community Center, 1955-1958, 1961, 1967

Beacon Hill Thrift Shop, 1958

Beaird, Jane R., 1963

Beal, Gifford, 1929 Beal, Rebecca J. (Mrs. James H.), 1950, 1954, 1956, 1959

Bear, Donald J., 1937, 1945

Bear, Esther, 1961

Esther Bear Gallery, 1963-1965

Bearce, Charles G., 1955

Beard, Edward (Buddy) A., 1961, 1963-1965

Beardsley, Walter R., 1958-1959

Beaton, Mrs. John A., 1956

Beattie, Beatrice (Mrs. James), 1959

Beaven, William E., 1963

Beck, Frances, 1957

Beck, W. B., undated

Becker, Benjamin V., 1938

Becker, Mrs. Clarence, 1960

Becker. Deana (Mrs. Donald), 1961

Becker, Elizabeth L. (Mrs. Benjamin V.), undated

Beckwith, D. D., 1952

Bedi, Eugene, 1958

Beekman and Bogue, 1966

Beerman, Leonard I. and/or Martha, 1961-1962, 1965, 1967-1968

Behr, Frederick, 1947-1948

Behrendt, Berthold C., 1953

Behrman, S., 1934

Beissinger, Ernest W., 1956

Bel Aire Motel, 1965

Belgian Economic Mission, 1949

Belgian Government Information Center, 1948-1950

Belgian Relief Fund, Inc., undated

Belikove, Bernard S. and/or Ruth, 1965, 1967

Belisle, C., 1962

Bell Exterminating Co., Inc., 1952, 1955, 1958

Bell, Myron (Mike), 1958, 1960-1961

Bellig, Ned, 1966

Belluschi, Pietro, 1943

Beloit College, 1953, 1956, 1963-1965

Ben-Ami, Oved, 1962

Benay Painting and Decorating, 1955

Bendel, Bettina, 1955

Henri Bendel Co., 1955

Bendelius, Jacqueline, 1959

Bender, William H., Jr., 1956, 1959-1960

Bendheim, Robert, 1959

Bendig, William C., 1957

Beneduce, Ann K., 1960

Benenson, Charles B. and/or Peggy, undated, 1952, 1959-1960, 1963, 1965, 1967-1968

Bengham, Jonathan B., 1966

Benkert, Ernest G., 1959

Benn, Ben, 1955

Bennett College, 1954

Bennett, E. H., 1946

Bennett, Mr. and/or Mrs. Edward H., Jr., 1964-1965

Bennett, Mr. and Mrs. Edward H., Sr., 1965

Bennett, Mary, 1961

Bennett, Rainey, 1940, 1943, 1951

Bennett, Richard M., 1963

Bennett, Ward, 1956, 1960

Benning, Mrs. W. D., 1955

Bennington College, 1939

Bennitt, Joseph L., 1959

Bennitt, T. J., undated

Benson Galleries, 1968

Benson, Gertrude, 1964

Bentiglio, Ludovico M., undated

Bentivoglio, Mirella, 1958, 1959, 1960, 1961, 1962, 1964

Benton and Bowles, Inc, 1956

Benton, Emanuel, 1966

Benton, William H., 1952, 1959, 1961, 1965

Beranova, Anna, 1959

Berdeau, Mr. and/or Mrs. Ray, 1944, 1951

David Berdon and Co., 1962

Beren, Carl, 1965

Beresford, Virginia, 1944

Berg, Richard, 1953-1954

Bergelin, Mrs. Olaf, 1956

Bergen, D. T., undated, 1956

Berger, Helen, 1952

Berger, Jack Harold, 1954-1957

Bergman and Hourwich, 1967

Bergman, E. A., 1957

Bergreen, Mrs. M., 1958

Berkeley Art Museum, 1930

Berkeley Express and Moving Co., 1946, 1951, 1961, 1967

Berkman, Florence, 1968

Berkman, Henry, 1968

Berkowitz, Jean (Mrs. David E.), 1955

Berkowitz, Murray, 1951

Berkowitz, Rosalie and/or Sidney, undated, 1945, 1951, 1953-1956, 1958-1961, 1963, 1964, 1966-1967

Berkshire Community College, 1965

Berkshire Museum, 1939-1940, 1944, 1965-1966

Berle, Beatrice Bishop (Mrs. Adolf A., Jr.), 1966

Berlin, Alexander, 1959

Berlin Group, Inc., 1966

Berlin, Hortense (Mrs. Samuel), 1959-1961, 1963-1964

Berlin, Rosalind K. (Mrs. Paul F.), 1965

Berlin, Ruth S., undated

Berman, L., 1956, 1958

Bernard, Herbert C., 1960

Bernbaum, R. Glenn, 1962

Berne, G., 1956

Berney, Charles, 1957

Bernfeld, Henri-Marcel, 1952

Bernheim, Lucille M., undated

Bernheim, Mrs. Sydney, 1940

Bernier, Rosamund, 1956

Bernstein, George A., 1956

Bernstein, Gerald, 1963

Bernstein, Mrs. H. L., 1956

Bernstein, Harry, 1957

Bernstein, Joan H., 1957

Bernstein, Robert, 1953

Berrien, Martha, 1959

Berry, Bill, 1956-1957

Berry, Burt L., 1964

Berry, Donald, 1953

Berry-Hill Galleries, 1957, 1962

Berry, Robert G., 1960, 1966

Bersoff, Celia, undated

Bersohn, Robert, 1931

Berson, Theresa, 1961

Berthier and Cie., 1964

Bess, Mary, 1960

Best, Lottie R. (Mrs. Richard C.), 1966

Beth Shalom, undated, 1959

Better Business Bureau of New York City, Inc., 1959-1960

Better Homes and Gardens -- , 1960

Better Living Building, 1964

Better Living Center, 1965

Beury, George P., 1964

Bevens, Dick, undated

Bezalel National Museum, 1959, 1961, 1963-1964

Bhuta, Mrs. Pravin G., 1960

Biddle, Francis and/or Katherine, 1941, 1963, 1966

Biddle, George, undated, 1937, 1943, 1964

Bienale de Sao Paulo, 1962

"La Biennale di Venezia," 1952 (see also: "Venice Biennale")

Bier, Justus, 1954

Bignou Gallery, Inc., 1943

Bijur, Mrs. William, 1952

Billig, Ned, 1966

Bingham, Barry, 1964

Bingham, Mrs. Howard M., 1938

Bingham, Lois, 1962

Binney, Edwin, 1960, 1962, 1964

Biord, Mrs. Charles S., 1948

Birmingham Museum of Art, 1951-1958, 1961-1964, 1966

Birmingham News, undated, 1966

Birnbaum, Martin, 1942

Birnkrant, Theodore D., 1957

Bisgard, J. Dewey and/or Mary Elizabeth, 1948, 1953-1954, 1963-1967

Bernice P. Bishop Museum, 1968

Bishop, Jay Bayard, 1957

Bissell, Mrs. Howard, undated, 1962

Bissett, Enid, undated, 1944, 1953

Bissett, J., 1957

Bissinger, Karl, undated

Bissinger, Mrs. Karl, 1956

Bixer, Mr. and/or Mrs. Ed, 1963

Black, Edward, 1961, 1966

Black, Louis W., 1940

Black, Mary C. and/or Richard Winthrop, undated, 1965, 1968

Black, Mrs. Melvin B., 1963

Black Mountain College, 1943

Black Star Publishing Company, Inc.

Blagdon, Donald P., 1948

Blair County Arts Foundation, 1961

Blair, Mrs. J. Insley, 1937-1939

Blair, John R., 1965

Blair, Natalie K., undated

Blaisdell Publishing Company, 1962

Blake, Bernard, 1957

Blake, Elizabeth B., undated, 1955-1956, 1960

Blake, Evelyn, undated

Blake, Mrs. Thomas, 1956

Blanchard, Mrs. John Osgood, 1939

Bland, Shirley (Mrs. Chester), 1959

Blanden Memorial, 1952

Blank, John, 1937

Blau, Eric, 1952

Blaustein, Al, 1957

Blesh, Rudi, undated, 1956, 1959-1961

Blicher, Barney, 1949

Blindlow, William, 1965

Bliss, Molly, undated

Bliss, Robert Woods, 1937

Bloch, Mr. and/or Mrs. Gerald, 1956

Bloch, H. H., 1968

Huntington T. Block Insurance, 1962, 1964, 1968

Block, Leigh B. and/or Mary Lasker, 1950, 1954-1960, 1967-1968

Block, Mr. and/or Mrs. Paul, Jr., 1950, 1960

Blodgett Packing and Storing Co., 1963

Bloedel, Laurence, 1958, 1961-1962, 1964-1965, 1967

Bloedorn, Gene D., 1967-1968

Bloom, Ena, 1957

Bloomgarden, Kermit, 1962

Bloomingdale's, 1934, 1965

Bloomington Art Association, 1945

Bloomington-Normal Art Association, 1955-1967

Blow, Richard, 1939

Blue Hill Pavilion, 1957

Blue Shield, 1962

Bluemner, Oscar, 1933

Bluestein, Jerome, 1954

Blum, John R. H., 1962-1964

Blum, Richard J., 1955-1956

Blume, Ellie, 1940

Blumenshine, Irving, 1937

Blumenstiel, Joan, 1958

Blumenthal, George, 1939

Blumenthal, Irving, 1939

Blumenthal, Mrs. M. F., 1944

Blutman, Harry Austin, undated, 1945, 1955-1956, 1958

Blyth and Co., Inc., 1957

B'nai B'rith, 1954-1955, 1958-1961, 1966

Board of Education of the City of New York, 1961

Board of Transportation of the City of New York, 1938

Boas, George, 1939, 1957

Bobbit-Gardner, Anna, 1952

Bobrow, Robert I., 1969

Boel, Mr. and Mrs. Michael, 1964

Boericke, Dorothy S., 1940

Boettger, Mabel C., 1963

Bogin, Edith H. (Mrs. Maxwell), undated, 1958

Boigon, Helen W. and/or Melvin, undated, 1958-1960, 1962-1968

Boil, Mickey, 1964

Boise Art Association, 1961

Boissonnas, Alain G., 1951, 1955-1957, 1959-1960, 1962

Giulio Bolaffi Editore, 1965

Bolin, Jane, 1943

Bolles, John S., 1956-1957, 1963

Bollinger, Arthur, 1956

Bolton and Fairhead Ltd., undated, 1964

Boltoph Group, 1958

Bomar, William P., 1948-1960

Bond Wheelwright Company, 1965

Bondhus, Jeanne (Mrs. H.), undated, 1966

Bone, Stephen, 1953

Bonfoey Picture Framing Co., 1967

Albert and Charles Boni Inc. Publishers, 1933

Bonner, Mrs. Paul Hyde, 1944

Bonta, Dayne, undated, 1967-1968

Book Find Club, 1957-1958

Book-of-the-Month Club, Inc., 1948, 1960

Book-Records, Inc., 1956

Booke, Stephen, 1963

Bookshop, 1943

Boone, Charles, 1960

Booth, Imogene P. (Mrs. Francis E.), 1962

Borchard, Stuart, 1948

Bordeau, Col. and Mrs. Le Roy, 1950

Borden, H., 1937

Grace Borgenicht Gallery, Inc., 1955, 1957-1958, 1964

Borie, M. J., 1959

Borie, Peter, 1962

Borman, Betty, 1969

Borman, Burton, 1969

Bortzman, Walter M., undated

Borwick, Geoffrey P., 1966

Boschen, Lilian, undated, 1938, 1941

Bose, Norma, 1964

Bosse, Mr. and mrs. Malcolm J., 1950-1960

Boston Arts Festival, 1953, 1957, 1960, 1963

Boston, Clifford, 1942

Boston Institute of Modern Art (see: Institute of Modern Art, Boston)

Boston Museum of Fine Arts (see: Museum of Fine Arts, Boston)

Boston Public Library, 1951-1952, 1955- 1957, 1959-1961

Boston Society of Independent Artists, Inc., 1953

Boston Symphony Orchestra, 1941

Boston Truck Co., Inc., 1962, 1965-1966

Boston Trust Co., 1965

Boston University, 1957-1963, 1965-1966

Bostwick, Mrs. D. W., 1950

Bostwick, Electra W., undated, 1941

La Boutique Fantastique Gallery, 1954

Boudin and Wittenberg, 1928, 1932

Bourgeois, Stephan, 1939

Bowden, Charles and/or Paula, 1965, 1967

Bowdoin College, 1958, 1961-1963, 1966

Bowen, Ezra, undated

Bower, Beverly, 1962

Bower, Lois S. (Mrs. Howard R.), 1964

R. R. Bowker Company, 1962

Bowles, Dorothy S. (Mrs. Chester), 1966

Bowling Green State University, 1961

Bowman, Eugene S., 1956

Bowman, Mrs. L.C., 1944

Boyd, Don, 1967

Boyer Galleries, Inc., 1935

Boys' Club of New York, 1967

Boys' Clubs of America, 1968

Bradford, Mrs. F. A., 1933

Bradford Junior College, 1964 Bradley, Harry Lynde and/or Peg, 1953-1956, 1958, 1960-1961, 1964-1965, 1968

Bradley House and Window Cleaning, 1940

Bradley, J., undated

Bradley, Morton C., 1955

Braeger, Irene E., 1956, 1961

Bramble, Wayne, 1965

Bramboa, Wayne, 1965

Brame, James Y., Jr., 1942

Brancusi, 1939

Brandeis University, 1953, 1957-1959, 1961-1963, 1965-1967

Brandt, Alan, 1960

Brandt and Brandt, 1962

Brandt, Mrs. Carl, 1940

Brandt, Carl D., 1962

Brandt, Joan (Mrs. Rexford), undated, 1939

Brandt, Renee G., 1965

Brangdon, Rena, undated

Branning, Bowman W., 1949

Bransten, Mrs. John, 1964-1965, 1968

Brants, Cynthia, 1951

Braquette, Inc., 1967

Brasch, James D., 1963

Brash, Arthur Francis, 1958

Brasserie, 1961

Bratter, Mrs. Ben, Jr., 1964

Brawley, Robert, 1959

Braxton Art Company, 1940

Braxton, Celia and Harry, 1939

Braxton Galleries, Ltd., 1931, 1933-1934

Braxton, Henry, undated

George Braziller, Inc., 1957-1964

Breakstone Plumbing and Heating, 1930

Brearley School, 1960, 1962-1963, 1965

Breckenridge, Bruce M., 1966

Breckenridge, Robert, 1933

Breckner, George, Jr., 1963

Carl Bredemeir Gallery, undated

Breese Enloe and Elliott-Smith, Inc., 1947

Breeskin, Adelyn, undated, 1964-1967

Breidenbach, Warren C., 1966

Breiner, 1962

Breinin, Raymond, undated, 1941-1942, 1954, 1958

Brendel, Bettina, 1962

Brennan, Ann (Mrs. Gerard), 1965

Brennan, Francis, 1956, 1962

Brenner, Anita, 1943

Brenner, Leah, 1964

Brentano's Inc., 1954

F. H. Bresler Company, 1955

Bresler Galleries, 1956, 1959-1960, 1963, 1965

Bresniak, M., 1952

Bressler, Martin, 1963, 1967-1968

Brett, Wyckoff, Potter, Hamilton, Inc., 1969

Marcel Breuer and Associates, 1961

Breuer, Minna H. (Mrs. Ernest Henry), 1941

Breuning, Margaret, undated

Brewer, Warren and Putnam Inc., 1932

Brewster, George W. W. and/or Jean, undated, 1948, 1950-1957, 1959-1964, 1967

Brewster, Kate L., 1938

Brewster, Walter, 1939

Briarcliff Junior College, 1939

Brice, Fannie, 1944, 1949

Brick, Mrs. Seymour, 1956

Bridaham, Lester, 1963

Bride's Magazine -- , 1955

Bridges, Stephen, 1959

Briggs, Judson, 1955

Brigham, Richard C., 1956

Brilhart, Arnold, 1954

Brimley, 1957

Brink, Guido P., 1962

Brisbane, Arthur, 1929

Brissenden, Florine and/or Pearley R., 1956-1957

Brister, Bernard, 1964

British Artist Craftsmen, Ltd., 1959

British Broadcasting Corporation, 1959

Britsky, Nicholas, 1961

Britt, George, 1936

Brittain, Jack, 1963

Brod, Mario, 1962

Broder, Mrs. Marvin, 1962

Brodsky, Saul, 1944

Brody, Jean, 1964

Brody, Lydia G., 1957

Brodzky, Herbert, 1937

Bromberg, Alfred L., 1959

Brook, Alexander, 1957

Brook Street Gallery, 1960-1961

Brookhaven National Laboratory, 1962-1963, 1965

Brooklyn Arts Gallery, 1960

Brooklyn Museum, undated, 1934, 1939-1944, 1948-1951, 1955-1959, 1962-1963, 1965, 1967- 1968

Brooklyn Public Library, 1961

Brooklyn Steel Warehouse Co., 1958

Brooks, Clifford Noel, 1952

Brooks, Howard G., 1943

Brooks Memorial Art Gallery, 1934-1935, 1951, 1953, 1955-1957, 1961-1963, 1966-1967

Brorby, Harry, 1954

Brorby, Mrs. Melvin, 1954

Broudo, W., 1931

Broun, Heywood, undated, 1934

Brown, Ann S., 1957

Brown, Benjamin H., 1963

Brown, Betty, 1939

Robert C. Broude Agency, Inc., 1959

Brown, Bob, 1944, 1951

Brown, Bradford, 1963

Brown, Dorothy W., 1953

Brown, Eda I., 1961

Brown, Edna G. (Mrs. Matthew), 1954, 1958, 1962

Brown, Edward F., 1952

Brown, Fred E., Jr., 1942

Brown, H., 1943

Brown, Hazel (Mrs. Russell Allen), 1954-1955

Brown, Hugh, 1957

Brown, Hyman, 1943

Brown, Irving, 1956, 1961, 1964-1967

Brown, Jim, 1968

Brown, John E., 1961

Brown, Mrs. L. Page, 1962

Brown, Mrs. Lathrop, 1959

Brown, Leonard M., 1956-1957

Brown, Margaret Rout (Mrs. Herman), undated, 1956-1957

Brown, Mathilde C. (Mrs. Otis D.), 1949

Brown, Pauline and Irv, 1953

Brown, Royce Lee, 1957

Brown, Richmond L., 1958

Brown, Ruth (Mrs. William H.), 1963

Brown University, 1957, 1964-1965, 1968

Browne, Robert, 1960

Browne, Rosalind, 1966

Brownfield, George E., 1964

Browning Wells and Co., 1950

Brownstein, Gerald W., 1962-1963

Brownstone, Myron R., 1968

Broyhill Furniture Factories, 1964

Broyles, Harley, 1959

Bruce, Mrs. David, 1938

Edward Bruce Memorial, 1943

Bruce, Herbert Thayer, 1955

Bruce Museum, 1957

Bruce's Books, undated, 1957-1960, 1962-1963

Bruern Foundation, Inc., 1956

Brugger Fine Arts Forwarding Service, 1947, 1955

Brummer Gallery, Inc., 1931-1932, 1935

Brummer, Joseph, 1934

Bruner, Louise, 1965

Bruni, Claudio, 1966

Brunning, Mrs., 1955

Bruno, Frank E., Jr., undated, 1962, 1965

Brunsman, Arnold L., 1933

Brunsman, James L., 1956

Brunswig, Marcel, 1964

Bry, Doris, 1950, 1958-1959, 1962-1964, 1967, 1969

Bryan, Elizabeth (Mrs. W. B.), 1964

Bryan, J., 1961

Bryan, Wilhelmus B., 1966

Bryant, Edward, 1965

Bryant Foundation, 1961

Bryn Mawr College, 1969

Brynner, Edna Schwab, 1946, 1964

Buch und Kunstverlag Anton Schroll and Co., 1965

Buchanan, Elizabeth (Mrs. C. L.), 1962

Buchanan, Mr. and Mrs. Wiley Thomas, Jr., 1963

Bucher, George R., 1967

Buchholz Gallery, 1939, 1941, 1943

Buchman, Myron I., 1963

Buchsbaum, Myron, undated

Buck, Pearl, 1942

Bucknell University, 1958-1959

Budd, Edward G., Jr., 1952

W.S. Budworth and Son, 1932, 1939-1940, 1952-1953, 1956-1957, 1959, 1961-1968

Buehr, George, 1954

Buermann, Herbert T., 1950

Buffalo Fine Arts Academy, 1939, 1956 (see also: Albright Art School)

Bull, Harry, 1943

Bulliet, C. J., 1932

Bullock, David M., 1968

Bunim, David, 1951

Bunkin, Irving A., undated

Bunn, Harry, 1956

Bunshaft, Gordon, 1960-1961, 1965

Burack, Lillian S. (Mrs. Archie), 1958

Burden, Carter, 1965

Burden, William A. M., 1938, 1941, 1948, 1956-1957

Burdick, Mabel (Mrs. Carleton H.), undated, 1965

Bureau for Architectural Sculpture and Murals Organized for Architects, 1937

Bureau of City Collections, 1955

Burg, Copeland C., 1944

Burger, Rose, 1967

Burgess, Mrs. Ralph, 1935

Burke, A. J., 1965, 1966

Burke, Caroline, undated, 1958

George Burke Public Relations, 1953-1954

Burke, Kenneth and/or Libby, 1959

Burke, Robert Granville, 1961

Burke, Selma Hortense, 1945

Burlin, Paul, 1953, 1957

Burling, Mrs. John, 1952

Burnham, Lee, 1952

Burns, Edwin J., 1952

Burns, F. Patrick, 1968

Burpee Art Gallery, undated, 1939, 1965

Burrell's Press Clipping Bureau, 1964

Burroughs, Alan, 1943, 1950

Burrows, Carlyle, 1935, 1956

Burrows, Gladys and/or Selig S., undated, 1947, 1956-1958, 1960-1963 1967

Burrows, Helen Stimson, 1957

Burstein, Barney, 1956, 1960-1961

Burstein, Murray, 1963

Burtin, Cipe Pineles, 1964, 1967 (see also: Pineles, Cipe)

Burton, Doris and/or Irving Frederick, undated, 1959, 1961-1965, 1967

Burton, John P., 1964-1965

Burwell, Ernest, 1965

Burwen, Norman, 1961, 1967

Bush, Kathryn, 1962

Business Week -- , 1958

Butler and Baldwin, Incorporated, 1941

Butler Institute of American Art, 1962-1963, 1965-1966, 1968-1969

Butler, Joseph G., undated

Butler, Ken, 1954

Butterfield, Bruce, 1967

Butterfield, Clayton W., 1956

Bybee, Faith P. (Mrs. Charles L.), 1955, 1957

Byrne, Roy E., 1968-1969

Byrnes, Barbara and Jim, undated, 1950

Bywaters, Jerry and Mary, undated, 1951, 1959

Cabot, Judy and/or Lewis P., undated, 1960-1961, 1963-1964, 1966

Cadby-Birch Gallery, 1952

Cades, Charlotte (Mrs. J. Russell), 1963

Cadhill, Mrs. Joe W., 1953

Cahill, Holger (Eddie), 1931, 1936

Cahn, Joshua Binion, 1951-1953

Cahners, Helene (Mrs. Norman), undated, 1962

Cain, Mabel (Mrs. Joseph A.), 1952

Caldararo, Dante, 1958-1959

Calderon, Joseph, 1970

Calderwood, Stanford, 1962

Calfer, William H., 1946, 1952

California College of Arts and Crafts, 1955

California Graduate School of Design, 1939

California Palace of the Legion of Honor, 1931, 1939-1940, 1945-1946, 1948-1949, 1951, 1954-1955, 1961, 1963- 1964

California Print Makers Society (see: Print Makers Society of California)

California State College at Long Beach, 1965-1966

California, University of (see: University of California)

California Western University, 1960

Calkins, Deborah, undated, 1941, 1951-1952, 1958-1959, 1963, 1965

Calray Sales and Service, 1964

Cambridge Management Co., 1967

Cambridge Press, 1955

Camden, Maine Antiques Show, 1956

Camp, Mrs. Frederick, 1955

Camp Fund Drive, 1941

Campbell, Mrs. E. P., 1966

Campbell Ewald Agency, 1956

Campbell, Hugo, 1938

Campbell, Martha (Mrs. William A.), 1963

Campbell, Mrs. N. Stuart, 1934

Campini, Frank A., 1958-1959

Campo and Roberts, Inc., 1965

Canaday, John, 1960-1961, 1963, 1966

Canajoharie Library and Art Gallery, 1953, 1964

Candler, Duncan, 1927-1929, 1932-1933

Candy, William E., 1964, 1966

Cane, Melville, 1963

Canepa, Mrs. E., 1957

Canner, Julius S., 1960

Cantey, Becky and/or Sam III, undated, 1951-1955, 1957-1962, 1966-1969

Canton Art Institute, 1966

Cantor, Dale, 1961

Cantor, Joseph, 1962, 1964

Capalbo, Carmen, 1963, 1965, 1967, 1969

Cape Cod Village, 1956

Capital University, 1966, 1968-1969

Capitol Murals Commission, 1963

Capper Engraving Co., 1956

Card, Elizabeth Paine, undated, 1957

Cardullo, Hugo M., 1961, 1963, 1966-1967

Carlen, Robert, undated, 1941-1946, 1953-1956, 1963-1964, 1967

Carleton College, 1963, 1969

Carleton, Peter F., undated, 1963

Carleton, Mrs. Winslow, 1963

Carli, Sandra Lee, 1960

Carlin Lighting Co., 1960

Carlisle, Mrs. E. G., 1952

Carlson, Edith, 1966-1967

Carlson, Florence, 1960

Henry L. Carlsruh and Co., Inc., 1967

Carlyle Gallery, 1934

Carmeli, Louis, 1952

Carmitchell, Thomas H., 1953

Carnegie Corporation, 1941

Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, 1958

Carnegie, Hattie, 1942, 1953

Carnegie Institute Museum of Art, undated, 1933-1935, 1937-1939, 1941, 1945- 1947, 1949-1951, 1953-1958, 1960, 1962-1965, 1967

Carnegie Study of the Arts of the United States, 1958-1959

Carney, J. J., 1956-1957

Carney, Jack and Marian, undated

Carney, Mel C., 1961, 1966

Carpenter, Bert, 1960

Carpenter, Betty C., 1955

Carpenter, Charles H., undated, 1948

Carpenter, E. N., 1956, 1958

Carpenter, Horace, 1936

Carpenter, James, 1957

Carr, R. B., 1968

Carrich, Margaret, 1950

Carrie, M. et Mme. Louis, 1964

Carroll, Mark, 1957

Carson, David, 1954

Carson, Lundin and Shaw Architects, 1966

Carte, Mrs. Dale, 1968

Amon Carter Museum of Western Art, undated, 1962-1963, 1967-1968

Amon G. Carter Foundation, 1968

Carter, Howard, Jr., 1966

Carter, Nancy F., 1964

Cartier, Inc., 1955-1956

Carton, Alexis Wallace, undated, 1962

Carton, Fred, 1953

Case, Clarence C., 1958-1959

Case, Margaret W. (Mrs. C. M., Jr.), undated, 1958

Cash, Robert A., 1961

Cashwin, Samuel, 1934

Cassall, John, 1961

Cassis, Ann, 1961

Castel, Irving, 1964

Castleton China, Inc., 1949, 1955, 1958

Cathey, Ralph, 1964

Cathlina, Rose, 1960

Catholic University of America, 1965

Catholic War Veterans, Inc., 1940

Catto, Henry E., Jr., 1963

Cauman, Mrs. Samuel, 1958

Caumont, G. E., 1940, 1964

Cavano, Robert R., 1958-1959

Caylor, George, 1963

Cayuga Museum of History and Art, 1944

CBS, 1963

Cec[ul?], S. John C., 1953

Cedar Rapids Art Association, 1952, 1958, 1964-1965, 1967

Celender, Donald D., 1961-1962

Census Bureau, 1959

Centenary College, 1935

Center for Cross-Cultural Communication, 1962-1964 (see also: Robbins, Warren M.)

Center for Inter-American Relations, Inc., 1967

Central Bureau for Registered Addresses, 1930

Central College, 1955-1956

Central Petroleum Company, 1959

Centre de Metiers D'Art, 1965

Centre Manhattan Realty Co., Inc., 1941

Centro Internazionale di Arte e di Cultura, 1955

Century Lighting Co., 1946

Cerf, Bennett A., 1932, 1951

Chace, Beatrice O., 1967

Chace, Mr. and/or Mrs. Malcolm C., Jr., 1959-1961, 1966-1968

Chadbourn, Phil, 1939, 1943

Chalet Gallery, 1959

Chamber of Commerce of Honolulu, 1966

Chambers, Ernest, 1967

Chamberlain, Betty, 1959, 1965, 1967-1969

Champeau, Jean Louis, 1958

Chana Gallery, 1956

Chandler, Henry, 1933

Chanin, Abe L., 1953, 1956

Chanin, Margot, 1965, 1968

Channel Master Corp., 1954

[Channing?], 1947

Chanticleer Press, Inc., 1959, 1969

Chanute Times, 1951

George Chapellier Gallery, 1953, 1962-1963

Chaplin, C. Hal, 1966

Char, Stanley, 1952

Charak, Walter, 1958-1959

Charles, B., 1956

Charles-Fourth Gallery, 1953-1954

Charm, undated, 1952, 1954-1955, 1957

Charm House Furniture Galleries, 1961

Charnen, Mrs. D., 1963

Chase, Bessie E., 1956

Chase, Edward L., 1932

Chase, Howard, 1942, 1957

Chase, Mrs. M. A., 1966

Chase, Mrs. M. G., 1958

Chase Manhattan Bank, undated, 1956, 1958-1960, 1962-1969

Chase, Maurice, undated, 1960

Chase, Meg, 1961

Chase National Bank, 1942, 1952, 1954, 1955

Chase, Ronnie, undated

Chase, Sally (Mrs. Howard), undated, 1960

Chatham College, 1959, 1965

Chatham, Mrs. L. A., 1959

Chattanooga Art Association, 1949

Chayes, Antonia, undated

Cheek, Leslie, undated

Chelsea Clinton News -- , 1958

Cheltenham Township Art Centre, 1952-1953

Cheney, Sheldon, 1958

Cheney, Thomas S., 1959

Cherkasky, Martin, 1965-1966

Cherry, M. J., 1966-1967

Chestnut Court Book Shops, Inc., 1957

Chew, Paul, 1958

Chewing, John B., 1962

Chicago Art Institute (see: Art Institute of Chicago)

Chicago, Arts Club of (see: Arts Club of Chicago)

Chicago Museum of Contemporary Art (see: Museum of Contemporary Art, Chicago)

Chicago Public Library, 1956, 1967

Chicago Slide Co., 1934

Chicago, University of (see: University of Chicago)

Chidsey, G. Alan, 1957, 1961

Children's Art Program, 1957-1958

Childs, Charles D., 1950

Evander Childs High School, 1949

Childs Gallery, 1960

Chimney and Furnace Vacuum Cleaning Corp., 1950

China Aid Council, 1942

Chinese Community Center, 1962

Ching, Mr. and/or Mrs. William, 1963

Chipp, Herschel B. undated

Choi, Wook Kyung, 1965

Chomicky, Yar G., 1964

Chorley, Kenneth, 1942

Chow, Raymond, undated, 1968

Christ-Janer, Albert and/or Virginia, undated, 1954, 1956-1957, 1959-1960, 1963, 1965

"Christ--The King--The Church," 1960

Christensen, Erwin O., 1964, 1966

Christian Art, 1966

Christian Science Monitor -- , 1954, 1959

Christiano, Rudy, 1952

Chrysler Corporation, 1963

Chrysler, Walter, Jr., 1935

Chrysomalides, Despina, 1952-1953

Cikovsky, Hortense and Nicolay, undated

Cimmino, Christian V., 1958

Cincinnati Art Academy (see: Art Academy of Cincinnati)

Cincinnati Art Museum, undated, 1941, 1944, 1948-1951, 1953-1955, 1957-1960, 1962-1964, 1966

Cincinnati Contemporary Arts Center (see: Contemporary Arts Center, Cincinnati)

Cincinnati Modern Art Society, 1944-1945, 1949, 1951, 1953

Cincinnati Museum Association, 1932

Cincinnati, University of (see: University of Cincinnati)

Cinnamon, Gerald E., 1952, 1955-1956

Ciranna, Alfonson, 1966

Circle Gallery, 1967, 1968

Circle Typewriter Co., 1963

Cirker Hayes Storage Warehouse, 1966, 1968-1969, 1971

Citro, Jane W., 1952

City Art Museum of St. Louis, undated, 1934-1935, 1944-1952, 1954-1961, 1963-1969

City College, New York, 1955-1956

City College Press, Inc., 1957

City of Long Beach, 1953

City of New York, Department of Finance, 1934

Clark and Gibby, Inc., 1952

Clark, Charles D., 1964-1965

Clark, Mr. and Mrs. Hamilton, 1930

Clark, Mrs. J. III., undated

Clark, Kemp, 1964

Clark, Stephen C., undated, 1949, 1953

Clarke, Jack, undated, 1956

Clarke, John Lee, Jr., 1956

Clawson, Rex, 1953

Clearing House for American Art, 1953

Clearwater Art Museum, 1943 (see also: Florida Gulf Coast Art Center)

Cleary, James N., 1941

Clements, Geoffrey, 1964-1965, 1968

Cleveland Institute of Art, 1949, 1956

Cleveland Museum of Art, 1932-1933, 1935, 1945, 1947, 1951, 1954, 1956, 1958, 1960-1965, 1967

Cleveland Plain-Dealer, 1951, 1955

Cleveland Press, 1951

Clifford, 1942

Clifton Antique Shop, 1953

Clinton Prison, 1940

Clivette, Junyta, 1932

Cloar, Carroll, undated, 1953, 1958, 1963

Cloar, Ethel, 1967

Clowns Unlimited, 1961

Coale, Rita (Mrs. D. Edgar), 1967

Coate, Judi, 1962

Coates, Boo and/or Robert, 1949, 1962-1963, 1965

Cobb, Hubbard H., 1962

Cobb, Margaret Ayer, 1958

Cober Gallery, 1960

Coblentz, Bart, 1968

Cochran, Gifford A., 1954-1955

Cocks, Dorothy, 1962

Coe College, 1954-1959, 1961

Coe, John J., 1960, 1962

Coe, Myrtle H., 1956

Coffin, Edmund, undated, 1964-1965

Cogar, James L., 1942

Cogswell, Mrs. Ledyard, 1963

Cohen, Alfred B., 1960

Cohen, George Mitchell, 1958-1959

Cohen, Herbert L., 1956

Cohen, Hyman, 1933-1934

J. M. Cohen, Inc., 1960

Cohen, Jack H., 1968

Cohen, Jordan, 1962

Cohen, Maurice U., 1959

Cohen, Sheldon S., 1967-1968

Cohen, Wilfred P., 1958

Cohn, Mrs. Charles N., 1966

Cohn, Harold, 1932

Cohn, Lilian (Mrs. David L.), 1964-1965

Coiner, Charles T., 1939

Colby College, undated, 1954, 1956-1957, 1959-1966, 1968

Cole, Allen O., 1968

Cole, J. Gerald, 1959

Cole, Richard, 1967, 1968

Coleman Art Gallery, 1948-1949, 1955, 1957

Coleman, Edward J., 1957

Coleman, Grace N., 1932

Colin, Mr. and/or Mrs. Ralph F., undated, 1952, 1958, 1961, 1968 (see also: Art Dealers Association)

"Collectors Choice," 1966

Collectors' Gallery, Inc., 1957, 1964-1965

Collectors Press, 1968

Collectors Society, 1956

College Art Association, 1933

College Art Journal, 1953, 1959

College of William and Mary, 1963 (see also: William and Mary College)

College of Wooster, 1941

Collins, Enid D., 1934

Collins, Robert J., 1958

Collins, William W., 1969-1970

Colonial Trust Company, 1949

Colonial Williamsburg, 1945-1946, 1955-1957, 1959

Colony Furniture Shops, Inc., 1952

Colorado Springs Fine Arts Center, undated, 1953-1955, 1957, 1959, 1963-1964, 1967

Colorado, University of (see: University of Colorado)

Colten, 1963

Colten Photos, undated, 1940, 1946-1947, 1953

Coltman, Arthur, 1965-1966

Columbia Museum of Art, 1951-1952, 1955-1957, 1959-1960, 1962-1963, 1965-1968

Columbia University, 1952, 1956-1957

Columbus Gallery of Fine Arts, 1933-1935, 1942, 1949-1950, 1952-1953, 1955-1957, 1959-1960, 1962-1965

Columbus Museum of Arts and Crafts, Inc., 1956, 1961

Comeau, Harry A., 1934

Comet-Ray Letter Service, Inc., 1954, 1960-1969

Commerce Trust Co., 1964-1966

Commercial Office Supply, 1962-1963, 1965, 1969

Commissione Americana per gli Scambi Culturale con l'Italia, 1956

Committee for the Negro in the Arts, 1950

Committee of Artists' Societies, 1964

Committee on International Exchange of Persons, 1963

Committee to Save the Cooper Union Museum, 1963-1964

Community, 1958

Community Arts Program, 1954

Community Coordinating Council of North Queens, 1959

Comolli and Company, 1958, 1959

F. E. Compton and Company, 1955, 1957

Compton, Walter, 1968

Computer Corporation of America, 1967

Comsky, David, 1963

Conant, Mrs. G. P., 1959

Concordia Teachers College, 1967

Con-Data Systems, Inc., 1964

Condé-Nast Publications, Inc., 1932, 1943-1945, 1957

Condon, R. E., 1956

Condon, Rudolph, 1964

Conference Board of Associated Research Councils, 1953

Congregation Adath Jeshurun, 1964

Congregation B'nai Israel, 1963

Congregation B'nai Torah, 1964

Congregation Emanu-El, 1959-1960

Congregation Zichron Ephriam, 1955

Connecticut Historical Society, 1965-1966

Connecticut Light and Power Co., 1967

Connecticut, University of (see: University of Connecticut)

Connor, Howard, 1964

Connor, Mr., 1966

Conrad, Earl, 1964

Conrad, Joan, 1961

Conrad, Rupert, 1961

Consolidated Edison Co., 1938, 1941, 1946-1947, 1950, 1953, 1958, 1961

Contact Answering, Inc. 1964

Container Corporation of America, 1959, 1962

Contemporaries Gallery of Sculpture and Graphic Art, undated, 1956-1957, 1967-1968

Contemporary American Sculptors, Inc., 1948

Contemporary Art, undated, 1948-1949

Contemporary Arts Association, 1949-1951

Contemporary Arts Association of Houston, Inc., 1950, 1952, 1954-1955, 1963-1965

Contemporary Arts Center, Cincinnati, 1954, 1956-1957, 1959, 1960-1961, 1963-1965, 1968

Contemporary Arts Museum, Houston, 1955-1958 (see also: Houston Museum of Contemporary Art)

Contemporary Arts Society, Indianapolis, 1963

Contemporary Christian Art Gallery, 1965

Contemporary Crafts Museum, 1965

Contemporary Design, Inc., 1947-1948

Contemporary Interiors, 1967

Contemporary Paintings, undated, 1955, 1961

Contemporary Wallpapers, 1958

Continental Bank and Trust Company of New York, 1945

Continental Illinois National Bank and Trust Co. of Chicago, 1958, 1965

Continental Insurance Co., 1967

Contreras, Belisario R., 1964

Cook, Christopher, 1964

Cook, Mrs. George R., 1960

Cook, Hereward Lester, 1954

Cook, Howard, 1950

Cook, John Alfred and/or Margaret, undated, 1957, 1959-1960, 1962-1964

Cook, Robert H., 1956-1957

Cook, Mr., 1956

Cooley, Peter, 1963

Coolidge, Mountfort, undated

Coons, Mr. and/or Mrs. Sheldon, 1940, 1955-1956

Coopchik, Robert, 1956

Cooper, Mr. and/or Mrs. David Meade, 1962-1964

Cooper, Gary and/or Georgia B., 1947, 1949, 1951

Cooper, Mrs. James, 1955

Cooper, L. E., 1932

Cooper, Peter Brintnal, 1961

Cooper, Samuel C., 1945-1946, 1949, 1962

Cooper Union Museum (see: Committee to Save the Cooper Union Museum)

Co-operative Women's Civic League, 1945

Corbett, Harvey Wiley, 1932-1933

Corcoran Gallery of Art, undated, 1932-1933, 1935, 1944-1945, 1948, 1950-1953, 1956-1970

CORE (Congress on Racial Equality) Scholarship, Education and Defense Fund, 1965

Corinthian Gallery, 1964

Corn Exchange Safe Deposit Co., 1941

Corn Valley Historical Society, 1941

Corn, Wanda, 1964

Cornell College, 1961

Cornell University, 1954, 1956-1957, 1959-1960, 1962, 1964, 1966-1967

Corning Museum of Glass, 1966

Corson, David T., 1956

Cortor, Eldzier, 1942

Cosmopolitan, 1958-1959

Cosmos Travel Bureau, Inc., 1959

Costello, Mrs. John J., Jr., 1959

Louis M. Cottin and Company, 1947

Country Art Gallery, 1960-1961, 1963-1965

Country Beautiful, 1965

County Clerk, New York County, 1956

Courtais, Henri G., 1955

Covel, Elizabeth W., 1958

Covici Friede Inc., 1932

Covington, W., 1945

Cowan, Charna and/or Spencer M., 1951, 1953-1957, 1960

Coward, Thomas R., 1951

Cowdin, Andrea (Mrs. J. Cheever), 1956

Cowdrey, Bartlett, 1958-1959

Cowie Galleries, 1949

Cowlan, Burt, 1965

Cowles, Fleur, 1948

Cowles, Mr. and/or Mrs. Gardner, 1954, 1950

Gardner Cowles Foundation, 1955-1956

Cowles, John, 1951, 1956-1957, 1961, 1963-1965

Cowles, Russell, 1954, 1962

Cowles Syndicate, 1967-1968

Cox, Arnold, 1960

Cox, George, 1967

Cox, John Rogers, 1951

Coxe, Mary, undated

Craft Center, 1964

Craft, Douglas D., 1961

Cramer, David A., 1966

Cramer, Florence B., 1957

Cranbrook Academy of Art, 1944, 1953, 1958-1959, 1966 (see also: Museum of the Cranbrook Academy of Art)

Crane, Charles L., 1960

Crane, Harriet, 1956

Crane, Helen (Mrs. Harry H.), 1961

Crane Kalman Gallery, 1962

Crane, Margery A. (Mrs. Ralph T., Jr.), 1959

Crass, Roger, 1960

Craven, George N., 1957, 1959

Craven, Wayne, 1961, 1967-1968

Crawford, John M., Jr., undated, 1960-1961

Crawford, Peggy and/or Ralston, 1958, 1963

Creative Art -- , 1932

Creekmore, Raymond, 1934

Crehan, Hubert, 1955

Pachita Crespi Gallery, undated

Crichlow, Ernest, undated

Crisera, Joseph, 1956

Crispo, Andrew, 1968

Crispp, Norman, 1969

Criss, Francis, 1958

Crockett, Elizabeth A., 1964

Cronin, John F., 1965

Cronin, Richard, 1966

Caresse Crosby Gallery of Modern Art, 1945

Cross and Brown Company, 1960, 1962, 1966

Cross, Harold F., 1965

Cross, John M., 1969

Crossgrove, Roger L., 1963

Crossman, Jerome K., 1956

Crotty Heating and Cooling Corp., 1941

Crow, Tramwell, 1967

Crowell-Collier Educational Corporation, 1966

Crowell, Merle, 1934

Crowell, Rodger Palea, undated

Thomas Y. Crowell Company, 1956

Crowley, M. J., 1960-1961

Crown Publishers, Inc., 1965, 1966, 1969

Crowninshield, Frank, undated, 1930-1934, 1939, 1941, 1945

Crozier, Mrs. Emmet, 1961

Crumbach, Mrs. Simeon, 1955

Crye, Caroll, 1952

Joan Crystal Gallery, 1963

Cudahy, Bettina (Mrs. Anthony B.), 1954-1955

Cuddeback, Charles H., 1944

Cue -- , 1962-1963

Culberg, M.E., 1951-1952

Cullen, Countee, 1943

Cullen, William, 1958

Culler, George, 1962

Cullman, Mrs. Howard, 1960

Cummer Gallery of Art, 1965, 1968-1969

Cummings, Bill, 1965

Cummings, Marian (Mrs. e. e.), undated, 1959, 1963

Cummings, Millie and/or Willard H., undated, 1955, 1957-1958, 1960-1965

Cummings, Minnette (Mrs. H. King), undated

Cummings, Mr. and/or Mrs. Nathan, 1952-1954, 1956, 1959, 1967-1968

Cummings, Paul, undated,1968

Cummins, Ralph H., 1964

Cunningham, Charles C., undated, 1965-1967

Curl, Huldah Whipple, 1961

Curran, Ona (Mrs. Harold P.), 1965

Current Biography -- , 1964

Currier Gallery of Art, undated, 1948-1949, 1954-1957, 1959-1963, 1966

Currier, Stephen E., 1958

Curry, Larry, 1968

Curtis, George A., 1962

Curtis Lighting, Incorporated, 1945

Cushing, George M., Jr., undated

Customs Bureau, 1959, 1962 (see also: U.S. Customs Service)

Cutler, Carol, 1961

Cutler, Vergne, 1955

Cutting, Helen (Mrs. Charles Suydam), undated, 1946-1947, 1949, 1956-1958, 1960-1961

Cutting, Heyward, 1960, 1962-1965, 1967

D Contemporary Art Gallery, 1955-1962 (see also: Terry Dintenfass, Inc.)

Daché, Lilly, 1944

Dahill, Tom, Sr., 1956, 1958

Dahlberg, Edward, 1957-1959

Dailey, George A., 1952

Dale, Mrs. Chester, 1967

Dale County War Memorial Library, 1957

Dallas Morning News -- , 1956

Dallas Museum for Contemporary Arts, 1958-1963 (see also: Dallas Society for Contemporary Arts)

Dallas Museum of Fine Arts, undated, 1934-1935, 1940-1942, 1945, 1951-1954, 1957-1959, 1961-1965

Dallas Society for Contemporary Arts, 1956-1957 (see also: Dallas Museum for Contemporary Arts)

Dallas Theatre Center, 1967

Dallas, University of (see: University of Dallas)

Dallas Young Collections, 1956 (see also: Young Collections)

Dallett, Ione Robinson, 1940

Dalton, Harry L., 1965, 1966

Dambrov, Alan S., 1968

Dame, Laurence, 1958

D'Amelio, Joseph A., 1964

Dameshek, William, 1962-1964

Damico, J., 1958-1959

Dana, Lester, 1956

Dana, Mr. and/or Mrs. Richard H., undated, 1958, 1964

Danbury Scott-Fanton Museum and Historical Society, Inc., 1958

Dane, Joseph Bert, 1958

Danhausen, Eldon, 1954

Daniel, Allen S., 1952

Daniel, Charles, 1932, 1959

Daniel, Edwin J., 1950

Daniell, George, 1956

Daniels, A. T., 1953

Danish Information Office, 1959

Dann, Gertrude H. (Mrs. David S.), undated, 1956, 1960

Bernard Dannenberg Galleries, 1966, 1968

Danoff, I. Michael, 1965

Danzig, Lamont E., 1969

Danzig, Mrs. Sidney J., 1963

Darbee, Mrs. William, 1939

D'Arcy Advertising Company, 1959

Darmstadt-Eberstadt, 1963

Darrah, Frank J., 1944

Darriau, Jean, 1956

Darrow, Paul, 1955-1956

Dart, Gawaine, 1960

Dartiel, 1969

d'Artista, Robert, 1952

Dartmouth College, 1930, 1935, 1944, 1948, 1951-1952, 1962-1963

Dartmouth College Club, 1959

Dartt, James G., 1949

Elsie Das Hawaiian Originals, 1962

Daughters of the American Revolution Museum, 1941

Davenport, Bill, 1964

Davenport Municipal Art Gallery, 1951-1952, 1958-1959, 1963, 1968

Davenport, Roselle, 1963

David, David, 1931, 1961

David Gallery, undated, 1966

David's Sholom, 1965

Davidson, undated

Davidson, Mrs. Daniel, 1955

Davidson, Leroy B., 1947

Davidson, W. F., 1939

Davis, Allan A., 1964

Davis and Heffner, 1951

Davis, Bernard, 1940

Davis, Bette, 1941

Davis, Dorland and Co., 1942

Davis, Mrs. Dwight F., 1938

Davis, Mrs. Edwin L., 1965

Davis, Emma Lou, undated, 1942

Davis, Ferdinand H., 1961

Davis, Floyd, 1938

Davis Galleries, undated

Davis, Ginger, 1968

Davis, Henry A., 1956

Davis, Hubert, 1941

Davis, Janet Evans, 1959

Davis, Kathe, 1959

Davis, Lew, 1959

Davis, Mary M. (Mrs. Keith), 1962

Davis, Richard, 1931

Davis, Richard B., 1966

Davis, Richard S., 1951-1954

Davis, Robert Tyler, 1943, 1959

Davis, Roselle and/or Stuart, 1931, 1946, 1953-1956, 1959, 1963-1965, 1967

Davis, Virginia Stetiley, undated

Davis, Mrs. Walter, 1963

Davison Art Center, 1952-1953, 1955 (see also: Wesleyan University)

Davisson, 1940

Dawson, Sam, 1959

Day and Meyer, Murray and Young Corp., 1968

Day and Zimmerman, Inc., 1955

Day, Lucy D. (Mrs. W. E., Jr.), undated, 1962

Days, Jacquelyn, 1968

Dayton Art Institute, 1934, 1939, 1949, 1951, 1953, 1955, 1958-1959, 1966-1967

Dayton Typographic Service, 1965

Dayton's Gallery, 1966

Deal, Ogden, 1960

Dealers of American Art, 1957 (see also: New York Dealers of American Art)

"Dealers Show American Art," 1941

Dearden, Francis Greenwood, 1952-1953

de Bedts, Ralph F. and/or Ruth, 1958, 1961

Decca Records, Inc., 1943

de Coninck, Suzanne, 1960

Decorators Club, Inc., 1939, 1941, 1943

De Cordova and Dana Museum and Park, undated, 1951, 1957-1958, 1959, 1961, 1963

de Cordova, Nancy, 1964

Major William F. Deegan Post No. 1, 1941

Defenbacher, Dan S., 1958, 1966

de Gampes, Enriqueta, 1953

de Golier, Mary Ann (Mrs. Ralph J.), undated, 1947, 1964, 1966-1967

de Graaf, Mrs. Peter, 1967

de Graaff, Mr. and/or Mrs. Jan, 1948, 1951-1952

Jack De Gregory and Company, 1967

de Groot, Adelade Milton, undated, 1941

De Haan, Norman R., 1965-1966

de Hauke, Cesar M., 1958-1959

DeHaven, Heidi, 1959

De Hovitz, Bernard, 1958-1959, 1961

Deitsch, Peter H., 1959

Deitsch Gallery, 1956

de Koven, Daniel, undated, 1950, 1956, 1959-1960

Delahantey, William E., 1954

deLara, Jea'Belle, 1957

Delavan, Elizabeth G. and/or Nelson B., Jr., 1963, 1965-1966

Delaware Art Center, 1959-1960, 1967 (see also: Society of the Fine Arts)

Delaware, University of (see: University of Delaware)

Delaware Valley Art Foundation, 1959

K. Delbanco, Incorporated, 1957

Delfino, Peter, undated, 1962

Isaac Delgado Museum of Art, 1949, 1959-1960

Delhorn, M. M., 1969

de Liagre, Alfred, 1959

Delloye, Charles, 1962

Delmonico's Hotel, 1964

Delphic Studios, 1933

Delta Letter Service, undated

Demarest Memorial Foundation, Inc., 1956-1957

de Menil, Mr. and Mrs., 1965

de Menil, Mr. and/or Mrs. Jean, 1951, 1955

de Menil, John, 1957, 1962

Demeter, Mary, 1958

De Mille, Agnes George, 1966

Demmer, Vera Haberle, 1962

Demmer, Victor, 1967

Demotte, L. J., 1933

Eva De Nagy Gallery, 1960

Dendal, Yves, 1957

Denenberg, Stuart R., 1966

De Niro, Helen M., 1952

Denman, Carl, 1963-1965

Denman, Jean and/or John C., undated, 1946-1949, 1951, 1953-1956, 1958-1960, 1962, 1964, 1966

Dennison, Carl L., undated, 1965-1968

J. M. Dent and Sons Ltd., 1959

Denver Art Museum, 1935, 1937-1939, 1942, 1951, 1955-1960, 1963, 1965-1966, 1968

Department of Commerce and Public Events, New York City, 1957

Department of Labor, 1952

Department of State, 1946, 1951, 1960-1963, 1965-1971 (see also: U.S. Department of State)

Department of the Army, Reorientation Branch, 1949-1950 (see also: U. S. Army)

De Pauw University, 1959

Deramus, Mrs. John, 1961

Derecktor, Lina P., 1956

Derkert, Carlo, 1963

Derrickson, Howard, 1949

Derskey, Morris, 1955

Derum, Ardis V., 1958

de Santamaria, Marta, 1955

De Schepper, Gerald R., 1964

De Sharp, Ernest, undated, 1942, 1944

J. Blaise de Sibour and Company, 1953, 1956-1957

Design -- , 1948, 1951

Design Associates Gallery International, 1967

Design Publishing Co., 1947

Deskey, Donald, 1932

Des Moines Art Center, 1949-1968

Des Moines Art Center, Junior Art Museum (see: Junior Art Museum of the Des Moines Art Center)

Des Moines Association of Fine Arts, 1934, 1939-1940

Des Moines Register and Tribune, 1955, 1957

Despres, Leon M., 1948, 1951-1952

Despres, Marion A. (Mrs. Leon M.), 1952

Detering Galleries, 1956-1958

Detroit Artists Market (see also: Mrs. H. Lee Simpson)

Detroit Institute of Arts, 1935, 1937-1946, 1948-1955, 1957-1960, 1962-1968

Detroit Museum of Art Founders Society, 1941, 1956-1957, 1960

Detroit School of Art, 1935

Detweiler, Joan (Mrs. Frank Hall), undated, 1962

Deutsch, Mrs. James, 1961

Devean, Ross R., 1940

Devernay, Joseph, 1966

Devine, Thomas, 1959

De Vito, Teresa M., 1961

Devlin Gallery, 1965

DeVoe, Nina, 1963

DeVoos, Julius J., 1966

Devree, Mr. and/or Mrs. Howard, 1940, 1955-1958, 1962

Dewald, Elsie, 1965

M. H. de Young Memorial Museum, undated, 1933, 1935, 1939, 1941-1943, 1945, 1946, 1949, 1965, 1968

d'Harnoncourt, René and/or Sarah, undated, 1951, 1968

Diamant, Linc, 1959

Diamond, Harold, 1958-1959

Diamond, Isidore, 1959

Dickinson College, 1965

Dickinson, Edwin W., 1959

Dickinson, Preston, 1930

Dickler, Gerald, 1964, 1965-1967

Dickson, George L., 1952

Dickstein, Samuel, 1941

Dienst Voor Schone Kunsten der Gemeente 'S-Gravenhage, 1954-1955, 1964 (see also: Gemeentemuseum)

Dijkstra, Sandra, 1967

Dilley, Ray, 1952

Dillon, C. Douglas, 1959

Dillon, Enid K. [Nikkie], 1968-1969

Diners Club, Inc., undated, 1959, 1967-1968

Dinko, Andrew, 1965

Dinner in Tribute to S. Hurok, 1967

Terry Dintenfass, Inc., 1962-1963, 1965, 1968, 1971 (see also: D Contemporary)

District of Columbia Public Library, 1962

Dobson, Merlin W., 1969

Dochterman, Lillian, 1962

Dodd, Mead and Company, 1941

Dodge, Mrs. B., 1956

Dodge, Hannah S. (Mrs. Ozias), 1955

Doemling, Robert W., 1959

Doerning, E. B., 1941

Doherty, Beatrice E., undated, 1955

Doi, Blanche, 1968

Doi, Isamu, 1966

Dole Company, 1968

Dole, William, 1967

Dollin, Lois Eaton, 1965

Dolphin, Harriet, 1968

Dombrowski, Jim, 1966

Dominat, Paul, 1961, 1963

Dominican Repbulic, Embassy of (see: Embassy of the Dominican Republic)

Donahue, Frank M., 1952

W. B. Donner and Company Advertising, 1953

Donoho, David, 1962, 1963

Donohue, Paula (Mrs. George M.), 1952-1953, 1955-1956, 1958

Donovan, Anne K., 1955

Ellen Donovan Gallery, 1953

Donson, Jerome Allan, undated, 1960, 1963

Dordan, Leonard, 1961

Doremus and Co., Ltd., 1964

Dorens and De Waal, 1950

George J. Dorfman and Company, 1958-1961, 1965-1967

Dorfman, Robert L., undated, 1969

Dorment, James, Jr., 1969

Dormer, James T., 1965

Dorne, Albert, 1940, 1941, 1952-1954

Dorner, Alexander, 1938

Dorsky Gallery, 1965

Doubleday and Company, Inc., 1966-1968

Doubleday Book Shop, 1959

Doudera, Gerard, 1961

Dougherty, Mrs. Frazer, 1967

Doughty, Frances, 1942

Douglas, Bernard, 1956

Frederick Douglass Institute, 1967 (see also: Museum of African Art)

George Douglass, Inc., 1966 (see also: Fine Arts Conservation Laboratories, Inc.)

Douty, Esther M. (Mrs. Harry M.), 1960

Dove, Mrs., 1958

Dove, Aline, 1965

Dove, Reds (Mrs. Arthur), undated

Dove, William, 1954, 1968

Dover, Cedric, 1959

Dover Publications, Inc., 1963, 1969

Dow and Stonebridge, 1965

Dowell, Violet Hayden, 1964

Dowling, Robert W., 1959

Downing, George E., 1967

Downtown Community School, 1955, 1957-1958

Downtown Gallery, undated, 1927, 1936, 1952, 1961

Downtown Gallery Welfare Fund, 1952

Dows, Olin, undated, 1940-1942

Doyle, Louis, 1955

Drabkin, David and/or Stella, undated, 1956-1959, 1967

Drake, Ed, 1963

Drake, H. B., 1965

Lawrence Drake Gallery, 1960

Drake University, 1948, 1954-1956, 1965

Walter Drake and Sons, Inc., 1965, 1968

Draper, Mary Childs, undated, 1958, 1961-1966

Dreier, Katherine S., 1944-1945, 1948-1949 (see also: Société Anonyme)

Dressner Company, 1965

Drew University, 1966

Drewes, William K., 1955

Drey, Walter, 1938

Dreyfuss, Doris, 1966

Dreyfuss, Henry, 1947, 1949-1951, 1953, 1956-1957, 1959, 1961-1962, 1966-1967

Driscoll, C. P., 1966

Driscoll, Thomas, 1959

Dryden Press, Inc., 1946

Duane, James C., undated, 1969

Dubinsky, Linda, 1961

Dublin, Mrs., 1927

Dubnow, Rochelle Meta, undated, 1960, 1964

Dubuque Art Association, 1958

Duca, Alfred, 1961

Duchamp, Marcel, 1965

Duchin, Eddie, 1941

du Cros, L. Teissier, 1961

Dudensing Galleries, Inc., undated, 1931-1933

Dudensing, Leroy, 1930

Dudensing, Richard, 1930-1931

Dudensing, Valentine, 1957

Dudley, Harold R., 1961

Duffy, James F., 1957

Duhamel, P. Albert, 1965

Duhl, Leonard J., 1957

Dumont Broadcasting Corp., 1957

Dunbar Accessories, 1955, 1956

Dunbar, Anna (Mrs. Davis), undated, 1941

Dunbar Furniture Corporation, 1955-1957, 1963

Duncan, Barbara, undated, 1955

Duncan, Charles, 1950

Dundee Designs, 1955

Dunham, Katherine, 1941

Dunham, W. Stacey, 1952

Dunhill Construction Corporation, 1965

Dunleavy, Anne, 1966

Dunn and Bradstreet, Inc., 1960

Dunn, Harry Hopkins, undated, 1941

Dunn International Exhibition, 1963

Dunn, James Taylor, 1961, 1963

Dupont, Harry F., 1939

Durand-Ruel, Inc., 1942

Durant, T. W., 1942

Durfen, Charles, Jr., 1964

Durlacher Bros., 1955

Durnan, Charles F., 1933

H. Duroff and Sons, Inc., 1963

Dutila, Mary, undated

Duval, Jean-Jacques, 1960

Duval, Sally, 1951

Duveen, Albert, 1940-1941

Duveen Brothers, Inc., 1935

Duveen, Joseph, 1931

Duveen, Lord, 1934-1935

Duveen-Graham Gallery, 1957

Dwight, Edward H., 1948

Dwinell, Betty, 1952

Dyke Air Conditioning Co., 1961

Dykes Lumber Co., 1964

Dyne, Michael, undated, 1965

Eagle, Joanne Shaw, 1964, 1967

Eakins Press, 1968

East Cleveland Museum Galleries, 1964

East End Electric Company, 1941

East Side House Winter Antiques Show, 1955

Eastchester Library, 1964

Eastern Airlines, Inc., undated, 1945, 1960, 1966-1967

Eastern Arts Association, 1956

Eastern Illinois University, 1964

Eastern Washington State Historical Society, 1962

George Eastman House, 1959, 1961, 1966

Eastman, John, Jr., undated, 1964, 1967

Eaton, Lawrence G., 1961

Eaves, Winslow Bryan, 1948

Ebenhart Antiques, 1959

Eberts, Mrs. Frank J., 1954

Ecke, Mrs. B. T., 1969 (see also: Tseng, Yu-Ho)

Ecke, Mrs. Gustav, 1964 (see also: Tseng, YuHo)

Ecke, Tseng, 1968 (see also: Tseng, Yu-Ho)

Ecker, Frances S., 1946

Eckstein, George, 1958

Economy Buying Service, 1960

Edblom, T. Thomas, 1957

Edelman, Bernard, 1958

Edelson, Gilbert S., 1967

Edelstein, Anna, 1959

Edelstein, Haskell, 1968

Edelstein, J. M., 1963

Edelstone, Martha M. and/or Sigmund E., undated, 1954

Edenburg, Dorothy Braude (Mrs. E. M.), 1954, 1956-1957

Edison, Julian I., 1961-1962

Thomas A. Edison Industries, 1957, 1959, 1965

Editorial Projects, Inc., 1960, 1964, 1968

Edizioni d'Arte Moderna, 1965

Edmundson Art Foundation, Inc., 1963

Edson, Enid, 1964

Educational Alliance, 1963

Educational Dimensions Corporation, 1968

Edwards, Archibald C., 1949-1950, 1954-1955, 1957, 1959, 1961, 1963-1964

Edwards, F. P., 1952

Edwards, Oscar, 1965

Edwards Products Company, 1964

Eeckhout, Paul, 1964

Effenbach, Lillian, 1963

Efron, George, 1953

Egan Gallery, 1961, 1966

Egner, Arthur F., 1933

Ehrenfeld, Pierre, undated

Ehrenfest, Fritz, 1942-1943, 1951

Ehrenfest, Paul and Elizabeth, 1961

Ehrlich, Mrs. C., 1961

Ehrlich, Simon, 1957

Ehsofon, Joan, 1957

Eidlitz, Dorothy Meigs (Mrs.Ernest Frederick), undated, 1950-1951, 1954, 1968

Einhorn, Harold, 1967

Einstein, William, 1951

Eisenberg, Stuart, 1967

Eisenberg, Theresa (Mrs. Benjamin K.), 1963

Eisendrath, Bill and/or Eva, undated, 1960-1961

Eisenstadt, Julius, 1965

Eisenstein, Mrs. Julian, 1960

Eisler, Mrs. Lee, 1958

Elber, Mrs. George A., 1953

Elber, Sylvia, 1953

Elerbee and Co., 1957

Elfirn, Peggy, undated

Eliot, Alexander, undated, 1954

Elish, Mrs. Herbert, 1964

Elisofen, Eliot, 1958, 1962, 1964

Elkoff, Marvin, 1964

Ellenberg, Max, 1969

Ellenhorn, David N., 1969

Ellerbee and Company, 1958

Douglas L. Elliman and Co., Inc., 1944

Elliott, Mr., 1960

Elliott, James H., 1955

Elliott, Laura, undated, 1956

Elliott, Mathilde Rice (Mrs. Richard M.), 1966

Ellis, Billie L. (Mrs. Donald), 1965

Ellis, G. William, undated

Ellis, Garland A., 1952, 1956-1957, 1960

Ellis, William, 1960

Ellison, A. K., 1952

Ells, Hal P., 1961

Elmore, Helen, undated

Elsen, Albert E., 1965

Elterman, David I., 1959

Elwell, George L., 1952

Elzer, Mr. and Mrs. Norman, 1963

Emau-el Midtown YM-YWHA, 1965

Embassy of Israel, 1969

Embassy of the Dominican Republic, 1964

Embassy of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, 1941, 1958-1959

Embassy of the United States of America, Oslo, 1953 (see also: Norwegian Embassy)

Embry, Debbie, 1961

Emerson, R. H., 1953

Emery Air Freight, 1967

Emil, Allan D. and/or Kate, undated, 1955, 1957-1958, 1961-1963, 1965-1967

Emilson, Mrs. Sten, 1963

Emmel, G. Leonard, 1953

Andre Emmerich Gallery, 1960, 1962

Empire Furnace and Stove Repair Co., 1939

Employer Aids, 196

Encyclopedia Americana -- , 1955

Encyclopedia Britannica -- , 1944-1946, 1948, 1950, 1958-1959, 1962, 1968

Encyclopedia Judaica Research Foundation, 1966

Encyclopedia of World Art -- , 1958

Endicott, Priscilla M.,1949

Engelking, Mrs. A. C., 1963

Engel, Herman J., 1963-1964

England, Mrs. Ben, 1966

Engleman, Mark, 1952

Enlow, Max, 1962

Enoch, Margaret M., 1967

Enterprise Magazine, Inc., 1956

Environment, 1963

Epp, Allen D., 1966, 1967

Epstein, Ellen and/or Henry J., undated, 1959-1960

Epstein, Jacob and/or Kathleen, 1956-1959

Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, 1965

Equitable Life Assurance Society, 1961, 1964

Erasco International Corporation, 1958

Erdelac, Joe, 1968

Eric, S. W., 1955

Erman, John M., 1966

Ermoyan, Genie, 1960

Ernst, Dallas, 1960

Ernst, Jimmy, 1958

Ernst, Virginia M., 1964

Erpf, Armand, undated, 1955-1956, 1959-1960, 1963-1965

Erwin, Hobe, 1949

Escarra-Champtier de Ribes, Marie Edmee, 1959-1960

Escola Nationale des Belles Artes (Brazil), 1931

Eshelman, John J., 1952

Esman, A. H., 1957

Esman, Rosa, 1958

Essex County Section, National Council of Jewish Women, Inc., undated

Esquir -- e, 1944, 1962

Esterly, John R. and/or Nancy B., 1961-1963

Estes, Anne (Mrs. L. H., Jr.), 1958

Ethe, Solomon, 1960

Etheridge, O., 1955

Etnier, Susan (Mrs. Carley), undated, 1934

Etra, Martin, 1962

Etrovich, Anthony W., 1951-1952

Ettinger, Henry, 1964-1965

Ettlinger, Marjorie and/or Richard L., 1961, 1964

Eulau, Mr. and/or Mrs. Milton B., 1965-1966

Eurich, Alvin, 1952

European Marble Co., 1968

Evans, Clifford, 1961, 1962-1963

Evans, Mrs. Harry, 1933-1934

Evans, Michael, undated

Evans, Richard II, 1962-1963, 1965, 1967

Evansville Museum of Arts and Sciences, 1968

Evansville Press, 1956, 1958

Evansville Public Museum, 1949, 1952

Evening and Sunday Bulletin -- , 1965

Evergood, Philip, undated

Everhart Museum, 1964

Everitt, Robert Staunton and/or Paulina, 1960, 1963

Everson Museum of Art, 1959, 1965-1966

Everts, Mrs. Frank J., 1954-1956

Evett, Kenneth, 1960

Ewing, Suzanna and Edgar, undated

Excelsior Savings Bank, 1946, 1953-1954, 1960

Exhibition Momentum (artists' group), 1954 (see also: Momentum)

Eyerly, Frank and/or Jeanette, 1953-1954, 1957, 1961

Fabry, Alois, 1958

Fadiman, Genee (Mrs. William), 1958, 1961

Fagen, Abel E., 1956, 1958

Fagen, Mildred R., undated, 1958-1959

Fainberg, M., 1934

Farleigh Dickinson College, 1952

Fairleigh Dickinson University, 1957-1963

Fairmount Temple, 1960

Fairweather, Sally (Mrs. Owen), undated, 1948-1950, 1954, 1967 (see also: Contemporary Art; Fairweather-Hardin Gallery)

Fairweather-Garnett Gallery, 1953

Fairweather-Hardin Gallery, 1952, 1954-1955, 1958-1960, 1962-1969 (see also: Contemporary Art; Fairweather, Sally)

Faison, S. Lane, Jr., 1963, 1965, 1967

Falk, A. C., 1959

Falk, Philip, 1966

George Fall Edition, 1958

Fall, Mrs. George, 1956

Falmer, Daniel W.,1956

Falzoni, Giodano, 1955

Family Weekly -- , 1959

Famous Artists Magazine -- , 1961, 1964, 1968

Famous Artists Schools, Inc., 1953, 1959, 1964, 1967

Far Brook School, 1957, 1959

Far Gallery, 1964

Farley, Marsha, 1957

Farnham, Emily, 1955-1956,1958, 1965-1968

William A. Farnsworth Library and Art Museum, 1948-1951

Farnsworth Television and Radio Corporation, 1944

Farrar, Margaret (Mrs. John), 1966

Farrar, Straus and Cudahy, Inc., 1956

Farrar, Straus and Young, Inc, 1954

Farrell, Helen Cottrell, 1957

Farrington, Carl S., 1961-1962

Fashion Institute, 1959

Faulkner, Ray N., 1943

Fawcett, Robert, 1963

Fawcus, 1965

Fay, Clark, 1933

Fearing, Kelly, 1951

Feder, Dan and/or Ruth, 1964-1965

Federal Air Conditioning Corporation, 1957, 1962

Federal Art Project, 1936-1937

Federal Civil Works Administration, 1934

Federal Storage Co., 1958

Federal Works Agency, Work Projects Administration, 1940-1943 (see also: Works Progress Administration)

Federation of Jewish Philanthropies, 1947, 1964

Fee, Irene, 1958

Feigen Palmer Gallery, 1966

Feigen, Richard Lee, 1955, 1964

Richard Feigen Gallery, Inc., undated, 1960, 1968

Feigman, Joyce and/or Saul, 1959-1960, 1963, 1966-1967

Fein, Barnet, 1965

Feiner, Mrs. Ben, 1954

Feiner, Wilhelmina Fox, 1954

Feingarten, Charles, 1954

Feininger, Julia and/or Lyonel, 1954-1955

Feld, Stuart, 1966

Felden, Victoria, 1962

Feldman, Barbara, 1960, 1962

Feldman, Gloria (Mrs. Marvin K.), 1962

J. Feldman Plumbing and Heating, 1941

Feldman, Joseph P., 1960

Feldman, Maurice, 1962

Feldman, Ralph, undated, 1953

Feldman, S. L., 1960

Feldman, Walter, 1952

Feldstein, Charles R., 1963, 1966

Felheim, La Salle, 1952

Feller, Amy A. Brocks, undated

Felson, H., undated

Fenmore, Maxwell J., 1964

Fenneberg, P., 1963

Fenster, Gershon, 1940-1943

Fenton, Lelia Timberman (Mrs. Gerald), undated

Ferargil, Inc., 1933-1934, 1939, 1943, 1947, 1950

Ferber, Martin J., 1955

Fergenson, A. Leon, 1959, 1961-1965

Ferguson, Mr. and Mrs., 1965

Ferine, James A., 1967

Fermi, Giulio, 1956

Ferrari, Louise, 1966

Ferrieu, Pierre H., 1964

Ferro, Mollie (Mrs. David J.), 1956

Ferry, W. Hawkins, 1953-1956

Ferzinger, Dan, 1963

Fessler, Mrs. James, 1945

Festival Foundation, Inc., 1957

Festival of the Bible in the Arts, 1960

Fidelity Appraisal Company, Inc., 1958

Field, Harold D., 1963

Field, Marshall, 1940, 1968-1969

Marshall Field and Company, 1934, 1941, 1956, 1958

Marshall Field Awards, Inc., 1956

Field, Mrs. Samson R., 1950

Field, Samuel K., 1960

Field, Virginia, 1952

Edward Fields Company, Inc., undated, 1946

Fields, S. R., 1953

Fiene, Ernest, 1958, 1960

Fifth Avenue Bus Advertising Co., 1934

Fifth Avenue Coach Co., 1932

Le Figaro -- , 1951

Figlia and Sons, Inc., 1966

Figueroa, Laura Lopea, 1954

Figure -- , 1956

Filene's, 1951, 1952, 1959

Filler, Louis, 1943

Film Associates, 1968

Filmer, Daniel, 1956

Filner, Catharine P., 1957

Filpi, John A., 1961

Filson, A. I., 1956

Finch College, 1964

Fine, Adolph, 1960-1961

Fine Art Committee, 1947

Fine Arts Associates, 1956

Fine Arts Society of San Diego, 1960

Fine Arts Conservation Laboratories, Inc., undated, 1960-1963, 1966 (see also: George Douglass, Inc.)

Fine Arts Expositions, 1934

Fine Arts Gallery of San Diego, 1935, 1943, 1945-1947, 1951-1952, 1961, 1965, 1968 (see also: San Diego Art Museum)

Fine Arts Patrons of Newport Harbor, 1964 Fine, Barnet, 1965-1966

Finger, O. M., 1943

Fink, David, 1956

Fink, Don, 1956, 1957

Fink, Frances S. (Mrs. Nathan H.), 1963

Fink, Nelson P., 1940

Finkel, Doris W., 1967

Finkelstein, Lester M., 1965

Finkelstein, Maurice, 1946-1947

Finley, David Edward, 1961

Finn, Mrs. Albert, 1963

Finn, Gloria, undated, 1958

Fione, A., 1952

Firemen's Fund Group, 1953

Firestone, Leonard K. and/or Sally C., 1957-1958, 1960

"First Municipal Art Exhibition," 1934

First National Bank of Fort Worth, 1951, 1962

First National Trust and Savings Bank of San Diego, 1959-1961

Firzacca, Patricia, 1965

Fis Printing Sales Co., 1964

Fischer, Leo, undated

Fischer, Max, 1957

Fischer, Merrill, 1955

Fischer, Mr. and/or Mrs. Roland, 1959-1960-1963

Fischmann, Milton, 1961-1962

Fisher, David, 1964

Franklin Fisher and Associates, undated, 1947-1948

Fisher, H. F., 1944

Fisher, James, 1965

Fisher, Nora, 1966

Fishko, Bella, undated, 1961

Fiske Free Library, 1969

Fiske University, 1956

Fisse, Mari M. (Mrs. Frank H.), undated, 1941

Fitch, George H., undated, 1949, 1956, 1958, 1968

Dord Fitz Galleries, 1956-1957

Fitzgerald, Robert, 1966, 1968

FitzGerald, Vincent, 1965

Thoms A. FitzSimon Galleries, 1955

Five Mile River Gallery, 1960

Five Towns Music and Art Foundation, Inc., 1952

Flack, Mrs. Frank M., 1961

Flair, 1949

Flair Galleries, 1965-1967

Flash Mail, 1942

Fleck, Mrs. Edward M., 1959

Fleet Publishing Corp, 1962

Fleischman, Barbara and/or Lawrence Arthur, undated, 1952-1959, 1961-1963, 1965

Fleischman, Martha, 1961

Samuel S. Fleisher Art Memorial, 1965

Fleschner, Laura and/or Malcolm K., 1962, 1968

Fleury, Leo A., undated

Flexner, James T.,1954

Flinn, Gladd, undated

Flint Institute of Arts, 1942-1944, 1956-1958, 1962-1965, 1967

Flock Process Corp., 1940

Florida Artists Group, Inc., 1949

Florida Gulf Coast Art Center, 1949-1953 (see also: Clearwater Art Museum)

Florida Presbyterian College, 1966

Florida State University, 1950, 1952-1953, 1958-1960

Florida, University of (see: University of Florida)

Florsheim, Helen and/or Richard, undated, 1957

Florsheim, Lillian, 1954

Floyd, Thomas H., 1960

Flying Tiger Line, Inc., 1963

Flynn, Harrison and Conroy, 1961

Focus -- , 1951

Fogel, Howard H., 1960

Fogel, Seymour, 1957-1958

Adelaide Fogg Art Gallery, 1958

Fogg Art Museum, undated, 1933-1934, 1940-1945, 1951-1954, 1956-1957, 1960-1961, 1963, 1965-1967, 1969 (see also: Sachs, Paul J.)

Lucien Lefebvre Foinet Co., 1965

Folbre, Terry, 1967

Folds, Thomas, 1951

Foley, John R., 1951, 1953, 1957

Foley's, 1949, 1954

Folio Shop, 1959

Folkway Art Center, 1953

Folsom, Mrs. Arnott R., 1949

Folsom Engraving Co., 1955, 1957-1961, 1963

Fonda, Henry, 1941

Fong, Bernice, undated, 1968

Food Fair Stores, 1956

Foote, Cone and Belding Advertising, 1949

Foote, Donna K., 1967

Foote, John, Jr., 1955

Foote, John H., Jr., 1947

"For Modern Living," 1949

Forbes, Edward W., undated

Force, Juliana, undated, 1930, 1940-1941, 1943

Ford, Benson, undated, 1950

Ford, Mr. and/or Mrs. Edsel, 1933-1934, 1937, 1941-1942

Ford, Eleanor, undated

Ford Foundation, 1958-1961, 1963

Ford, Mr. and/or Mrs. Henry II, 1948, 1953-1957

Ford, Jane (Mrs. Maynard), undated

Ford, Mary, undated

Ford Motor Co., 1955, 1962

Ford, O'Neil, 1956

Ford, Mrs. Walter B., 1961-1962

Fordham University, 1958

Foreman, Mairi, 1961

Forest, Jack J., undated, 1969

Forest Neighborhood House, 1950

Forman, B., 1960

Forman, Cecile, 1957

Forman, Fred, 1960

Forman, Mrs. Joseph, 1957

Forman, Maxine (Mrs. Maurice R.), undated, 1941

Formes -- , undated, 1932

Forsythe Gallery, 1964

Forsythe, Mrs. H. Frank, 1966-1967

Forsythe, Jessie W., 1950

Fort Dodge Federation of Arts, Inc., 1940

Fort, Leonard, undated

Fort Riley, 1961

Fort Wayne and Allen County Public Library, 1964

Fort Wayne Art School and Museum, 1941, 1952, 1958-1959, 1962-1965, 1967

Fort Wayne Arts Foundation, Inc., 1958

Fort Worth Art Association, 1941, 1949, 1951-1953, 1957, 1960, 1964, 1967

Fort Worth Art Center, undated, 1954, 1956, 1959, 1961-1962, 1964, 1968-1969

Fort Worth Star-Telegram -- , 1951

Fortess, Karl E., 1955-1956

Fortune -- , 1939-1942, 1944, 1946, 1948, 1950-1951, 1955-1956, 1958, 1967-1968

40 Plus Club, 1957

Forum Gallery, 1963-1965, 1968

Foshee, Rufus, 1961-1964

Fossum, Syd, 1941-1942

Foster, Evelyn, 1963

Foster, Jim, 1964-1965

Foth, Felicia and Warren, 1963

Foundation Library Center, 1958

Fountain Gallery of Art, 1962, 1965

Four Arts Gallery, 1955

Four Seasons Bookshop, 1954

Fouraker, Stanley R., 1954

Fowler, Alfred, 1949

Fowler, Murray, 1950

Fox, Jerome L., 1961

Fox, Timothy, 1966

Fraiberg, Louis, 1965

Frame, Bryan Ardis, 1951, 1953-1954, 1956-1957, 1961-1962

Franc, Marian K. (Mrs. Spencer W.), 1969

Francis, Henry Sayles, undated

Francis, Muriel B., 1959

Frank, Arthur, 1932

Frank Brothers, 1956

Frank, Mrs. Herbert, 1954-1955

Frank, Joseph, 1965

Frank, Mr. and/or Mrs. Leonard S., 1966

Frank Travel Service, 1964, 1965

Frankel, Thelma (Mrs. Louis), 1958

Frankenstein, Alfred V., 1943, 1948, 1952-1953, 1955-1958, 1962-1963, 1965

Frankenthaler, Helen, 1956

Frankfurter Allianz, undated

Franklin and Walsh, Inc., 1960

Franklin Institute, 1935

Frano, Theodore S., 1954

Fransoli, Thomas A., 1955

Franzheim, Kenneth, 1951-1953, 1955-1956

Fraser and Co., 1968

Robert Fraser Gallery, Ltd., 1963

Fratelli Fabbri Editori, 1966-1969

Frazier, Walter S., 1961, 1964

Frechie, Gordon R., 1964

Freda, Carl, 1965

Fredenthal, H. D., undated

Fredenthal, David and/or Marianne, undated, 1951, 1953-1954, 1957

John Fredericks, Inc., 1954, 1957

Frederics, Fred, 1946-1947, 1952

Frederics, John, 1953

Fredonia Products, undated

Free Library of Philadelphia, 1962, 1964

Freed, John, 1956

Freedman, Florence B. (Mrs. Joel), 1964

Freedman, Dr. and Mrs. Joel M., 1963

Freedman, Michelle, 1952

Freeman, Arthur R. and/or Linda, 1961-1967, 1969

Freeman, Betty and/or Stanley M., undated, 1955, 1957-1960, 1964

Freeman, Fred, 1956

Freeman, Mrs. Gaylord, 1961

Freeman, Hersch B., undated, 1960, 1962-1965, 1967

Freeman, Ira Henry, 1953

Freeman, Joseph T., 1956

Freeman, Karen, 1962, 1965

Freeman, Karen Jane, 1966-1967

Freeman, M. Joel, 1957

Freeman, Reuben L., 1951

Freeman, Richard B., 1935, 1958, 1966, 1969

Freen, Alfred, 1958

Freer, Mrs. M. H., 1968

Freer, Margaret O'Neil, 1969

Freeworth, Leslie, 1960

Freiday, Dean, 1955

Frelinghuysen, A. H., 1941

Frelinghuysen, H. O., 1942

Frelinghuysen, Henry, 1965

French and Co., Inc., 1961

French, John, 1959

Frenkel and Co., Inc., 1953, 1968

Fresno State Teachers College, 1944

Fretwell, Joseph, 1965

Morton Freund Advertising Agency, 1946

Frick Art Reference Library, 1944-1946, 1952

Fricker, Jeanine, 1966

Fricks, Mrs. Ray, 1961

Fried, Elaine, 1965

Rose Fried Gallery, 1963

Fried, Sam, 1956-1957, 1962-1963

Friedberg, M., 1963

Friedland, George, 1954, 1956, 1959

Friedland, Jerome A., 1963

Friedlander, Brent, 1961

Friedlander, Maurice, 1958

Friedman, Mrs. Howard, 1961

Friedman, Jane, 1955

Friedman, M. H., 1965

Friedman, Meyer, undated, 1954, 1956-1958, 1961

Friedman, R. H., 1956

Friedman, Rubin, 1932

Friedman, Townsend, 1934

Friemark, Robert, 1961

Friendly, Dorothy G. and/or Fred W., 1956-1957, 1959, 1961, 1963

Friends Hospital, 1955-1956

Friends of American Art, 1940

Friends of Contemporary Art, Inc., 1950

Friesel, Mrs. Herman, 1958

Frishkorn, Suzanne G., 1963

Frisoli, John D., 1960, 1964

Fritz, Ronald, 1953

Frizzell, Richard, 1961

Froese, Maack and Becker, 1954

Frost, Robert, undated

Frost, Theodore, 1961

Frudenthal, Frank, 1941

Allan Frumkin Gallery, Inc., 1963

Fry, Clements C., 1950

Charles and Emma Frye Free Public Art Museum, 1954

Fryer, Judith E., 1965

Fuessenich, F. W., 1956-1957

Fuji International Art, Inc., undated

Fujii, Mrs. John S., 1962

Fujita, S. Neil, 1959

Fuller, Charles F., 1945, 1947

Fuller, Mrs. Daniel B., 1951

Fuller, E. L., Jr., 1967, 1969

Fuller, Fay N., Jr., 1958

Fulloni, Mario, 1959

Fulton National Bank of Lancaster, 1957

Fund Insurance Companies, 1962

Wilfred Funk and Co., 1965

Furness, F. R., 1941

Furness, Withy and Company, Ltd., undated

G Contemporary Paintings, 1960, 1962-1963, 1966 (see also: James Goodman Gallery)

G Place Gallery, 1944 (see also: David Porter Gallery)

Gabe, Grace, 1960-1961, 1964-1965

Gabriel, Francis X., 1959

Gaer, Joseph, undated

Gaglielmi, Steve, undated

Gaglione, Thomas A., undated, 1952, 1955-1960, 1966 (see also: Mayo Hill Galleries; Wellfleet Art Gallery)

Gaidano, Mario, 1964

Gainesville Sun, 1969

Galanti, Leo F., 1960

Galen, Mrs. Roland, 1957

Galería de Arte Mexicano, 1953-1955

Galerie Beaux Arts, 1931

Galerie Gerda Bassenge, 1963

Galerie Marcel Bernheim, 1963

Galerie de Berri, 1952

Galerie Bonnier, 1963

Galerie Chalette, 1959

Galerie Coard, 1963-1967

Galerie Georges Giroux, 1949

Galerie Hybler, 1960, 1962

Galerie International, 1961

Galerie Intime, 1964 (see also: Ansley Graham's Galerie Intime)

Galerie National, 1961

Galerie S. Ben Wargin, 1965

Galerie Zak, 1934

Galesburg Civic Art League, 1942

Gallagher, Edward J., Jr., undated, 1953-1957, 1959, 1963-1964

Gallagher, Mrs. James E., 1952

Gallagher, Mary, 1929-1931

Gallagher, Mrs. P., 1962

Gallant, W. E., Jr., 1964

Gallatin, A. E., 1931, 1935, 1938

Galleria Milano, 1965

Galleria Penelope, 1964

Galleria Schneider, 1956

Galleries Perreau-Saussine, 1961

Gallery, Inc., 1948, 1957

Gallery Daché, 1967

Gallery Daphne, 1967

Gallery "G", 1956

Gallery House, 1939

Gallery Itoh, 1966 (see also: Itoh Gallery)

Gallery Konarak, 1968

Gallery of Contemporary Art, Australia, 1958

Gallery of Contemporary Art, Toronto, 1956-1957 (see also: Modern Art Gallery of Toronto)

Gallery of Fine Art, 1960

Gallery of Israeli Art, 1969

Gallery of Modern Art incorporating the Huntington Hartford Collection, 1964-1965

Gallery of Modern Art, Scottsdale, 1964

Gallery Pascal, 1965

Gallery Passport, Ltd., 1965

Gallery Productions, 1965

Gallery Reese Palley, 1968

Gallery Seventy-Seven, 1954

Gallery 10, 1961, 1962

E. and J. Gallo Winery, 1964

Gallowhur, George, 1937-1939

Gans, Helene P., 1958

Gans, Mrs. Leonard, 1958

Ganseman, Mme. Jean Paul, 1958

Gantt, Alberta Rae, 1953

Ganso Gallery, 1950

Garbisch, Bernice and/or Edgar W., undated, 1947-1949, 1955, 1957

Gardiner, Avis and/or Rockwell, 1953-1954

Gardner, Conway, 1939

Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum, 1935

Gardner, Margaret, undated

Gardner, Milton, 1961, 1963

Gardner, Paul, 1933-1934, 1950

Gardner, Ruth, 1957

Garelick's Gallery, 1955, 1957, 1959, 1962, 1964

Garfield, Evelyn G. (Mrs. Gustave B.), 1959

Garrett, Alice, 1935

Garrett, Shirley, undated, 1948, 1953

Garrett, William S., Jr., 1952

Gartenberg, Laura (Mrs. Albert), 1963

Gash, Mr. and/or Mrs. Frederick, 1951, 1959, 1967 (see also: Genauer, Emily)

Gast, Harold N., 1959

George Gastine Galleries, 1945

Gaston, Marianne, 1953

Gates, Doris Mead (Mrs. Clinton H.), 1964

George W. Gates and Company, Inc., 1945-1946

Gatling, Eva Ingersoll, undated

Gaudnik, Walter, 1962

Gaylor, Adelaide L. (Mrs. Wood), 1957, 1959, 1969

Geannader, Edward, undated

Geeslin, Campbell, 1962

Geeslin, Gene S., 1965

Geib, Wayne A., 1960

Geigy Chemical Corporation, 1968

Geis, James C., 1968

Geissman, Marcella, 1957

Gelber, Mrs. Walter, 1969

Gemeentemuseum, 1954, 1960-1961, 1964-1965, 1968 (see also: Dienst Voor Schone Kunsten der Gemeente 'S-Gravenhage)

Genauer, Emily, 1946-1948, 1953-1954, 1956-1957, 1959, 1961, 1963-1965, 1967 (see also: Gash, Mrs. Frederick)

General Adjustment Bureau, Inc., 1951, 1964, 1967

General Board of Evangelism of the Methodist Church, 1964 (see also: Methodist Church)

General Cable Corporation, 1951, 1964

General Council of the Mennonite Church, 1962

General Motors Corporation, undated, 1956, 1958, 1968

Geneseo State Teachers College, 1958

Geneva Historical Society, 1967

Gensac, Andre, 1962

Gentry -- , 1956

Geoffrey, Iqbal, 1963

George, Laverne, undated

George, Mr. and/or Mrs. Thomas, 1955-1956

Georgia Museum of Art, 1964

Georgia, University of (see: University of Georgia)

Gerber, Mrs. James, 1962

Gerber, Sidney, 1957, 1959

Germaise, Freitag and Altman, 1961

Gernard, Jack, 1966

Gerngross, Frances (Mrs. H. O.), 1966-1967

H. O. Gerngross and Co., Inc., 1965, 1967

Gersham, M., 1960

Gershoy, Eugenie, 1966-1967

Gershwin, George, 1932-1934

Otto Gerson Gallery, 1960-1961

Gersten, Isabelle and/or Joseph, undated, 1948, 1952-1953, 1955-1958, 1961

Gerwitz, Mrs. Paul, undated, 1961

Getlein, Dorothy and/or Frank, undated, 1958-1963, 1965-1966

Getler, Helen (Mrs. Monte), 1967

Getler, Marie Estelle, 1960

Gettysburg College, 1958

Gewarter, Roslyn, 1963

Gewirtz, Mrs. P., 1966

Ghent, Henri, 1968

Gianasi, Gail F., 1964

Giannadeo, Edward, undated, 1968

Gibbes Art Gallery, 1954-1955

Gibson, Walter S., 1957

Gidding's, 1955, 1956

Gifford, Damon, 1963

Gifford, Emily (Mrs. Harold), undated

Gilbert, Creighton, 1953

Gilbert, Edwin ("Gill") and/or Virginia, undated, 1955, 1957-1967

Gilbert, Holly, 1962

James Gilbert and Company, Inc., 1962

Gilbert, Peter, 1967-1968

Gilchrist, Bruce, 1956

Gillespie, Anna (Mrs. John), 1963

Gillespie, Sallie M., 1950

Gilliland, Mary M., 1967

Gilman Galleries, 1963

Gilson, Mrs. Robert H., 1967

Gilvary, James, 1953, 1964

Gima's Art Gallery, 1964

Gimbel, Mrs. Adam, 1952

Gimbel, Alva B. (Mrs. Bernard F.), 1938-1939, 1951-1952, 1956

Gimbel Brothers, undated, 1948, 1962-1965, 1967

Gimberts, W. A., 1957

Gingerich, Owen, 1963

Ginn and Company, 1964-1965, 1968

Robert H. Ginter and Co., Inc., 1960, 1962

Ginzberg, Charles, 1946

Giron, 1958

Girsch, M. L., 1957

Gittlin, Sheryl, 1964

Gladstone Hotel, 1959

Gladwin, Harold, 1947

Gladwin, Winifred Jones (Mrs. Harold), 1947-1949

Glamour -- , 1946, 1952

Glasco, Joseph, 1953

Glasgal, Isidor, 1941

L. Glashow Inc., 1962

Glass, Irving H., 1968

Glass, Sherry H., 1966

Glassboro State College, 1961-1962

Glens Falls Indemnity Company, 1950, 1962

Glick, I. J., undated

Glo Cold Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Co., 1955, 1958, 1960-1961

Globe Indemnity Company, 1939-1940

Gloeckner, André, 1965

Glott, Michael M., undated

Glueck, Grace, 1964, 1968

Gnudi, Cesare, 1965

Go -- , 1955

Godchaux, Adele, 1962

Goff, Lloyd, 1963, 1965

Gold, Mr. and/or Mrs. Joseph E., 1949, 1952-1953, 1955, 1957, 1960, 1964

Goldart, Natalie, undated

Goldberg, Mrs. Arthur, 1965

Goldberg, Gary, undated, 1968

Goldberg, Lisa, 1969

Goldberg, Margerie (Mrs. Jerome S.), 1967-1968

Goldberg, Samuel Sumner, 1959

Goldburg, Robert E., undated, 1955, 1959-1961, 1964

Golden, Cipe (Mrs. William), 1960-1961

Golden Gate International Exposition, 1938-1940

Golden Press, Inc., 1961, 1968

Goldenson, Mrs. David B., 1965

Goldfains, Z., 1940

Goldin, Leon Herman, 1957

Golding, Dorothy K. (Mrs. Arthur J.), 1966

Goldman, Adeline and/or Harold J., undated, 1962-1963, 1965-1967, 1969

Goldman, Harry E., 1956

Goldman, Jan (Mrs. R. H.), 1958

Goldman, Mera Lee (Mrs. Leonard), 1959

Goldman, Milton, 1956

Goldman, Mrs. S. H., 1958

Goldman, William, 1954

Goldsholl, Millie, 1963

Morton Goldsholl Design Associates, Inc., 1960

Goldsmith, Berthe K., 1935

Goldsmith, Bliss, Greene, Inc., 1953

Goldsmith Brothers, 1953, 1957, 1960, 1962-1965

Goldsmith, Harold S., 1937-1940, 1942, 1947-1949, 1951-1952 (see also: Popular Publications, Inc.)

Goldsmith, Morton R., 1938

Goldstein, Mr. and/or Mrs. Herbert, 1956, 1960-1961

Goldstein, Morton, undated

Goldstine, Abner D., 1963

Goldstone, Herbert A., 1963, 1965

Goldstone, Robert, 1958

Goldstone, Seymour E., 1964

Goldthwaite, Lucy, 1961

Golffing, Francis, 1955

Golinkin, Joseph Webster, 1962

Golterman, Patricia H., 1965

Gonzales, Lorraine and/or Richard J., 1955-1956, 1962, 1965-1966

Gooch, Gerald, 1967

Goodall, Don, 1949

Goode, Paul K., 1956

Goodman, Arthur H. and/or Jean, 1960, 1964-1965

Goodman, Bertram, 1955

Goodman, C. F., 1959

Goodman, Mrs. Charles F., undated

Goodman, Dorothy S. and/or Richard F., undated, 1965

Goodman, H. Nelson, 1939

Goodman, Harold, 1930

James Goodman Gallery, 1963-1968 (see also: G Contemporary Paintings)

Goodman, Moshe Y., 1964

Goodman, Nelson, 1948

Goodman, Percival, 1960

Philip H. Goodman and Associates, 1963

Goodman-Walker, Inc., 1937-1940

Goodrich, Esther F. (Mrs. Raymond H.), undated, 1957, 1960

Goodrich, Mr. and/or Mrs. Lloyd, undated, 1953, 1957

Goodrich, Madeline Lloyd, 1957

Goodrich, Mrs. Raymond H., 1961, 1963

Goodson-Todman, Inc., 1963

Goodwin, Claribel, 1960

Goodwin, James Patrick, 1958

Goodwin, Philip L., 1935, 1938-1939, 1944, 1947-1948, 1950, 1955, 1957

Goodwin, Susan T. (Mrs. H. Sage), 1957-1958

Goodyear, A. Conger, 1939, 1944, 1953, 1961-1962

Goodyear, John, 1963

Goossens, John, 1954

Gor, Regina (Mrs. Serge), 1960

Gordon, Anna, 1964

Gordon, Arnold W., 1961, 1964

Gordon, Celeste, 1955

Gordon, Harvey J., 1961

Gordon, John, undated, 1963, 1966

Gordon, Leah and/or Jack, 1964-1965

Gordon, Lois, 1952

Gordon, Roy, 1966

Gordon, S. Robert, 1960

Gordon, Selma, 1955

Gordon's Fifth Avenue Gallery, 1962

Robert Gordon's Technical College, 1959

Gorham, Mrs. Charles, 1961

Gorham Corporation, 1965-1966

Gorky, undated

Gorman, Eugene P., 1957

Gorsline, Douglas, 1960

Goslen, Mary, 1965

Gosman, M. W., 1967

Gosman, Mildred, 1958, 1960

Gotcliffe, Ted, 1963

Gotham Book Mart, 1958

Gotham Guide, 1958

Goto, Joseph, 1954

Gotthard Bank, 1959

Gottlieb, Adolph, 1967

Gottlieb and Schiff, 1956

Gottlieb, Carla, 1959

Gough, Galen, 1953

Gould, David, 1956

Gould, Mary Earle, 1956

Gourielli, Princess, 1952

Government Printing Office, 1956

Governmental Affairs Institute, undated

Henry Goverts Verlag, 1961

Grabow, Bart, 1957

Grace Church in Salem, 1958

Graf, Burket E., 1962, 1963

Graff, Marjorie S. (Mrs. Robert D.), 1963

Graham Gallery, 1961, 1962, 1963

James Graham and Sons, 1953, 1957

Graham, John, 1958, 1959

Ansley Graham's Galerie Intime, undated (see also: Galerie Intime)

Grail Center, undated

Grail Council of Christian Culture, 1958

Gramling, Mrs. David C., 1956

Grammar, George, undated, 1951, 1957-1958, 1968

Grand Central Art Galleries Incorporated, 1930-1933, 1935, 1939-1941, 1944-1949, 1955, 1957-1958

Grand, Mrs. J. H., 1959

Grand Rapids Art Gallery, undated, 1935- 1936, 1940, 1943, 1950, 1953-1956, 1959, 1961-1963

Grand Union Co., 1964

Graner, Ben and Melanie, 1958

Granick, Max, 1952, 1969

Granitz, Robert, 1957

Grant, Earle Wilkin, undated, 1937, 1949, 1956-1957, 1959-1963

Grantenstein, Jerome, 1959-1961

Graphis -- , 1960-1961

Graphische Sammlung Albertina, 1952, 1959 (see also: Albertina)

Graves, E. M., 1938

Gray and Rogers Advertising, 1946-1947

Gray, Cleve and/or Francine, undated, 1961, 1963-1964, 1969

Greason, Don, 1962

Greason, Mrs. E., 1959

Great Britain, Arts Council of (see: Arts Council of Great Britain)

Great Neck Cultural Center, 1963

Great Neck Education Association, Inc., 1953

Great Neck Public Schools, 1961

Great Neck Storage Co., Inc., 1960

Greeley, Bernice, 1965

Green, Mrs. A. Rodger, 1963

Green, Adolph, 1959, 1962, 1964

Green, Shirley L., 1968

Greenbaum, Edward S., 1948

Greenbaum, Wolff and Ernst, 1933

Greenberg, Caral Gimbel, 1959

Greenberg, Edward F., 1956

Greenberg, Hank, 1949

Greenberg Insurance Agency, 1959

Greenblatt, Jerome, 1953

Greene, Balcomb, 1939

Greene, Barbara (Mrs. Robert N.), 1958

Greene, C. S., 1965

Greene, Charles A., 1951

Greene, Gerda and/or Jerome L., undated, 1965-1967

Greener, George C., 1939

Greenfield, Elizabeth M. (Mrs. Albert N.), 1953-1954

Greenlund, Paul T., 1959

Greenspan, George, 1953, 1958, 1960, 1968

Sidney Greenspan and Company, 1961

Greenstein, Betty, 1963, 1967

Greenstone, Marion, 1963

Greenwich House, 1940

Greenwood Gallery, 1958

Gregg, John, 1946

Gregory, William D. II, 1954

Gregory, Yolánde Wagner (Mrs. Wayland), 1936

Gregory's Old Master Gallery, 1962

Gregson, Mrs. Wilfred J., 1963

Greiff, Ivan, Jr., 1962

Greiner, John H., 1952

Grenell, Judith (Mrs. Horber), 1962

Gresser, Seymour, 1963

Greyhound Corporation, 1963

Greystone Press, 1966

Griffin, Charles Ray, 1959-1960

Griffin, Harry L., Jr., 1961

Griffing, Marjorie and/or Robert, undated, 1963, 1965-1967

Griffis, Stanton, 1935, 1938

Griggs, Mary, 1939

Grimes, Bob, 1966

Grinnell College, 1962

Grinnell Galleries, 1963

Grippi and Waddell Gallery, Inc., 1964-1965

Grippi Custom Framing, 1961, 1963

Grippi Gallery, 1962

Grippi, Nick, undated, 1967-1969

Griscom, William, 1940

Griswold, Merrill, 1949

Griswold, Samuel A., undated, 1940

Griswold, W.E.S., 1958-1959

Grode, Robert J., 1965

Grohe, Glenn, 1943-1944

Grolier Club, 1953

Grolier, Inc., 1963

Grolier Society, Inc., 1963

Groner, Duncan G., 1950

Gropper Art Galleries, 1966

Grosberg, Herbert L., 1968

Grosman, Eugene, 1957-1958

Grosman, Joseph A., 1969

Gross, Edith (Mrs. Michael), 1966

Gross, John, 1959

Gross, Joseph, 1964

Julian Gross Advertising Agency, 1946

Gross, Robert E., 1946

Gross, Zenith H. (Mrs. Sidney), 1955

Grosse, Joseph L., 1938, 1940

Grosser, Maurice, undated, 1939

Grossfield, Sylvia (Mrs. Moses), 1961

Grossman, Emery, 1957, 1964-1965

Grossman, Jacob, 1935

Grossman, Martin B., 1967

Grossman, Morton, 1954, 1960

Grossman Publishers, Inc., 1963

Grosso and Company, 1965-1967, 1969

Group Gallery, 1968

Grove Press, Inc., 1954, 1959-1960

Grover-Cronin, Inc., 1956-1958

Grover, Donald, 1966

Grubb, Dora E., 1944

Gruber, Irene, 1962

Victor Gruen and Associates, Inc., 1956-1957

Grum, Germaine, 1957

Grumbach, George J., 1970

Grundy, Kenneth, undated, 1960

Guaranty Trust Company, 1955

Guarenas Country Club, S.A., 1956-1957

Guest, Mrs. Lester, 1958

Guest, William, 1963

Guggenheim, 1928

Guggenheim, Irene R. (Mrs. Solomon R.), undated, 1934, 1937-1938

John Simon Guggenheim Memorial Foundation, undated, 1934, 1938, 1940, 1944-1946, 1949, 1955, 1959, 1961, 1963, 1968

Guggenheim, Peggy, 1947

Guggenheim, Mrs. Simon S., 1938

Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, undated, 1952, 1955, 1958, 1960, 1962-1969

Guggenheimer and Untermeyer, 1932

Guglielmi, Anne and/or O. Louis, undated, 1952-1953, 1956, 1958

Guglielmi, Stephen, 1967

Guglietti, Bronia Avella, undated

Guild Hall, 1956-1957, 1960-1961, 1963, 1966-1968

Guild of Creative Art, 1963

Guildhall Galleries, Ltd., 1960, 1964

Guitar, Mary Anne, 1963

Gulbenkian Foundation, 1964

Gulf State Advertising, 1959

Gumberts, W.A., 1948, 1951-1952, 1954

Lawrence C. Gumbiner Advertising Agency, 1959, 1963

Gump's Gallery, 1956-1958, 1960-1969

Gurry, Edmund A., 1933-1934, 1938

Gurwitz, Mrs. P., 1968

Gury, Jeremy, 1966

Gussow, Alan, 1956, 1961, 1971

Gussow, Bernard, 1932

Gustafson, Ingrid, 1965

Guthman, Leo S., undated, 1951, 1953-1958, 1960-1965, 1967

Guthman, Lynne, 1959

Guthman, Robert, 1958

Gutmanis, Ivars, 1965

Gwinn, David Marshall, undated, 1949, 1954-1955

H. K. Press, 1961

Haas, David M., undated, 1969

Haas, Lillian Huschel, 1932-1934, 1949

Haas, Mrs. Robert, 1959

Haberman, Philip W., Jr., 1967

Hackert, Karl, 1957

Hackett, Albert and/or Frances Goodrich, undated, 1947-1949, 1959-1963

Hackley Art Gallery, 1955, 1958-1959, 1964

Hadad, Marie, 1952 (see also: Société Libanaise Hadad)

Hadassah, 1952, 1960, 1962, 1966

Haddad, A., 1963-1964

Haefelin, Joseph C., 1965

Hagedorn, Charles, 1961

Hagel, Raymond C., 1965

Haggerty, Margaret, 1967

Hahn Bros. Fireproof Warehouses, Inc., 1960, 1966

Haimes, Herman, 1959

Haith, Anne (Mrs. William), 1968

Hale, Mrs. B. B., 1952

Hale, Frank C., 1948

Halff, Robert, 1959

Hall, Clifton, 1931-1934

Hall, Emma Swan, 1963

Hall, George W., Jr., undated

Hall, Jane (Mrs. S. E.), undated, 1953

Hall, Nona (Mrs. Thomas L.), 1960-1961

Hall, Sidney, 1957

Hallberg, R. E., 1953

Hallmark Art Award, 1949, 1957

Hallock, Robert, 1957

Hallstrom, Alice E. (Mrs. John L.), 1954

Halperin, Nathan, 1956

Halpert, Edith Gregor, undated, 1935

Halpert, Samuel, 1928, 1930

Halsell, M., 1964

Halseth, Elmer, 1963, 1965, 1967-1968

Halvorsen, Mrs. Bjorn, undated

Ham, Ganz and Connors, 1946-1947

Hamelsky, Samuel, 1952

Hames, Martin, 1963

Hamilton and Hamilton, 1962, 1969

Hamilton, Art Gallery of (see: Art Gallery of Hamilton)

Hamilton College, 1960-1961

Hamilton, George Heard, 1959

Hamilton, Mrs. H. R., 1959

Hamline University, 1950

Paul Hamlyn Publishers, 1964

Hammer, Arthur, 1956, 1960-1961, 1964

Hammer Galleries, 1966

Hammer, Ruth, 1959

Hammerslough, Mrs. John, 1959

Hammett, Mrs., 1952

Hammond, George M., 1964

Hampton Institute, 1941, 1951

Han, Raymond, 1960

Handy Associates, Inc., 1956

Handy, William Christopher, undated, 1941

Hanes, R. Philip, Jr., undated, 1961

Hanley and Woodward, Inc., 1965

Hanley, Mrs. T. E., 1959-1960

Hanna, L. C., Jr., 1946

Hanselman, Mrs. Jay B., 1961

Hansen, John, 1964, 1967

Hanson, Bill, 1963

Hantman, Murray, 1953

Har Zion Temple, 1964

Harari, Hananiah, 1943-1944

Harborfields High School, 1964

Harcourt, Brace and Company, Inc., 1957

Harcourt, Brace and World, Inc., 1963, 1968

Harcum Heart Affair, 1950

Hardin, Eleanor, 1962

Harding, Magnus Swenson, 1961

Hardison, Sammy, 1962-1963

Hardman, B. Sanford, 1955

Hardt, Anton, 1953, 1955, 1967

Hardy, Katherine Shaffer (Mrs. Frank A.), undated, 1964

Hare and Coolidge Antiques, 1946

Hare, Channing, 1956

Hare, Elizabeth Lape, undated

Hare, Mrs. Meredith, 1934

Haring, Alma L., 1959

Harlem Book Company, 1948-1949, 1961

Harley, Margaret Stewart (Mrs. George B.), 1968

Harmon, Ernestine (Mrs. John E., Jr.), 1956-1957

Harmon, Lily, undated

Harnick, Carl, 1966

Harnsworth, Margaret, 1955

Margaret Harold Books, 1965

Harper and Brothers, 1951, 1955, 1961-1962

Harper, Sharon, 1965

Harper, W. B., Jr., 1953

Harper's Bazaar -- , 1949, 1955

Harper's Magazine -- , 1953, 1961

Marie Harriman Gallery, 1940

Harrington, Mrs. J. J., 1967

Harris, David, 1952, 1953, 1955-1957

Harris, Elizabeth Stedman, 1951

Harris, Mrs. J. Maynard, 1960

Harris, Joyce, 1967

Harris, Leon A., Jr., 1956, 1968

Harris, Paul R., 1959

Harris, Paul S., 1940

Harris, Ray, undated

Harris, Roger, 1958

Harris, Stanley J., 1963

Harrison, Anne B., 1964

Harrison, Carter H., 1932-1933

Harrison, Mrs. George R., 1961

Harrison, Mr. and/or Mrs. Gilbert A., 1964, 1966, 1969

Harrison, Preston, 1926-1932, 1934-1936

Harrison, Rex, 1957

Harrison, Mr. and/or Mrs. Wallace K., 1951, 1953, 1964

Harrod, Mrs. G. R., 1958

Hart, Mrs. Archibald, undated

Hart, George O. ("Pop"), 1933

Hart, Jeanne Overbury, 1964

Hart, Mira (Mrs. William), 1956

Hart, Moss, undated, 1941

Hart Publishing Company, 1964

Hartfield, Mrs. Daniel, Jr., 1965

Hartford Accident and Indemnity Company, 1950

Hartford, Huntington, 1967

Huntington Hartford Collection (see: Gallery of Modern Art)

Huntington Hartford Foundation, 1958, 1962

Hartnell, Bettie, 1968

Harwood, C. Marvin, Sr., 1965

Hatoff, S., 1965

Hartt, Frederick, 1950

Harvard University, 1953, 1956, 1962

Harvard University Press, 1957-1958

Harvey, Robert, 1963

Hasenbush, L. Lee, 1962

Hashisaka, Mabel, 1967

Haskell, Benjamin, 1956

Haskell, Ernest, Jr., 1966-1967

Haspel, Leo A., 1957

Hastings College, 1958, 1961-1962

Hastings House Publishers, Inc., 1956

Haswell, Mr. and/or Mrs. Anthony, 1949, 1952, 1962, 1965-1966

Hatch, John (Jerry) David, 1965

Hatfield, Dalzell and Ruth, undated, 1944, 1951

Dalzell Hatfield Galleries, 1949-1950, 1952-1953, 1955, 1958, 1962, 1964, 1966

Hauberg, John H., Jr., undated, 1949-1950, 1952-1953

Haucke, Frederick, 1953

Haupt, Mr. and/or Mrs. Ira, 1951-1952, 1956-1957, 1961

Haverford College, 1956

Haverstick, Iola S., undated, 1960

Hawaii Statuary Hall Commission, 1966

Hawaii, University of (see: University of Hawaii)

Hawes, Johnny, Jr., 1959

Hawley, Henry H., 1956

Hawthorne Co., 1940, 1942

Hayden, Jeffrey, 1966-1967

Hayden, Richard, 1948

Hayes, Alzada (Mrs. R.), 1957

Hayes, Bart and/or Clare, undated, 1959, 1965

Hayes, Helen, 1956, 1957

Hayes, M. Vincent, 1967

Hayes, Roland, 1941

Hayes Storage, Packing and Removal Service, 1939, 1941, 1943, 1945

Hayes Storage Warehouse, Inc., 1946, 1960, 1965, 1967

Haynes, Ken, 1955

Hays, Susan Pope (Mrs. Richard M.), 1957

Hayward, Mrs. John, 1956

Fernand Hazan Éditeur, 1968

Hazard, Patrick D., 1961

Hazelrigg, Hal, 1956

Heald, Caroline C., 1936

Heald, Mr. and/or Mrs. Gordon T., 1964

Heald, James Nicholas, II, undated, 1964, 1967

Heastand, F. D., 1945, 1947, 1953

Heath's Gallery, 1966-1967, 1968-1969

Hebald, Milton, 1956-1957

Hebrew University in Jerusalem, 1957

Heckscher Museum, 1962, 1964, 1967

Hedge, Eleanor H., 1958

Hedman, Mrs. A. F., 1955

Hedstrom, Olaf H., 1955

Heermann, Norbert, undated, 1952, 1958, 1961

Heffenriffer, R. F., 1941

Heffner, C. M., 1952-1953, 1955-1956, 1958

Hefley, Martha, 1956

Heibonsha Limited, 1961

Heidner, Esther M. (Mrs. Fred C.), 1961

Heil, Walter, undated, 1943

Heineman, Bernard [Jack], Jr., undated, 1951-1952, 1955, 1957, 1959-1960, 1962-1965, 1967

Heins, Frances (Mrs. John P.), 1969

Heinz, H. J ., II, 1958

Heinz, Mrs. H. J., 1954

H. J. Heinz Company, 1965

Heist, Dorothy (Mrs. Robert Kendrick), undated

Helena Public Schools, 1960

Heller, Ben, 1962

Heller Deltah Co., Inc., 1946

Heller, Mrs. Edward, 1953

Heller, Herbert C., 1959

Heller, Irene Fanae, undated

Heller, Lawrence, 1951

Heller, William B., 1961, 1963-1965

Hellman, Lilian, 1948, 1961-1962

Hellstrong, Louise, 1958

Helm, Mackinley, 1963

"HemisFair '68," 1968 (see also: "International Exposition, HemisFair '68")

Hemmenway, Catherine C., 1961

Hemmingsen, R. V., 1963

Hemmingson, Victoria, 1965

Henderson, Hanford, 1960

Henderson, Priscilla A. B. (Mrs. A. I.), 1934-1955

Henderson, Ray, 1956

Hendrick, Mrs. James Pomeroy, 1961

Heninger, Helen, undated, 1963, 1969

Henquet, Roger, 1948, 1965

Henri, Robert, 1926-1927

Henry, David T., 1964

Henry, Helen (Mrs. Charles), undated, 1949

Henry, James F., 1958

Henry Street Settlement, 1958, 1962-1963

Hentschel, R. A. A., 1951-1954

Hepburn, Katharine, 1952

Herbert, Elmer, 1962

Herbert, James D., 1962

Herider, Ed. L., 1961

Heritage Gallery, 1960, 1964

Herman, Stanley, 1964

Herman, Vic, 1968

Herring, Audrey L., 1964

Herrington, Nell Ray (Mrs. A. W. S.), 1962, 1965

John Herron Art Institute, undated, 1934, 1949, 1951, 1953, 1957-1958, 1962-1964, 1967 (see also: Art Association of Indianapolis; Art School of the John Herron Art Institute)

Hertslet, G. Gordon, 1962, 1966

Hertz, Richard C., 1965

Hertzberg, Stuart E., 1967-1968

Heschel, Mrs. Abraham, 1961

Hess, Elaine Marie, 1965

Hess, Mrs. Thomas B., 1954

Hetzel, Margaret deL. (Mrs. Joseph L.), 1948

Hewitt, Ada M., 1953

Edwin Hewitt Gallery, 1953

Heydenryk, Henry, 1954, 1960, 1964

Heynick, Carla Marian, 1965

Hickok, M., 1958

Hiddens, Mrs. Earl, 1952

Hiersoux, Arne, 1966

Hi Fi/Stereo Review, 1960

High Museum of Art, 1950, 1955, 1961-1962, 1965-1968 (see also: Atlanta Art Association; Atlanta Art Association and High Museum of Art)

Highway Antique Shop, 1954

R. Hill and Son, Ltd., 1960

Hill, Ralph Nading, 1952, 1962

Hille, Elise B., undated

Hille and Curran, 1954

Hilleman, Alex L., 1956

Hiller, Paula, 1962

Hilles, Mrs. Frederick W., 1956

Hillman, Mrs. Joel, II., 1960

Hillside Hospital Clinic, 1949, 1953

Hillstrom, Richard L., 1958, 1962, 1964-1965

Hilltop Theatre, Incorporated, 1952

Hilsenrath, Yakov R., 1965

Hilson, Catherine [Katy] and/or John S., undated, 1958-1959, 1961-1966

Himel, Irving, 1963

Himmelsfarb, Samuel, 1955

Hines, Felrath, 1961

Hinkhouse, Inc., 1960, 1964

Hirsch, B., 1961

Hirsch, E. W., 1954

Hirschberg, J. Cotter, 1956

Hirschl and Adler Galleries, Inc., 1958, 1960, 1963-1965, 1968

Hirschland, Dr. and/or Mrs. F. H., undated, 1959

Hirschland, Paul Michael, 1945

Hirschburg, Mrs. Roy, undated

S. A. Hirsh Manufacturing Co., 1966

Hirshberg, Henrietta, 1961

Hirshhorn, Mrs. Arthur, 1960

Hirshhorn, Joseph H., 1946, 1948, 1951-1954, 1956, 1960, 1963, 1965

Joseph H. Hirshhorn Collection, 1959-1960, 1962-1963, 1965-1966

Hirshhorn, Lily Harmon, 1960

Hirshhorn, Naomi Caryl, undated, 1963, 1967-1969

Hirtt, Edgar, 1959

Hitchcock, Alfred, 1944

Hitchcock, Henry-Russell, 1945

Hobbs, Henriette, 1964-1965

Hobby, Mrs. William T., 1958

Hobi, Inc., 1968, 1969

Hochberg, David R., 1959

Hochberg, Jack, 1965

Hochschild, Walter, undated

Hockaday, Mrs. I. O., 1955

Hodes, Scott, 1963

Hodge, John, 1953

Hodges, Charles, 1968

Hodges, Steve, 1968

Hodgins, Eleann Treacy (Mrs. Eric), 1949-1950, 1953, 1960

Hofer, Philip, undated, 1948-1949

Hoff, Margo, 1954

Hoffberg and Oberfest, 1965

Hofflander, Jack, undated

Hoffman, Arthur J., 1941

Hoffman Fuel Co., Inc., 1966-1969

Hoffman, Mrs. H., 1953

Hoffman, Mrs. Lewis, 1957-1958, 1961

Hoffman, Louis, 1950, 1952

Hoffning, Hilda, 1953

Hofmann, Werner, 1961

Hofstra College, undated, 1956

Hofstra University, 1963-1964

Hogan, Carroll Edward, 1952, 1956, 1958, 1966-1967

Hogg, Ima, 1956-1957

Hoiles, Bee S., 1961

Hokin, Edward, 1952

Holabird and Root, 1948

Holabird and Root and Burgee, 1951

Holbrook, Alfred H., 1946-1951, 1953

Holbrook, Hollis, undated, 1963

Holbrook, Leona, 1949

Holcomb, Grant, III., 1967

Holden, C. Edwin, 1965

Holdridge, Barbara, 1960

Holes-Webway Co., 1967

Holiday, 1958, 1963

Holland-Goldowsky Gallery, Inc., 1960

Hollister, Paul, Jr., 1960

Holm, Marjorie M., 1957

Holman, Bud, 1955

Holman, Mrs. Cranston, 1961

Holmes, James S., 1963

Holmes, John, 1958

Holmes, Mary Jane, 1956

Holt, Mary B., 1955

Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc., 1962, 1967, 1969

Holt, Virginia (Mrs. Benjamin), undated, 1959

Hol[?]off, Alfred D., 1946

Holway, Martha, 1953

Holy Name Parish, 1960

Home and Hospital of the Daughters of Israel, Inc., 1951

Home Indemnity Company, 1955

Home Insurance Company, 1952

Hong Kong City Hall Gallery, 1963

Honig, Victor, 1968

Honolulu Academy of Arts, 1947-1948, 1959-1967

Honolulu Chamber of Commerce (see: Chamber of Commerce of Honolulu)

Honolulu Star-Bulletin, undated

Hooper, Mrs. Arthur U., 1955

Hoopes, Donelson F. and/or Ginny, undated, 1964

Hooten, Bruce, 1959

Hoover, Clara, 1955

Hoover, Lavergne Marcus, 1965

Hoover Processed Letters, Inc., 1958

Hope, Henry Radford, 1944, 1957, 1961

Hope Historical Society, 1956

Houston Museum of Contemporary Art, 1957 (see also: Contemporary Arts Museum of Houston)

Hopkins Center, undated

Hopkins, Harry L., 1934

Hopper, [illegible], undated

Hoppin Bros. and Co., 1954

Hoppin, Laurette K. (Mrs. Bayard C.), undated, 1952

Horizon -- , 1958

Grace Horn Galleries, 1938

Horne, Archibald C., 1933, 1935

Horne, Lena, 1958

Karen Horney Clinic, 1956-1957

Hornung, Clarence P., 1956

Horosko, Marian, 1963

Horowitz, Aren, 1963-1965

Horowitz, Mrs. Arnold, undated

Horowitz, Melvin S., 1968

Horrochs, Carol L., 1965

Horter, Elizabeth Lenz (Mrs. Earl), 1956, 1962, 1968

Horton, Miles G., Jr., 1957

Horwitch, Mrs. Arnold H., 1962

Hoskins, Beatrice (Mrs. Arthur), 1964

Hostetler, David, undated, 1964, 1967

Hotel and Club Voice -- , 1966

Hotel Publications, Inc., 1948

Hotel Statler, 1959

Hotel Winslow, 1964

Houghton, Arthur A., Jr., 1954

Houghton-Mifflin Company, 1962, 1965-1966, 1968-1969

Hound and Horn, Inc., 1933

Hourwich, Mr. and/or Mrs. George Kennan, 1956, 1967

Housatonic Valley Conference Incorporated, 1941

House and Garden -- , 1941, 1947, 1952

House Beautiful -- , 1952, 1958, 1963

House, Grossman and Vorhaus, 1933-1934

House of H. Heydenryk, Jr., 1956

House of Photography, Inc., 1956

Housen, Mildred (Mrs. Stanley Xavier), undated, 1946

Housse, C., 1958

Houston Artists Gallery, undated, 1958

Howard, Bessie J., 1935, 1960

Howard, Humbert, 1959

Howard, Jude (Mrs. William L.), 1961

Howard Savings Institution, undated, 1967

Howard, Sidney, 1937

Howard University, 1945

Howard, Mrs. W. L., Jr., 1958

Howarth, Shirley, 1965

Howe, Bruce, 1964

Howell, Joseph A., 1964-1965

Howell, Soskin, Publishers, Inc., 1944

Howell, W. H., 1952

Howells, William, 1944

Howes, John, 1965

Howland, Isabella, 1963

Houston, Norman O., 1948

Hryby, Peter, 1964

Hu, Gilman K. M., 1964

Hubbard, Barbara (Mrs. Earl Wade), 1958-1959, 1961

Hubbell, J. W., Jr., 1967

Huberman, Benjamin, 1967

Hudson, Mrs. Barclay M., 1945

Hudson, Mrs. C. Blaffer, 1962

Hudson, Edward R., Jr., 1968

Hudson Finishing Corporation, 1963

Hudson Fixtures, 1965

Hudson Forwarding and Shipping Co., Inc., 1934

J. L. Hudson Company, 1949, 1957-1959, 1962-1963, 1965, 1968

Hudson Painting and Decorating Co., Inc., 1963

Hudson, Richard, 1962

Hudson Shipping Co., 1965

Huffnagle Press, 1958

Hughes, Langston, 1948-1949

Thomas J. Hughes Construction Co., Inc.,1951

Hull, University of (see: University of Hull)

Hulse, Wilfred C., 1953, 1959-1960, 1962

Human Relations Council of Greater New Haven, Inc., 1966

Hume, J. H., 1966

Hunt, D. H. W., 1942

Hunt, Dorothy, 1942

Hunt Methodist Church, 1963

Hunt, Raymond H., 1940

Hunter College, 1967

Hunter, Sam, 1968

Hunter, Vincent C., undated, 1965

Huntington, Christopher, 1963

Huntington Galleries, Inc., 1952

Huntington, Nell, 1962

Huntington, Patricia S. (Mrs. John W.), 1960

Hurd, Frank E. and/or Lita, 1949-1952, 1955, 1963-1967

Hurley, Zita (Mrs. James E.), 1953

Hurok, S. (see: Dinner in Tribute to S. Hurok)

Hurtt, Clyde, 1959

Hurvitz, Nathan, 1963

Robert S. Hurwitz Advertising, 1962

Hurwitz, Max, 1952

Hussar, L., 1960

Hutchins, Mr. and/or Mrs. Curtis M., undated, 1958, 1965

Hutchinson, Mitchell, 1967

Hutzler, Esterlee, 1945-1947

Hyatt, Kenneth, 1934

Hyde, Candice (Mrs. Hugh), 1964

Mrs. Louis F. Hyde Collection, 1944

Hydeman, Albert, 1959

Hyman, Rubin, 1952

Hyman, Sigmund M., 1962-1963, 1966, 1968

Hyperion Press, 1943-1945

Ide, John J., 1957

Ideas, Inc., 1954

I. F. A. Galleries, Inc., 1960, 1966-1967

Ikonogenics Incorporated, 1963

Illinois Bell Telephone Co., 1966

Illinois Institute of Technology, 1962

Illinois State University, 1965-1966

Illinois, University of (see: University of Illinois)

Illinois Wesleyan University, 1941, 1947, 1948, 1950, 1952

Imbody, Ellen M. (Mrs. John Edwin), undated, 1960, 1961

Immigration and Naturalization, 1946

Imprimerie Union, 1964

Independent Credit Company, 1946

Indiana State Teachers College, 1960

Indiana University, 1941-1944, 1946-1947, 1949-1952, 1956-1958, 1960-1961, 1963-1964, 1967-1968

Indianapolis Art Association (see: Art Association of Indianapolis, Indiana)

Indianapolis Contemporary Arts Society (see: Contemporary Arts Sopciety, Indianapolis)

Industrial Home for the Blind, 1961

Ingenue -- , 1964

Ingersoll, Anna, 1942

Ingersoll, Mr. and/or Mrs. Ralph Sturgis, undated, 1933-1934, 1940-1942, 1950-1951

Ingle, Mrs. I. Paul, 1958

Ingraham, David, 1941

Ingraham, Marjorie, 1964

Inland Steel Research Laboratories, 1967

Institute of Contemporary Art, Boston, 1948, 1951-1962, 1965

Institute of Contemporary Arts, Washington, D. C., 1955, 1964

Institute of International Education, 1956, 1961

Institute of Modern Art, Boston, 1939-1943, 1945-1947

Institute of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 1959-1960

Instituto Grafico Tiberino, 1962

Instructor -- , 1966

Insurance Company of North America, 1962-1963

Interboro Elevator Company Incorporated, 1940

Intercollegian -- , 1959

Intercultural Publications, Inc., 1956

Interior Space Design, 1961

Internal Revenue Service, 1936, 1956, 1959, 1961-1966 (see also: U.S. Treasury, IRS)

International Advertising Council, Inc., 1960

International Antiques Exhibitions and Sales, Inc., 1956

International Art Galleries, Inc., 1960

International Business Machines Corporation (IBM), 1943, 1945, 1952, 1958-1960, 1964

International Center for Typographic Arts, 1965

International Directory of Arts, 1960, 1962-1963, 1966

"International Exhibition of Sacred Art," 1961

"International Exposition, HemisFair '68," 1967 (see also: "HemisFair '68")

International Gallery, Inc., 1964

International Graphic Arts Society, 1961

International Journal of Religious Education, 1962

International Political Advisory Council, Inc., 1964

International Publishers, Inc., 1954-1955

International Rescue and Relief Committee, 1948, 1959

Intourist, 1959

Iolani Palace, 1962

Iowa State Teachers College, 1956

Iowa, University of (see: University of Iowa)

Iowa Wesleyan College, 1957

Iredale Storage and Moving Company, 1954, 1956

Ireys, John, 1959

Iris Cleaners and Launderers, 1968

"Irish Exhibition of Living Art," 1963-1964

Irving, Flora (Mrs. Michael), undated

Irving Galleries, undated, 1964-1966

Irvington House, 1957

Isaacs and Bernstein, Inc., 1964

Isaacson, Joseph D., 1941, 1963

Isaacson, Philip M., 1967

Iselin, O'Donnell, undated, 1934, 1939-1945, 1947-1948, 1952-1953, 1956, 1963

Isenberg, Julie (Mrs. Norman), 1963-1964

Isham, Lea C. (Mrs. Lincoln), undated, 1934

Israel, Bob and Susan, undated

Israel Consulate General, 1964

Israel, Embassy of (see: Embassy of Israel)

Israel Government Office of Information Service, 1963

Israel Institute of Technology, Inc., 1958

Israel, Mrs. Justin, undated

Israel Ministry of Education and Culture, 1966

Israel Museum, 1965-1968

Israel, R. A., 1967

Israel, Robert, 1967

Israeli Independence Ball, 1963, 1968

Israeli, Nathan, 1961

Italian Information Center, 1962

Ito, Miyoko, 1954

Itoh Gallery, undated, 1962, 1965, 1967-1968 (see also: Gallery Itoh)

Ives, Byron G., 1952

Ivyside Gallery, 1961

Izbicki, Raymond, 1967

Jacks, Grant L., Jr., 1953

Jackson, Mrs., 1964

Jackson, Katherine G. (Mrs. Andrew), 1951

Jackson, Martha K. (Mrs. David S.), 1946, 1948-1949, 1962

Martha Jackson Gallery, 1954, 1961

Jackson, Martin, 1955

Jacob, Joseph A., 1963

Jacobi, Arnot, undated, 1942

Jacobi, Lotte, 1964

Jacobs, Gilberta (Mrs. Martin), 1963

Jacobs, Jack S., 1959

Jacobs, Mr. and/or Mrs. Martin D., 1963

Jacobs, Marvin, 1962

Jacobs, Mrs. S. Allan, 1964

Jacobs, William K., Jr., 1962, 1964

Jacobson, Raymond I., 1968

Jacobson, Mrs. Walter, 1941

Jacobson's Fine Arts, 1963

Arthur Jaffé Heliochrome Company, 1959

Jaffe, Henry, 1952

Jaffe, Irma B., 1967

Jaffe, Mildred, 1949

Jaffe, Mr. and/or Mrs. Sam, 1949, 1953

Jaffe, William B., 1952-1953, 1956

Jagendorf, M., 1938

Jager, Mrs. Eric H., 1957-1958

James, Chris B., undated

James, D. L., 1937

James, Mrs. Marquis, 1942

James, Oliver B., 1946-1949, 1951-1954

James, Olivia (Mrs. Bayard), 1936

James, Rebecca Salsbury, 1961

Jamison, Juanita M. (Mrs. James E.), 1942

Janis, H., 1956

Janis, Martin, 1934, 1948, 1953

Janis, Sidney, 1941-1942, 1962

Sidney Janis Gallery, 1954-1955, 1958

Janney Machine Corp., 1965

Janson, H. W. (Pete), undated, 1945-1946

Janss, Edwin, Jr., 1963

Janus -- , 1967

Japanese Ambassador, 1966

Jaretski, Mr. and/or Mrs. Alfred, Jr., 1957, 1964

Jarislowsky, Otti Elizabeth, 1964

Jarislowsky, Mr. and/or Mrs. Stephen A., undated, 1953-1954, 1955, 1957-1958

Jarocki, Barbara, 1966

Jay-Thorpe, Inc., 1946

Jedel, Harrison, 1961

Jefferson, Cyrus M., 1960

Jefferson Gallery, 1965-1969

Jefferson Place Gallery, 1961

Jeffries, Frances A. (Mrs. Lawrence), 1961

Jennings, 1942

Jennings, Elizabeth McNeal, 1953

Jennings, Oliver B., undated, 1940, 1943-1944, 1958

Jensen, Amy La Follette and/or Howard, undated, 1962, 1963

Georg Jensen Co., 1955-1957, 1962

Jensen, Lawrence N., 1958

Jensen Productions, 1962-1963

Jergens, Mary E. (Mrs. Andrew), 1955, 1956

Jessar, Gayle and/or Ralph Alfred, 1958-1960, 1962-1963

Jessup, Inc., 1950

Jessup, Mrs. John C., 1951

Jette, Edith K. and/or Ellerton M., undated, 1959-1960, 1964-1965

Jewell, Edward Alden, 1932-1934, 1937, 1941, 1947

Jewish Art Center, 1956

Jewish Center of Buffalo, Inc., 1955-1956

Jewish Community Center of Bayonne (see: Bayonne Jewish Community Center)

Jewish Community Center of Bridgeport, 1968

Jewish Community Center of Elizabeth, 1960

Jewish Community Center of Harrison, 1961

Jewish Community Center of Milwaukee, 1958-1961

Jewish Community Center of Greater Washington, 1959

Jewish Community Center of Worcester, 1965

Jewish Community Center of Youngstown, 1952, 1958

Jewish Community Centers of Cleveland, 1950, 1953

Jewish Federation and Council of Greater Kansas City, 1946

Jewish Frontier -- , 1959

Jewish Heritage Foundation, 1961, 1963-1964

Jewish Museum, 1948, 1953, 1956, 1959, 1962-1967

Jewish National Fund, 1947

Jewish Social Services Agency, 1967

Jewish Theological Seminary of America, 1947-1948, 1963, 1966

Jewish Voice -- , 1958

Joel, Anne H., 1967

John-Frederics, Inc., 1942

Johns, Mrs. Walter T., 1959

Johnson, Ann C., 1960

Johnson, Alden P., 1959

Johnson, Mrs. Bruce, 1967

Johnson, C. K., 1943, 1956

Johnson, Carl, 1963

Johnson, Charles W., 1966

Johnson, D. Robert, 1965

Johnson, Dorothy, undated, 1966-1967

Johnson, Elaine Louise, 1952

Johnson, Esther (Mrs. J. S.), 1955, 1960

Johnson, Floyd, 1951

Johnson, Mrs. Frederick W., 1960

Johnson Galleries, 1955

Johnson, Henry R., 1955

Johnson, Hugh, 1935

Johnson, President and/or Mrs. Lyndon B.,1964-1965

Johnson, Paul, 1934

Johnson, Philip C., undated, 1950

Johnson, Mr. and/or Mrs. Robert S., 1960, 1964

Johnson, Ruth Carter (Mrs. J. Lee, III), undated. 1966-1967

Johnson, Mr. and/or Mrs. Seward, 1955, 1960

Johnson Wax Collection, 1967

Johnston, Dorothy M., 1953

Johnston, Mary E., 1942

Johnstone, D. Gordon, 1968

Jones, 1958,

Jones, Alfred E., Jr., 1951-1952

Jones and Erwin, Inc., 1941-1942, 1950

Jones, Anne, 1963

Jones, Barbara, 1967

Jones, Dorothy J., 1963

Jones, Mr. and/or Mrs. E. Powis, 1949, 1951

Jones, Mr. and Mrs. Edward Paul, 1950

Jones, Frances Bird (Mrs. Charles S.), 1964

Jones, Helen M. (Mrs Everett H.), 1957, 1959-1962, 1964, 1967

Jones, Mrs. John Leddy, 1956

Jones, John M., 1944-1945

John Price Jones Corp., 1948

Jones, Joyce, 1958

Jones, Leslie, 1955

R. B. Jones and Sons Inc., Insurance, 1946

Joost, Nicholas, 1959

Jordan, E., 1958

Jorgulesco, Mrs. Jon, 1962

Josebler[?], Ronald, 1952

Josende, Leo P., 1956

Josephson, Matthew, 1960-1961

Josey, Verda, 1952

Joslyn Art Museum, 1955, 1959-1968

Joslyn Memorial Art Gallery, 1941-1942, 1949

Journal American -- , 1958

Journal Press, 1957

Joyner, J. Brooks, 1968

Judaism, University of (see: University of Judaism)

Judis, Bernice, 1951

Judlin Typerwriter Service, 1968

Juhl, Finn, 1963, 1966

Julian, Ira and/or Ruth, undated, 1963, 1966, 1968

Julliard School of Music, 1940-1941

Jungmeyer, Edith and/or Jack, Jr., undated, 1955, 1961, 1967

Junior Art Gallery, Incorporated, 1952, 1955-1957, 1960-1961, 1963

Junior Art Museum of the Des Moines Art Center, undated

Junior Council of the Museum of Modern Art, undated

Junior League of the City of New York, Inc., undated

Junior League of Mount Kisco, New York, Inc., 1956

Jurgens, John Albert, undated, 1952

Jurin, Benjamin M., 1953

Kaastra Gallery, 1955

Kacheigis, George J., 1951

Kachurin, Leon, 1961

Kacmarcik, Frank, 1960-1961

Kadison, Lily (Mrs. Milton), undated

Kaerwer, Barbara M. (Mrs. Howard E., Jr.), 1958

Kaganovitch, Max, 1956

Kahane, Melanie, 1958-1960

Kahn, Albert, 1937

Kahn and Co., Inc., 1966

Kahn, Anita, 1964

Kahn, Mrs. Arthur, 1964

Kahn, Charles L., 1960

Kahn, Edmund J., 1947-1949, 1956-1960, 1963

Kahn, Mrs. Gilbert, 1951

Kahn, Jacob P., 1960

Kahn, Milton, 1959

Kahn, Olivia, undated

Kahn, Robert I., 1963

Kahn, Sol J., 1962

Kahr, Mrs. Sidney, 1961

Kaiser, I. Howard, 1953

Kalamazoo College, 1963

Kalamazoo Institute of Arts, 1940-1941, 1943, 1955, 1960-1962, 1966-1967, 1969

Kalens Fine Arts, 1958

Kalil, Ford A., Jr., 1963

Kamath, Eugenie, 1962

Kamens, Irvine, 1955

Kaminiski, Josefa, 1955

Kamperman, George, 1938, 1941-1943

Kampermann, Mrs. Ike, 1961

Kander, Allen and/or Juanita N., undated, 1957-1960

Bernice Kandel and Associates, 1961

Kane, L. M.,1949

Kanegis Gallery, 1958

Kanin,Garson, 1942

Kanof, Abram and/or Frances, undated, 1949, 1951-1952, 1955, 1959-1960, 1963-1967

Kansas City Art Institute and School of Design, 1932, 1948-1950, 1960, 1962-1963

Kansas City Public Library, 1964

Kansas Institute of Art, 1933

Kansas State University, 1962

Kansas, University of (see: University of Kansas)

Kantor, Paul, undated, 1956, 1966-1967

Paul Kantor Gallery, 1955-1957, 1959-1960

Kanzler, Mrs. Ernest, 1941

Kaplan, Alice and/or Jacob M., undated, 1959, 1962, 1967

Kaplan, Bernard, 1958

Elayne Kaplan Gallery, 1966

Kaplan, Julian M., 1957-1959

Kaplan, Mrs. Morton, 1967

Kaplan, Phil, 1961, 1964

Kaplan, Richard, 1968

Kaplansky, M. B., 1959-1965, 1967

Kaplin, Tom, 1959

Kapp, David, 1951

Kardon, Janet and/or Robert, 1959, 1961, 1963

Karfiol, Bernard and/or Margaret, undated, 1937

Karfiol, George, undated

Karidis, Jerome, 1955

Karner, Walter, 1963

Karnes, Marilyn, undated, 1960-1961

Karolevitz, Robert F., 1969

Karolik, Maxim, undated, 1950-1952, 1954-1955

Karsh, Estrellita and/or Yosuf, 1966-1968

Karter, Lawrence B., 1960-1961, 1963

Kasmin Limited, 1964

Kass, Fred L., 1967-1968

Kassan, Elizabeth, 1965

Kastelas, Milton, 1955

Kastor, Hugo, 1950, 1952-1953

Katonah Gallery, 1956-1957, 1961-1963, 1966

Katz, Karl, undated, 1967

Katz, Rosalie K., 1957, 1965

Katz, William, 1961

Katzman, Herbert, 1953-1954

Katzman, Sidney, 1956

Kauder, Warren G., 1967

Kaufman Art Gallery, 1952

Kaufman, Beatrice, undated, 1942

Kaufman, Dorothy, 1966

Kaufman, Mrs. George S., 1932, 1942-1943

Kaufman, Max, 1956

Kaufmann Department Stores, 1956

Kaufmann, Edgar, Jr., 1940, 1958, 1962

Kaufmann, Steven N., 1957, 1965

Kavanaugh, Mrs. Dunn, 1951

Kawakami, Dan, 1967

Kawakami, Keija, 1969

Kay, Jane E., undated

Kayden, Mr. and/or Mrs. Herbert J., undated, 1951, 1954, 1956, 1966-1967

Kaye, Earl W., 1960

Kaye, Harold, 1955-1957, 1963

Kaye, Mort, 1956

Kaz, Kaye, 1968

Kaz, Nathaniel, 1941

Kealiinohomoku, Joanne, 1960

Kealiinohomoku, Thomas, 1960

Keating, Mary Aubrey, 1935, 1942, 1945

Keating, T. W., 1959

W. R. Keating and Co., 1959, 1962, 1964-1966

Keck, Caroline K. and/or Sheldon, undated, 1949-1952, 1954-1959, 1961

Keefe, Mrs. W., 1941

Keesling, Mrs. Francis V., Jr., 1961

Kegel und Konietzko, 1966

Keighley, Mrs. William, 1953

Keiser, Nancy Lee (Mrs. R. K.), 1964

Keiter, Richard. 1942

Keith, Paul, 1964

Robert Keith Furniture and Carpet Company, 1941-1942

Kellenberg, Harry, 1956

Keller, Graeme (Mrs. Erwin), 1964

Keller, Mrs. Joseph M., 1960

Kelley, Chapman (see: Atelier Chapman Kelley)

Kelley, Dorothy, 1951

Kelley, Theron L., 1952

Kelley, William Muir, 1952

Kellner, Mary, undated, 1943

Kellogg, Marion B., undated

Kelly, Andrew, 1933, 1947

Kelly, Anna L., 1929-1932, 1935, 1938-1939 (see also: Mrs. John D. Rockefeller, Jr.)

Kelly, Anne, undated, 1937-1938

Kelly, Daniel M., 1964

Kelly, Harriet (Mrs. Stephen Eugene), 1956-1957

Kelly, Leon, 1955

Kelly, Lillian and/or Stephen, 1955

Kelly, Sarah Hunter, 1966-1967

Kelly, Tom, 1967

Kelly, Mrs., 1957

Kem, James M., 1940

Kemeny, Arpad, 1953

Kemper, William T., Jr., 1954, 1956-1958, 1960, 1963-1965

Kempner, May (Mrs. I. H., Jr.), 1964-1965

Kemsley Newspapers Ltd. of London, 1956

Kende Galleries, Inc., 1946-1947

Kennebec Valley Art Association, 1965-1966

Kennedy, Edward, 1961

Kennedy Galleries, Inc., 1962, 1968, 1970

Kennedy, George C., 1957

Kennedy, Hattie Weir and/or John H., 1955-1956

Kennedy, J. M., 1934

Kennedy, Jane Robson, 1956

John F. Kennedy Center for Performing Arts, 1965

Kennedy, John H., 1955-1956

Kennedy, William, 1966

Kent State University, 1967-1968

Kentucky Guild Art Train, 1961

Kentucky Guild of Artists and Craftsmen, 1961

Kentucky, University of (see: University of Kentucky)

Kerby, Robert E., 1964

Kerner, Richard, 1956

Kerrigan, Anthony, 1956

Kerwin, Madeline, 1941

Ketterlinus Lithographic Manufacturing Company, 1955

Kety, Josephine G. (Mrs. Seymour S.), 1963

Key Productions, Inc., 1965

Kiam, Victor, 1961

Kieghley, William, 1949

Kiko Galleries, 1967

Killiam, Walt, 1962

Kincaid, William Wallace, 1941

Kindlers Malerei Lexikon, 1965

King, Mrs. Alexander, 1963

King, Alice (Mrs. Ivan), undated, 1960

King and Higham, Inc., 1941

King and Weese Studios, 1956

King, Hazel, 1946

King Korn Stamp Company, 1964

King, Vincent G., 1964

King, Virginia, undated

King, William, 1952-1953

Kingman, Betty, 1963

Kingsley, Carter R., 1947

Kingstein, Jonah, 1953

Kinnicutt, Francis P., 1937, 1958-1959

Kinyer, James M., 1958

Kinzel, Carol, 1952, 1956

Kiplinger Tax Letter, 1951

Kiplinger Washington Letter, 1960

Leonid Kipnis Gallery, 1955

Kipp, Roy Frank, 1946

Kipper, Katrina, 1952

Kirk, Katherine, 1961

Kirk, Phyllis, 1961

Kirkbride-Bradley Art Gallery, 1962

Kirkwood Motel, 1955

Kiro, Nadia (Mrs. Boris M.), 1958

Kirsch, Dwight, 1941, 1948, 1953, 1958, 1960

Kirsch, John, 1952

Kirstein, Lincoln, 1943-1944

Kislova, L., 1960

Kissin, Eve (Mrs. Benjamin), undated

Kitchener, David, 1965

Kiyokawa, Taiji, undated, 1962

Klass, Enid, undated, 1966-1969

Klawans, Harold L., Jr., undated

Kleeman Galleries, 1941

Kleeman, Henry, 1941

Kleeman-Thorman Galleries, Ltd., 1934

Klein, Eileen Ina, 1960

Klein, Harris J., 1968

Klein, Jerome, 1958, 1961, 1966

Klein, Louis, 1956

Klein, William J., 1966

Kline, Art, 1968

Kling, Ken, 1946

Kling, Roger, 1965

Knapp-Monarch Company, 1956

Knauber, Alma Jordan, 1948

Kneeland, Henry T., 1956

Kneznek, S. N., 1964

Knickerboch, D., Sr., 1956

Knight, Betsy, 1965

Knipschild, Robert, 1952-1954

M. Knoedler and Co., Inc., undated, 1932, 1939, 1941-1945, 1949, 1951-1954, 1956-1957, 1960, 1967-1968

Hans Knoll Associates, 1947, 1956, 1959

Alfred A. Knopf Incorporated, 1948, 1954, 1957, 1960, 1962, 1964

Knopf, Paul M., 1966

Knopp-Hunter Galleries, 1956

Knowlton, Monique, 1964

Knox, Katharine McCook, 1962, 1965

Knox, Mabel Isabel (Mrs. Alexander), undated, 1934

Knox, Seymour H., 1939, 1940, 1961, 1966

Seymour H. Knox Foundation, 1963, 1967

Kobler, Virginia, 1962

Koch, John Paul, 1966

Koch, Pyke, undated, 1960

Kochen, Anna M., 1959

Kodansha Famous Artists Schools, 1968

Kodner, Martin, 1959

Koenig and Bachner, 1958

Koenigsberg, Harry L., 1964-1967

Kogel, George, 1957

Mel Kohler Interiors, 1966

Kohn and Kohn Antiques, 1951

Kolarsey, Lynne, 1963

Kolker, Judith R. (Mrs. Jonathan W.), 1966

[Kollech?], Teddy, undated

Kolmar, Richard, 1950

Kolodin, Irving, 1960

Kolten, Frances, undated

Komor, Mathias, 1961

Komroff, Susan, 1961

Kondon, Vana E., 1968-1969

Kondrat, Hope N., 1967

Konrad, Olga, 1965

Kook, Edward, 1946-1947, 1953, 1955-1956, 1963

Kootz, Jane and Samuel, 1960

Samuel M. Kootz Gallery, Inc., undated, 1956-1958, 1963

Kopeman, Benjamin, 1937

Kopp, Helen, 1945

Kopp, Sidney S., 1941-1942

Kopplin, Hermann Martin, undated

Korda, Mrs. C. W., 1956

Korff, Sally, 1960

Korman, Barbara, 1957

Korman, Marvin, 1960, 1963

Kornblau, 1958

Korody, Erica, 1960

E. J. Korvette, Inc., 1964

Koshiba, H. T., 1936

Koven, Gustav H., 1961

Kowal, Jan S., 1956

Kozlow, Richard, undated, 1955

Kramer, Harold J., 1963, 1969

Kramer, Helen Kroll and/or Milton Lurie, undated, 1945-1946, 1950, 1953, 1955, 1958, 1961-1968

Kramer, Hilton, 1968

Kramer, Howard, undated

Kramer, Joseph L., 1964

Kramer, Robert, undated, 1962, 1965

Kramer, William Mortimer, 1962-1963

Krannert Art Museum, undated (see also: University of Illinois)

Krass, Mrs. Nathan, 1934

Kraus, Hans, 1968

Krause, Gertrude Ruth, 1962

Kraushaar, Antoinette, 1956-1957, 1965

Kraushaar Galleries, undated, 1934, 1945, 1948-1949, 1959, 1960-1962, 1964-1965

Kream, Marilyn, 1966

Krechniak, Mrs. J. M. (Helen Bullard), 1959

Kreeger, Carmen M. and/or David Lloyd, 1965-966

Kreger, Mary S. (Mrs. Henry L. F.), 1963

Kreiselman, Marian, 1959

Krentz, Adelaide S., 1960

Krentzin, Earl, 1959

Kress, Mrs. Walter H., 1958

Kreutz, Irving, undated, 1958

Kreutzer, Palma C., 1965

Kreymborg, Alfred J. and/or Dorothy, undated, 1962, 1966-1968

Kriebel, Charles, 1959

Kriegler, Joseph, 1962, 1967

Krim, Mrs. Arthur O., 1967

Kriz, Mrs. E. R., 1933

KRIZ Radio, 1966

Krogh, Elden, 1958

Borris Kroll Fabrics, Inc., 1958, 1961, 1967

Kroll, Hammond, 1941-1942

Kroll, Leon, undated, 1933-1935, 1953

Kronenberg, Bernard, 1956

Krook, Bernice, 1960, 1962

Kropf, Julius, 1953

Krug, Harry, 1967

Kruidnier, David, 1955, 1961

Kruik, Arie B., 1953, 1958

Kryzytski, Halina, 1959

Kryzytski, Serge, 1959

Kuh, Katharine, 1954, 1961-1966

Kuhl, Orville J., 1959

Kuhn, Hedwig Stieglitz, 1963

Kuhn, Margaret M. (Mrs. William R.), 1942

Kuhn, Walt, 1946

Kuhne, James, 1934, 1935

Kuipers, R., 1960-1961, 1969

Kuleck, Mrs. Sanford, 1957

Kulicke, Barbara, 1956

Kung, David, undated, 1962

Kunic, Helen M. L., 1969

Kuniyoshi, Sara and/or Yasuo, undated, 1941-1942, 1953-1954, 1957, 1963-1964, 1967

Kunstadter, Sigmund W., 1956

Kunstneres Hus, Norway, 1953

Kunstsammlung Nordrhein-Westfalen, 1963

Kuntz, Adelaide, 1933

Kuntz, Mrs. Charles, 1960

Kuntz, Joseph J., 1965

Kuntz, Robert M., Jr., undated, 1961

Kupferman, Lawrence, 1943, 1947

Kurson, Phyllis (Mrs. Kenneth Morse), 1957-1958

Kurtz, Alice H. (Mrs. J. Roland), 1939

Kurtz, Olga, 1967

Kusama, Yayoi, 1957, 1959

Kutak, Robert J., 1967

Kutela, Mary, 1962

Kutztown State College, 1963

Kwalleh, Nancy, 1966

Labor, Department of (see: Department of Labor)

La Caille, Joan, 1964

Lachaise, Isabel P. (Mrs. Gaston), 1952-1953

Lacy, Joseph H., 1955

Ladies' Home Journal -- , 1949, 1954

La Fase, Sam, 1958

La France Industries, 1944

La Guardia, Fiorello H., 1934-1935, 1941

Laisy, Emily (Mrs. Albert W.), undated

La Jolla Art Center, 1957-1958, 1960-1961, 1965-1968

Lake, Frederic E., 1963

Lakeview Center for the Arts, 1965

Lakin, Millicent, 1965

Laliberte, Norman, 1962

Lamb, John A., 1962, 1967

Lamb, Mildred H. and/or Paul, undated, 1927, 1933-1935, 1938-1940, 1948-1949, 1956, 1958-1959, 1961

Lambert, Mrs. J. Wooster, 1933

Lambert, Mrs. W., 1933-1934

Lampard, Marie T., 1963

La Napoule Art Foundation, 1955, 1964

Lancaster, Presley, 1957

Landau-Alan Gallery, 1968-1969 (see also: Landau Gallery; Alan Gallery)

Landau, Barry and Bobby, undated

Landau Gallery, 1951, 1955-1965

Landau, Mimi (Mrs. Gerald), 1965

Landgraff, Edna R., 1958, 1960

Landegren, Michael E., 1934

Albert Landry Galleries, 1960, 1968

Landy, Lynn (Mrs. Richard), 1964, 1965

Lane, Alvin S., 1965-1966, 1968-1969

Lane, Saundra and/or William H., undated, 1952-1969

Lanepee, Ernestine, 1957

Lang, H. Jack, 1955

Lang, Mary and/or Sylvan, 1948-1949, 1952-1953, 1955-1960, 1962-1963, 1966

Langford, Mrs. George, 1958

Langman, Anne W., 1957-1958, 1960

Langman, Lynn, undated

Langman, Nan, 1957

Langmuir, Peter B., 1965

Langston, Bryant W., 1961

Lanier Business Products, 1972

Lannan, J. Patrick, 1967

Lansen-Naeve Corp., 1963

Lansford, Alonzo, undated

Lansing Storage Company, 1960

Lansky, Maurice, 1967

Lanyon, Ellen, 1954

Lape, Esther Everett, 1945

La Port, R. J., 1964

Lariar, Laurence, 1954

Larkin, Oliver W., 1951, 1959

C. J. La Roche and Company, Inc., Advertising, 1951

Larsen, Karsten, 1953-1954

Larsen, Peter, 1953

Larsen-Roman, Lucy, 1959

Lasker, Mrs. Albert D., 1961

Lasser, Denise (Mrs. Richard), 1966

Lassiter, Barbara B. (Mrs. Frederic H.), 1967

Lassiter, Charles K., 1956

Lathan, Emily, 1963

Latner, Albert J., 1968

Muriel Latow Gallery, 1955

Laucke, Anthony, 1958

Laughlin, Alice D., 1946

Laughlin, Ann, 1957

Laughlin, Mrs. James, 1959

Laurent, Mimi and Robert, undated, 1945

Laurents, Arthur, 1956

Lauter, Robert S., 1961

Lavaggi, R., 1958

Lavaty, Frank A., 1955

Laveman, Joseph D. and/or Portia W., 1946, 1950, 1953, 1955-1957, 1959

Lavenson Bureau of Advertising, Inc., 1964

Lavenson, Jay, 1956

LaVenture, William B., 1963, 1965-1968

Lawrence, Eliot, 1956

Lawrence Gallery, 1960

Lawrence, Jack, undated, 1950, 1956-1957, 1959-1968

Lawrence, Jacob, 1953

Lawrence, Kay, 1960

Lawrence, Leonard H., 1964

Lawrence-Myeden Foundation, 1964

Lawrence, Paula, undated, 1961

Lawrence, Richard H., undated

Lawrence, Ruth (Mrs. James C.), 1965

Lawrence, Sandra, undated

Sarah Lawrence College, 1957, 1959

Lawrence, Seymour, 1956

Laws, Joan, 1959

Lawson, Adele, 1952-1953

Layton Art Gallery, 1932

Layton School of Art, 1955, 1958

Lazarnick, George, 1962

Lazarow and Co., 1967

Lazarus, Fred, Jr., 1950

Lazarus, Nancy, 1951

Lea, Wesley, 1953

Leach, Mrs. Ford H., 1957

Leaf, Milton, 1942

League in Aid of Crippled Children, Inc., 1952

Leahy, Richard G., 1961-1962, 1965-1966, 1968

Leahy, Sarah G., 1961

Leahy's, 1967-1968

Leamon, J. Thomas, 1963

Leavitt, Hart, 1969

Leavitt, Thomas, 1961, 1968

Lebovitz, Sue (Mrs. Herman C.), 1965

Leckay, Myron, 1934, 1943-1944

Le Corbeiller, Jean, 1959

Lederer, Lucy, 1958

Albert R. Lee and Co., Inc., 1946, 1952-1954, 1956, 1961-1964, 1966

Lee, Amy Freeman, 1952

Eva Lee Gallery, Inc., undated, 1960-1968

Lee, Mrs. Henry, 1957

Lee, Mr. and/or Mrs. Herbert C., 1960, 1964, 1966, 1968

Lee, Marshall, 1965

Lee, Sherman E., 1941, 1942

Tom Lee, Ltd., 1956-1957

Lee, Toomey and Kent, 1964

Leeds, Lawrence, 1934

Leepa, Allen, 1959

Leepa, Harvey, 1963

Leeper, Blanche and John Palmer, 1956-1967

Lefkowitz, Louis J., 1965

Lefort, Warren G., 1958 Lege, Frances Snowden (Mrs. Frederick M.), undated, 1967

Lehigh University, 1951, 1954-1955, 1962

Lehman, Mrs. Arthur, 1956

Lehman, Elliott, 1961

Lehman, Lucille, undated

M. Lehmann, Inc., 1957

Lehmbruck, Manfred, 1966

Lehtonen, L., undated

H. Leiber Company, Inc., 1952

Leibold, Mrs. Carl, 1932-1933, 1940

Leibold, Frank, 1966

Leicester Galleries, undated, 1958-1962, 1964-1967

Leigh, David I., 1965-1966

S. D. Leisdorf and Co., 1968

Lekus, Max, 1959

Eleanor LeMaire, Inc., 1955-1959, 1961, 1963

Lemann, Bernard, 1934

Lenert, Belle, 1934

Lenin and Mitchell, Inc., Advertising, 1947

Lennen and Newell, Inc., 1959

Lenney, Annie, 1967

Leofanti Studios, 1958

Leonard, Esther, 1963

Leong, James C., 1957, 1960

Leopold, Eunice R. (Mrs. Irving H.), undated, 1965

Lerner, Abraham, 1960

Lerner Photography, Inc., 1968

Lerner Publications Company, 1965

Lescase, William, 1962

Leslie, G. D., 1936

Leslie, Warren, 1961-1962

Lesser, Mrs. Julius, 1964

Lesser, Marjorie F., 1962, 1964

Lesser, Sol, 1962

Lester, Lee, 1964

Lethbridge, Rodney, 1954

Leval, Fernand, 1960

Levenson, Claire B. (Mrs. Joseph), 1967

Leventhal, Lucille, 1961

Leventon, Vladimir, 1953

Levi, Arch C., 1959

Levi, Corrado, 1959

Levi, Julian, 1953, 1955, 1957-1958

Levi, Thyda H. (Mrs. Robert H.), undated, 1962

Levick, Irving and/or Mildred, 1959, 1961-1963

Levick, L. E., 1965

Levin, Mrs. E. E., 1956

Levin, Herman, 1932

Levin, Hoke and/or Maxine, undated, 1951, 1954, 1956, 1958-1959, 1962-1963

Levin, Mrs. Isadore, 1956

Levin, Martin, 1963

Levine, Helen G. (Mrs. Lawrence M.), 1967

Levine, Herbert, 1957-1958

Levine, Jack and/or Ruth, undated, 1939, 1949, 1953

Levine, Max, 1957

Levine, Saul, 1959

Levine, Seymour, 1961

LeViness, W. Thetford, 1961

Levinger, Mr. and/or Mrs. Paul, 1960, 1963

Levinson, Edwin D., 1952

Levitt, Irving and/or Shirley, undated, 1957, 1962-1965

Levitt, Marvin, undated, 1957- 1958

Mortimer Levitt Gallery, 1948

Levonius, Irma (Mrs. Charles K.), 1963

Levy, Mrs. David M., 1941-1942

Levy, Esther L., 1958

Gaston Levy Studios, Art Restoring, 1966

Levy, Mrs. Gustave, 1961

Levy, Herbert S., 1957

Levy, Jane, 1958

Levy, Jean and/or Julien, undated, 1958-1960, 1962, 1964

Levy, Jerome B. and/or Marion, 1967-1968

Julien Levy Gallery, 1936

Levy, Norman F., 1967

Levy, Norman J., 1956, 1961

Levy, Robert Charles and/or Rosalie A., 1957-1958, 1962

Levyne, Sidney, 1948

Lewandowski, Dolores and/or Edmund D., undated, 1941, 1953, 1958-1959, 1961

Lewbin, Hyman J., 1955-1956

Lewenthal, Reeves, 1944

Lewin, Albert, 1946

Lewin, Bernard, 1965

Lewin, Tobias, 1960

Bertha Lewinson Gallery, 1960

C. Russell Lewis Paint Stores, 1953

Lewis, Edward B., 1943

Lewis, Elizabeth C. (Mrs. Leslie L.), 1959-1960

Lewis, Francis H., 1946

Lewis, Harold, 1960

Lewis, Jerry D., 1934-1935

Lewis, Mrs. Madison H., 1950

Lewis, Robert Q., 1963

Lewis, Samuel, 1956

Lewis, Veronica, 1962

Lewisohn, Alexander, 1950

Lewisohn, Margaret F. and/or Samuel A., undated, 1941, 1947-1948, 1951

Lexington Stationery and Cigars, 1961-1963, 1965, 1968

Liba, Richard Dana, 1942

Libhart, Henry M., 1958

Librarie Galerie La Hune, 1955-1956

Library of Congress, 1941-1942, 1946, 1957-1961, 1966-1968

Libri Fabbri Ferrari, 1959

Libsohn, Sol, 1961

Lichten, Frances, 1951

Lichtenberg, Linda, undated, 1965

Lichtenstein, Mr., 1964

Lichtenstein, Frank H. and/or Sarah Jane, 1950, 1954-1955, 1957, 1959

Lichtenstein, Mrs. Lawrence M., 1961

Liddle, Charles M., 1957

Liddy, Rita T., 1953

Lie, Jonas, 1934

Lieberman, Grace K., 1950

Lieberman, Nathan, 1930

Lieberman, William S., undated, 1964, 1968

Liberty Paint Supply Co., 1941

Liebhold, Franz, undated

Liebman, Alice M., undated

Liebman, Mrs. Charles, 1934

Liebowitz, Mrs. J. S., 1967

Liebowitz, Mrs. Robert, 1957

Liechty, Rod, 1962

Liehue[?], Aline M., 1934

Life -- , 1939-1940, 1954-1955, 1958-1960, 1963

Liggett, Richard A., 1960

Lighthouse, 1962

Lightolier, 1965-1966

Lilly, Joseph and/or Margaret, undated, 1934, 1944-1945, 1949

Lilly, Rita T., 1953

Limited Editions, 1945

Limited Editions Club, 1967

Abraham Lincoln High School, undated

Lincoln County Cultural and Historical Association, 1960

Lincoln National Life Insurance Co., 1966-1967

Lincoln Storage, 1953

Linden and Deutsch, 1965

Linden, Bella L. and/or Leonard, Jr., undated, 1963-1969

Lindenwood College, 1949

Linder, Mr. and/or Mrs. Bertram N., undated, 1962

Linder, H. F., undated, 1958

Linger Werke, 1966

Linnenkamp, Irmela and/or Rolf, 1964, 1965

Lionni, Leo, 1955

Lipman, Howard and/or Jean, undated, 1940, 1951, 1954, 1957, 1960, 1962

Lippincott, Benjamin E. and/or Gertrude, undated, 1934, 1959, 1962, 1964

Lipchitz, Jacques, 1959

Lipschultz, M. A., 1961

Lipson, David S., 1952

Lipson, Stuart, 1966

Lipton, Harold L., 1960

Lisa and David Co., 1962

Lishka, Julie, 1960

Liss, George M., 1968

List, Mr. and/or Mrs. Albert A., 1964-1966

Liszkowska, Janina (Nina), 1929-1932

Little, Brown and Company, 1958, 1965, 1968

Little, Emma H., 1953

Little Gallery, undated, 1956, 1957, 1959, 1961, 1966

Little Gallery Frame Shop, 1960

J. J. Little and Ives Co., Inc., 1960-1961

Little, Nina Fletcher, 1955, 1959

Little Red School House, undated

Little Studio Gallery, 1964

Littlefair, Duncan E., 1958

Livingston, B., 1934

Livre de Poche, 1966

Ljubljana Modern Gallery, 1965

Lloyd and McCarthy, Inc., 1945, 1949, 1950, 1952

Lloyd, Horatio Gates and/or Lallie, 1941, 1956-1958, 1963

Lloyd, Margaret H. (Mrs. Richard W.), 1963

Loccheim, Aline, 1952

Loch Haven Art Center, 1965-1966

Locher, Robert E., 1947, 1949, 1954

Locke, Alain, undated, 1929, 1941-1944

Locke, John, 1950

Locker, Theodore, 1964

Loeb, Mr. and/or Mrs. Henry A., undated, 1954-1955, 1959, 1963, 1965-1966

Loeb, Jane, undated

Loeb, Judy Krueger, 1968

Loeb, Louise, undated

Loeb, Richard A., 1941, 1943, 1949, 1954, 1956-1957, 1963

Loebl, Jerrold, 1958-1962

Loew, David L., 1949, 1955

Raymond Loewy Associates, 1957-1958

Lofstrom, James E. and/or Virginia, 1959-1961

Logan, Mrs. Joshua, 1965

Logan, Peter S., 1966

Logsdon, Mabel, 1953

Lohr, George, 1958

London Sunday Times -- , 1954 (see also: -- Sunday Times of London -- )

Loningo, Frances S. (Mrs. Hinton), 1956

Long Beach Island Foundation, 1964

Long Beach Museum of Art, 1960

Long Island Arts Center, Inc., 1964

Long Beach, City of (see: City of Long Beach)

Longchamps Restaurant, 1968, 1969

Look -- , undated, 1947-1949, 1951, 1954, 1964-1965

Loomis, Mrs. Alfred, 1961

Loper, James and/or Mary Lou, 1963

Lorillard, Mrs. S., 1960

Loring, Porter, 1947

Lortz, Richard, 1956

Los Angeles County Fair Association, 1953

Los Angeles County Museum, 1944, 1949, 1951, 1957, 1959-1965, 1967, 1968-1969

Los Angeles Municipal Art Department, 1965

Los Angeles Museum of Art, undated, 1934, 1936, 1939, 1944, 1949

Los Angeles Times -- , 1951

Lott, John S., 1961

Louccheim, Mrs., 1950

Louccheim, Walter C., 1955

Loud, Mrs. William C., 1958

Louisiana Art Commission, 1951

Louisiana State University, 1936, 1949-1950, 1953, 1964

Louisville, University of (see: University of Louisville)

Louvre Artists' Materials, 1950

Love, Howard O., 1961-1962

Low, Claire B. (Mrs. Frank H.), undated

Low, Sanford, 1959, 1960

Lowe, Fred W., 1956

Lowe, Harry, 1968

Lowenthal, Edith and/or Milton, undated, 1946-1947, 1949-1951, 1953, 1955-1958, 1960-1969

Julius Lowey, Inc., 1953

Lowis, Samuel, 1956

Lowney, P. J., 1940

Lowrey, John, Jr., 1961

Lubarsky, Ruth (Mrs. Lester), 1957

Lubin, Louis, 1957, 1967

Luce, Clare and Henry R. (Harry), 1950, 1962

Luce, Molly, undated

Luce-Romeike, 1964

Lucien, Edward, 1967

Lucini, Emilio, 1963

Luck, Robert H., 1965

Lucom, Bertha and/or David S., undated, 1957, 1965

Luddington, Mr. and Mrs. Nicholas L., 1963

Ludgin, Earle and/or Mary, undated, 1943-1945, 1948-1949, 1951, 1953-1954, 1957

Ludington, Wright S., undated, 1934, 1939, 1941-1948, 1950, 1952-1953, 1964-1965

Lueloff, Mrs. R. T., 1956

James Luer and Co., 1946

Luim, John R., 1963

Arthur S. Lukatch, Inc., 1947-1948, 1952, 1954

Irving S. Lukatch, Inc., 1946

Stanley Lukatch, Inc., 1946

Lukens, Savage and Washburn, 1954

Lulli, Antonio, 1965, 1967-1968

Lumenfeld, Mr. and Mrs. Norman, 1956

Lumet, Sidney, 1960

Lunde, Asbjorn, 1966

Lundeen, Lowell, 1966

Lupfer, Mrs. C.M., 1934

Luria, Milton, 1969

Lurie, Boris, 1957

Lurie, Frances H., undated, 1960

Lurie, Walter, 1948-1950, 1956

Luster, Hyman I., 1951

Lutheran Church in America, 1966

Lutheran Society for Worship, Music and the Arts, 1966

Lutheran Student Foundation, 1967

Lutzker, Marilyn, 1963

Lyman Allyn Museum, 1935-1936, 1956-1967

Kenneth Lynch and Sons, 1965

Lynch, William L., 1969

Lynes, Russell, 1946, 1961

Lyngby-Taarbaek Kommune, 1964

Lynn, James B., 1961, 1967

Lynnbrook Public Schools, 1957

M and M Transportation Co., 1968

M and R Directories, 1964

Maas, John, undated

MacAgy, Betty and/or Douglas, undated, 1963

MacAgy, Douglas, 1963

Macagy, Jermayne, 1958

Macagy, Jerry, 1956

MacAlister, Paul R., 1962

Macbeth Gallery, 1955 (see also: William Macbeth Incorporated)

Macbeth, Robert, 1933

William Macbeth Incorporated, 1935, 1943, 1951, 1953 (see also: Macbeth Gallery)

MacDonald, Kenneth, 1954

MacDougall, Ranald, 1959

Macdowell, John Henry, 1960

MacGibeny, Bruce, 1967

MacGregor, Robert M., 1957

Mach, Janet (Mrs. E. L.), 1967-1968

Machlin, Sheldon, 1963

Mack, Charlotte, undated, 1949, 1953-1954

Mack, Preston W., undated, 1965, 1967

MacKendrick, Lillian, 1955

Maclean's -- Magazine, 1960

Macmillan Co., 1969

MacMillan, Henry Jay, 1959-1960

MacMullen, Stanley L., 1954

Charles H. MacNider Museum, 1965-1969

Macomber and Company, Inc., 1956

MacPherson, James, 1965

R. H. Macy and Co., 1934, 1939, 1953

Mad Welshman's, 1956

Madeira, Louis C., IV, 1952

Mademoiselle -- , 1960

Madigan, Dick, 1966

Madigan, Podd, 1969

Madison College, 1959

Madison Credit Bureau, Inc., 1951

James Madison High School, 1935, 1965

Madison Square Garden Corporation, 1965-1967

Madlener, Mrs. Otto, 1961

Madson, Jack, 1958

Magazine Management Company, 1951

Magazine of Art -- , 1950

Magazine of Building -- , 1952

Magill, James P., 1957

Mahl, Claire, 1963

"Maid to Order" Maid Service, 1968

Maine Coast Artists, 1965, 1968-1969

Maine, Florene, 1951-1953, 1955

Maine, University of (see: University of Maine)

Mainichi Newspapers, 1953

Maitland, Mrs. Leslie M., 1932

Makler Gallery, 1960

Makler, Hope and/or Paul Todd, undated, 1958-1960

Malitsky Art Books, 1954

Mallach, Esther D., 1964

Malmö Museum, 1966

Malone, Adrian H., 1951, 1952, 1954

Malone, Lee, 1963

Malone, Robert R., 1967

Maloney, Vincent H., 1964

Malowe Robert, undated

Man, Levy and Nogi, Inc., 1961

Management Methods -- , 1954

Manchester College of Art and Design, undated

Mandel, Estelle, undated, 1951-1953

Mandelbaum, Robert A., 1966

Manealoff, Dorothy C., 1944

Manhassett Press, undated

Manhattan East -- , undated

Manhattan Moving and Storage, 1967

Manhattan Savings Bank, 1953

Manhattan Storage and Warehouse Company, 1951

Mann and Brown, 1961

Mann, Charles, 1960

Mann, Gerald C., 1956

Manning, Gordon P., 1956

Manuella, Frank R., 1967

Manus, Mrs., 1956

Manzelmann, Richard, 1967

Maon Hagalmud, 1965

Maple Heights, Inc., 1964

Marantz, Evelyn and Johnny, undated

Marantz, Mrs. Leon A., 1956

Marashack, Al, 1960

Marboro Books, 1960

Marc-Long Associates, 1962-1963

Marcus, Betty and/or Edward S., undated, 1950, 1952-1954, 1956-1959, 1963

Marcus, Edward, 1954, 1956-1957, 1959

Marcus, Laurence, 1957-1958

Marcus, Mrs. Leonard, 1957

Louis Marcus Corp., 1955

Marcus, Mary and/or Stanley, undated, 1946-1947, 1949-1953, 1955-1962, 1964-1965, 1967

Marcus, Mitchell, 1964

Mareck, George R., 1959

Maremont, Adele and/or Arnold Harold, 1945, 1955-1960, 1963

Margolis, Michael H., 1965

Margulies, Harold, 1961

Marien Historical Association, 1955

Marin, John C., Jr. and/or Norma, undated, 1947, 1960-1967

Norma and John C. Marin Foundation, Inc., 1958

Marion High School, 1952

Markewich, Robert, 1964

Marks, Claude, 1963

Marks, S. J., 1964

Markson, Annabelle and/or Yoland D., undated, 1955-1956, 1959, 1961, 1964

Markson, Joyce and/or Robert T., undated, 1952-1955, 1959-1961

Markson, Oscar, 1959, 1961

Markus, Henry A., 1964

Marlborough Fine Arts, Ltd., 1961

Marlborough Gallery, undated

Marlin, Edward, 1956

Marlowe, Marjorie, 1953

Marquand, Mrs. John P., 1941, 1948

Marquette University, 1961

Mars, Florence, 1954

Jordan Marsh Co., 1962

Marsh and McLennan, 1965

Marsh, Esther (Mrs. Stan), 1962

Marsh, Mrs. Reginald, 1955

Marshall, Becky (Mrs. E .J.), undated, 1958-1959

Marshall, Elizabeth, 1958

Marshall, H. James, 1958-1959

Marshall, Joseph, 1959

Marshall, Mary E. (Mrs. Ray A.), 1968

Marsteller, William A., 1964

Martin, Anna Bridgewater, undated, 1962

Martin, Anne, 1956

Martin, Mr. and/or Mrs. Easoni, 1950

Martinson, Joseph B., 1962

Marvel, Gladys (Mrs. Josiah), undated, 1956, 1960, 1964

Marvel, Lee, 1965

Marx, Allen, 1944

Marx, Harpo, 1944, 1947

Marx, Samuel A., 1951, 1956

Marx, Mrs. Samuel A., 1948

Maryland Institute, 1957

Maryland, University of (see: University of Maryland)

Maser, Herman G., 1963

Maslan, Mrs. Aaron L., 1958

Maslon, Mrs. Samuel, 1948

Mason, Mrs. Arthur, undated, 1960

Mason, Mrs. Clyde R., 1963

Massa, Robert F., 1939

Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1950, 1959, 1960, 1968 Massachusetts State Association of Architects, 1958

Massachusetts, University of (see: University of Massachusetts)

Massalon Museum, 1954

Massie, Mr. and/or Mrs. Edward, 1955

Masters, A. Edward, 1964

Masters Mart, Inc., 1951

Masters, Steve, 1939

Mathews, Jean (Mrs. Irving), 1958

Mathias, James F., 1968

Matisse, Pierre, 1945

Matthews, Gene, 1962-1963

Matthews, Mrs. Norman, 1964

Mattos, Betty, 1956

Mattuck Museum, 1968

Matson, Mrs. Benjamin Philip, undated

Matsuoka, Isaac Jiro, undated, 1963

Mauze, Jean, 1953

Maxon, John, 1959

Maxwell Associates, Inc., 1960

Maxwell, Barbara, 1966

Maxwell Galleries, undated, 1945, 1959, 1963

May, Morton D., 1950-1951, 1953-1954

Mayer, Albert, 1933

Mayer Gallery, undated

Mayer, Jerome, 1960-1961

Mayer, Robert B., 1962, 1965

Mayers, John J., 1960, 1965

Mayo Association, 1953

Mayo Clinic, 1953

Mayo Hill Galleries, Inc., 1952-1956 (see also: Gaglione, Tom)

Mayor's Golden Anniversary Committee, 1948

Mayor's Office, 1934, 1941-1942

Maze, Laurence E., 1958-1959

Mazo, Sara, 1961

McAfee, Aaron, 1948

McAndrew, John, 1949, 1953

Mother McAuley Liberal Arts High School, 1967

McBride, Henry, 1933, 1935, 1955

McBride, Margaret, 1964

Robert N. McBride and Company Publishers, 1934

McCall's -- , 1954, 1967-1968

E. S. McCann and Son, Inc., 1965, 1966

McCauley, Jane, 1964

McCausland, Elizabeth, 1941-1942, 1955

McClain, Tom G., 1969

McClelland, Donald and/or Janet, undated, 1966-1968

McClintock, James I., 1960-1961

McClish, B. Douglas, 1967

McCormick-Armstrong Co., 1954

McCormick, Mrs. Cyrus, 1952-1953

McCormick, Mrs. Hamilton, 1933

McCormick, Michael H., 1955

McCracken, John, 1944

McCrone, E. E., 1946-1947, 1952

McCulloch, Edith L. (Mrs. Frank W.), 1955

McCurdy, Charles, 1958

McCutcheon, John T., 1933

McDermid, Alice C. and/or Ralph Manewal, undated, 1962

McDermid, Ralph M., undated

McDonald, Don and Janet, 1967

McDonald, Jill, 1969

McDonnell, Joseph A., 1961

McDowell, Obolensky, Inc., 1959

McElroy, Michael, 1950

McElwee, Mary L., 1956

McFadden Studio, 1964

McFarland, Jeanne E. (Mrs. Robert), 1964

McFee, Henry, undated, 1926

McGill - University of Montreal Art Exhibit, 1957-1958

McGinnis, Patrick B., 1960

McGonagle, William A., 1963-1964, 1967

McGowan, Kenneth, 1967

McGraw-Hill Book Company, undated, 1957-1958, 1960, 1964-1965, 1967

McGuire, William, 1959

McHue, John, 1957

McIlhenny, Henry P., 1958-1965

McInerney, William K., 1959

McIntyre, Robert, 1958

McIntyre, Mrs. Warren O., 1953

McInvaill, Harry, Jr., 1952

McKee, Mrs. G., 1954

McKim, William L., 1943

McKinley, Helen, 1946

McKinney, Roland, 1939, 1960

McKnight, Henry T., 1956

McLanathan, Richard, 1959, 1962

McLaughlin, John D., undated

Betty McLean Gallery, 1953-1954

McLeod, Archibald, 1967

McMahon, Audrey (Mrs. A. Philip), undated, 1967-1968

McMahon, Richard P., 1963

McMichael, Jeanne, 1959

McMillan, F. R., 1953

McNally, Mrs., 1948

Marion Koogler McNay Art Institute, 1954, 1956-1960, 1962-1964, 1966, 1968

McNitt, Frank, 1935

McNulty, Kneeland, 1966

McVickar, Polly, 1958

McVicker, J. Jay, 1951

McVitty, A. E., 1934

Mebel, Frederick R., 1963

Mechling, Ethel Love (Mrs. B. Franklin), 1958-1959

Medical Aspects of Human Sexuality, 1968

Medical Economics, Inc., 1967

Medical Press, Inc., 1952-1953

Medoff, Mrs. David, 1956

Medvin, Henry, 1968

Megill, Donald, 1962

Mehlman, Justine and/or Samuel, undated, 1965, 1968

Meigs, Mary, 1965

Meigs, Walter (Pete), undated, 1952, 1956-1958

Meilach, Donna Z., 1965

[Meir?], undated

Meiss, Millard, 1944

Meister, Mrs. A. A., 1959

Meklman, Justine and Sam, 1965

Melamed, Abraham, undated, 1959-1960, 1966

Melamed, Abraham and/or Hope Goodman, 1959-1960, 1962-1963, 1966

Melamed, Myron, 1968

Mellon Galleries, 1932-1934

Mellquist, Jerome, 1951-1953

Melnick, Mrs. Daniel, 1961

Melnick, Joseph L., 1963

Melrose Glass Co., 1965

Meltzer, Adele, 1935

Meltzer Gallery, 1957, 1961

Meltzer, Milton, 1966

Meltzer, Paul B., 1962

Memphis Academy of Arts, 1964

Mencken, Mrs. H. G., 1959

Mendoza, Don Eugenio, 1951

Mendoza, George, 1960

Mengeriel, Helene, 1935

Mennonite Church (see: General Council of the Menonnite Church)

Meo, Salvatore, 1956, 1958

Merck, Sharp and Dohme International, 1958

H. Merdinger and Co., 1963

Mergendahl, T. E., Jr., 1959

Mergentine, Charles, 1958

Mergentine, Marguerita, undated

Merians, S., 1968

Meriden Gravure Company, 1959

Meridian Area Associates, 1959

Merinoff, D., 1952

Charles E. Merrill Books, Inc., 1965

Merrill, Edys, undated, 1943

Merril, Victoria L. (Mrs. Edward A.), 1958-1959, 1961

Mersey, Marcia (Mrs. David), 1963

Messer, Thomas, 1956

Meta Mold Aluminum Company, 1954

Metcalf, Arthur G. B., 1958

Metcalf, Elizabeth P. (Mrs. Thomas), 1951, 1953

Methodist Church, 1967-1968 (see also: General Board of Evangelism of the Methodist Church)

Mètiers d'Art Caribbean Art Center, 1965

Metropolitan Broadcasting Television, 1963

Metropolitan Fair and Expo Authority, 1962

Metropolitan Lighting and Fixture Co., Inc., 1967

Metropolitan Museum of Art, undated, 1931-1935, 1938, 1942, 1945, 1948, 1950, 1953-1960, 1963-1970

Meyer, Charles A. and/or Suzanne S., 1965, 1967

Meyer, Heather, 1969

Meyer, Jeralyn P., 1962

Meyer, Marion (Mrs. O. G.), 1964

Meyer, Marjorie W., undated

Meyer, Mrs. Matthew A., 1967

Meyers, Charles, 1960

Meyers, Claire and/or Sidney, 1965, 1967

Meyers, Evelyn and/or Raymond R., 1953, 1956, 1961, 1967

Meyers, Lucille G. (Mrs. Philip M.), undated, 1960, 1962, 1968

Meyers, Muriel (Mrs. Lawrence A.), 1967

Meyers, Raymond, 1967

Meyersburg, Dorothy, undated

Meystre, Edith, 1957

Miami Museum of Modern Art, 1964-1965

Miami, University of (see: University of Miami)

Miceli, Antonio, 1965

Michael, Marie Louise, 1960

Michaels, Stan, 1958-1959

Michener, James A., 1961-1963

Michener, Mrs. James A., 1961

Michigan Art Education Association, 1960

Michigan State College, 1955

Michigan State University, 1955-1956, 1959-1960, 1964, 1967-1968

Michigan, University of (see: University of Michigan)

Middlebury College, 1951, 1957

Middleton, Howard, 1957

Midonick, Dorothy and/or Millard L., undated, 1962-1967, 1969

Midtown Galleries, 1945, 1949, 1955, 1960-1961

Midway Hardware and Electrical Co., 1945

Midwestern University, 1962

Midwood Industries, Inc., 1961

Mikelson's, 1955

Milam, John J., 1963

Milch Galleries, 1933, 1941, 1952, 1955, 1960-1962

Military District of Washington, Historical Properties Section, 1946

Millard, Charles W., 1965, 1968

Miller and Chevalier, 1962

Miller, Annette M. (Mrs. David H.), 1967-1969

Miller, Arthur, 1957

Miller Company, undated, 1945, 1947, 1952, 1956 (see also: Tremaine, Burton G., Jr., and/or Emily Hall)

Miller, Dorothy, 1956, 1961

Miller, Earl, 1955

Miller, Edgar B., 1959

Miller, Edward, 1968

Miller, Eleanor, 1955

Miller, Fred, 1962

Miller, Gladys N. (Mrs. Rudolph), 1963

Miller, Grace G. Macculloch, 1967

Miller, Mr. and Mrs. Harvey, 1962

Miller, Helen and/or Max, 1950-1951

Herman Miller Furniture Co., undated, 1952, 1956

Miller, Mrs. Lawrence K., 1962

Miller, M., 1949

Miller, Mary T., 1952

Miller, Mrs. Melvin, 1963

Miller, Mildred, 1958

Miller, Milton H., 1959

Miller, N. Richard, 1966-1967

Miller, Nancy K. (Mrs. Morris F.), 1967

Miller, Pamela B., 1962

Miller, Ronald W., 1963

Miller, Robert, 1953

Miller, Tracy, undated, 1965, 1967-1968

Millett, Martha R. and/or Stephen, undated, 1962-1963, 1967-1968

Millier, Sarah P., 1949

Milligan College, 1963

Milligan, George F., 1964

Milliken, Arthur, 1937-1938

Milliken, William A., undated

Millman, Edward, 1953, 1958, 1960

Mills, 1957

Mills College, 1949, 1960

Mills, Dorothy, 1960

Mills, Mr. and/or Mrs. Frederic C. L., 1963-1964

Mills, Jane Leffingwell (Mrs. Alfred G.), 1965

Mills, Richard L., 1953, 1955, 1960

Millsaps, Daniel, undated, 1962

Millstein, Irving, 1963

Milrad, Aaron M., 1967

Milter, Mildred, 1958

Milton, Abby R., undated

Milton College, 1965

Milton, Mrs. David, 1930-1931

Miltzlaff, M. H., 1964

Milwaukee Art Center, 1935, 1943, 1945, 1950-1951, 1953, 1955, 1957-1958, 1959, 1961-1968

Milwaukee-Downer College, 1960

Milwaukee Journal -- , 1968

Miner, Ann, 1968

Minginoursh, Nicholas, 1964

Ministry of Finance, Denmark, 1960

Minneapolis Institute of Arts, undated, 1950-1951, 1953-1957, 1959, 1961-1963,1967, 1969

Minneapolis School of Art, 1952-1953, 1961

Minneapolis Society of Fine Arts, 1960

Minnesota Education Association, 1961

Minnesota Historical Society, 1966

Minnesota, University of (see: University of Minnesota)

Minnick, Francis, 1954

Mint Museum of Art, 1952, 1964-1967

Mintz, Harry, 1954

Mintzes Contracting Co., Inc., 1955

Miro, Melissa, undated

Mirski, Aida and/or Boris, undated, 1947-1949, 1951-1963, 1965-1968

Misch, Robert Jay, undated, 1964-1965

Mishell, Helen (Mrs. Daniel R.), undated, 1961-1962

Mishler, Carlos M., 1956

Miskell, Ford F., 1966

Miss United States Pageant, Inc., 1956

Mississippi State College for Women, 1956

Mistner, Walter, 1956

Mitch, Miriam, undated

Mitchell, Richard, 1967

Mitchell, Sara Edwards, 1966

Mitchell-Smith, Mary, 1963

MKI Gallery, 1965-1966

Moak, Peter V., 1963

Mobile Galleries Company, 1963

Mobley, Mrs. Charles Arden, Jr., 1950

Mobley, Flora Y., undated, 1950

Mock and Blum, 1955

Mocsanyi, Paul, 1959

Modelleda, Mercedes, 1958

Modern Art Foundry, Inc., 1958, 1965-1966

Modern Art Gallery of Toronto, 1957, 1966 (see also: Gallery of Contemporary Art, Toronto)

Moderna Museet, Stockholm, 1963

Modernage Furniture Corp., 1935

Moe, Ole Henrik, 1955-1956, 1958

Moise, Adelaide M. and/or William L., undated, 1960-1967

Moldover, Aaron, 1955

Momentum (artists' group), 1954 (see also: Exhibition Momentum)

Arnoldo Mondadori Editore, 1969

Monmouth Museum, 1965

Monroe, Marilyn, 1957

Montclair Art Museum, 1934, 1935, 1951-1952, 1963, 1966, 1969

Montclair State College, 1959

Montgomery, Charles, 1949

Montgomery, L.A.D., 1953

Montgomery, Lucy (Mrs. Kenneth), 1958, 1963

Montgomery, Margaret K. (Mrs. Robert L.), undated

Montgomery, Mrs. Roger, 1952

Montgomery, Seymour, 1951

Montreal Museum of Fine Arts, 1953, 1964

Moore, Alice K., 1941

Moore, C. Elmer, 1966

Moore College of Art, undated, 1965

Moore, Dawn, 1952

Moore, Fanny H. (Mrs. Paul), 1943, 1948, 1950

Moore, Marian D., 1966

Moore, Marianne, 1959

Moore, Patricia, 1965

Moore, Richard D., 1965-1966

Moore, Robert N., 1961-1962

Moore, Winifred, 1964

Moorepark, Howard, 1938-1939

Moorman, Mr. and/or Mrs. Louis J., 1960

Moos Gallery, 1959

Moran, John A., 1964

Morgan and Bros. and the Manhattan Storage Co., 1959

Morgan, Harry M., 1966

Morgan, Lila (Mrs. James F.), 1965-1966

Morgan, Maud (Mrs. Patrick), undated

Morgan, Randall, 1961

Morge Delivery Company, Inc., 1945

Morgenthau, Mr. and/or Mrs. Henry, Jr., 1935, 1948

Morner, Hampus, 1952-1953

Morris, Don, 1962

Donald Morris Gallery, 1963, 1965-1966, 1969

Morris, Florence A., undated

Morris, George L. K., undated, 1951, 1953, 1958-1959, 1965-1966

Morris, Mrs. George Maurice, 1968

Morris, Robert M., 1967

Morris, Stephen V. C., 1967

Morris, Suzy, 1952

Morris, Willamene S. (Mrs. Herbert Cameron), undated, 1958

Morris, William H., 1965, 1966

Morrison, Don, 1964

Morrison, Elliot, undated, 1960

Morrison Street Gallery, 1958

Morse, Gene, 1962

Morse, Margaret (Mrs. McLennan), undated, 1961, 1964-1965

Morse, Peter, 1962, 1965

Morse, Richard E., 1958

Mortgage Corporation of New York, 1940

Mortimer, Frank, 1962

William H. Mortimer Co., Inc., 1962

Morton, Sophia P. (Mrs. Sterling), 1960

Moskowitz, Ira, 1963

Mosman, Warren T., 1952-1953

Moss, Aubrey L., 1958

Moss, Emanuel C., 1961-1962

Moss, Joe, 1965

Moss, Susan, undated, 1966

Mostel, Zero, 1963

Motive, 1949, 1966

Motor Club of America, Inc., 1954

Mount Holyoke College, 1943, 1949, 1953-1954, 1961

Moyen, H. M., 1952-1953

Muhlbert, Jan Keene, undated

Muhlenberg, C. H., Jr., 1947

Muhlenberg College, 1962, 1967

Mull, Jane A., 1954

Alexander Mulligan and Son, 1940

Mulligan, George, 1965

Mullins, Edward S., 1963

Mulvane Art Center of Topeka, 1950-1951,1959-1960

Mumford, Bryant, 1945-1946

Munch, Arthur C., 1959

Munger, Eleanor W., 1958

Munger, Pliny Fisk, 1946, 1959, 1962

Municipal Art Society of New York, undated, 1960

Municipal Museum of the City of Baltimore, undated, 1931-1932, 1938 (see also: Peale Museum)

Municipal Museum, Hague, 1964 (see also: Gemeentemuseum)

Municipal Museums of Amsterdam, 1950, 1956, 1959-1960 (see also: Stedelijk Museum)

Municipal University of Omaha, 1965

Munro, Alan, 1955

Munson Gallery, Inc., undated, 1959-1961, 1966

Munson-Williams-Proctor Institute, 1945-1947, 1950-1951, 1953-1963, 1965-1969

Munsterberg, Hugo, undated, 1943

Munsterberg, Peggy, 1944

Muramater, Honosuke, 1957

Murchison, John D., 1964

Murdock, Chloe, 1955

Murdock, Louise C., Estate of, undated, 1941-1942, 1945, 1947, 1949, 1951-1957, 1960-1961, 1965 (see also: Navas, Elizabeth)

Murphy, Grace E. Baislow (Mrs. Robert Cushwell), 1942-1943

Murphy, James P. J., 1955

Murray, Joan, 1957

Musée Cernuschi, 1962

Musé d'Art Juif, 1956

Museo Nacional de Arte Moderno, Mexico, 1965

Museu de Arte Contemporânea, Sao Paulo, 1963

Museu de Arte Moderna, Sao Paulo, 1956

Museum of African Art, 1964-1969 (see also: Center for Cross-Cultural Communication; Robbins, Warren M.)

Museum of American Folk Art, 1968

Museum of Art of Ogunquit, undated, 1952-1959, 1962-1963, 1968

Museum of Art of the Rhode Island School of Design, 1943-1947, 1950-1951, 1953, 1955-1956, 1966 (see also: Rhode Island School of Design)

Museum of Art, Science and Industry, Bridgeport, 1960, 1963-1966

Museum of Contemporary Art, Chicago, 1967

Museum of Contemporary Crafts, 1961, 1965

Museum of Cranbrook Academy of Art, 1944-1948, 1950, 1952-1955

Museum of Early American Folk Arts, undated, 1962-1963

Museum of Far Eastern Antiquities, 1962

Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, 1935-1944, 1946-1949, 1951, 1953-1969 (see also: School of the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston)

Museum of Fine Arts, Houston, 1931, 1935, 1953-1957, 1962-1963, 1965

Museum of Fine Arts, Springfield, 1942, 1944, 1963, 1966, 1969 (see also: Springfield Museum of Fine Arts)

Museum of International Folk Art, 1955

Museum of Irish Art, undated

Museum of Modern Art, undated, 1930, 1932-1935, 1938-1939, 1941-1944, 1946-1968

Museum of Modern Art, Junior Council (see: Junior Council of the Museum of Modern Art)

Museum of Modern Art, Kamakura, Japan, 1963, 1965

Museum of Modern Art, Miami (see: Miami Museum of Modern Art)

Museum of New Mexico, 1959, 1963

Museum of the City of New York, 1952, 1958

Museum Tel Aviv, 1954-1955

Museum, Texas Technological College, 1953, 1958-1960 (see also: Texas Technological College)

Museum voor Schone Kunsten, Ghent, 1964

Myden, Walter P., 1955, 1959, 1961, 1964-1965, 1967

Myer, Peter L., 1966

Myers, B., 1957

Myers, H. F., 1957

Myers, Jimmy, 1951

Myers, L. S., 1959

Myers, Mrs. Philip M., 1959

Myersburg, Dorothy, 1952

Myerson, Martin, 1959

Myrick, Burny, 1951, 1953

Mystic Seaport, 1955

Nadel, E. Eddy, Estate of, 1969

Nadler, Harry, 1958

Nakamura, Edward H., 1966-1967

Nantz, Martin, 1965

Napoule Art Foundation (see: La Napoule Art Foundation)

Nardgren, Oke, 1945

Narotzky, Norman D., 1957, 1959

Nash, Alice, 1963

Nash, Susan Higginson, undated, 1940-1941

Nasher, Patsy and/or Raymond D., undated, 1954, 1958, 1962-1965, 1967-1969

Nassau Galleries, Inc., 1954, 1956-1958

Nassaux, Frederic, 1968-1969

Nathan, Ann and/or Walter, 1964, 1968

Charles S. Nathan, Inc., 1965

Nathan, Mrs. Emil, III, 1965

Nathan, Emily S., 1943, 1953, 1958, 1960-1961, 1963

Nathan, Fred C., 1932

Nation -- , 1962

National Academy of Design, 1944, 1951

National Antiques Show, 1956, 1962, 1964-1965

National Art Education Association, 1962

National Art Museum of Sport, Inc., 1968

National Arts and Antiques Festival, 1965

National Association of Fine Arts Dealers, 1962

National Blank Book Company, 1960-1961

National Broadcasting Company, Inc., 1953, 1957, 1960-1961

National Carloading Corporation, 1952

National Collection of Fine Arts, undated, 1944, 1964-1969, 1974

National Council for United States Art, Inc., 1954-1955, 1961

National Council for the Arts and Government, 1956, 1962

National Council of Jewish Women, Inc., undated, 1955-1956, 1958-1959, 1963, 1965-1966

National Council of Jewish Women, Inc., Essex County Section (see: Essex Country Section, National Council of Jewish Women, Inc.)

National Council of Women of the United States, Inc., 1960, 1968

National Educational Television and Radio Center, 1964

National Foundation, 1961, 1962

National Gallery, Norway, 1961

National Gallery of Art, undated, 1940-1941, 1945-1946, 1948, 1950-1951, 1956-1958, 1961-1962, 1964-1965

National Gallery of Canada, 1953

National Gallery of Victoria, 1958

National Institute of Arts and Letters, 1951, 1953, 1956, 1958, 1961, 1964, 1966- 1967

National Jewish Hospital of Denver, 1959

National Museum, Sweden, 1950, 1960-1961, 1963, 1966

National Museum of Modern Art, Tokyo, 1954

National Portrait Gallery, 1965-1967

National Recovery Administration, 1933-1934

"National Religious Art Exhibition," 1964

National School of Fine Arts, Argentina, 1959

National Society of American Art, undated

National Society of Interior Designers, Inc., 1959

National Wholesalers Board of Trade, Inc., Ltd., 1931

Naval Air Material Center, 1953

Navas, Elizabeth S. (Mrs. Rafael), undated, 1939-1946, 1948-1949, 1951-1957, 1961, 1965 (see also: Murdock, Louise C., Estate of)

Nazareth College of Rochester, 1967-1968

NBC, undated, 1965

Neal, Quintin, 1966

Nebraska Art Association, 1939, 1953-1954, 1956, 1959, 1962-1963

Nebraska Congregational Conference, 1962

Nebraska, University of (see: University of Nebraska)

Necker, Claire, 1968

Negro Digest -- , 1951

Neikrug Galleries, Inc., 1967

Neilson, Winthrop, 1950

Neiman, Deana, undated

Neiman, Irmgard Hess, undated, 1965

Neiman, LeRoy, 1957

Neiman-Marcus, undated, 1962, 1967

Nelson, Blair, 1956

Nelson, C. E., 1965

Elizabeth Nelson Galleries, 1954

George Nelson and Company, Inc., 1959, 1961

Nelson, O. E., 1961-1962, 1968

William Rockhill Nelson and Mary Atkins Museum of Fine Arts, 1962-1963, 1965-1966

William Rockhill Nelson Gallery of Art, 1933-1934, 1936, 1940-1942, 1944-1947, 1951, 1953, 1955-1956, 1958-1960

William Rockhill Nelson Trust, 1933, 1937, 1965-1966

Nemser, Cindy, 1967

Ness, Harold B., 1958, 1967-1968

Nesse, Julius, 1967

Nesterman, Hy, 1960, 1963, 1965

Neuberger, Roy R. and/or Marie, undated, 1941-1942, 1945-1946, 1948-1949, 1951, 1953, 1955-1958, 1961-1968

Neuman, Hans, 1961

Neuman, Robert S., 1952

Neumann, Lotar, 1968

Nevada, University of (see: University of Nevada)

Nevis, Paul, 1958

New-Age Color Slides, 1956

New-Age Gallery, Inc., 1950-1951

New American Library of World Literature, 1953

New Britain Institute of Art, undated, 1942, 1965-1966 (see also: Art Museum of the New Britain Institute)

New Directions, 1951, 1957, 1961

New Gallery, undated, 1955-1956, 1961

New Haven Jewish Community Center, 1955, 1957, 1961

New Haven Railroad, 1968

New Jersey State Museum, 1946, 1950-1953, 1955, 1959-1961, 1963-1967, 1969

New Lincoln School, 1964

New Mexico, University of (see: University of New Mexico)

New Orleans Arts and Crafts Club (see: Arts and Crafts Club of New Orleans)

New Orleans Jazz Museum and Archives, 1966

New Republic -- , 1955, 1960

New, Robert H., 1963

New Rochelle Art Association, 1951, 1962

New School Art Center, 1964

New School for Social Research, 1952, 1955, 1960, 1962-1963, 1966, 1968

New York Board of Fire Underwriters, 1945

New York Central, 1965, 1967

New York Circulating Library of Paintings, Inc., 1952

New York City Board of Education (see: Board of Education of the City of New York)

New York City Board of Transportation (see: Board of Transportation of the City of New York)

New York City Center Gallery, 1955

New York City Commissioner of Borough Works, 1959

New York City Council for Art Week, Inc., 1941

New York City Department of Buildings, 1960, 1964

New York City Department of Commerce and Public Events (see: Department of Commerce and Public Events, New York City)

New York City Finance Department, 1937 (see also: City of New York, Department of Finance)

New York City Fire Department, 1966

New York City Mayor's Advisory Committee for the Aged, undated

New York City Police Department, 1964

New York City Sales Tax Division, 1943

New York City's 300th Anniversary, 1953

New York Committee for Stevenson, Kefauver and Wagner, 1956

New York Council to Abolish the House Un-American Activities Committee, 1961

New York County, County Clerk (see: County Clerk, New York County)

New York Dealers of American Art, 1957 (see also: Dealers of American Art)

New York Graphic Society, undated, 1956-1966, 1968

New York Guild for the Jewish Blind, 1956

New York Herald Tribune -- , 1959, 1961, 1963, 1966

New York Hilton, 1963

New York Hospital, 1956 (see also: Society of the New York Hospital)

New York Journal American -- , 1940, 1963

New York, New Haven and Hartford Railroad Co., 1966

New York Post -- , 1960

New York Psychoanalytic Institute, 1957-1958

New York Public Library, undated, 1933, 1950-1951

New York Shakespeare Festival, 1962

New York Star -- , 1948

New York State Art Teachers Association, undated

New York State College of Home Economics at Cornell University, 1945

New York State Council on the Arts, 1964-1966

New York State Department of Labor, 1962, 1964, 1967

New York State Department of Law, 1968

New York State Department of Taxation, 1956,1958

New York State Exposition, 1965-1966

New York State Fair, 1961

New York State Historical Association, 1949, 1956, 1960

New York Steam Corporation, 1941-1942

New York Studio School of Art, 1965

New York Telephone Company, 1940-1941, 1958, 1960, 1965

New York Times -- , undated, 1951, 1953, 1960-1965, 1967-1968

New York University, 1955, 1960, 1965-1966

New York University-Bellevue Medical Center, 1959-1960

New York World-Telegram -- , 1949

New York World's Fair Corporation, 1965

New York World's Fair, Department of Contemporary Art, 1939

New Yorker -- , 1950-1951, 1953, 1958, 1965, 1967

New Zealand Embassy, 1966

Newark Museum, 1935, 1940-1942, 1944-1946, 1949-1950, 1952-1954, 1958-1959, 1963- 1964, 1966-1968

Newberry, Joan, undated

Newberry, John S., Jr., 1945, 1949, 1951, 1961, 1964

Newcomb-Macklin Co., 1958

Newhall, Jennifer, 1967

Newhouse Galleries, 1940

Newman, Arnold, undated, 1943-1945

Newman, Dean, 1949

Newman, Lucille, 1962

Newman, Mrs. Philip, 1959

Newman, Rose, 1965

Newman, William A., 1968

Newman, Mrs. William T., 1962

Newport Harbor, Fine Arts Patrons (see: Fine Arts Patrons of Newport Harbor)

News Sentinel -- , 1966

Newsday -- , 1967

Newspaper Women's Club of New York, 1964

Newsweek -- , undated, 1942, 1950, 1954, 1956-1958, 1960-1961, 1965-1966, 1968

Newtown Bee -- , 1966-1968

Newtown, Conn. Board of Selectmen, 1957

Nichols, J. C., 1933-1934, 1937, 1939

Nichols, Marilyn A., undated, 1961

Nichols, Nicholas H., 1965-1966

Nickle, Robert, 1951

Nihombashi Gallery, 1965-1966, 1968

Nikkel, Vernon, undated, 1952, 1954, 1964

Nikko Co., Ltd., 1962-1963

Nilson, Mrs. R. A., 1964

Nipp, Francis S., 1953

Nippon Express, 1965

Nordness Gallery, undated 1958-1966

Norfolk Museum of Arts and Sciences, 1950, 1954, 1960-1961, 1965, 1967

Norman, Ben, 1965

Norman, Charles, 1966

Norman, Dorothy, 1946

Norris, Ben, 1962

North Alabama Missions, 1961

North Carolina Agricultural and Technical College (see: Agricultural and Technical College of North Carolina)

North Carolina Collectors, 1966

North Carolina Museum of Art, 1956-1957, 1960

North Carolina State Art Society, 1963

North Carolina, University of (see: University of North Carolina)

North Dakota, University of (see: University of North Dakota)

North Hills YM-YWHA, 1963

North, Phylis, undated

North Shore Arts Festival, 1957-1959, 1961

North Shore Child Guidance Association, Inc., 1957, 1967

North Shore Congregation Israel, 1958

North Shore Hospital, 1964

North Texas Museums Resource Council, 1967

Northeast, Irene, 1968

Northern Illinois University, 1960

Northern Trust Company, 1945, 1952-1953, 1955, 1957-1958 (see also: Smith, Solomon Byron)

Northern Virginia Fine Arts Association, 1965-1966

Northpark National Bank of Dallas, 1965-1966

Northrup, Guy, Jr., 1953

Norton, Ann and/or Ralph H.undated, 1941-1943, 1946-1948, 1952-1954, 1958

Norton Gallery and School of Art, 1941-1943, 1947, 1950-1953, 1956-1959, 1961-1968 (see also: Palm Beach Art Institute)

Norton, Marion S., 1952

W. W. Norton and Co., Inc., 1957

Norwegian Embassy, 1954 (see also: Embassy of the United States of America, Oslo)

Norwich Art School, 1957

Notre Dame University, undated, 1931 (see also: University of Notre Dame)

Noun, Louise R. and/or Maurice H., 1951-1952, 1960, 1962, 1965, 1968

Nugent, M. A., 1964

Nuland, Evelyn and/or William, 1969

Nu-Lite Corporation, 1959, 1966

Null, Mrs. Henry, 1965

Numero Gallery, 1962

Nunes, Gordon M., 1955

Nunsing, Stephan P., American Embassy, London, undated

Nusland, Dr., undated

Nydick, Irwin, 1960

Oakes, Audrey, 1961

Oakland Art Museum, 1964

Oakland University, 1966

Oberfest, Abraham, 1962, 1964-1968

Oberlin College, 1938-1939, 1942, 1944-1947, 1951, 1954, 1967

Obluck, Warren, 1966

Dale O'Brien Company, 1949

O'Brien, Mrs. Eugene, 1964

O'Brien, Libby, 1963

Occidental College, 1955

O'Connor, Cornelius, 1956

O'Connor, Francis V., 1968

O'Connor, John, Jr., 1955, 1958

Odol Chemical Corporation, 1965

Odom, Jaime N., 1953

Odorfer, Adolf, 1945

Oehlschlaeger, Frank J., 1946, 1954

Office Appliances, 1958

Office Management, 1953-1954, 1958

Office of International Information and Cultural Affairs, 1946

Office of Military Government for Germany (U.S.), 1948

Office of Special Service Headquarters, Camp Kilmer, N.J., 1943

Office of War Information, 1945

Charles Z. Offin Advertising, Inc., 1947, 1951, 1953, 1958, 1960, 1962-1964, 1966-1968

Ohannessian, Griselda, 1968

Ohio State University, 1953, 1958-1959, 1960, 1963

Ohio University, 1931, 1946, 1952-1954, 1958, 1964

Ohio Wesleyan University, 1954, 1956, 1958, 1960

Oi, Lam, 1967

Oka, Wilfred M., 1968

O'Keeffe, Georgia, 1946, 1952, 1954-1956, 1958, 1960, 1963-1964

Okeley, Edward, 1940

Okimoto, T., 1967

Oklahoma Art Center, 1946, 1967-1968

Oklahoma Printmakers Society, 1960

Old Town Galleries, 1969

Old Westbury Gardens, Inc., 1960

Oldfield, Otis, 1931

Olds, Elizabeth Fogg (Mrs. Lawrence B.), undated, 1963

Olds, Ella Raines (Mrs. Robin), 1951

Olin, Gladys, 1960

Olivia Associates, Ltd., 1967

Olsen, Fred, 1950

Olson, Elizabeth R. (Mrs. Reuben L.), 1954

Omaha Agricultural and Mechanical

College, 1957

Omaha Municipal Univeristy (see: Municipal University of Omaha)

Omnibook, 1949

120 Antiquities (see: Locher, Robert E.; Weyand, Richard)

O'Neill, Marie, 1960-1961

O'Neill, Terrence J., 1962

Ontario East Gallery, 1966

Openair Museum, 1962

Oplinger, Curt, 1955

Oppenheim Collins Co., 1958

Oppenheim, Donny, 1962

Oppenheimer, Arthur, 1946

Pabst Brewing Company, 1953

Paccassi, Virginia, 1946

Pace College, 1958

Pach, Walter, 1944

Pacific Art Review, 1942

Pack, Richard M., 1966

Packard, Artemus, 1931

Padawer Galleries, 1959-1960

Paddock, William, 1962

Padgett, Gail, 1967

Paepcke, Elizabeth and/or Walter P., 1949-1951, 1953, 1957, 1966, 1968

Page, Charles, 1962

Page, Homer, 1962

William A. Pahlmann Associates, Inc., 1964

Paine Art Center and Arboretum, undated, 1964

Paine, Ellen Lea (Mrs. Peter Standish), 1951

Paine, Stephen D., 1962-1963

Paitevin, Mercedes, 1969

J. Pak, Inc., 1962, 1963

Pakehita, Natenko, 1954

Palette Art Co., Inc., 1952, 1964

Paley, George E., 1959

Paley, Lillian, 1961

Paley, Mr. and/or Mrs. William, 1952, 1966

Pall, David B., 1966, 1968

Palm Beach Art Institute, 1962, 1964 (see also: Norton Gallery and School of Art)

Palm Beach Post -- , 1965

Palmer, Eleanor, 1965

Palmer, Fred L., 1960, 1963, 1966

Palmer, Hans C., 1964

Palmer, Herbert B., undated, 1966, 1968

Palmer House Galleries, 1958

Palmer, J. Wood, 1956

Palmer, Mrs. L., 1962

Palmer, Mary C. (Mrs. Gerald J.), 1962

Palmer, Roland S., 1930

Pan American Union, 1950

Pan American World Airways, 1958, 1964

Pandolfini, Joseph, 1940

Pantheon Books, Inc., 1954, 1961-1963

Paplanus, Samuel, 1953, 1962, 1964

Pappas, Louis, 1957

Pappenheimer, Louise B. (Mrs. Ralph), 1949-1950

Papsdorf, Fred, 1942

Parade, Inc., undated

Pare, Gladys R. (Mrs. Robert E.), 1953

Paris, Robel, 1952

Pariser, Susan M., 1961

Park, Arthur R., 1956

Park Gallery, 1951, 1960, 1962-1963

Park, Julian, 1956

Park Synagogue, 1961, 1965

Parke-Bernet Galleries, Inc., undated, 1939, 1946, 1953, 1955-1958, 1961, 1964-1965, 1967-1968

Parke, Samuel C., Jr., 1967

Parker, Bill, 1958

Parker, Inez Grant, undated

Parker, James Reid, 1950

Parker, Thomas, 1952

Parkinson, Elizabeth B. (Mrs. Bliss), undated, 1950, 1955, 1957, 1959, 1962

Parlett, Lynda, 1964

Betty Parsons Gallery, 1961

Parkway Triangle Construction Co., 1959

Parnes, Sidmore, 1959

Parrish Art Museum, 1946, 1956, 1966

Parsons College, 1953

Parsons, Harold W., 1945

Parsons School of Design, 1961

Part-Time People, Inc., 1966-1967

Parzen, Dr. and Mrs. George, 1962

Pasadena Art Institute, 1944, 1947, 1951, 1966

Pasadena Public Library, 1958

Pascal, E. L., 1965

Pascal, Vern, 1966

Passedoit, Georgette, 1961

Paston, S., 1959

Patterson, William J. J., 1952

Pattison, Abbot L., undated, 1953-1954, 1956-1958, 1960, 1967-1968

Patzig, Cynthia Lee, 1967

Paul, Henry, 1951

Paullin, Ethel Parsons (Mrs. Telford), 1956

Paulist-Newman Press, 1969

[Payson?], Helen, 1953

Peabody Book Shop, 1930

George Peabody College for Teachers, 1963-1965

Peace, Bernie, 1965

Peacock Memorials, Inc., 1958

Peake, Channing, 1955

Peale Museum, 1931, 1955 (see also: Municipal Museum of the City of Baltimore)

Pear, B. Lincoln, 1964

Pearle, Elsie (Mrs. Stanley C.), undated, 1960, 1962-1963, 1967-1968

Pearson, Lucia S., undated, 1965

Pearson, Norman Holmes, 1969

Pearson, Ralph M., 1943, 1948, 1953

Pease, Roland Folsom, Jr., 1960, 1964

Peat, Marwick, Mitchell and Co., 1967

Peavy, Paulina, 1952

Pecher, William, 1969

Peck, Augustus, 1930-1931

Peden, Dell, 1959

Pei, I. M., 1960

L. E. Pelletier and Associates, Inc., 1968

Pelligrini and Cudahy, Publishers, 1950, 1953

M. Pelligrino and Co., 1963

Penguin Books Ltd., 1963-1964, 1966

Penick, Mary Monroe, undated

Penn, Bill, 1953

William Penn Memorial Museum, 1966

Wm. Penn Publishing Corporation., 1957, 1966

Penney, Charles P., Jr., 1963-1965

Penney, James and/or Rachel, 1943, 1961

Pennington, Mary Anne, 1965

Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, undated, 1931, 1934, 1940-1948, 1950-1965, 1967

Pennsylvania College for Women, 1952

Pennsylvania Museum Commission, 1966

Pennsylvania Railroad Company, 1947, 1965

Pennsylvania State College, 1931, 1937

Pennsylvania State University, 1955-1959, 1961, 1963-1965

Pennsylvania, University of (see: University of Pennsylvania)

Pennypacker, John, 1955

Penobscot, 1966

Pensanto, Joyce, 1961

Peoples Bank of Johnstown, 1941

Pepper, Ben, 1941

Pepper, Charles Hovy, undated

Pepsi-Cola Company, 1945, 1947

Pepsi-Cola's Annual Art Competition, 1946

Pereira, Irene Rice, 1945, 1965

Perelman, Laura West, undated

Perelman, S. J., 1956, 1965

Peril, Barry R. and/or Marilyn, undated, 1964-1968

Perin, Bradford and/or Nancy, 1941, 1967

Perkins, Alta B., 1955

Perkins, F. H., 1930

Perkins, Philip, 1946

Perkins, Ralph, Jr., 1952

Perleman, S. J., 1938, 1942

Perlestein, S., 1943

Perlin, Bernard, 1946

Perlin, Zalmar, 1951, 1953

Perlman, Bennard B., 1962

Perlman, Betty (Mrs. Aaron W.), 1961

Perlman, Meyer, 1953

Perlmutter, Jack, 1946

Perlmutter, Victor, 1958

Frank Perls Gallery, undated, 1942, 1949-1957, 1964

Perls, Klaus, 1963

Perper, Mark, 1934, 1942-1943

Perrin, Madeline, undated

Perry, Anna, 1964

Perry, Donna S., undated, 1963

Perry, Norman, undated, 1946

General John J. Pershing Memorial Committee, 1954

Perspectives U.S.A. -- , 1952

Pertzoff, Constantin A., 1953

Perutz, George, undated, 1964, 1966-1969

Peruvian Ambassador, undated

Peshkin, Mrs. Milton, 1957

Peterman, C. H., 1966-1967

Peters, Alice, 1960

Peters, Joseph, undated, 1964

Peters, Muriel, 1941

Peters Signs, 1940-1941

Peterson, Charles, 1955

Peterson, S. Marjorie, 1967

Petschek, Stephen, 1962

Peyser, Mark, undated

Pfeiffer, Heinrich, 1933

Pfeiffer, Ken H., 1951

Phaneuf, Richard, 1964

Phelan, Frances C., (Mrs. George A.), 1961

Phelps-Stokes Fund, 1963

Philadelphia Art Alliance, undated, 1931, 1939, 1942, 1947, 1952-1954, 1956, 1959-1960, 1964

Philadelphia Inquirer -- , 1952

Philadelphia Maritime Museum, 1964

Philadelphia Museum College of Art, 1962-1964

Philadelphia Museum of Art, undated, 1939, 1941-1946, 1948-1955, 1957-1963, 1965-1969

Philadelphia Print Club (see: Print Club (Philadelphia))

Philadelphia Water Color Club, 1950-1951

Philbrook Art Center, 1939, 1941-1942, 1944, 1947-1948, 1952, 1962-1964, 1967

Phillips, Mrs. Charles S., 1953

Phillips Collection, 1951, 1953, 1964, 1967 (see also: Phillips Memorial Gallery; Phillips Gallery)

Phillips, Duncan and/or Marjorie, 1930-1931, 1942-1943, 1951, 1954, 1966

Phillips Exeter Academy, 1960, 1962, 1966

Phillips Gallery, 1954-1955, 1957, 1959, 1961-1962

Phillips, Harlan B., 1964

Phillips, James, undated, 1956

Phillips, Mrs. John G., undated

Phillips Memorial Gallery, undated, 1931, 1940-1942, 1944-1947, 1949 (see also: Phillips Collection; Phillips Gallery)

Phillips, Mrs. Seymour, 1959

Phillips, Stephen, 1961

Phoenix Art Museum, undated, 1959-1960, 1962, 1964-1966

Phoenix Assurance Co., 1962-1963

Phoenix Fine Arts Association, 1954, 1959

Piaskowski, Nata, 1966

Picadilly Gallery, 1962

Picard Gallery, 1959

Picher, William, undated, 1968

Pick, Frederic G., 1952

Pictures on Exhibit -- , 1940-1941, 1951-1952, 1954, 1956, 1959, 1961-1962

Pictures Publishing Company, 1946

Pierce, Ethel May, 1965

Pietrzak, Richard, 1968

Pike, Marion, 1955

Pilgrim Airlines, 1968

Pillsbury, Edmund, 1964

Pillsbury, Mrs. John S., 1961-1962, 1964

Pinchuck, Mrs. D., 1961

Pinckney, Pauline A., 1939-1940, 1955-1956

Pincus, I. N., 1959

Pine Cupboard Antique Shop, 1953

Pine Shops, Inc., 1951, 1953

Pineles, Cipe, 1960 (see also: Burtin, Cipe Pineles)

Pines, David, 1959

Pines Publications, Inc., 1959

Pinkerton's, Inc., 1965

Pinney, Richard D., 1958

Piper, Raymond F., undated, 1956

Pipes, James, 1947

Pipes, Raymond F., 1955

Pippin Press, 1948-1949

Piroumoff, Nina, undated

Pirtle, Eugene, 1956

Pitt and Scott Limited, 1962

Pittman, Hobson, 1934

Pittman Publishing Co., 1962

Pitts, Anne, 1968

Pittsburgh, University of (see: University of Pittsburgh)

Plach, Eva R., undated

Plack, Mrs. Louis E., 1947

Paul Planert Associates, 1962, 1965, 1967

Platel, Edward Charles, 1963

Platt Steel and Supply Co., 1962

Plaut Travel, Inc., 1959

Playboy -- , undated, 1958, 1960

Playhouse Gallery, undated, 1958, 1961

Plaza Palette, 1959

Pleadwell, Theodora H., 1946, 1954-1955

Pleasants, Frederick R., 1961

Pleasants, J. Hall, 1941

Pleet, Gilbert, 1957

Plimpton, George F. and Mary Wilcox, undated, 1931

Ploch, Henry H., Jr., undated, 1964, 1967-1969

Plymouth Rock Publications, Inc., 1958

PM -- , 1940

Pocket Books, 1953

Podell, D. L., 1940-1942

Pohl, La Vera, 1940

Pohl, William M., 1931

Poland, Reginald, undated, 1966

Polier, Midonick and Zinsser, 1961-1962, 1964 (see also: Midonick, Millard L.)

Pollack, Frederick, 1960

Pollack, Peter, undated, 1941, 1954, 1956-1957, 1960-1964, 1967-1968

Pollack, Sidney, 1942

Pollak, Mrs. James E., 1966

Pollak, Maurice, 1957

Pollak, Robert, 1955

Pollitzer, Anita, undated, 1954

Pollock, Lawrence S. and/or Shirley, 1960, 1962-1963

Polster, Edythe, 1961

Pomerantz, Louis, undated, 1949, 1951-1953, 1961, 1965

Pomona College, 1946, 1958

Pond, Everett H. and/or Emily H., 1940, 1954

Pool, Dr. and Mrs. J. Lawrence, undated

Pool, James L., 1961, 1964

Poor, Ann, 1956

Poor, Henry V., 1927

Poplack, William J., 1962

Popper, Mrs. Arthur, 1946

Popplereuther, Hans O., 1950

Popular Publications, Inc., 1951-1953 (see also: Goldsmith, Harold S.)

Port of New York, 1958

Porte-Petit, J. Antonio de Villers, 1967-1968

Porter, Cole, 1940-1943, 1945

David Porter Gallery, 1945, 1951 (see also: G Place Gallery)

Horace C. Porter Antiques, 1955

Porter, Milton, 1949

Porter, Sylvia, 1956

Porter, Teresia B., 1961

Portland Art Museum, 1939-1947, 1950-1953, 1956-1958, 1960-1961, 1963-1964, 1966, 1969

Portland State College, 1958, 1968

Portraits, Inc., 1960

Portrayals of the Finer Arts and Span of Progress Exhibits, 1952

Post, A. Alan, undated, 1942-1943

Post, Mrs. C. K., 1940

C. W . Post College, 1964

Post, Diane, undated

Post, Mrs. Jack E., 1959

Postal Telegraph and Cable Co., undated, 1942

Postmaster, 1942, 1961, 1963-1965

Potamkin, Mr. and/or Mrs. Meyer, 1952, 1954-1956, 1965, 1968

Potsdam State University (see: State Teachers College, Potsdam, N.Y.; State University Teachers College, Potsdam, N.Y.)

Potter, Mr., 1955

Potter, Arnold, 1963

Potter, Bertha H., 1932

Clarkson N. Potter, Inc., 1961, 1967

Potter, Margaret, undated

Potts, Ada G. (Mrs. C. S.), 1956

Potts, Mrs. John, 1961

Pousette-Dart, Nathaniel, 1953

Powel, Mrs. Samuel, 1961

Powell, Helen (Mrs. Charles), 1952

Powell Floor Machine Co., Inc., 1940

Powell, Mrs. Roe M., 1964

Powell, Mr. and Mrs. Watson, n..d.

Powell, Watson, Jr., 1962-1963

Powelson, Harry, 1962

Powers, John G., 1970

Pozzatti, Rudy O., 1951

Practicing Law Institute, 1956

Praeger, Evelyn G., 1961-1962, 1964, 1966-1967

Praeger, Frederick A., 1961, 1965, 1968

Praeger, Mr. and/or Mrs. Leo, 1962-1963

Prasso, Leona E., 1958

Pratt Center for Contemporary Printmaking, 1967-1969

Pratt, Dallas, 1959

Pratt Institute, undated, 1958-1963, 1965-1968

Premiere Art Gallery, 1961-1962

Preminger, Otto, 1959-1960

Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1956, 1962, 1966

Presbyterian Life -- , 1968

Presley, Jane, 1962

Prestige Personnel Agency, 1967

Preston, Catherine and/or Robert, 1963

Preston, Flora Mobley, 1959, 1966

Preston Gallery, 1962

Prestopino, Gergorio, undated, 1945, 1958

Preusser, Don, 1955

Preusser, Robert, 1952-1954, 1960

Previn, André and/or Dory Langdon, undated, 1959-1968

Price, Edmund T., 1951, 1958-1959

Price, F. N., 1945

Price, Glenn, 1951

Price, Maurice A., 1958

Price, Vincent L., undated, 1949, 1956, 1959, 1962

Pride, Robert G., 1961

Primoff, M. W., Mr. and/or Mrs., 1958-1959

Princeton Press, Inc., 1954-1956

Princeton Print Club, 1941

Princeton University, 1930-1931, 1934, 1960-1961, 1966

Princeton University Press, 1955, 1959

Pringle, Rosa, 1956

Print -- , 1958

Print and Drawing Society of North Carolina, 1964

Print Club (Philadelphia), 1929-1930, 1935, 1951-1953, 1955-1958, 1960, 1961-1963, 1965, 1967

Print Club of Rochester, 1935

Print Council of America, 1957-1962, 1964-1965

Print Makers Society of California, 1931

Prior, Ann and/or Harris K., undated, 1958, 1963, 1965

Prior, Roger W., 1931

Pritchard, Edith M. F., 1959

Pritz, N., undated

Harvey Probber, Inc., 1958, 1965

Proctor snd Gamble Company, 1958

Progressive Citizens of America, 1947

Progressive Packaging, Inc., 1963

Promenade, undated, 1959

Prosser, Hortense H. (Mrs.John), 1961-1963

Providence Art Center, 1953

Providence Art Club, 1955, 1961-1963

Providence Lithograph Company, undated, 1968

Provincetown Art Association (Incorporated), 1946, 1964

Provincetown Art Festival, 1958

Prown, Jules D., 1957

Proy, Michael E., 1950

J. T. Pryor, Jr., 1942

Public Education Association, 1961

Puerto Rico, University of (see: University of Puerto Rico)

Pulaski Council of Milwaukee, 1946

Pullitzer, Joseph, Jr., 1953

Pullman Co., 1966

Puma, Fernando, 1944, 1952

Punte, G., 1963

Purdue University, 1962, 1964, 1966

Pure Oil, 1961

Pushkin Fine Arts Museum, 1963

Pustilnik, Mr. and Mrs. Jerome, 1965

Putnam, Kingman W., 1949

G. Putnam's Sons, 1935

Putzel, Howard, 1940

Putzker, Heidi and Ralph, 1951

PWPA, 1936

Pyle, Albert and/or Polly, 1965, 1967

Pyle, Richard Temple, undated, 1951, 1958

Quadrum Revue Internationale d'Arte Moderne, 1964

Quaker Storage Co., Inc., 1966

Quandt, Russell J., 1953, 1968

Quarrie Corporation Publishers, 1946

Quatre Chemins, 1930-1931

Queens College, 1960, 1962-1963

Quest, Dell, undated, 1965

Quick -- , 1952, 1953

Quigley Music Studios, 1952

Quinn, J. William, 1966

Quinn, John R., 1963

Quinn, Ruth, 1965

Quinnipac College, 1968

Quintel, Lorraine, 1953

Rabinowitz, Jarold W., 1953

Ernest Raboff Gallery, 1963

Alexandre Rabow Galleries, undated, 1952-1953, 1955-1956

Racolin, Alexander E., 1958, 1960

Radio Advertising Bureau, Inc., undated, 1956

Radulovic, John, undated

Radwany, Emery A., 1951

Raffo, Steve, 1952, 1965

Raiff, Stanley, 1959

Railway Express Agency Incorporated, undated, 1945-1946, 1953, 1957-1958, 1960, 1962-1967

George Rainbird, Ltd., 1964

Rains Auction Rooms, Inc., 1934

Raines Galleries, 1935, 1937

Rainey, John, 1958

Rainsford, Richard A., 1963

Raker, Mildred, 1954

Rambusch Decorating Co., 1955, 1958-1959

Ramsay, John, 1942

Rand, Mr. and/or Mrs. Jacob, 1945-1946, 1948, 1952-1953, 1957

Rand, Nettie, 1949, 1951-1952, 1954, 1957

William Rand, Inc., 1955

Randal, Jules C., 1944

Randall, Anthony, 1952-1953

Randall, James D., 1961

Randlev, Karen Ruth, undated, 1963

Randolph, A. Philip, 1942

Randolph County Schools, 1954

Randolph-Macon Woman's College, 1946-1947, 1953, 1956-1965, 1966, 1968

Random House, Inc., 1952-1953, 1956, 1963, 1965

Randells, Neil J., undated, 1964

Ransohoff, J. Louis, 1946

Raoul, Rosine, 1964

Raphael, Annette, undated, 1958

Raphael, T., 1959

Rapp, Carol, 1962

Rappaport, Beatrice (Mrs. J. L.), 1950

Rappaport, Roslyn, 1955

Rapoport, Olga, undated

Raskas, Bernard S., 1960-1961, 1964, 1969

Rassmussen, R. Jens, 1961-1962

Ratenburg, W. H., 1943

Rathbone Books Ltd., 1959

Rathbone, Perry, 1963

Ratico, Ruth G., 1958

Rattner, Abraham and/or Esther, undated, 1956, 1958-1960, 1962, 1964-1966, 1968

Rattner, Lewis J., 1964

Rau, Anne, undated

Rau, Penny, undated, 1952

Rau, Robert, 1959

Rau-Kealy, Frieda, 1959

Rausokoff, Mrs. J. L., 1940

Ravin, Ellen, 1970

Ravinia Festival Association, 1958

Rawlings, John, 1947

Rawson, Catharine G., 1956

Ray and Ray, 1970

Rayburn, Harold E., 1965, 1967-1968

Raymond and Raymond Art Galleries, 1938

Raymond and Raymond, Inc., 1945, 1950

Raymond, Bernard, 1950, 1953

RCA Communications, Inc., 1962, 1965

Readers' Subscription, Inc., 1960, 1961

Reading Public Museum and Art Gallery, 1950

Réalités -- , 1965, 1967

Reconstructionist -- , 1958

Redbook Magazine -- , 1963

Redding, Eleanor (Mrs. H . E.), 1964

Redka, Eugenia, 1956

Carroll Reece Museum, 1968

Reed College, 1963

Reed, Elizabeth (Mrs. John E.), 1953

Reed, Isadora Bennett, 1965

Reengum, Jerry J., 1952

Reep, Edward, 1967

Reese, Betty, undated

Reese, Mr. and/or Mrs. Charles Lee, Jr., 1956, 1963

Reeves, Ruth, undated, 1947

Reeves, W. Harrison, 1966

Refregier, Anton, 1960

Regenstein, Helen M., undated, 1962

Regenstein, Louis, Jr., 1960, 1963, 1965

Register, James P., 1963

Rehm, Mary Torr, 1958, 1967-1969

Frank K. M. Rehn, Inc., 1955-1958, 1960

Reiber, John G., 1943

Reich, Sheldon, 1963, 1965

Reichard, Myron L., 1963

Reichardt, Jessica, 1962

Reichhold, Henry H., 1945

Reichman, Fred, 1964

Reichmann, Edith, 1968

Reid, Alma M., 1955

Reid, Anne Cooke, 1960

Reid, Mrs. Ira, 1960

Reimer, C., 1960

Reimer Inc., 1962, 1964

Ethel Linder Reiner Productions, 1957

Reingold, Gail M., 1964

Reinhold Book Division, 1967, 1969

Bernard Reis and Company, 1953, 1966-1968

Reisman, Marshall M., 1957-1958, 1961-1962

Reisner, Neil, 1965

Reiss, Wallace, undated, 1952-1953

Reitman, John, 1961

Reliable Office Furniture Co., 1960

Renaissance Society of the University of Chicago, 1945, 1948-1949, 1954, 1957, 1961

Renders, Mrs. John F., 1964

Rendle, D. E., 1965

Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 1958-1959

Charles H. Renthal and Company, 1967

Reporter -- , 1953

Resor, Helen and/or Stanley, 1935, 1938-1939

Restrepo, Pedro, 1966

Revel, Henry L., 1964

Revere Copper and Brass Incorporated, 1934

Revere Paper Products Corp., 1965

Rex Envelope Co.., 1964

Reynard, Grant, 1962

Reynolda House, 1967

Reynolds, 1960

Reynolds, Harold F., 1947

Reynolds, John J., 1965-1966

Reynolds, Joseph N., 1961

Reynolds Metals Company, 1959-1960

Rex, Frances L., 1952

Rhode Island School of Design, 1935, 1939, 1956, 1966 (see also: Museum of Art of the Rhode Island School of Design)

Ribicoff, Belle and/or Irving F., undated, 1959-1960, 1964

Stewart Ricard Gallery, 1959

Rice, Dr., 1952

Rice, Elmer, 1944, 1962-1963

Rice, Marion, 1958

Rice, Martin, 1953

Rice, Maurice A., 1958

Rice, Shirley R., 1960

Rich, A. John, 1966

Rich Displays, 1964

Richards, Beatrice (Mrs. Bartlett), 1957

Richards, Helen Hughes, undated

Richards, Joe, 1961

Richards, John Alan, undated, 1945, 1960

Martin Richards, Inc., 1952-1953

Richards, Rowland, 1946

Richardson, Page G., 1954

Richardson, Thomas L., 1963

Richert, Bill, undated

Richman, Robert, 1955

Richmond, Anne (Mrs. Aaron), undated, 1959

Richmond, Frederick, 1960

Richmond, Larry, 1957, 1963

Richter, Horace, 1959

Stewart Rickard Gallery, Inc., 1960-1963

Ridley, Emily Derr, 1943

Ridley, Orrin R., 1963

Rie, Robert, 1966

Riesnfeld, Victor, 1953

Riff's, 1953

Riker, Jerome, 1955

Riley, Eleanor Piper (Mrs. R. C.), 1950

Riley, Marie (Mrs. Bernard J.), 1952

Riley, Mary, 1955

Riley, Mary Alexander (Mrs. Chapin), 1952-1953

Riley, Maude, undated

Riley, Verna P. (Mrs. Chester L.), 1965

Rimmel, P. Grebe, 1956, 1965

Ringel, Frederick J., 1954

Ringer, Lotta (Mrs. Philip), 1954-1955

John and Mabel Ringling Museum of Art, 1949-1950, 1955, 1957-1958, 1962-1965

Ringold, Evelyn (Mrs. Herbert H.), 1960

Ripley, S. Dillon, 1967

Ritchey, Virginia, 1962

Ritchie, Andrew C. and/or Jane, undated, 1960

Ritter, Ralph L., 1956

Ritz Associates, Inc., undated

Ritz Tower, 1965, 1967-1968

Rival, Freddy, undated, 1958

River Dell Senior High School, 1964

Rivers, Larry, 1967

Riverside Radio, WRVR, 1960

Rixey, Lilian, 1964

Road, John, undated

Roadside Art Gallery, 1959

Robbins, Jerome, 1965

Robbins Library, 1962

Robbins, N.J., 1967

Robbins, Warren M., 1961-1964, 1966 (see also: Center for Cross-Cultural Communication; Museum of African Art)

Roberson, Edgar Paul, Jr., 1956

Roberson, Genevive, 1964

Roberts, 1937

Roberts and Reimers, Incorporated, 1941

Roberts, James M., 1955

Roberts, Laurence, 1956

Roberts, Mr. and/or Mrs. Michael, 1968

Robin, Mary, undated

Robins, Janet L. (Mrs. H. S.), 1959-1960

Robinson, Andrew, 1962

Robinson, Boardman, 1934

Robinson, Carol, undated

Robinson, Edward G., undated, 1934, 1942, 1945-1946, 1948, 1956-1957

Robinson, Eleanor, 1937-1938

Robinson, F. E. M., 1961-1962

Robinson, Frances, 1935

Robinson, George, 1944

Robinson, Grace M. (Mrs. Romney), undated, 1955

Robinson, Hazel Andre, 1963

Robinson, John-David, 1959, 1961

Robinson, Mary Turlay, 1952-1953

Robinson, Sallie White, 1956

Robinsons, Inc., 1958

Esther Robles Gallery, undated, 1960-1961

Robsjohn-Gibbings, Ltd., 1951, 1960

Robsjohn, J. H., 1950

Robson, Mark, 1950, 1960

Sara Roby Foundation, 1962

Roche, Martha, 1956

Rochester Memorial Art Gallery, 1945-1946, 1954, 1957, 1959, 1961, 1963-1965

Rochester Print Club (see: Print Club of Rochester)

Rochester, University of (see: University of Rochester)

Rock-Hil-Uris, Inc., 1963

Rock of Ages, 1958

Rock Springs High School, 1961, 1963

Rockefeller, 1929

Rockefeller, Abby A., undated, 1930, 1934, 1941-1943

Abby Aldrich Rockefeller Folk Art Collection, 1955-1957

Rockefeller, Barbara, 1955

Rockefeller, Blanchette and/or John D. III, 1935, 1938, 1945-1946, 1949-1951, 1956, 1960, 1962-1964

Rockefeller Center Galleries of American Art, Inc., 1933

Rockefeller Center, Inc., 1932

Rockefeller Center Weekly, 1937

Rockefeller, Mr. and/or Mrs. David, undated, 1952, 1955, 1957-1958, 1961, 1965-1967

Rockefeller Foundation, 1937, 1941, 1961

Rockefeller, Mr. and/or Mrs. John D., Jr., undated, 1930-1933, 1935, 1938, 1941-1942

Rockefeller, John D., II, 1955

Rockefeller, Laurance Spelman, and/or Mary F., undated, 1935-1937, 1946-1948, 1950-1957, 1965

Rockefeller, Mary Clark, undated

Rockefeller, Mary and/or Nelson A., undated, 1932-1939, 1941-1942, 1944-1949, 1951-1952, 1955-1956, 1959-1960, 1962, 1965-1967

Rockefeller, Winthrop, 1960, 1966

Rockford Art Association, 1965

Rocknem, Robert E., 1965

Rodale Press, 1968

Rodgers, William H., 1967-1968

Roditi, Edouard, 1947, 1951, 1955

Rodman, Selden, undated, 1945, 1947, 1951, 1955, 1957, 1959-1960

Rodriguez, José, 1968

Roebling, Mary G., undated, 1959, 1961

Roebling, Olga, undated

Roebling, Paul, 1959, 1962

Roelofs, Mrs. Richard, 1964

Roemer, Helen J. (Mrs. James A.), undated, 1959, 1962, 1965

Roese, Maack and Becker, 1954

Roffman, Richard E., undated, 1954

Rogers, 1960

Rogers, Charles Bolles, undated, 1959

Rogers, Helen and Myron, undated

Rogers, Mrs. Huddleston, 1947

Rogers, Mrs. J. T., 1961

Rogers, Jane, 1946

Rogers, Miriam, 1963

Rogers, Phyllis J., 1967

Rogers, Mrs. Richard, 1965

Rogers, Saul E., 1937

Rogers, Mrs. William, 1967

Rohlfing, Christian, undated

Roko Gallery, 1962

Rollins College, 1962

Romaine, Lawrence B., 1954

Roman Bronze Works, Inc., 1958

Romansky, Alvin S., 1950, 1963

Romany Marie, 1955

von Romberg, Emily (Mrs. Maximillian), undated

Rome Manufacturing Company, undated

Rome, Morton E., undated, 1953, 1958, 1962, 1968-1969

Romeike Press Clippings, 1955, 1958, 1960-1963, 1965

Romer, Mrs. A. T., undated, 1964

Rood, Dorothy B. A. and/or John, undated, 1954-1957, 1959-1961, 1965-1966

Roos, Allan, 1959

Roos, Mrs. Frank J., 1968

Roosevelt, Elliott, 1958

Roosevelt Field Art Center, Inc., 1958

Roosevelt, President and/or Mrs. Franklin Delano, undated, 1935-1936, 1941

Roosevelt Memorial Association, Incorporated, 1961

Roosevelt, Mrs. Philip J., 1934

Root, Edward W. and/or Grace, undated, 1930-1931, 1936, 1938, 1945-1946, 1950-1951, 1953, 1958, 1963

Rose, Billy, undated, 1948, 1954-1956, 1959, 1961-1963

Rose, Daniel, 1961

Stanley Rose Galleries, 1936, 1938-1939

Roseman, Shirley, undated

Rosen, 1945

Rosen, David, 1946, 1952, 1955-1956, 1959

Rosen, James, undated, 1966

Rosen, Louis, 1964

Rosen, Lydia, 1947

Rosen, Samuel, 1961

Rosebaum, Aaron, 1960

Rosenbaum, Katie M., 1964

Rosenbaum, Mrs. Maurice, 1964

Rosenberg, James N., 1956

Rosenberg, Libbie L. (Mrs. Samuel), 1946

Rosenberg, Morton G., 1960, 1961, 1962

Rosenberg, Dr. and/or Mrs. Norman, 1963, 1967

Paul Rosenberg and Co., 1958, 1961, 1964

Rosenbloom, Charles J., 1955

Rosenblum and Kramer, Inc., 1955, 1958, 1965, 1968-1969

Rosenbluth, Nathan, 1953

Rosenfeld, Elaine G., 1964, 1966

Rosenfeld, Mrs. Joseph, 1967

Rosenfeld, Samuel L., 1960, 1962

Rosenfield, Donnie, 1967

Rosenfield, Louis I., 1962

Rosenquist, Mrs. Ivan, 1955-1956

Rosenshine, Annette, undated, 1932, 1952, 1954

Rosenstein, Adele B., undated, 1965-1968

Rosenstein, Mrs. Lewis, 1935

Rosenstein, Marian and/or Neil, 1961-1964, 1968

Rosenstiel, Robert F., 1959

Rosenthal, Allan H. and/or Lenore, 1952-1953, 1962, 1964

Rosenthal and Co., 1962

Rosenthal and Klein, 1960

Rosenthal, Bernard, 1952

Rosenthal, Mrs. Charles, 1955

Michael M. Rosenthal and Co., Inc., 1953, 1955

Rosenthal, Peter J., 1962

Rosenthal, Shepherd and Cobern, 1960

Rosenwald, Lessing J., 1959

Roshal, Jean M., 1958

Roskin, Jules J., 1945-1946

Rosoff, William L., 1966

Ann Ross Gallery, 1954

Ross, Daniel, 1961

Ross, Felice, 1965

Ross, John, 1964

Ross, Mr. and/or Richard M., 1962, 1965, 1967

Ross, Sidney B., 1933, 1959

Ross-Talalay Gallery, 1958

Rossi, Jean C. (Mrs. Eugene), 1964

Rossiter, Henry P., undated

Rossman, Louise, 1951

Roswell Museum, 1957-1958, 1962, 1967

Rotblatt, Evelyn, 1962

Roth, Jack, 1961

Rothbart, Albert, undated, 1934

Rothbein, Renee, 1952

Rothberg, Howard, 1957

Rothner, Mrs. Jacoby T., 1946

Rothschild, Lincoln, 1944

Round-the-World Fair, 1960

Rouk, Mrs. Joseph, 1955

Rourke, Constance, undated, 1937-1938

Rowan, Edward B., 1942, 1943

Rowantrees Pavillion, 1950-1951

Roy, Emily, 1961-1962

Roy, John, 1934

Roy, Malcolm D., 1968, 1970

Royal Museum of Fine Arts, Denmark, 1960, 1968

Royal Ontario Museum, 1960-1962

Royce, Jack, 1963

Royce, Mrs. Fred, undated, 1967

Royer, M. J., 1955

Rubel, C. Adrian, 1962

Ruben, Mrs. Edmund R., 1953

Rubenstein, Ben, 1964-1965

Rubenstein, Helena, 1942

Rubicoff, Belle Krasne (Mrs. Irving S.), 1957

Rubin, Baum and Levin, 1961, 1964-1966 (see also: Baum, Frederick; Rubin, Wachtel, Baum and Levin)

Rubin, E., 1959

Rubin, Mrs. Eddie, 1963

Rubin, Harry, 1963

Rubin, Mr. and Mrs. Henry, 1963

Rubin, Hyman, 1962

Rubin, Lil and Hyman, 1960

Rubin, Samuel, 1959

Rubin, Wachtel, Baum and Levin, 1967, 1969-1970 (see also: Baum, Frederick; Rubin, Baum and Levine)

Rubner, Marianne M. (Mrs. Maurice), 1963, 1965

Ruder, Bernet B., 1939

Ruder and Finn, Incorporated, 1959-1960, 1963-1965

Rudin, Fred D., 1968-1969

Rudin, Irma, 1969-1970

Rudin, Louis E., 1961

Rudman, Mrs. S., 1960

Rudolph, Louis, 1957, 1959-1961

Ruff, Carl, 1946

Rugile, Paul, 1960

Ruhrfestspiele Recklinghausen, 1965

Rumsey Hall School, 1963

Runcie Club, 1954

Rupel, Esther F., 1969

Rusitzky, Louis M., 1962

C. M. Russell Gallery, 1955

Russell, Carole (Mrs. Paul S.), undated

Russell, Ethel King (Mrs. Charles H., Jr.), undated, 1936

Russell, J. Townsend and/or Lois R., 1962

H. L. Rust Company Real Estate Loans and Insurance, 1950

Rutman, Nell, 1952

Ruttenberg, Harold J., 1967-1968

Ryan, Glendenning, 1933

Ryan, Gordon James, 1967

Ryerson, Edward, 1953

Saarinen, Aline (Mrs Eero), undated, 1955-1956, 1962-1963

Eero Saarinen Associates, 1954-1956, 1958

Sabado, Robert G., 1962

Sabersky, William M., 1963

Sacartoff, Elizabeth, undated, 1940, 1944-1946

Sacco, Giovanni, 1959

Sachs, Mrs. Jordan H., 1960

Sachs, Morris, 1956

Sachs, Paul J., undated, 1933, 1951-1953, 1955, 1958 (see also: Fogg Art Museum)

Sachs, Mr. and Mrs. Paul J., 1950

Sackton, Alexander, 1963

Sadik, Marvin, undated

Sadron, Maurice, 1930

Saffian, Jack, 1965-1967

Safrai Art Galleries, 1955

Sahlman, Ira, 1961

Saidenberg Gallery, 1959-1960

St. Albans School, 1959

St. Armand's Gallery, 1959, 1962-1964,1968

St. Boltoph Club, 1947

St. Brice, Robert, 1958

St. Cloud State College, 1960-1963

St. George, Armand R., 1965

St. John the Baptist Church, 1956

St. John, Bruce, undated, 1960

St. Lawrence, Katherine (Mrs. William), 1961

St. Lawrence University, 1961

St. Louis Artists' Guild, 1962

St. Louis Board of Education, 1964

St. Louis City Art Museum (see: City Art Museum of St. Louis)

St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 1947

St. Louis Union Trust, 1964

St. Margaret Mary School, 1965

St. Mark's Church, 1958

St. Martin's Press, 1966

St. Mary's College, 1957-1958

St. Monica's Rectory, 1964-1965

Saint Olaf College, undated, 1955, 1965-1966

Saint Paul Art Center, 1962, 1965-1966

Saint Paul Fire and Marine Insurance Co., 1954

Saint Paul Gallery and School of Art, 1953, 1961, 1963, 1965

St. Petersburg Times, 1969

Saint Rose of Lima Church, 1966

Sainz, Francisco, 1954

Saklatwalla, Ann and/or B. D., undated, 1927-1937, 1944-1945

Saks Fifth Ave., 1957, 1961

Saks, Mrs. Julian, 1966

Salantrie, Frank, 1958-1959

Salem College, undated, 1945-1947

Salemon, William E., 1964

Salisbury, William, 1931, 1934

Salomson-Keezer, Toussie, 1957, 1959, 1962

Salpeter, Harry, 1945

Harry Salpeter Gallery, 1958, 1960-1962, 1965-1966, 1968

Salsbury, Charles B., 1952

Saltonstall, 1961

Saltonstall, John L., Jr., 1950, 1960

Saltonstall, Nathaniel, undated, 1945-1946, 1950, 1952-1954, 1956-1957, 1959-1961, 1963-1966

Saltzman, Mrs. Arnold A., undated

Saltzman, William, 1964

"Salute to Seasons," 1957

Salz, Sylvia J. (Mrs. Jerome), 1965

Salzberger, Edyth W. (Mrs. Henry X.), 1967

Salzer, Oscar, undated

Salzman, Joan R. (Mrs. Arnold), 1958

Salzman, Rosalind (Mrs. Max M.), 1967

Sammartino, Peter, 1957

Samoiloff, Carlene, 1961-1962

Sample, John Glen, 1959-1960

Sampliner, Gay, 1961

Sampson, Carol (Mrs. B. J.), 1959, 1961

Spencer A. Samuels and Co., Ltd., 1967-1968

San Antonio Art League, 1959, 1965 (see also: Witte Memorial Art Museum)

Sandak, Inc., 1960, 1968

Sandberg, 1958

Sandberg Municipal Museum, 1950

Sandberg, Robert Alexis, 1965

Sandberg, W., undated

Sander, Mrs. K., 1961

Sanders, Morris B., Jr., 1934

San Diego and Point Magazine, 1959

San Diego Art Museum, 1951 (see also: Fine Arts Society of San Diego)

San Diego Fine Arts Festival, Inc., 1968

San Diego Fine Arts Gallery (see: Fine Arts Gallery of San Diego)

San Diego Society of Fine Arts (see: Fine Arts Society of San Diego)

San Diego Union, 1955

Sandler, Herbert and/or Marion O., undated, 1962-1968

Sandler, Ted, 1946, 1948

Sándor, Molnár, 1967

Sandoval, Corliss, 1965

San Francisco Art Association, 1934

San Francisco Museum of Art, undated, 1935, 1939, 1944, 1946-1947, 1949, 1951, 1954-1956, 1958-1959, 1960-1963, 1966-1969

Sanger, Eleanor N. (Mrs. E. M.), 1960

San Jose State College, 1967

San Marino League, 1964

Sanstrom, Robert, 1969

Santa Barbara Museum of Art, undated, 1940, 1942-1947, 1950, 1951-1955, 1957, 1959-1968

Santini Brothers, Inc., undated, 1960-1961, 1963, 1965-1968

Saporita, John, 1952, 1955, 1961

Sapp, Kitt George, 1951

Sarah Lawrence College, 1942

Sarasota Art Association, 1957-1958

Saretzky, Mrs. Gary D., 1967

Sargent, Barbara and/or Martin, undated, 1959-1960, 1963, 1966

Sargent, W. R., 1956

Sarnoff, Mrs. Robert, 1952

Sarot, Irving Arthur, 1963

Satoru, Abe, undated, 1961, 1969

Saturday Gallery, undated, 1953

Saturday Review -- , 1946, 1958, 1964

Sauder Furniture Store, 1956

Sauder, I. Emanuel, undated, 1935-1936

Saunders, Josephine Eckert, undated, 1948

R. J. Saunders and Co., Inc., undated, 1956, 1958-1960

Savoy Art and Auction Galleries, 1964

Sawens, Arnold, 1962

Sawyer, Kenneth, 1959

Scalabrini, Roberto, 1964-1965

Scandinavian Airline Systems, 1963

Schäffer, Nic, 1963

Schaefer, Herwin, 1958, 1961

Schaefer, Rudolf, 1958

Schaeffer, Bertha, 1959, 1965, 1967, 1969

Schaeffer, Mr. and Mrs. Robert, 1956

Schamberg, Ira Leo, 1960, 1967

Schanker, Louis, undated, 1947

Schapps, Mrs. Jack, 1954

Harvey L. Schary, Inc., 1966

Schary, Miriam, 1956

Schatzki, Walter, 1954

Scheaffer, Louis, 1966

Schenck, Betty (Mrs. Edgar C.), undated, 1960-1961, 1967

Schepps, J., 1940

Schepps, Jacob J., 1962

Scheuer, Simon H., 1947, 1953, 1960

Schiff, Bennett, 1963

Schiffer, Herbert F., 1966

Schiffren, Ellen, 1959

Schiller Decorating Co., Inc., 1955

Schiller, Mrs. J. D., 1967

Schilthuis, Willliam C., 1956, 1964, 1967

Schimmel, Douglas, 1963

Schindler, Rochelle, 1965

Schlageter, Bob, 1966

Schler, Mrs. William, 1946

Schlessinger, Paul, 1963

Schlosser, Leonard Benjamin, undated, 1955-1956, 1961-1962, 1965

Schluger, Helen and/or Saul, 1953, 1955, 1957

Schmeckebier, Laurence, 1958, 1960-1961

Schmidt, Eric von, 1956

Schmidt, Louise W., 1961

Schmitz, Marie L., 1962

Schnakenberg, Henry, 1949, 1962-1965

Schneid, Otto, 1961

Schneider, Cy, 1958

Schneiderman, Dorothy, 1964

Schnell, Ernest B., 1962

Schnidt, Walter, 1967-1968

Schnitzer, Arlene (Mrs. Harold), 1961

Robert Schoelkopf Gallery, 1969

Schoen, Armund J., 1957

Schoen, Jean (Mrs. Morris), 1965

Schoen, Lee, 1966

Schoener, Allon T., 1954

Schoener, Jason L., undated

Schoenfeld, Richard, 1965

Schoenheimer, Mrs. W. L., 1960

Schohol, Margaret, 1944

Scholastic Magazines, 1958, 1962

School of the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, 1941, 1953

School of Visual Arts, 1961

Schoonover, Elsie M., 1953

Schraff, Alexander, undated

Schramm, Dorothy and/or James S., undated, 1943-1947, 1950-1965, 1967

Schramm, Stephen J., 1963, 1965

Schreiber, Georges, 1933, 1948

Schreiber, Taft, 1964

Schreiver, George A., 1946

Schroeder, Mrs. K. M., 1967

Schulman, 1960

Schulman, Mrs. Benjamin, 1967

Schulman, Mrs. Bernard, undated, 1955

Schulman, Mr. and/or Mrs. Jacob, undated,1953, 1955-1960, 1962-1969

Schulman, Marvin, 1964

Schulman, Robert, 1960

Schulte, Arthur D., 1958

Schulte, Charles F., 1957

Schulte, John S., 1953

Schultz, George L., 1968

Schulz, M. F., 1965

Schulz, Werner, 1967

Schum, Betty, 1965

Schuman, Jack C., 1961

Schumm, Henrietta M., 1965

Schumm Traffic Agency, Inc., 1959, 1962, 1967-1968

Schurman, Jacob Gould, III, 1957

Schuster, G. S., undated

Schuster, Mr. and/or Mrs. M. Lincoln, 1956, 1957

Paul Schuster Art Gallery, 1960

Schuwater, Ray, 1963

Schwab, Eloisa, 1934

Schwabach and Co., 1958

Schwabacher, W. S., 1934, 1948

Schwachman, Irene (Mrs. Harry), 1958

Schwalb, Richard A., undated

Schwartz, Alan E., 1957

Schwartz, Estelle (Mrs. Jack G.), 1962

Schwartz, Gerald G., 1966

Schwartz, Lee H., 1956-1957

Schwartz, Mrs. Philip, 1962, 1967

Schwartz, William S., 1935

Schwarz, John, 1940

William A. Schwarz and Son, Inc., 1955

Schwarzchild, Henry, 1958

Schwarzkopf, I. M., undated, 1945-1947, 1951-1954, 1956-1961, 1963-1964

Schwarzkopf and Lukatch, Inc., 1945, 1948

Schwebel, Susan, 1960

Schweitzer, Gertrude, 1955

Schyler, H. H., 1945

Science and Medicine Publishing Co., Inc., 1960, 1962

Scientific American -- , 1956

Scobey Fireproof Storage Company, 1957

Scobey, Joan, 1959-1960

Agnes Scott College, 1956

Scott, Charles H., 1954

Scott, David, undated, 1969

Scott, Delmore, 1953-1955

Scott, Dorothy, 1955

Scott, Foresman and Company, 1953

Scott, Howard, 1955

Scott, Robert S., 1966

Scott, Tirsa (Mrs. Dana), 1966

Scott, William E., 1961

Scott, Zachary, 1963

Scottsbluff Public Library, 1958

Scottsdale Gallery of Modern Art (see: Gallery of Modern Art, Scottsdale)

Charles Scribner's Sons, 1953, 1958, 1961

Scull, Christine Biddle, undated, 1955

Sculptors Guild, Inc., 1961, 1964, 1967

Sculpture House, 1958, 1960, 1966-1967

Seacrest, Mildred E. (Mrs. Frederick S.), undated, 1961

Sears, Joan N. (Mrs. Robert A.), 1962

Sears, Roebuck and Co., 1962

Seatt, Tirsa (Mrs. David), undated

Seattle Art Museum, 1935-1936, 1950-1951

Seattle Peace Information Center, 1962

Seattle World's Fair, 1961, 1962

Sebold, Louise and/or J. T., undated, 1962

Security Insurance Company of New Haven, 1953

Security Storage Company, 1946, 1968-1970

Seeberg, Mrs. Edward, 1964

Seeger, Joachim, 1952

Seeger, Stanley, 1956

Seegerman, Allen Warren, undated

Segal, Bernard, 1964

David Segal Associates, 1960

Segal, Leslie A., 1961

Segat, Albert, 1967

Seiberling, Frank, Jr., 1946

Seid, Walter, 1962, 1965, 1968

Seide, Charles, 1946

Seidel, John G., 1956

Seiff, Mathilde C., 1947

Seipp, Katerina, 1962

Selch, Patricia B. (Mrs. Frederick Richard), 1962

Selden, Carl, 1960

Selden, Marjorie Jester (Mrs.Percy), 1963

Seldis, Henry J., undated, 1964-1966

Selig, Manfred, 1960

Selig Manufacturing Co., 1967

Seligman, Germaine, 1958

Otto Seligman Gallery, 1958, 1964

Seligmann, Herbert J., undated, 1953

Jacques Seligmann and Co., Inc., 1955, 1957-1958

Selinger, Paul E., 1968

Sellin, David, undated, 1959, 1964

Seltzer, Phyllis, 1956

Laurence H. Selz Organization, Inc., 1958

Selz, Peter, 1958

Selznick, David O., 1949

Semans, Mary T. (Mrs. James), undated, 1961

Der Senator für Volksbildung, 1951

Senior, John L., Jr., 1950

Senior, Robert, 1965

Senturia, Mrs. Hyman R., 1960

Sepeshy, Dorothy, undated

Sepeshy, Zoltan, 1957-1959

Serigraph Galleries, 1954

Serv-Well Waxing and Maintenance Co., 1946

Serwer, Lawrence, 1944

Charles Sessler Booksellers, 1955-1956, 1960, 1964-1965

Settle, Elmer, 1959

Seventeen, 1949

Sevich, Mildred and Irving, undated

Sewell, Mrs. R. Barclay, 1955

Sexton, John L., 1940, 1945

Sexton, Peggy (Mrs. Robert), 1965

Seymour, Harold J., 1934-1935

Seymour, Willard, 1946

Shadbolt, Jack, 1963

Shafer, Cameron C., II, 1960

Shahn, Ben and/or Bernarda, undated, 1954-1956, 1958-1962, 1964

Shahn, Philip, 1959

Shahn's "Passion of Sacco and Vanzetti," undated

Shaker Community, Inc., 1961-1966

Shakertown at Pleasant Hill Kentucky, Inc., 1963-1964

Shands, H. C., 1964

Shannon Electric Co., 1967

Shannon, Leo, 1968

Shannon, Ogden K., 1953, 1955-1956

Shannon, Sara Roby (Mrs. Edward), 1966-1967

Shapiro, Albert M., 1964

Shapiro, Daisy V., 1959-1961

Shapiro, Florence (Mrs. Irving), 1957

Shapiro, Joe and Julia, undated, 1963

Shapiro, Joseph Randall, 1945, 1952, 1962-1964

Shapiro, Mr. and/or Mrs. Louis, 1956, 1964

Shapiro, Saul, 1953, 1956, 1958

Shapleigh, Warren M., 1967

Sharaf, Alexandra, 1968

Sharkey, Alice, 1944

Sharnoff, Mark, 1966

Sharon Creative Arts Foundation, 1961

Sharp and Dohme Incorporated, 1946-1947

Sharp, Gretchen (Mrs. Jack S.), 1962

Shatz Painting Co., 1955

Shaw, A., 1947, 1964

Shaw, Joanna M., 1960-1962

Shaw, Matt, 1967

Shaw, Ray, 1963

Shawkey, Sigmund J., undated, 1961

Shaye, Lillian and/or Nathan, 1960

Sheafer, Emma A., undated

Sheafer, Mrs. Lesley, 1935

Shearer, Teddy, 1940

Sheeler, Charles and/or Musya, undated, 1942, 1953, 1957, 1961-1965, 1967

Shelburne Museum, Inc., undated, 1951-1954, 1956-1957, 1960, 1961-1965, 1967-1968

Sheldon, Cheney, 1934

Sheldon Memorial Art Gallery, 1967

Sheldon, Olga (Mrs. Adams Bromley), undated, 1961, 1963, 1965

Shenefield, John, 1964

Shepatin, Eleanor (Mrs. Nathan), 1963

George Shepherd and Son, 1965

Shepherd, James L, Jr., 1958

Sheppard, Edgar, 1968

Sheppard, William, undated

Sherburne, Eugene J., 1956

Sherman, Charles, 1952

Sherman, H. P., undated, 1961

Sherman, Laury, 1966

Sherrill, James W., 1952

Sherwell, G. Butler, 1942

Sherwood, Brinton, 1959-1960

Sherwood, Richard E., 1960-1961, 1963

Shield of David, 1965

Shipley, David H., 1963

Shipman, Mary Dana (Mrs. Arthur J., Jr.), 1965

Shoolman, Regina, 1946

Shopp, Robert O.,1962

Shorefront YM-YWHA of Brooklyn, 1963

Shorewood Press, 1960, 1962-1963, 1965-1966

Shorofsky, Mrs. Gerald, 1966

Shortess, George K., 1968

Shosteck, Patti (Mrs. Herschel), 1963

Shotwell, Marcia S. (Mrs. David R.), 1962

Show, 1962, 1965

Shriver, Robert Sargent, Jr., 1962

Shropshire, Dorothy (Mrs. H. W.), 1963

Shubert, Irwin, 1947

Shubert, Mrs. Irvin, 1961

Shulman, Deana (Mrs. Herbert), undated, 1964-1966

Shulman, Mr. and/or Mrs. Herman, 1935, 1944-1945, 1947, 1952, 1955

Shulman, Rea K., (Mrs. Harry), undated, 1953-1955

Shwalb, Richard A., 1963, 1965, 1967-1968

Shyobo, Kawade, 1955

Shyrock, Burnett H., 1943

Siani, Emma A., 1965

Sicron, Sarah, 1967-1968

Siden, Franklin D., 1962

Franklin Siden Gallery, Inc., 1966

Sidenberg Gallery, 1956

Sieber and McIntyre, Inc., 1966

Sieburg, Virginia, 1965

Siegel, Adrien, 1953

Siegel, Arthur, 1969

Siegel, Donald S., 1961-1962

Harold J. Siegel Company Publicity, 1953

Siegel, Joshua, 1965

Siegal, Natalie, 1967

Siemonn, George and/or Mabel Garrison, 1960-1962

Siger, Leonard P., 1966

Silber, Mrs. Robert, 1960

Silberell, Peter, 1963

E. and A. Silberman Galleries, Inc., 1955

Silberstein, Mrs. Robert G., 1966

Silerman, Mabel G., undated

Silliaman University, 1962

Sills, Philip, undated, 1959, 1962, 1965

Silman, Robert, 1936

Silva, Rufino, 1960

Silver Burdett Company, 1967-1968

Silver, Hanna, 1966

Silverman, Samuel, 1957

Silvermine Guild of Artists, Inc., 1963

Silverstein, Morma, 1951

Simms, Richard A., 1966, 1968

Simon, A., 1952

Simon and Schuster, 1966

Simon, Anne Westheimer, 1961

Simon, Ben and Nan, 1965

Simon Brothers, 1952

Simon, Charles and/or Irene B., 1959, 1962-1964, 1968-1969

Simon, Mrs. Leo S., undated, 1953-1954, 1962, 1964

Simon, Mrs. Leon, 1951

Simon, Maron J., undated, 1949, 1952, 1964

Simon, Mr. and/or Mrs. Robert E., undated, 1965

Simon, Sidney, 1954

Simon, Walter A., 1950

Simpson, Frances Ruth, 1965

Simpson, Mildred, 1935

Sinai Temple, 1964

Singer, E., 1961

Singer, Herbert M., 1962

Sinkinson, F., 1966

Sinkoff, Marvin, 1962, 1964

Sinnamon, Lynwood D., Jr., 1965

Sioux City Art Center, 1958

Siporin, Judy, undated

Siporin, Miriam and/or Mitchell, undated, 1939, 1941, 1953-1955, 1962

Siporin, Rachel Jane, undated

William Sirefman Plumbing and Heating, 1941-1942

Sirmans, James, undated, 1963-1964

Sirota, Hilda A. (Mrs. Ira L.), 1959

Sirotto, Allen D. (Chick), 1959-1960, 1962

Sisk, Robert V., 1967-1968

Sivard, Robert, 1959

Sivard, Ruth, 1959

Sixtieth Street Gallery, 1935

Skidmore College, 1944

Skidmore, Owings and Merrill, 1956-1958, 1961

Skinner, Cornelia Otis, 1954

Skowhegan School of Painting and Sculpture, undated. 1952-1957, 1960-1961, 1963-1967, 1969

Skutch, Robert Frank, 1945, 1947

Slater, H. N., 1946

Slater, Martin, 1953

Slater Memorial Museum, 1954, 1958

Slater, Nelson, undated

Charles E. Slatkin Galleries, 1959

Slavitt, Lynn M. (Mrs. David), 1963-1964

Slick, Thomas, 1956-1958, 1960-1962, 1967

Charles J. Slicken Company, 1963

Sloan, Eugene, 1963

Sloan, Mr. and/or Mrs. J. Seymour, 1959, 1962

Sloan, Sonny, undated

Sloan, Sylvia, 1948

Slonim, Evelyn, undated

Slonim, Jay, 1957

Slonim, Jill, 1959

Slosberg, Helen S. (Mrs. S. L.), 1958

Slosson, Theodore, 1955

Slotnick, Merv, undated, 1964

Slusser, Jean Paul, 1964

Small, Amy G., undated

Small, Marvin and/or Sylvia, undated, 1955-1956

Smallens, Mimi K. (Mrs. Alexander, Jr.), 1961-1962

Smathers, Senator George, 1957

Smeltzer, Anne, 1946, 1948

Smiley, George W. and Helen, 1949

Smiley, Leonard V., 1952

Smith, Adele Godschaux (Mrs. Bradley), 1952

Smith, Alfred C., 1946

Smith, Alfred E., 1932

Smith, Anne G. (Mrs. Parker B.), undated, 1946

Smith, Mr. and/or Mrs. Arnold, 1963

Smith, Beauchamp, 1962

Beverly Smith and Sons, Ltd., 1964

Smith, Burwell, 1945-1946

Smith, Carleton, 1949

Smith, Charles E., 1945

Smith, Charles Edward, 1965-1966

Smith College, 1940-1950, 1954-1955, 1958-1960, 1967

Smith, Gene, 1965

Smith, Howard E., 1964

Smith, Jerome B., 1966, 1968-1969

Smith, Kent H., 1956

Smith, Lawrence C., 1951

Smith, Lillian (Mrs. Stephen), 1949, 1955

Smith, Louise (Mrs. Bertram), undated, 1953, 1955-1957, 1963

Smith, Mollie Higgins, 1952

Smith, Olive Cole, 1941, 1945

Smith, Rita and Bradley, 1962

Smith, Sidney, 1946

Smith, Solomon Byron, 1950-1952 (see also: Northern Trust Company)

Smith, Suzanne Mullett, 1946

Smith, Wallace H., undated, 1962

Smith, Mr. and/or Mrs. William Gordon, Jr., 1955, 1958

Smithsonian Institution, undated, 1931, 1933, 1954-1957, 1959, 1961, 1963-1969 (see also: Archives of American Art; National Collection of Fine Arts)

Smokler, Bert L., 1956

Smyth, Nelson, 1967

Smythe, Lanier, 1965

Sneteony, E. E., 1959

Snider, Gratia, 1962

Snider, Stanley, 1962

Snow, V. Douglas, 1963-1964

Snyder, Ben, 1956

Snyder, Mrs. C., 1961

Snyder, Charles Russell, 1954

Henry Sobel and Co., 1961

Soby, James Thrall, undated, 1945-1948, 1953-1954, 1956-1961

Société Anonyme, 1948-1949 (see also: Katherine S. Dreier)

Société Libanaise Hadad, 1952 (see also: Hadad, Marie)

Society for Contemporary American Art, 1956

Society for the Advancement of Judaism, 1964

Society of Architectural Historians, 1959

Society of Arts and Crafts, 1930-1934, 1949 (see also: Art School of the Detroit Society of Arts and Crafts)

Society of Illustrators, undated

Society of Independent Artists, Inc., 1934

Society of Philatelic Americans, 1965

Society of the Four Arts, undated, 1941, 1943, 1947-1948, 1950, 1952, 1955-1956

Society of the New York Hospital, 1951 (see also: New York Hospital)

Socin, Jay, 1961, 1964

Socolow, Alfred, 1959

Sofia Bros., Inc., 1968

Sokoloff, Arthur, 1966

Solinger, David M., 1949-1962, 1964, 1967

Solman, Helen Gray and/or Edw. C., undated, 1962

Solnary, Carl, undated

Soloman, Harry, 1944, 1946, 1955

Solomon, Hyde, 1953

Solomon, Norman, 1964

Solomon, Samuel M., 1963

Sommers, Davidson, 1964

Songwriters' Protective Association, undated

Sonnenberg, Mr. and/or Mrs. Benjamin, undated, 1950-1951, 1953

Sonner, Eric, 1962

Soote, John, Sr., undated

William H. Sopher and Co., Inc., 1951, 1954

Sorce, Anthony John, 1969

Sornik, Lillie E., 1961

Sorvari, Arnold, 1965

Sotheby and Co., 1964, 1968

Sour, George B., 1961, 1963

South Bend Art Association, 1963, 1965

South County Art Association, 1947

South Plains Art Guild, 1955-1956

Southern Art Museums Directors Association, 1955

Southern California Council for a Sane Nuclear Policy, 1962

Southern Conference Educational Fund, Inc., 1966

Southern Methodist University, 1957-1958

Southern Illinois Normal University, 1943

Southern Illinois University, 1954, 1962, 1965-1966

Southern New England Telephone Company, 1946, 1962

Southman, H. S., 1944

Southwestern Art Association, 1941

Soviet Friendship Societies, 1961

S.P.A. Journal [Society of Professional Artists?], 1965

Spaet, Fannie, 1949

Spaeth, Eloise and/or Otto Lucien, undated, 1941, 1943-1946, 1950, 1952-1953, 1955-1956, 1958, 1960-1961, 1965-1966

Spall, Pamela, 1966

Ira Spanierman Gallery, 1967

Spark, Victor D., 1941

Spaulding, Mrs. Philip E., 1948

Special Work, Inc., 1933

Spector, Marlene, 1965

Spector, Mrs. Morris, undated, 1967

J. B. Speed Art Museum, 1961, 1964

Speed, Robert Malcolm, 1962

Speed-o-lite, 1962-1963

Speiller, William M., 1968-1969

Speiser, Maurice J., 1933-1934, 1936

Spellmeyer, Irene E., 1952

Spelman College, undated, 1964-1966

Raymond Spelman Industrial Design, 1964

Spence, Willard, 1964

Spencer, Catherine Brett, 1956, 1963, 1966, 1968

Spencer, Henry M., 1967

Spencer, Mildred, 1963-1964

Spencer, Suzanne D., 1964

Sperie, Frederick M., 1961

Sperry, Albert F., 1955

Spertus, Herman and/or Sara, 1957-1959, 1964

Spewack, Bella, undated, 1936

Spiegel, Rosalynde G., 1957

Spiegelberg, Bruce, 1962

Spielberger, Alane, 1965

Spielman, Sheila (Mrs. Philip), 1964

Spillars, Ed, 1951-1952

Spiller, Jeanne W. (Mrs. Henry), 1959

Spinola, Cyril A., 1958

Spira, Henry E., 1964

Spiral Press, 1954

Spiro, Harry, 1969

Spittal, William Guy, 1962

Spitzer, Frederick R., 1960

Spivack, Dorothy and/or S. S., undated, 1944, 1960, 1964, 1967-1968

Spoerer, George Richard and/or Hester L., 1940-1941

Sports Illustrated -- , 1954

Sprague and Carleton Incorporated, 1963

Spreckles, Emily, undated

Sprinchorn, Carl, undated, 1954, 1956, 1958-1961, 1964

Springfield Art Association, Illinois, 1950, 1958

Springfield Art Museum, 1945, 1949-1950, 1952

Springfield Museum of Art, 1934-1935, 1947

Springfield Museum of Fine Arts, 1950-1954, 1956, 1959 (see also: Museum of Fine Arts, Springfield)

Springold, Frances, 1958, 1965

Springold, Nate B., undated, 1955, 1956

Springs Cotton Mills, 1962-1963

Springville High School Art Association, undated, 1946-1947, 1950, 1953, 1958, 1965, 1967

Springville Insurance and Realty Co., 1950

Sprouse, Edith M. (Mrs. James M.), 1955

Spruance, Benton, undated

Square D Company, 1955

SRO, 1948

Staatliche Kunsthalle Baden-Baden, 1963

Stainbrink, Mrs. Edward, 1961

Stainow, Gregory, 1960, 1964-1965

Stair, Gobin, 1958

Stall, Jeffrey R., 1969

Stamats, Mrs. Peter, 1962

Stand 207, 1960

Standard Education Society, Inc., 1955, 1958

Standish, Rosamund T. (Mrs. Welles A.), undated

Stanek, Elizabeth J., 1963

Stanford University, 1955-1956, 1960

Stanton, Arthur, 1962

Stanton, Frank, 1957-1959, 1963

Stanton, Louise, 1954

Star, Leonard, 1967

Stark, Jane T. (Mrs. Richard S.), 1958

Stark, R., 1946

Stark, William H., 1966

Stark, William James, undated

Starr, Mr., 1966

Starr, Alfred, 1947

Starr, L. D., 1961

Starr, Leonard, 1967

State College of Washington, 1946-1947

State Historical Society of Wisconsin, 1952, 1957

State of New York, Department of Labor, 1951 (see also: New York State Department of Labor)

State of New York, Department of Social Welfare, 1955, 1961

State Teachers College, Potsdam, N.Y., 1943 (see also: State University Teachers College, Potsdam, N.Y.)

State University of Iowa, 1941, 1945-1946, 1948, 1950-1951, 1953, 1955, 1958, 1960, 1962-1964

State University of New York State Teachers College, New Paltz, 1953-1954, 1956

State University Teachers College, Potsdam, N.Y., 1953 (see also: State Teachers College, Potsdam, N.Y.)

Staten Island Institute of Arts and Sciences, 1959, 1961

Staten Island Museum, 1959

Statsinger, Evelyn, 1951, 1954

Staub, Nancy Liesbethe, 1967

Stauffer, John A. and/or Valerie, 1959-1960, 1962, 1968

Stauffer, Josephine, 1945

Steadman, William E., 1966

Stebbins, Theodore E., Jr., 1962

Stecker, Robert, 1956

Stecker, Rose Gimbel, 1960

Stedelijk Museum, undated, 1949-1951, 1956-1958, 1960-1961, 1964, 1967 (see also: Municipal Museums of Amsterdam)

Stedman, Gerda (Mrs. Samuel Lee), 1963

Stedman-Harris Co., 1957

Steel Guide Distributors, Inc., 1965

Steele, Fletcher, 1959

Steele, Mary Evarts (Mrs. John Nelson), 1952

Steele, William T., 1958-1960

Steen, Barbara. 1961

Stehley, Virginia A., 1950, 1966

Steig, William, Mr. and/or Mrs., undated, 1942, 1956, 1961

Stein, Donna, 1967

I. Stein and Sons, 1950

Stein, Mrs. J. E., 1954

Stein, Jeanette S. and/or Sydney, Jr., undated, 1951, 1963-1964

Stein, Pauline, 1961

Stein, Peter S., undated

Stein, Robert F., 1963

Stein, Mrs. Rubin, 1957

Steinberg, Dorothy M. (Mrs. Perry S.), 1956

Steinberg, Harris B., undated, 1957-1958, 1961

Steinberg, Mr. and/or Mrs. Jay Z., 1951, 1954

Steinberg, Mrs. Milton, 1965

Steinberg, Robert S., 1967

Steinbrocker, H., undated

Steindler Gallery, 1962

Steine, David, 1954

Steinfirst, Susan, 1964

Steinhardt, J. Laura M., 1946

Stella, Michael, 1953, 1959

Stella, Serge, 1950, 1953

Stember, Sheila, 1963

Stendler, Celia, 1960

Stenvall, John F., 1946

Stephens College, 1954-1955

Sterling, Audrey and Bobby, 1964

Stern, Mrs. Alfred, 1952

Stern Brothers, 1956, 1966

Edward Stern Co., 1947

Stern, Geraldine, 1965

Stern, Jane M. (Mrs. George A.), 1956

Stern, Louis E., 1929-1931, 1946, 1954, 1957-1958

Stern, Rita, 1956

Sternberg, H. Sumner, 1955-1956

Sternberg, Harris, 1962

S. G. Sterne and Company, 1940

Sternfield, Edward, 1968

Stevens, George F., 1958

Stevens, Joseph T., 1961

Stevens, Roger L., 1950, 1952, 1964-1965, 1967

Stevens, Walter H., 1964

Stevenson, Adlai E., 1956, 1960-1961

Stevenson, Elizabeth, 1966

Stevenson for President Committee, 1956

Stevenson, John Fell, 1967

Stewardson, William E., 1960

Stewart, Janet Lenzner, 1963, 1967-1968

Stewart, M. J., 1962

Stewart, Michael, 1966

Stewart, Waldo, 1956

Stiles, George, 1956

Stiles, George and Virginia, 1957

Stillwell, John B., 1954

Stix, Hugh S., 1956

Stix, Thomas, 1954

Stoddard, Helen E. and/or Robert Waring, 1957, 1961-1964

Stokes, Elizabeth S., 1953-1954, 1959-1960

Stokowski, Mrs. Leopold, 1954

Stoll, Mrs. Herbert, 1959

Stoloff, Charles I., 1963

Stoloff, Carolyn, 1952

Stone, Alex B., 1958

Stone, Deborah, 1964

Stone, Dewey D., 1959-1960

Stone, Faye Gloria (Mrs. David G.), 1957

Stone, H. H., 1961

Stone, Harry K., 1936, 1955

Stone, Jerome H., 1957-1958, 1961

Stone, Lester B., 1944

Stone, Stephen A. and/or Sybil, undated, 1952, 1955-1969

Stones, Brian, undated, 1959

Stoney, George C., 1962

Stony Point Folk Art Gallery, 1955, 1958

Storm King Art Center, 1966

Storrs-Booz, Monique, 1967

Story, Ala, undated, 1965, 1967-1968

Story, James, 1963

Story, Lewis, 1966

Storza, Eleana (Mrs. Francis), 1956

Stouffer's Restaurant Corp., 1957

Straight, Michael, 1955

Straight, Stephen M., 1963, 1965

Stralem, Donald J., 1957

Strand, Ruth, 1956

Strater, Henry (Mike), 1952, 1956-1957, 1959

Strathmont Museum, 1958, 1960

Stratton, Catherine M. (Mrs. Julius A.), 1967

Straus, Carol and/or Robert David, undated, 1945-1946, 1948-1949, 1951-1958, 1961-1964, 1966-1968

Straus-Frank Company, 1953

Straus, Gerhard D., 1959-1960, 1962, 1964

Straus, Lois M. (Mrs. Gerhard D.), 1958-1959, 1962

Straus, Percy, Jr., 1953

Straus, Robert, 1933-1935

Straus, Robert K., 1954

Strauss, Harold and/or Mildred, 1961-1964

Strauss, Jenny N. (Mrs. Leonard), undated, 1948, 1951, 1953

Strauss, Maurice J., 1938

Street, John, 1956

Strick, Joseph, 1957-1959, 1963

Stritzler, N., 1957

Strobelite Co., 1960

Strong, Alice and/or L. Corrin, undated, 1953, 1955, 1957, 1959-1960, 1964

Struck, Paul A., 1944

Struck, William C., 1962

Stryker, Donald W., 1962

Stuart Art Gallery, 1944-1945

Stuart, Betty Thornley, 1954

David Stuart Gallery, 1967

George M. Stuart, Inc., 1954, 1962, 1965, 1967-1968

John Stuart, Inc., 1960

Stuckey, James, 1967

Studin, Robert M., 1964

Studio Craft Shop, n.d

Studio International -- , 1964

Studio School of Art, 1937

Studio Second, 1959

Sturges, Elizabeth (Mrs. Hollister), undated, 1960

Sturman, George, 1963

Stwin, Fred, 1955-1956

Suares, C., 1960

Suba, Susanne, 1944

Sudler, James S., 1954

Robert Sugden School, Inc., undated

Sugerman, Mrs. B., 1955, 1956

Sukoff, Mrs. Marvin, undated

Sullivan, Betty (Mrs. John A.), 1966-1967

Sullivan, Daniel H., 1954-1955

Sullivan, M., 1945

Sullivan, Max W., 1965

Sullivan, Philip B., 1955-1956

Sulmeyer, Irving, 1963

Sulmeyer, Noreen, 1959-1960

Sulzberger, Arthur Hays, 1935

Sulzberger, Jean, 1952

Summers, Martin, 1958

Sun Magazine -- , 1958-1959

Sunami, Soichi, 1965, 1968-1969

Sunday Times of London -- , 1962 (see also: -- London Sunday Times -- )

Sunshine, Lotte, 1968

Survey of Contemporary American Art, 1955

Sussman, Arthur H., 1964

Sussman, Ernest, 1953

Sussman, Eva W., 1969

Suter, Carl R., 1967

Sutnar, Ladislav, 1964

Sutter, Mrs. Walter, 1955

Swain School of Design, 1960

Swan, Mabel Minerva, 1957

Swann, Erwin D., 1961

Swanson, Swanson and Boeye, 1966

Swanström, Rune, 1956, 1957

Swarthmore College, 1964

Swartz, Arnold, 1955

Sweeney, Anne P. (Mrs. E. F., Jr.), 1966-1967

Sweeney, James Johnson, undated, 1949, 1956

Sweet Briar College, 1950

Sweet, Frederick, undated

Sweet, Mrs. Gordon, 1945

Sweet's Catalog Service, 1947

Swetzoff Gallery, 1953-1956, 1958, 1961-1963

Swift, Mrs. Charles, 1940

Swope, Horace M., 1930, 1935

Sheldon Swope Art Gallery, 1942, 1944-1946, 1948, 1950, 1961-1962, 1965-1966

Sword, Arthur W., 1952

Swoyer, Arline D., 1964

Swyers, Michael, undated, 1960-1961

Sydney, George, 1943

Symonds, Bernard K., 1955

Syracuse Museum of Fine Arts, 1953, 1959

Syracuse University, undated, 1956, 1958-1968

Szanto, Jack, 1968

Szekely, Gillian M., 1968

Szold, Brandwen and Shubert, 1943-1947, 1951-1952

Szold, Robert, undated

Taddei, M., 1953, 1955

Taetzsch, Lynne, 1963

Tafel, Edgar, 1962

Taft Museum, 1950-1951, 1963-1964

Tagliabue, Angelo, 1958, 1959

Tahcheechee, Leon, 1930

Tait Appraisal Co., 1954

Takayesu, Ben G., 1964-1965, 1966-1967

Takehita, Natsuko, 1954

Takemoto, undated

Talad, Richard and Sonya, undated

Taliferro, Mrs. J. R., 1954

Tam, Gerry and/or Reuben, 1953, 1960

Tamarind Lithography Workshop, Inc., 1961, 1963, 1966

Tampa Art Institute, 1958

Tanglewood Gallery, 1958-1961, 1963

Tannenbaum, Joseph, 1967

Tannenbaum, Julius, 1952

Tannihill, Robert Hudson, undated, 1932-1937, 1939, 1941, 1944-1948, 1952, 1954, 1963

Tarbell, Roberta K. (Mrs. James V.), 1966-1967

Tarleau, Mrs. Thomas N., 1961

Tarlow, Al. E., undated, 1959-1961, 1963, 1965

Tarnopol, Emil, 1960

Tarr, Mrs. Thomas A., 1952-1954

Tatar, Richard P., 1966, 1969

Tatar, Seymour M., 1967

Tate Gallery, 1956-1957, 1960-1963

Taubman, Reva (Mrs. A. Alfred), 1960

Taussig, Theodore D., 1947-1948, 1951-1962

Tavara, Zulema, 1950

Durand Taylor Co., 1956

Taylor, G. C., 1966

Taylor, J. Scott, 1965

Taylor, John N., 1955

Taylor, McKay, 1961

Taylor, Pamela, 1950

Taylor, Winthrop, 1958

Tedeschi, Alberto Bruni, 1957

Tedesco, N., 1951

Teitz, Richard Stuart, 1968

Tekizan, Seitaro Bamba, 1958

Telanserphone, Inc., 1956, 1961, 1966

TeleCircuit Company, undated

Telfair Academy of Arts and Sciences, Inc., 1968

Temple, Alan H., 1952

Temple Beth El, 1958, 1969

Temple B'nai Jeshurum, 1949

Temple B'rith Sholom, 1958

Temple, Mrs. E. B., 1946

Temple Emanu-el, undated, 1963-1965

Temple, Gloria E., 1953

Temple Israel, 1959, 1964-1965

Temple, Mrs. John, 1952

Temple, Latané, 1957

Temple University, 1967

Tenth Muse, 1968

Ten-Thirty Gallery, 1948

1020 Art Center, 1954, 1957

Tennessee Fine Arts Center, 1962

Tennyson, Jean, 1942

Tepper, Mr. and/or Mrs. Benjamin, 1946-1947, 1950

Terhune, Anne Gregory (Mrs. Harry E.), undated, 1966-1967

Terken, John, 1966-1967

Terner, Emanuel M., 1964

Terry Art Institute, 1949

Texas Christian University, 1950-1953

Texas Technological College, 1960-1962 (see also: Museum, Texas Technological College)

Texas, University of (see: University of Texas)

Thabor Collection Bureau, 1966

Thames and Hudson, Ltd., 1961, 1963, 1968

Thannhauser, Barbara L., 1963

Thannhauser, Justin K., 1950, 1955, 1957, 1959

Thannhauser, Leslie, 1929

Thaw, Eugene, 1965

Thébaud, Jules, 1962

Thecla, Julia, 1954

Theobald, Frank, 1963

Thibaut, Richard E., Jr., 1953

Thiebaud, Wayne, undated, 1961

Things -- , 1964

13 West Gallery, 1963

This Week -- Magazine, 1954, 1962

Thoby-Marcelin, Eva, 1959

Thoener, George E., 1964, 1967-1968

Thoma, Belle B., 1959

Thomas, Mrs. B. B., 1959

Thomas, E. A., 1946-1947

Thomas, Herrel George, 1952, 1954

Thomas, Julie, 1965

Thomas, Marion, 1943, 1945

Thomas, Vincent, 1962-1963

Frederic B. Thomason, Inc., 1936-1937, 1939-1941

Thomm, Mrs. John F., 1963

Thompson, Andrew Z., 1959

Thompson, George David, undated, 1935

J. Walter Thompson Company, 1941-1942, 1946

Thompson, Mrs. Lawrence, 1963

Thompson, Lynne, 1957

Thompson, Mrs. Rector M., Jr., 1961

Thompson, William W., 1953

Thoms, Floyd L., 1958

Thomson, Virgil, 1962

Thomson, William, 1967

Thoresen, Inc., 1965

Thorndike, R. A., 1958

Thorne's Transfer Co., 1961, 1965

Thorne's Warehouse, 1946

Thrall, Donald, 1951, 1953, 1955

Three Two Seven Gallery, Inc., 1961

Thurber, Helen and/or James, 1937, 1962-1963

Thurber, James, 1937

Thurek, Harry, 1956

Thuyssen, Fran, 1955

Tibbetts, Helen A., undated

Tiber Press, 1955

Tiffany and Co., 1965

Louis Comfort Tiffany Foundation, 1947, 1958, 1962

Tillich, Paul, 1961-1962

Tillotson, Stephen, 1951

Time Incorporated, undated, 1931, 1938, 1944, 1947, 1950-1951, 1953-1955, 1957, 1959-1961, 1963-1965

Time-Life Books, 1966-1967

Tincher, Virginia L., 1960

Tindall, Morris Hancock, 1956

Tinkham, Sally Gresham (Mrs. David J.), 1961

Tinsley, Milton, 1957

Tintner, Leóntine Camprubi, 1961-1962

Tips About Town -- , 1945

Tisch, William, 1957

Tischler, Henrietta (Mrs. Kenneth), 1962

Tishman, Paul, 1950

Titelman, Frank M. and/or Rose, 1964-1967

Titelman, Richard, 1969

Titus, William E., 1968

Tobian, Louis, Jr., 1960

Tobias, Mr. and/or Mrs. Abraham Joel, 1962, 1968

Tobias, Leslie, undated

Tobias, William, 1958

Tobin, Mrs. Edgar, 1964, 1966

Edgar Tobin Aerial Surveys, 1963

Tobin, Robert L. B., undated, 1962-1968

Today's Art -- , 1965

Tofel, Jennings, undated, 1952

Toledo Museum of Art, 1935-1936, 1942-1944, 1946-1947, 1950, 1952-1957, 1959-1960, 1964, 1966, 1969

Tolin, Mrs. David, 1954

Tom, Stanley, 1956

Tompkins, Robert Schuyler, 1954-1955

Arthur Tooth and Son, 1966

Tooth, Dorothy, 1963

Tooth, Dudley, 1963

Tooze, Arthur E., 1943

Topper, Victor, undated, 1960, 1964, 1966-1967

Toronto, Art Gallery of (see: Art Gallery of Toronto)

Toronto Museum of Fine Arts, 1956

Toronto, University of (see: University of Toronto)

Torrey, Arthur H., 1936, 1950

Arthur H. Torrey - Tay Hohoff, 1937

Totelite, 1965-1966

Tourtellot, Arthur, 1952

Tovish, Harold, 1951, 1956

Town and Country -- , 1942, 1946, 1955

Town Hall, 1951

Townley, Hugh, 1960

Tracey, Elinor, 1940

Tracy, Mrs. Robert J., 1968

Tragos Gallery, 1966

Trainer, Kathryn, 1964

Trasel, Helen (Mrs. Edward George, Jr.), 1954

Tratt and Tratt, 1942

Trattler, Ruth, 1964

Traube, Mildred, 1962

Travelers Insurance Company, 1941, 1963

Traveling Art, Incorporated, 1954

Traver, John Dubois, 1936, 1940

Treasury Department, 1934, 1937, 1943-1944, 1962 (see also: U.S. Treasury, Department of Internal Revenue)

Treiman, Joyce Wahl, 1954

Tremaine, Burton G., Jr. and/or Emily Hall, 1935, 1945-1947, 1952, 1956, 1958-1959, 1961 (see also: Miller Company)

Triangle Publications, undated, 1962

Trianon Press, 1962, 1965

Trice, Trudi, 1957

Trinity College, 1961-1962

TriStates Arts Council, 1961

Trites, Beatrice, 1961

Triton Hotel, 1960

Triton Press, Inc., 1963, 1966

Trolin, Mr. and/or Mrs. Henry J., 1958-1960, 1962

Troop, Miriam, 1968

Trotter, Joanne Vaughan (Mrs. Frederick E.), undated, 1963, 1965, 1967-1968

Trotzky, Jean N. (Mrs. Lewis A.), 1958- 1959, 1969

Trounson, Charlotte, 1960

Trovato, Joseph S., 1966

Troy, Mrs. John, 1965

Truax, Carol, 1960

Truman, Harry S., 1959

Trumbo, Dalton, 1961

Trump, Ross M., 1957

Tschirky, Leopold, 1956

Tschudin, Olga (Mrs. Robert Charles), undated

Tseng, Yu-Ho, 1960 (see also: Ecke)

Tsuchidana, Harry, 1960

Tu Fano, Miguel, 1967

Eve Tucker Galleries, 1964

Tucker, Jean S. and/or Joseph L., undated, 1959-1963

Tucker, Marcia, 1967

Tucson Art Center, 1966

Turek, Harry, 1950-1951

Turnbull, Murray, 1950

Turner, Mary S. (Mrs. Bert A.), 1960

Turner, Viola, 1961

Charles E. Tuttle Company, 1955-1956

TWA, 1963, 1965

Twentieth Century Club, 1961-1962

Twin Editions, 1950

Tynan, Kenneth, 1962

Tyson, Carroll, 1945

Tyson, Helen, 1952

Uhler, Madeline (Mrs. Alfred), 1965

Uhlmann, Paul, Jr., undated, 1945-1946, 1950

Uhlmann, R. Hugh, 1947

Uhr, Jewel and/or Nathaniel, undated, 1935, 1937, 1942-1945, 1949, 1955-1956, 1961-1962, 1965, 1968

Uhry, Alene (Mrs. Ralph K.), 1965

Uht, Carol K., 1953-1954

N. V. Uitgeversmaatschappij Elsevier, 1963

Ullman, Mrs. Charles, undated

Ullman, Eddie, 1957

Ullman, Mrs. G., 1957

Ullman, Harold P., 1961

Ulrich's Books, Inc., 1963

Unarco Industries Inc., 1963

Underhill, Stanley, 1962

Underhill, Farnum S., 1957

Union College, 1961-1962, 1967

Union of American Hebrew Congregations, 1948, 1959, 1961

Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, Embassy of (see: Embassy of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics)

Union Theological Seminary, 1964

Union Towel Supply, 1963, 1965-1966

United Auto Workers, 1955-1956

United Church Herald, 1965

United Educators, Inc., 1964

United Hospital Fund of New York, undated, 1948

United Jewish Appeal, 1959

United Jewish Federation of Pittsburgh, 1967

United Medical Service, Inc., 1960-1962

United National Association of Post Office Clerks, undated

United Nations, 1951

United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, 1950

UNICEF (United Nations International Children's Education Fund), 1958

U.S. Appraiser of Merchandise, 1962

U.S. Army Air Corps, 1944

U.S. Army Air Force, 1943-1944

U.S. Chamber of Commerce, 1959

United States Committee of the International Association of the Plastic Arts, 1956

U.S. Customs Service, 1951, 1967 (see also: Customs Bureau)

U.S. Department of State, 1952 (see also: Department of State)

United States Educational Commission for France, 1956

U. S. Government Printing Office (see: Government Printing Office)

United States Information Agency, 1955-1967

United States Post Office, 1941

U.S. Steel Corporation, 1953

United States Time Corporation, 1946

United States Treasury, Internal Revenue Service, 1955, 1958, 1962-1963 (see also: Internal Revenue Service; Treasury Department)

U.S. Trucking Corp., 1959

Universal Metal Chain Co., Inc., 1967

Universite Libre, Belgium, 1958

University Center in Virginia, 1969

University of Alabama, 1941, 1948, 1953, 1962

University of Alaska, 1965

University of Alberta, 1962

University of Arizona, 1945, 1955, 1962-1969

University of Arkansas, 1950-1951, 1953-1954, 1960

University of California, undated, 1953-1946, 1966-1969

University of Chicago, 1948-1951

University of Cincinnati, 1968

University of Colorado, 1950, 1954, 1957-1958, 1967

University of Connecticut, 1956, 1959, 1967-1969

University of Dallas, 1965

University of Delaware, 1949, 1953, 1967-1968

University of Florida, 1949, 1952-1953, 1960, 1966-1969

University of Georgia, 1949, 1951, 1954-1955, 1957-1959, 1964-1965, 1967-1969

University of Hawaii, 1960-1961, 1966

University of Hull, 1965

University of Illinois, 1947-1948, 1950-1955, 1957, 1959, 1961-1965, 1967-1969 (see also: Krannert Art Museum)

University of Iowa, 1953, 1958, 1963, 1967

University of Judaism, 1966

University of Kansas, 1948, 1957-1959, 1961

University of Kentucky, 1958-1960, 1965, 1967-1968

University of Louisville, 1940, 1953-1954, 1960-1961

University of Maine, 1950-1953

University of Maryland, 1959, 1966-1967

University of Massachusetts, 1968-1969

University of Miami, 1950-1955, 1959-1960, 1965-1968

University of Michigan, 1950-1951, 1954, 1958, 1960, 1962-1963

University of Minnesota, 1942, 1949-1953, 1955, 1957-1958, 1960, 1962-1963, 1966, 1968

University of Nebraska, undated, 1939-1958, 1961-1965, 1967-1968

University of Nevada, 1962

University of New Mexico, undated, 1963-1964, 1966, 1968

University of North Carolina, 1948, 1961-1962, 1965-1968

University of North Dakota, 1964

University of Notre Dame, 1958-1959, 1962-1965, 1967-1968

University of Oklahoma, 1949-1950, 1958, 1963-1964

University of Oregon, 1945-1946, 1955

University of Pennsylvania, 1958, 1966

University [of Pennsylvania] Museum, 1942

University of Pittsburgh, 1955-1956, 1962-1963

University of Puerto Rico, 1956

University of Rochester, 1963, 1968

University of Southern California, 1950, 1955, 1957, 1959

University of Texas, 1944-1946, 1950-1951, 1960, 1963, 1965

University of Toronto, 1962

University of Utah, 1950, 1956-1958, 1960-1961, 1964, 1967-1968

University of Vermont, 1956-1962, 1964-1965, 1968

University of Virginia, 1952, 1956

University of Washington, 1965, 1968

University of Wisconsin, undated, 1946-1947, 1949, 1951, 1953, 1956, 1958-1962, 1964-1965, 1967

University of the Americas, 1965

University Press of Cambridge, Inc., 1953, 1955-1957, 1960-1961, 1963

University Prints, 1951, 1956-1958

University Settlement, 1967

Upjohn Company, 1961

Upstairs Gallery, undated, 1958

Uris, Mrs. Harold, 1956

Uslan, Mrs. Arthur, undated, 1967

Utah, University of (see: University of Utah)

Utley, Gordon D., 1968

Utter, Bror, 1951

Curt Valentin Gallery, Inc., 1952

Valentine, Helen, undated, 1957, 1959

Valparaiso University, 1961-1967

Valva Realty Insurance, 1965-1966

van Bark, Peter, 1945, 1946-1947

van Bark, Virginie, undated, 1946-1947, 1953

Van Camp, Betsy and George, 1955

van Caulaert, Jean Dominique, 1959

Vance, Donna (Mrs. Norman), 1959

Vance, J. Colville, 1953

Van Cleef, Jeanne W. (Mrs. Paul), 1949

Vancouver Art Gallery, 1952, 1954

Vandalia Community Schools, 1952

Vandenberg, J., 1948-1950, 1956

Vanderbes, Patsy Baum (Mrs. Romano), undated,1966 (see also: Baum, Patricia Ann)

Vanderbilt University, 1940-1941

Van Dyke, Mrs. L. S., 1962

Van Goethem, Paul, 1960

Vanguard Film Company, 1948

Van Loan, Dorothy, undated

Van Loen, Alfred, 1960

van Someren, Peter, 1963

Van Vechten, Carl, 1941, 1949

Van Veen, Felicia (Mrs. Stuyvesant), undated, 1965

van Weeren-Griek, Hans, 1954

Varrella, Amelio J., 1965

Vassar College, 1934, 1950, 1954, 1963-1965, 1968-1969

Vega, Max Fernando Braun, 1959

Velthuizen, Andries, 1965

"Venice Biennale," 1956-1957 (see also: "La Viennale di Venezia")

Venn, Diggory, 1953

Verlag Gerd Hatje, 1958-1959

Verlag M. Dumont Schauberg, 1963, 1966

Vermont, University of (see: University of Vermont)

Vernet, Albee, 1959

Vestal, David, 1947

Vetter, Edward O., 1966

Vick, Frances R. (Mrs. Frederic G.), 1950

Victorian Shop, 1955-1956

Vidar, Frede, 1933

Vidor, King, 1944, 1946, 1953

Vieth, Ulrich, 1967

James Vigeveno Galleries, 1944-1946, 1948, 1950, 1956

Viking Press, Inc., 1960, 1962

Village Art Center, 1953

Village Newspaper Service, 1962, 1965-1966

Virginia Museum of Fine Arts, 1945-1957, 1959-1962, 1964-1966, 1968-1969

Virginia State College, 1950, 1952-1953

Virginia, University of (see: University of Virginia)

Visions 65, 1965

Visitors East, 1966

Visson, Vladimir, 1955

Visual Education Consultants, Inc., 1966-1967

Voca Corporation, 1967

Vocational Advisory Service, 1962

Vo-Dinh, 1967

Vogel, Bernard, 1960, 1962

Vogel, Mrs. David, 1963

Vogel, Eleanor, 1961

Vogel, I. H., 1952

Vogue -- , undated, 1939, 1946, 1949-1950, 1952-1954, 1956-1958

von Haesler, William, 1960

von Keller, Beatrice, 1949

von Nardoff, Elfrida, undated, 1960

Von Schlegell, David, 1947

Von Schlegell, William, 1934

von Svoboda, Alex, 1961

Vorhaus, Martin G., 1935-1936, 1939

Robert C. Vose Galleries, 1943, 1949

Vose Galleries, Inc., 1958, 1963

VR Interiors, 1956

V'Soske, Inc., undated, 1960

WABC-FM, 1964

Wacaster, Mrs. A. E., undated, 1945-1946

Anna Wachsman Color Photography, 1959

Waddell, Chauncey, 1964

Waddington Galleries, undated, 1963-1964

Wadsworth Athenaeum, undated, 1933-1935, 1938, 1941-1942, 1946-1967

Wagner College, 1963

Wagner, Harvey M., 1964

Wagner, Karl A., 1952

Wagner, Oscar, undated

Wagner, Sherle, 1955

Wagner-Taylor Company, 1953

Wagner, Vernon M., 1963

Wagstaff, Sam, 1967

Wakeley, Mrs. R. W., 1945

Walabe, Paul K., 1965

Walbridge, Norton S., 1964, 1968

E. H. Waldeck Co., 1964

Walden School, 1958

Waldman, Mrs. N. E., 1958

Waldstein, Benjamin, 1960

Walker, Anne Kendrick, 1943-1944

Walker Art Center, undated, 1941, 1943-1969

Walker, Catherine H., 1934

Walker, Edith G. (Mrs. Samuel G.), undated, 1940-1941

Walker Engraving Corporation, 1955

Walker-Goulard-Plehn Company, 1965

Walker, Hudson D., 1959, 1963

Walker, Jennie (Mrs. Stephen J.), 1957, 1962

Walker, Mr. and/or Mrs. Maynard, undated, 1943, 1954, 1964

Maynard Walker Galleries, 1939, 1955, 1958

Walker, Raymond, 1943

Walker, Samuel S., Jr., 1959

Wall, Grace W., 1967

Wall Street Journal -- , 1964

Wall Street Synagogue, 1954

Wallace, Hugh C., 1963

Wallace, Moira, 1940, 1946

Wallach, J. B., 1956

Wallenstein, Alfred, 1941

Wallenstein, Mrs. Alfred, 1941, 1952

Wallenstein, Barry, 1966

Wallis, J. H., 1941

Wallowick, David, 1965

Wallowitz, Charles, 1968

Walsh, Gene, undated

Walsh, John, 1962

Walt, Blise Dodson (Mrs. Edward), 1956

Walter, Don, 1967

Walter, Pat, 1967

Walter, Paul F., 1957

Walters Art Gallery, 1946

Walters, Carl and/or Helen, 1939, 1945-1946

Walters, Daniel A., 1933-1934

Walters, Faye, 1949

Walters, John H., Jr., 1964

Walters, Raube, 1946-1947

Walther, Henry W. E., 1940

Wang Chi-Yuan, 1955

John Wannamaker's, 1934

War Assets Administration, 1948

War Department, 1942-1944

War/Peace Report, 1962, 1964

War Production Board, 1944

Warburg, Edward M. M., 1941-1942, 1968-1969

Warburg, Mr. and/or Mrs. Frederick, 1960, 1962

Ward, Charlotte, 1955

Ward, Lyle E., 1955

Ward, Mildred (Mrs. Paul), 1967

Ward, William, 1955

Warde, Frances, 1963

Wardell, Carolyn, 1961

Wardner, G. Philip, 1952

Waring, Helen Ford (Mrs. George L.), 1962

Warmbein, K. C., 1954

Warner Brothers Company, 1965

Warner, George Coffing, 1940

Warner, Mrs. Harold Hambridge, 1942

Warner, Harry, 1944

Warner, Keith, 1943-1945, 1957

Warner, Rawleigh, Jr., 1967

Warrek, G. R., 1965

Warren, Samuel B., 1954

Warring, Helen R., 1962

Warring, James E., 1966

Washburn, Mr. and/or Mrs. Gordon, 1950, 1960

Washington and Lee University, 1955

Washington Art league (see: Art League of Washington)

Washington, Barbara (Mrs. Selden), 1959

Washington Cathedral, 1957

Washington County Museum of Fine Arts, 1945

Washington, D.C. Institute of Contemporary Arts (see: Institute of Contemporary Arts, Washington, D.C.)

Washington, D.C. Public Library (see: District of Columbia Public Library)

Washington Gallery of Modern Art, 1962-1963, 1965, 1967

Washington International Art Letter, undated, 1962-1964

Washington Irving Gallery, 1960

Washington Post -- , 1961, 1963, 1965

Washington Square Galleries, 1964

Washington State College (see: State College of Washington)

Washington University, 1946-1947, 1950-1953, 1955, 1956, 1961, 1963-1966

Washington, University of (see: University of Washington)

Wasserman, Harvey R., 1958

Wasserman, Dr. and Mrs. Louis, 1959

Wasserman, Max, 1964

Watabe, Paul K., 1966

Waters, Ethel, 1941

Waters, George, 1961

Waters, Mrs. Norman, 1965

Waters, R. T., 1955, 1959

Watherston, Margaret M., 1959-1969

Watson, Dr. and Mrs., undated

Watson, Dori, 1969

Watson Elevator Co., 1960

Watson, James Sibley, 1959

Watson, Mrs. James Sibley, 1963

Watson, Jean, 1940, 1941

Watson, Thomas J., undated, 1940-1942

Watter, Doris and/or Michael, undated, 1953, 1955, 1958-1961

Watter, Sonia, undated, 1956

Waugh, Elizabeth, 1961

Waugh, Samuel Clark, undated, 1943-1945, 1947, 1949-1950, 1960, 1962

Waxler, Jack, 1960

Wayne, June, 1955

Wayne, Irving, 1957

WBAI Radio, undated

WBNS, 1962

WCBS-TV, 1963, 1965

Weakland, I. W., 1971

Weathermatic Corporation, 1965, 1967-1968

Weaver, Richard W., 1963

Weaver, Shirley F. (Mrs. William F., Jr.), 1955

Webb, Aline U., 1965

Webb and Lynch, 1953, 1961

Webb, Electra and/or James Watson, undated, 1941, 1945-1946, 1949-1961

Webb, J. Watson, Jr., 1953, 1960-1964, 1968

Webb, Richard, undated

Webb, Mrs. Vanderbilt, 1960

Webber, Vera, 1958

Weber, undated

Weber, Bill, Jr., 1964-1965, 1967-1968

Weber, Esther (Mrs. Henry), undated, 1957

Weber, Frances and/or Max, 1956, 1961, 1963, 1966, 1968

Weber, Joy S., 1963, 1967

Weber, Mrs. Orlando F., undated

Wechsler, Nancy F., 1940

Wedertz, Bill, undated, 1958

Weed, E. L., 1952

Wehle, John L., 1965

Wehlschager, Frank, 1945

Wehr, Ethel (Mrs. Edward R.), undated, 1957-1960

Wehrbeck, Wilfred, 1958

[Weibe?], Donald, undated

Weichsel, John, 1963

Weidler, Charlotte, 1960

Weidner, Roswell, 1941, 1963

Weil, Richard K., 1959

Weinbeer and Son, 1952-1953, 1960

Weinbeer, Charles P., 1946

Weinberg, Helen Joy, 1954, 1963

Weinberg, Jane G. (Mrs. Louis E., Jr.), 1954-1955, 1960-1962

Weiner, Fred, 1967

Weiner, Lilian (Mrs. Herman), 1963

Weiner, Lucille, 1952

Weiner, Ted A., 1952-1954, 1967

Weingarten, Victor, 1966

Weinstein, Lewis V., 1959

Weinstein, Max, undated, 1958-1960

Weinstock, Leonard, 1965

Weinstock, Dr. and Mrs. Leonard M., 1963

Weintraub, William H., 1946

Weiss, Bernice 1959

Weiss, Dave E., 1963

Weiss, Edward H., 1967

Weiss, Laurie (Mrs. James B.), 1964

Weiss, Marguerite, undated, 1941, 1946-1947

Weiss, Martin L., 1951-1955

Weiss, N. Spencer, 1948

Weiss, Stymean Karlen, 1952

Weissberger and Frosch, 1956

Weissberger, L. Arnold, undated, 1957-1962, 1966

Weissman, Barbara, 1963

Weitzen, Elaine Graham, undated, 1968

Weitzman, Charles, 1967

Weitzmann, Mary, 1946

Weller, Allen, 1964

Welles, Jane, 1969

Wellesley College, undated, 1947, 1950, 1952, 1954, 1958-1959

Wellfleet Art Gallery, 1963 (see also: Gaglioni, Thomas)

Wells College, 1953

Wells, Fred N., 1959

Wells, James Lesene, 1931

Wells, Walter J., 1950

Rudolf Wendel, Inc., 1945

Wenger, J., 1961-1962, 1964

Wengler, Harold, 1941

Anna L. Werbe Galleries, 1959-1960

Werner, Alfred, 1959, 1964

Werner, Charlotte and Walter, 1960

Werner, M. R., 1952

Werner, Nat, 1952

Werner, Newton D., 1967

Werner, Walter, 1955, 1956, 1957, 1959, 1960

Werthan, Mary Jane (Mrs. Albert), 1965

Wertheim, Mr. and/or Mrs. Maurice, 1941, 1943, 1963

Wertheimer, Jerome, 1964

Wescher, Herta, 1958, 1962, 1966

Wescher, Paul, 1953

Weschler, Anita, 1946

Wescott, Mrs. L. B., 1960

Wesley, Elaine, 1962

Wesleyan University, 1955, 1962, 1965 (see also: Davison Art Center)

Benjamin West Society, 1945

West, Clifford, 1967

West Orange Chamber of Commerce, 1965

West, Samuel A., 1960

Westchester Art Association, undated

Westchester Art Society, 1965

Westergren, Mrs. G. S., 1962-1963

Western Adjustment and Inspection Company, undated, 1951, 1955, 1959

Western Association of Art Museum Directors, 1956

Western Family, Inc., 1957

Western Illinois University, 1965

Western New Mexico University, 1966

Western Printing and Lithographing Co., 1968

Western Union Telegraph, 1942

Westheimer Transfer and Storage Co., Inc., 1955

Westinghouse Broadcasting Company, Inc., undated, 1963-1966

Westminster Press, undated, 1960-1961

Westmoreland County Museum of Art, 1958-1960

Westport Community Art Association, 1956, 1963

Wetmore, Edith, undated, 1942

Wetmore, Dr. and/or Mrs. Robert Jackson, 1961-1962

Wettereau, Robert L., 1957-1958

Wettling, George and Jean, undated

Weyand, Richard, 1950

Weyerhaeuser, Carl A., undated, 1956

E. Weyhe, Inc., 1954, 1962

Whale Oil Company, 1965

Wheaton College, undated, 1944, 1950, 1952, 1960

Wheeler, Edward Everett III., undated, 1962

Wheelright, Mrs. Robert, 1941

Whelan, Gloria (Mrs. Joseph), 1955

Whicker, James William, 1945

Whipper, Leigh, 1943

White, Mrs. Davenport, 1959

White, Doris, 1962

White House, 1962-1963

White House Historical Association, 1962

White, June, 1958

Ruth White Gallery, 1957

White, Vera (Mrs. S. S., III.), 1942, 1957

White, Winsor, 1952

William Alanson White Institute, 1957

Whitechapel Art Gallery, 1956

Whitehead, James L., 1965

Whitehead, John N., 1942

Whitehill, Clayton, 1947

Whitehill, Jean L., 1951

Whitehorn, Eugene D., 1952

Whitlock, C. E. H., 1952-1953

Whitlock's, 1945

Whitman, Jack, 1952

Whitney, Mr. and/or Mrs. John Hay, 1941, 1948, 1952, 1955, 1967

John Hay Whitney Foundation, 1960-1961

Whitney Museum of American Art, undated, 1931, 1933, 1935, 1939, 1941-1949, 1951-1969

William C. Whitney Foundation, 1955

Who's Who in America -- , 1952

Who's Who in American Art -- , 1961, 1964

Who's Who in Graphic Art -- , 1960-1961

Who's Who of American Women -- , 1969

Whyte, A. Robert, 1968

Whyte Gallery, 1946

Whyte, M. Donald, 1939

Wichita Art Association, 1958

Wichita Art Museum, undated, 1939, 1946-1947, 1952, 1956, 1960-1961, 1963, 1965, 1968

Wichita City, 1961

Wick, Mrs. George, 1968-1969

Wick, Robert M., 1961

Wicker, Philip J., 1943

H. B. Wiggin's Sons Company, 1940, 1945

Wight, Alice S. (Mrs. Carol), 1956

Wight, Frederick, undated, 1955, 1958, 1963

Wigodsky, Herman S. and/or Jo Ann, 1953-1954, 1961

Wijsenbeek, L. J. F., undated

Wilbraham Academy, 1937, 1964

Wilbur, Brayton, 1954, 1962

Wilcox, Jane (Mrs. Merton Frederick), 1960

Wild, Mrs. Morton, 1946

Wilde, Mrs. Charles, 1958

Wildenstein and Company, Inc., 1946, 1952, 1955, 1957, 1969

Wilder, Mitchell A., 1958-1960, 1967

Wilderness Road Trading Post, 1953

Wile, Dorothy K. (Mrs. E.), undated

John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1960

Wilhaus, Bill, undated

Wilinsky, I. J., 1953, 1962, 1968-1969

Wilk, Max, 1962

Wilke, Ufert, 1944

Willard, Charlotte, 1958-1960, 1964-1966

Willard Gallery, 1955, 1958, 1960-1964

Willard, Virginia, 1962

Willaumez, Marilyn Karnes, 1963

Willey, Nancy, undated, 1959

William and Mary College, 1963 (see also: College of William and Mary)

William Penn Place Corporation, 1953

Williams, Alexander, 1941

Williams, Alice and/or Herman W. Warner, Jr., 1945-1946, 1962, 1964-1966, 1968

Williams, Bill and/or Alice, undated, 1965

Williams, Mr. and Mrs. Charles, 1950

Williams College, 1958-1959, 1961, 1963

Williams, Dan, 1934

Williams-Fleetwood Heating Corp'n., 1950

Williams, H. C., 1948

Williams, Herman, undated

Williams, J. C., 1934

Williams, John L., 1946

Williams, Mary, undated

Williams, Mary F., 1965

Williams, Mrs. Parker, 1935

Williams, Mrs. Robert F., 1962

Williams, Rodney W., 1942

Williams, W. C., 1940

Williams, William C., 1954, 1957-1959

Williams, William Carlos, 1948

Williamsburg (see: Colonial Williamsburg)

Williamson, Clara, 1950

Williamson, Judy, undated, 1962

Willing, Charles, 1959

Willis, Martha B. (Mrs. James M.), 1962-1963

Willoughby, Bob, 1959, 1966

Wills, Grace D., 1955

Wilmington Society of the Fine Arts, 1942, 1946-1947, 1953-1954, 1956, 1958, 1960-1961, 1965, 1968 (see also: Delaware Art Center)

Wilson and McIlvaine, 1963, 1964, 1965, 1967, 1968, 1969

Wilson, Mrs. Anthony, 1957

Wilson, Bob, 1956

Wilson, David, 1961

Wilson, Edwin C., 1955, 1957-1959, 1962

Wilson, Glenn D., 1958

Wilson, Irene, 1965

Wilson Picture Frames, 1958

Wilson, Stanley, 1956

Wilson's House of Suede, 1959

Wiltwyck School for Boys, Inc., 1955-1957

Wimpfheimer, Ann, 1954

Winchester Associates, 1967

Windfohr, Anne Bernett (Mrs. Robert F.), 1948-1949, 1951, 1953-1955, 1957

Windham College, 1965, 1967

Windward Artists Guild, 1964-1965

Wines, James N., 1956

Wing, Adeline, 1950-1951

Wingate, David A., 1959-1962

Wingate, Ealan, 1959

Winkelman, Peggy and Stanley, 1964

Winkler, John K., 1933

Winman, L. J., 1959

D. P. Winnie Co., Inc., undated, 1960, 1963, 1965

Winnipeg Art Gallery, 1967

Winnipeg Art Gallery Association, 1953, 1955

Winslow Hotel, 1960

Winston, Donald, 1956-1958, 1960

Winston, Francesca S., Estate of, 1957

Winston, Harry Lewis and/or Lydia, 1941, 1944-1945

Winston-Salem Gallery of Fine Arts, 1961

Winter, Ella, 1940

Winters, Mr. and/or Mrs. L., 1952

Wintersteen, Mrs. John, 1947

Winterthur Museum, 1962-1964, 1968-1969

Winthrop, Murray Crane III., 1936

Winton, Frank J., undated, 1965-1967

Wisconsin State Historical Society (see: State Historical Society of Wisconsin)

Wisconsin, University of (see: University of Wisconsin)

Wisdom, 1956

Wise, Donald, 1965

Wise, Howard E., 1957

Howard Wise Gallery, 1962, 1964

Wise, Leo, 1964

Wiswell, Doris, undated, 1955

Wiswell, George, 1955

Witherspoon, Mrs. J. T., Jr., 1946

Witherstine, Donald F., 1947

Witte Memorial Museum, 1946, 952-1953, 1959-1961, 1963-1965 (see also: San Antonio Art League)

Wittenberg College, 1950

Wittenberg, Philip, 1932-1935

Wittenborn and Company, 1960

George Wittenborn, Inc., 1962

WMFT Perspective, 1962

WNBC, 1953

WNDT, 1963

WNYC, undated, 1944, 1952

Woechle, Fritz, 1962

WOI-TV, Ames, Iowa, 1953

Wolanin, Barbara A., 1969

Wolf, Burton, 1953

Wolf, Jay R., undated, 1962-1964, 1966-1968

Wolf, Marcia and/or Stanley J., 1952-1953, 1955-1956, 1959, 1965-1966

Wolf, Rose, 1945

Wolff, Herbert, 1968

Wolff, Remsen, 1968

Wolfson, Erwin S., 1957-1958

Wolkoff, Donald M., 1960

Woll, Bennett, 1953

Wollens, Bernard, undated, 1962

Wollowick, David, 1965

Wolsey, Thomas, 1958-1959

Woman's Day -- , 1964

Women's American ORT, 1955

Women's City Club of New York, Inc., 1953, 1960

Women's Press Club of New York City, 1961

Womer, Robert L., 1961

Wood, Mrs. D. L., 1969

Wood, Myron, 1964

Wood, Mrs. P., 1958

Wood, Richard H., 1954, 1956

Wood, Mr. and/or Mrs. Robert W., Jr., 1959

Wood, Roy W., 1960

Wood, Sheldon H., Jr., 1965

Wood, William P., 1958, 1968

Woodie, 1931

Woodruff, Hale, 1943, 1945, 1947

Woods, Charles F., 1955

Woods, Sarah L. (Mrs. Thomas C.), 1957

Woodstock Artists Association, Inc., 1948, 1956

Woodstock Foundation, 1957, 1962

Woodward Foundation, 1961-1962, 1965

Woodward, Sarah R. (Mrs. Stanley), 1962, 1964

Woody, Marquis W., 1961

Wookey, Richard H., 1952-1953

Woolworth, Robert F., 1958

Worcester Art Museum, undated, 1934, 1935, 1939, 1941-1943, 1945-1947, 1950, 1952, 1955, 1957, 1959-1961, 1963-1965, 1967

Worker, 1959

Workman, David Thorpe, undated, 1961-1965

Works, George, Jr., 1952

Works Progress Administration, undated, 1935-1936, 1939-1940 (see also: Federal Works Agency, Works Progress Administration)

World and Its People -- , 1966

World House Galleries Corp., 1960

World Journal Tribune, Inc., 1966

World Publishing Co., Inc., 1963

World's Fair Art Project, 1940

World's Fair of 1940, 1940

Worldwide Books, Inc., 1964

Wormley, Edward J., 1947, 1949, 1955, 1959

Worms, Mrs. Charles H., 1945

WPAT, 1963

Wragge, B. H., 1945

Wragge, Sydney, 1948, 1960

Wright, Carl, 1960-1963

Wright, Dorothy B. (Mrs. Golding), 1952

Wright, Mrs. Frank W., 1952

Wright, Iris, 1942

Wright, Jann W., undated, 1959

Wright, Marjorie P. and/or William L., 1952-1953

Wright, Richard, 1941

Wu, Nelson, 1960

Wulf, Victor R., 1965

Wurdemann, Helen, 1955

Wyckoff, Mrs. Richard D., 1965

Wyman, Mrs. Charles, 1953

Wyman, M. Richard, 1963

Wynne, Angus G., Jr., 1952

Wyoming Arts Council, 1966

Yaddo, undated, 1952

Yale University, 1932, 1935, 1949-1951, 1954-1956, 1958-1966, 1967, 1969

Yamasaki, Minoru, 1963

Yancey, Foster, 1952

Yane, Margaret, 1955

Yasinow, J. B., undated, 1957

Year -- , 1953, 1954, 1962

Yiddisher Kemfer, 1959

Yochelson, Kathryn M. (Mrs. Samuel), undated, 1955-1957, 1959-1960, 1963-1964

Yochelson, Leon, undated, 1965

Yochim, Louise D., 1965

Yonkers, Richard T., 1959

York, Mr. and/or Mrs. Holcomb, 1934-1935, 1964-1965

Yoseloff, Thomas, 1962

Young, Art, 1933-1934

Brigham Young University, 1960-1961

Young, Cameron, 1952

Young Collections, 1956, 1959, 1963 (see also: Dallas Young Collections)

Young, George, 1964-1965

Young Men's Christian Association of Pittsburgh, 1945-1946

Young Men's/Young Women's Hebrew Association, 1959-1960

Young Men's/Young Women's Hebrew Association of Brooklyn, undated

YM/YWHA of Essex Co., 1967

Young Men's/Young Women's Hebrew Association of Philadelphia, 1961

Young Women's Christian Association, 1946

Zabarsky, M., 1965-1966

Zabriskie Gallery, 1963

Zadok, Mr. and/or Mrs. Charles, 1948-1950

Zajac, Jack, 1967

Zander, Arthur J., 1955

Zander, W. D., 1958

Zanseville Art Institute (see: Art Institute of Zanesville, Ohio)

Zarem, Jack Daniel, 1950

Zauho Press, 1955

Zeffer, Mr., 1968

Zeisler, Richard, 1956

Zeitlan and Ver Brugge Booksellers, 1961- 1962, 1964

Zeller, Anne, 1959-1960

Zerbe, Karl, undated, 1951, 1953, 1958

Zerdek, undated

Zeugnisse dur Angst in der modernen Kunst, 1963

Zevin, Lillian C. (Mrs. Ben D.), 1963

Zieget, Julius, 1963

Ziegler, Laura, 1956

Zierler, William S., 1959-1960

Zimmerman, Mrs. Isadore J., undated, 1960

Zimmerman, William, 1957-1959

Zinkler, Anne (Mrs. L.), 1959

Zinn's Ltd., 1958

Zinsser, William, 1950, 1955, 1957

Zion, Robert, 1959

Zipkin, Jerome R., undated, 1946, 1951, 1955, 1959-1960, 1965

Zirinsky, Julius, 1966

Zittle, Virginia B., undated, 1964

Zittle, Walden M., 1964

Zoler, Emile C., 1953

Zone, Stephen, 1953

Zorach Fountain Committee, Bath Garden Club, 1960

Zorach, Marguerite and/or William, undated, 1956-1958, 1960, 1963-1965, 1967

Zorach, Tessim, 1965-1968

Zsissly, 1943

Zucker, Louis C., 1959

Zucker, Mrs. Seth, 1960

Zulawoski, Joseph J., 1954

Zurich Insurance Company, 1963

Zurier, Max M., 1955-1959, 1961

Zytowski, Donald G., 1963

Unknown and Illegible -- :

Adele, undated, 1947-1948, 1951, 1959-1961, 1963, 1965, 1967-1968

Alan, 1962

Albert, undated, 1962

Albert and Polly, 1964, 1966

Alice, undated, 1964-1965

Alfred, 1947

Aline, 1948

Ann, 1956

Anne, undated

Aubrey and Mose, undated

Audrey, undated

Barbara and Jimmy, 1956

Bea, 1947

Bella, 1945

Benjamin, undated

Bert, 1955

Betty, 1952-1953, 1956, 1964

Bill, undated, 1953, 1956, 1958, 1960, 1965

Bitly, 1962

Bob, undated, 1944, 1947, 1960, 1962

Buck, 1958

Carol and Robert, undated

Celia, undated

Channing, undated

Charles, 1959

Charles W., 1957

Cipe P., undated, 1952, 1959

Dan, undated, 1931, 1943, 1945

Daniel, 1968

David, 1951, 1953, 1965

D.C.G., 1932

Dick, 1959

Dick McL., 1959

Dolores and Ed, undated

Donna, 1961

Doris, undated

Dorothy, 1963

Duncan F., 1940

E. B., 1967

E. G., 1964

E. W., 1955

Earle, 1949

Ed, undated, 1953, 1955-1956

Eddie, 1957

Edith, undated, 1948-1949, 1958

Edith and Mickey, 1949, 1951, 1953

Edmund, 1933

Edward, 1957, 1964

Elizabeth, undated, 1945, 1952

Emil, 1961

Ernest, undated

Estelle, 1945

Esther, 1934-1935

Esther and John, 1949

Ethel, 1965

Eunice, undated

Flossie, 1963

Frances, 1963

Frances, Max, and Jory, 1961

Frank, 1951, 1960

Frank and Lita, 1963

Fred, undated, 1954, 1958, 1962

George, undated, 1949

Gil, 1958-1959

Gus, 1955

Harold, 1948

Harriet, 1955

Harry, 1948, 1958, 1961

Helen, undated, 1946, 1955, 1958, 1961, 1965-1968

Helen and Milton, 1959

Henry, undated

Hilda, 1967

Howard, 1955, 1961

Henry, 1951

Jack, 1959-1960

Jack and Walter, undated

Jake, 1957

Jay, 1963

Jean and Lawrence, undated

Jerry, 1961

Jerry and Gerda, undated

Jim, undated, 1945, 1960

Joan, 1957, 1966

Joe, 1940, 1952

John, 1946-1947, 1949, 1958, 1960

Joseph, undated

Julian, 1953

Karen, 1967

Karl, 1958

Karl K., undated

Kate, undated, 1950, 1961

Katherine, 1961

Ken, 1953-1954

Laverne, undated

Lawrence, undated, 1942, 1950, 1958

LeRoy, undated

Lisa, 1964

Lita, 1964

Louis, 1949-1950

Lucie, 1963

Mari, 1956-1957

Marilyn, 1966

Margaret K., 1960

Margot and Seth, undated

Marguerite, 1959

Marian, undated

Marion C., 1963

Marion and Herb, 1962

Mary, undated, 1951, 1956

Maurice, 1960

Max, 1962

Maxim, undated

Me, 1966

Michael, 1958

Mike, 1961

Mike F., undated

Mike, Marianne and David, 1948

Mildred, undated, 1939-1940

Millie, 1956

Milton, undated

Miriam, undated, 1955-1956

Mitch, undated, 1958, 1960

Morris, undated

Nat, 1941, 1946, 1956, 1966

Niura, 1967

Norma, 1956

Norma and Eddie, 1951

Ottie and Sunny, 1931

Patsy, 1959-1960

Patsy, Howard, Sally, and Ron, undated

Paula, undated

Paul, 1956

Peggy, 1954

Pete, 1963

Polly and Albert, 1961, 1963

Presto, undated

R. G., 1966

Raymond, 1953, 1958

Regina, undated, 1959-1960

Renée, 1961

Reuben, 1953

Rob, undated, 1957

Robert, 1936, 1945, 1959-1961, 1963

Roland, 1962

Ronnie, undated, 1961, 1963

Rosalie, undated

Rosalind, 1966

Roy and Marie, 1952

Ruth M. (Mrs Henry W.), 1947

Ruth, Jack, and Susie, 1959

Sally, undated, 1931, 1960-1961

Sally and Howard, 1961

Sam, 1944

Saundy, 1967

Sonia, 1953

Steve, 1958, 1963

T., undated

Ted, undated

Tess, 1965

Todd, 1961

Tom, 1953-1954

Tom J., undated

Tommy, 1959

Vincent, undated

Virginia, 1956, 1958, 1964-1966

Walter and Jack, 1959, 1968

[unknown], 1936

[illegible], undated, 1931, 1945-1946, 1951, 1956-1959, 1963

[incomplete; without signature], undated, 1953, 1961, 1967, 1968
Collection Restrictions:
The microfilm of this collection has been digitized and is available online via the Archives of American Art website.
Collection Rights:
The Downtown Gallery records are owned by the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Rights as possessed by the donor have been dedicated to public use for research, study, and scholarship. The collection is subject to all copyright laws. Prior to publishing information regarding sales transactions, researchers are responsible for obtaining written permission from both artist and purchaser involved. If it cannot be established after a reasonable search whether an artist or purchaser is living, it can be assumed that the information may be published sixty years after the date of sale.
Collection Citation:
Downtown Gallery records, 1824-1974, bulk 1926-1969. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
AAA.downgall, Series 1
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Downtown Gallery records
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art


Smithsonian Institution. Board of Regents  Search this
8.70 cu. ft. (9 document boxes) (7 12x17 boxes) (1 16x20 box)
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Descriptive Entry:
These records are the official minutes of the Board. They are compiled at the direction of the Secretary of the Smithsonian, who is also secretary to the Board, after approval by the Regents' Executive Committee and by the Regents themselves. The minutes are edited, not a verbatim account of proceedings. For reasons unknown, there are no manuscript minutes for the period from 1857 through 1890; and researchers must rely on printed minutes published in the Annual Report of the Smithsonian Institution instead. Minutes are transferred regularly from the Secretary's Office to the Archives. Minutes less than 15 years old are closed to researchers. Indexes exist for the period from 1907 to 1946 and can be useful.
Historical Note:
The Smithsonian Institution was created by authority of an Act of Congress approved August 10, 1846. The Act entrusted direction of the Smithsonian to a body called the Establishment, composed of the President; the Vice President; the Chief Justice of the United States; the secretaries of State, War, Navy, Interior, and Agriculture; the Attorney General; and the Postmaster General. In fact, however, the Establishment last met in 1877, and control of the Smithsonian has always been exercised by its Board of Regents. The membership of the Regents consists of the Vice President and the Chief Justice of the United States; three members each of the Senate and House of Representatives; two citizens of the District of Columbia; and seven citizens of the several states, no two from the same state. (Prior to 1970 the category of Citizen Regents not residents of Washington consisted of four members). By custom the Chief Justice is Chancellor. The office was at first held by the Vice President. However, when Millard Fillmore succeeded to the presidency on the death of Zachary Taylor in 1851, Chief Justice Roger Brooke Taney was chosen in his stead. The office has always been filled by the Chief Justice since that time.

The Regents of the Smithsonian have included distinguished Americans from many walks of life. Ex officio members (Vice President) have been: Spiro T. Agnew, Chester A. Arthur, Allen W. Barkley, John C. Breckenridge, George Bush, Schuyler Colfax, Calvin Coolidge, Charles Curtis, George M. Dallas, Charles G. Dawes, Charles W. Fairbanks, Millard Fillmore, Gerald R. Ford, John N. Garner, Hannibal Hamlin, Thomas A. Hendricks, Garret A. Hobart, Hubert H. Humphrey, Andrew Johnson, Lyndon B. Johnson, William R. King, Thomas R. Marshall, Walter F. Mondale, Levi P. Morton, Richard M. Nixon, Nelson A. Rockefeller, Theodore Roosevelt, James S. Sherman, Adlai E. Stevenson, Harry S. Truman, Henry A. Wallace, William A. Wheeler, Henry Wilson.

Ex officio members (Chief Justice) have been: Roger B. Taney, Salmon P. Chase, Nathan Clifford, Morrison R. Waite, Samuel F. Miller, Melville W. Fuller, Edward D. White, William Howard Taft, Charles Evans Hughes, Harlan F. Stone, Fred M. Vinson, Earl Warren, Warren E. Burger.

Regents on the part of the Senate have been: Clinton P. Anderson, Newton Booth, Sidney Breese, Lewis Cass, Robert Milledge Charlton, Bennet Champ Clark, Francis M. Cockrell, Shelby Moore Cullom, Garrett Davis, Jefferson Davis, George Franklin Edmunds, George Evans, Edwin J. Garn, Walter F. George, Barry Goldwater, George Gray, Hannibal Hamlin, Nathaniel Peter Hill, George Frisbie Hoar, Henry French Hollis, Henry M. Jackson, William Lindsay, Henry Cabot Lodge, Medill McCormick, James Murray Mason, Samuel Bell Maxey, Robert B. Morgan, Frank E. Moss, Claiborne Pell, George Wharton Pepper, David A. Reed, Leverett Saltonstall, Hugh Scott, Alexander H. Smith, Robert A. Taft, Lyman Trumbull, Wallace H. White, Jr., Robert Enoch Withers.

Regents on the part of the House of Representatives have included: Edward P. Boland, Frank T. Bow, William Campbell Breckenridge, Overton Brooks, Benjamin Butterworth, Clarence Cannon, Lucius Cartrell, Hiester Clymer, William Colcock, William P. Cole, Jr., Maurice Connolly, Silvio O. Conte, Edward E. Cox, Edward H. Crump, John Dalzell, Nathaniel Deering, Hugh A. Dinsmore, William English, John Farnsworth, Scott Ferris, Graham Fitch, James Garfield, Charles L. Gifford, T. Alan Goldsborough, Frank L. Greene, Gerry Hazleton, Benjamin Hill, Henry Hilliard, Ebenezer Hoar, William Hough, William M. Howard, Albert Johnson, Leroy Johnson, Joseph Johnston, Michael Kirwan, James T. Lloyd, Robert Luce, Robert McClelland, Samuel K. McConnell, Jr., George H. Mahon, George McCrary, Edward McPherson, James R. Mann, George Perkins Marsh, Norman Y. Mineta, A. J. Monteague, R. Walton Moore, Walter H. Newton, Robert Dale Owen, James Patterson, William Phelps, Luke Poland, John Van Schaick Lansing Pruyn, B. Carroll Reece, Ernest W. Roberts, Otho Robards Singleton, Frank Thompson, Jr., John M. Vorys, Hiram Warner, Joseph Wheeler.

Citizen Regents have been: David C. Acheson, Louis Agassiz, James B. Angell, Anne L. Armstrong, William Backhouse Astor, J. Paul Austin, Alexander Dallas Bache, George Edmund Badger, George Bancroft, Alexander Graham Bell, James Gabriel Berrett, John McPherson Berrien, Robert W. Bingham, Sayles Jenks Bowen, William G. Bowen, Robert S. Brookings, John Nicholas Brown, William A. M. Burden, Vannevar Bush, Charles F. Choate, Jr., Rufus Choate, Arthur H. Compton, Henry David Cooke, Henry Coppee, Samuel Sullivan Cox, Edward H. Crump, James Dwight Dana, Harvey N. Davis, William Lewis Dayton, Everette Lee Degolyer, Richard Delafield, Frederic A. Delano, Charles Devens, Matthew Gault Emery, Cornelius Conway Felton, Robert V. Fleming, Murray Gell-Mann, Robert F. Goheen, Asa Gray, George Gray, Crawford Hallock Greenwalt, Nancy Hanks, Caryl Parker Haskins, Gideon Hawley, John B. Henderson, John B. Henderson, Jr., A. Leon Higginbotham, Jr., Gardner Greene Hubbard, Charles Evans Hughes, Carlisle H. Humelsine, Jerome C. Hunsaker, William Preston Johnston, Irwin B. Laughlin, Walter Lenox, Augustus P. Loring, John Maclean, William Beans Magruder, John Walker Maury, Montgomery Cunningham Meigs, John C. Merriam, R. Walton Moore, Roland S. Morris, Dwight W. Morrow, Richard Olney, Peter Parker, Noah Porter, William Campbell Preston, Owen Josephus Roberts, Richard Rush, William Winston Seaton, Alexander Roby Shepherd, William Tecumseh Sherman, Otho Robards Singleton, Joseph Gilbert Totten, John Thomas Towers, Frederic C. Walcott, Richard Wallach, Thomas J. Watson, Jr., James E. Webb, James Clarke Welling, Andrew Dickson White, Henry White, Theodore Dwight Woolsey.
Museums -- Administration  Search this
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Smithsonian Institution Archives, Record Unit 1, Smithsonian Institution. Board of Regents, Minutes
Record Unit 1
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Smithsonian Institution Archives
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William R. Hutton Papers

Hutton, William R., 1826-1901  Search this
30 Cubic feet (33 boxes, 21 oversize folders)
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Letterpress copybooks
Business records
Business letters
Topographic maps
Tax records
Technical drawings
Stock certificates
Technical literature
Linen tracings
Letter books
Land titles
Legal documents
Salted paper prints
Plans (drawings)
Photographic prints
Architectural drawings
Administrative records
Albumen prints
Annual reports
Account books
Family papers
Financial records
Printed material
Harlem River Bridge
Photograph albums
Christmas cards
Chesapeake and Ohio Canal
Panama Canal (Panama)
New Jersey
New York (N.Y.)
Hudson River
Baltimore (Md.)
Georgetown (Washington, D.C.)
New York
Washington Bridge
New Croton Aqueduct
Kanawha River Canal
Washington Aqueduct
Potomac River -- 19th century
Washington Memorial Bridge
Hudson River Tunnel
The papers document the life and work of William R. Hutton, a civil engineer during the late 1800s to the early 1900s. Materials include diaries, notebooks, correspondence, letterpress copy book, printed materials, publications, specifications, photographs, drawings, and maps that document the construction of several architectural and engineering projects during this period. Most notable are the records containing information related to the construction of the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, Hudson River Tunnel, the Washington Aqueduct, the Kanawha River Canal, and the Washington/Harlem River Bridge. There are also several records about railroads in the state of Maryland, the District of Columbia and elsewhere, including the Western Maryland Railroad, Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, Colorado Midlands Railway, Baltimore and Drum Point Railroad, the Northern Adirondack Railroad, and the Pittsfield and Williamstown Railroad. The records can be used to track the progression of these projects, and engineering innovation during the late 1800s to the early 1900s.
Scope and Contents:
These papers document William R. Hutton's professional career as a civil engineer and his personal affairs. Although the personal materials in the collection provide insight into a man and a family that have been largely forgotten by biographers, it is the professional materials that are perhaps the most interesting to researchers. They provide a compelling narrative of the push to the West that occurred in 19th century America and the internal improvements movement typified by the American System plan proposed by Henry Clay. Perhaps best remembered for the high tariffs that accompanied it, the American System plan was also concerned with the advancement of internal improvements, such as canals, that would unite the East and West in communication, travel, and trade. The Chesapeake and Ohio Canal can be seen as one of the products of this movement (1) and was in fact initially heralded as the first great work of national improvement (2).

The papers in this collection that are related to the construction and maintenance of the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal are an invaluable documentation of efforts during this turbulent time to unite the eastern and western United States. They provide details of the canal from its initial construction to its decline with the incline at Georgetown project. The canal also serves as an example, or perhaps a warning against, federal involvement in state improvement efforts as it was the first project to be directly funded and staffed by the federal government (3). The groundbreaking ceremony was attended by then President John Quincy Adams whose toast, "to the canal: perseverance," (4) became an ironic omen, as construction of the canal took over twenty-two years to be completed. The Chesapeake and Ohio Canal materials can be used as a case study for the problems encountered during canal building (5). These problems are best typified in the collection by the papers relating to the Georgetown incline. This project was headed by Hutton and was plagued with construction problems, boating accidents, and obsolescence from the moment of its completion. Despite these issues, the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal remains a structure of historical significance in America. As the third and last effort to construct an all-water route to the West (6), the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal is an important artifact of 19th century attitudes and efforts towards commerce, trade, travel, and communication between the eastern and western United States. Other significant canals and water structures represented in the collection are the Kanawha Canal, the Washington Aqueduct, and a large collection of materials relating to the Kingston Water Supply (New York).

One of the most significant internal improvements made during this time was the railroad. The legal conflicts that arose between the canal companies and railroads is also represented in the materials relating to the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal. These materials specifically deal with the legal conflict's between the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal and the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad. The development and construction of the railroads is also represented in the materials documenting the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, the Baltimore and Drum Point Railroad, the Northern Adirondack Railroad, the Western Maryland Railroad, the Mexican National Railroad, the Colorado Midlands Railroad, and the Columbia Railroad.

The collection also demonstrates the spirit of innovation and invention that was prevalent in the engineering field in the nineteenth century. Joseph Gies writes, " of the distinctive characteristics of the great nineteenth century engineering adventurers was their readiness to gamble on the translation of theory into practice" (7). In this quote, he is speaking of the civil engineer Dewitt Clinton Haskins and a project that truly encapsulates engineering invention in the nineteenth century, the Hudson River Tunnel. Responding to the increase in the population of the City of New York in the late nineteenth century from sixty thousand to three and a half million, the Hudson River Tunnel was originally devised as a way to alleviate traffic and to transport train passengers directly across the Hudson River (8). Beginning with records dating from 1881 to 1901, the Hutton papers can be used to document not only the advances in engineering during this time but also the costs of progress. Haskins' initial efforts to build the tunnel using submerged air pressurized caissons were marked by failure and in some cases fatalities. Workers on the tunnel often suffered from what came to be known as "caisson disease" or "the bends," caused by the immense forces of compression and decompression experienced while working in the tunnels (9). This problem was so prevalent that as construction progressed the rate of worker deaths caused by "the bends" rose to twenty-five percent (10). Materials in the collection document worker complaints and deaths resulting from this disease as well as providing a technical record of the construction of the tunnel. The highlight of the materials relating to the Hudson River Tunnel is an album that contains photographs of workers in the tunnel and a detailed daily report of the construction progress on the tunnel that was maintained by Hutton's assistant, Walton Aims. The first hand account in these reports provides insight not only into the construction of the tunnel, but also the problems encountered.

Another project featured in the Hutton collection that was devised in response to the population explosion in the City of New York in the nineteenth century is the Harlem River Bridge, or as it is now known, the Washington Bridge. Known as one of the longest steel arch bridges of its time, the Harlem River Bridge also represents that spirit of invention and innovation that was prevalent in the civil engineering field during the nineteenth century. The collection provides an invaluable resource for those wishing to track the construction of the bridge from early concept drawings and proposals to finalized plans. Also present are photographs of the construction and workers. Societal response to the bridge in the form of newspaper and magazine clippings help to create the narrative of the Washington Bridge, and these are supplemented by correspondence from the builders, suppliers, and planners.

This collection also includes diaries, 1866-1901; letterpress copybooks, 1858-1901; correspondence on the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, Hudson River Tunnel, Washington Bridge over the Harlem River, and Maryland and Colorado railroads, 1861-1901, and on Hutton's financial and real estate affairs, 1835-1921; construction photographs of the Harlem River, Cairo, Poughkeepsie, Niagara bridges and the Hudson River Tunnel, Washington Aqueduct, and Capitol Dome (in the form of albumen, cyanotype, salted paper print); data and drawings; rolled land profile drawings; canal notes, 1828-1892; Hudson River Tunnel construction reports, 1889-1891; publications, drawings, and maps of railroad routes; pamphlets and reprints on hydraulic works and water supply; road, railway, bridge, and hydraulic construction specifications, 1870-1900; drawings (linen, oil cloth, and heavy drawing paper), and blueprints; account books, 1891-1899; and plans, drawings, field notebooks, and publications on American and European construction projects, especially in Maryland, New York, and France; personal correspondence detailing his role as executor for the estates of Benjamin H. Hutton, Joseph Hutton, Annie Theller, and the Countess H. De Moltke-Hvitfeldt and his relationships with his children, siblings, cousins, and colleagues, 1850-1942.

Materials are handwritten, typed, and printed.

Special note should be made that any materials dated after the year 1901 were added to the collection by another creator who is unidentified. It can be speculated that professional materials added after this date were contributed by his brother and colleague Nathanial Hutton or his son Frank Hutton. Personal materials contributed after this date may have been added by his wife, daughters, or other members of his extended family.

Series 1, Letterpress Copybooks, 1858-1901, consists of twenty seven letterpress copybooks containing correspondence between Hutton and other engineers, architects, and building suppliers. The letterpress copybooks in this series have been arranged chronologically. The books involve a process by which ink is transferred through direct contact with the original using moisture and pressure in a copy press. The majority of the correspondence is business- related. Some letterpress copybooks are devoted to specific projects such as the Washington/Harlem River Bridge, Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, Baltimore and Drum Point Railroad, Annapolis and Elk Ridge Railroad, and the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad. The letterpress copybooks provide a record of correspondence written by Hutton, which makes it distinctive from the other correspondence in the collection. Most of the other correspondence has Hutton as recipient.

The letterpress copybooks also document Hutton's various residences throughout his life and provide a glimpse into the civil engineering profession at the time by demonstrating how engineers shared ideas and comments about projects. This can be supplemented with the printed materials in the collection as many of the authors also appear in the correspondence. Other topics covered in the letterpress copybooks include business reports (specifically the report of the president and directors of the Baltimore and Drum Point Railroad), records of people and companies involved in projects, pasted in engineering sketches, engineering specifications and notes, travel expenses and estimates, construction histories and progress, legal issues with family estates, tax information, Colorado Railroad, payment certificate schedules, St. Paul Railroad, personal correspondence, title guarantees, Hudson River Tunnel, financial matters, real estate matters, insurance information, sketches and drawings, supply lists, cost estimates, the Memorial Bridge, Coffin Valve Company, engineering expenses, engineering calculations, payroll notes for Kingston Water Supply, proposals, account information, Hutton Park, reservoirs, contract drafts, French Society of Civil Engineers, inspection results (specifically Piedmont Bridge), land descriptions, damage reports, Morse Bridge, Illinois Central Railroad, North Sea Canal, moveable dams, iron works, site histories, Potomac Lock and Dock Company, Kanawha River canal (lock quantities, specifications, payroll information), Pennsylvania Canal, and bills for services.

Series 2, Professional Correspondence, 1861-1901, consists of correspondence that relates to Hutton's architectural and engineering projects. This series is further subdivided into two subseries: Project Correspondence and General Correspondence. Subseries 1, Project Correspondence, 1876-1899, correspondence is divided by project and arranged alphabetically. Subseries 2, General Correspondence, 1861-1901, is arranged chronologically. Both series contain handwritten and typed letters. Some letters are on letterpress copybook pages and are most likely copies. Some materials are in French and Spanish. Special note should be made that this series does not contain all of the professional correspondence in the collection. Some correspondence has been separated according to project and placed in Series 8, Professional Projects, 1830-1965, in order to make it easier for researchers to access materials related to those subjects.

Subseries 1, professional correspondence topics include comparisons between construction projects (specifically comparisons of the Kanawha River Canal to other canals), supply lists, location recommendations, sketches, construction plans and modifications, bills for supplies and works, leaks in the gates, cost estimates, Brooklyn Water Supply, use of lake storage (Ramapo Water Supply), water supply to states and counties, damages to water supply pipes, estimates of water quantities, responses to construction reports, legal issues related to projects, Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, and payment for services.

Subseries 2, general correspondence topics include employment opportunities, committee meetings and elections, land surveys, sketches, engineering plans and ideas, work on projects, dismissal from projects, notes on supplies, Washington Aqueduct, construction progress, land purchases, Civil War, Jones Falls, cost of water pumps, steam drills, lots divisions and prices, repairs, report of the engineering bureau, tidewater connection at Annapolis, bridge construction, construction costs, statement of vessels that entered and cleared Baltimore, technical questions from colleagues, Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, supply costs, letters of introduction, requests for reference, changes to plans and designs, survey reports, St. Andrew's lot, Canal Coal Company, publication process, American Society of Civil Engineers and its members, responses to project inquiries, Graving Dock gross revenue, job offers, specifications, trade figures, contracts, water levels, appointment dates and times, moveable dams, proposals for membership, salaries, Piedmont Coal Lands, maps, land profiles, Washington Bridge, board payments, Nicaragua Canal, Grant Coal Company, statistics, engineering notes, Hartford Bridge, water pressures, coal deposits, Colorado Coal, pipe lines, reservoirs, boat costs for canals, floods, bridges, letters of resignation, engines, Ruxton Viaduct, Colorado and Midland Railroad, Morse Bridge, share values, railroad locations, membership invitations, call for submissions, structural tests, record of accounts for room and board, appointments, water rights (Putnam County), publications, blueprints, visitation programs, cotton compresses, street trenches, pressures in dams, level tests, Portland Transportation bureau, trade information, concrete steel, Chicago drainage canal, ship canals, Augusta Cotton and Compress Company, Sooysmith case, Consolidated Gas Company, masonry, book binding, Columbia Railway Company, jetties, land grades, Chesapeake and Delaware canal, water wheels, pneumatic lock, tunnel arches, rifton power, Hutton's health, elevators, Brooklyn Bridge Terminals, girder weights, legal issues and their results, rating table for the Potomac, land profiles, transmission lines, transformers, water turbines, and water power on the Potomac River.

Correspondents for this series include the following: Captain Montgomery C. Meigs, Captain T.W. Symons, William Bryan, Ernest Flagg, John Hurd, Jake Wolfe, J.C. Saunders, J.H. Dolph, Charles J. Allen, G.H. Mendell, Virgil S. Bogue, B.A. Mounnerlyn, Edward Burr, H.G. Prout, R. William, H. Dodge, C.R. Suter, M. Mink, W.R. King, John Lyons, Alex Brown and Sons, John G. Butler, D. Condon, Bernard Carter, R.P. McCormick, D.R. Magruder, Andrew Banks, Isaac Solomon, C.J. Mayer, C.W. Kern, John Herring, James S. Mackie, D.R. Magunde, D. Rittaguide, R.S. Stevens, J.L. Raudolph (Baltimore and Ohio Railroad), J.M. Lane, W.D. Stuart, W.G.P. Palmer (Committee Church of the Ascension), C. Crozet, General W. Hughes, V.R. Maus, J.M. Hood (Western Maryland Railroad Company), Ernest Pontzen, M. Haus, William F. Craighill, Harry Hutton, John W. Pearce, Reverend James A. Harrald, William Watson, A.L. Rives, Thomas Monro, A.F. Croswan (Commander United States Navy), H.R. Garden, William McAlpine, James Forrest, Wm. Bloomsfield, Daniel Ammen, Linel Wells, A. and Otto Sibeth, Alfred Noble, Clemens Hershel, Sidney Warner, E.H. de Rheville, Theodore Cooper, William Findlay Shunk, Lewis S. Wolfe, Rufus Mead, Theodore F. Taylor, John Bogart, J. Whaler, B. Williamson, Colonel F.V. Greene, Robert H. Sayre (Lehigh Valley Railroad Company), Charles W. Pussey, Louis Q. Rissel, V.C. Bogue, H.C. Eckenberger, Melville E.G. Leston, Edwin Parson, Rudolph Hering, R.S. Hale, F.M. Turner, Thosl Martindale, Justus C. Strawbridge, William M. Ayresm, R.L. Austin, A.M. Miller, P. Livingston Dunn, T.J. Cleaver, C.S. Dutton, H.A. Carson, William Bainbridge Jaudon, H.A. Presset, Thomas H. McCann, Russel Sturgis, H.G. Prout, Alexis H. French, John K. Cowen, F.W. Williams, J. Waldorf, B.H. Byrant, B.H. Jones, M.H. Rogers, J.W. Ogden, General W. Cashing, William Longhudge, A.J. Cameron, T.L. Patterson, J.J. Hagerman, H. Wigglesworth, Charles B. Rowland, E. Bantz, W.G. Lathrop, Clarence King, George Rowland, George A. Tibbals (Continental Iron Works), George N. Vanderbilt, Eugene C. Lewis, F.P. Burt, Colonel John C. Clarke, Lieutenant Thomas Turtle, W.S.M. Scott, E. Bates Dorsey, Bernard Carter, George M. Shriver (Baltimore and Ohio Railroad), Russel Sturgis, Macmillan Publishing, James Abernethy, B. Baker, J.G.W. Fynje, A. Mallet, Jean Hersuy, L.F. Vernon Horcourt, Robert Lilley, A.J. Johnson, F.M. Colby, Henry D. Loney, A.S. Cameron, James A. Harrald, William Watson, John B. Lervis, A.L. Rives, Edwin F. Bidell, Frank H. Stockett, E. McMahon, C.F. Elgin, Enrique Budge, G. Clayton Gardiner, Dwight Porter, William A. Chapman, T.E. Sickels, Theodore Cooper, C.J. Warner, Institution of Civil Engineers, Robert Gordon, United States Coast of Geodetic Survey Office, C.P. Pattun, J.N. Putnam, Sidney B. Warner, H.D. Fisher, Union Pacific Railway Company, Lewis S. Wolle, George E. Waring Junior, The American Exhibition, G.F. Swain, American Society of Civil Engineers, N.H. Whitten, U.S. Engineer Office, Government Works Committee, J.J. Hagerman, D. Jackson, Sterling Iron and Railway Company, E.P. Alexander, E. Williamson, Central Railway Company of New Jersey, William A. Underwood, F. Collingwood, James Dun (Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railroad Company), Henry F. Kilburn, Louis A. Bissell, Virgil G. Boque, H.C. Eckenberger, Melville Egleston, Charles Parson, George Swain, Continental Iron Works, Rudolph Hering, J.B. Gordon, Mayor's Office (Baltimore), Harry Robinson, Pennsylvania Railway Company, W.H. Gahagan, L. Luiggi, B.H. Bryant, T.J. Cleaver (Chesapeake and Delaware Canal Company), H.A. Carson, H.A. Presset (Department of the Interior, United States Geological Survey), John K. Cowen, Vernon H. Brown, J. Waldorf, B.H. Bryant, L.F. Root, P.W. White, Metropolitan Railroad Company, Charles F. Mayer (Consolidated Coal Company, Cumberland and Pennsylvania Railroad Company), J.M. Lane (Western Maryland Railroad), Dr. R.S. Stewart (Annapolis and Elk Ridge Railroad), Baltimore and Drum Point Railroad (John Lyons, John G. Butler, D. Candon, R.P. McCormick, Andrew Banks), Thomas F. Rowland, J.A. Bensel, Walton Aims, S.D. Coykendall, H.C. Rogers, John F. Ward, T.B. Jewell, H.A. Pressey, C.S. Armstrong, J. Nennett, V.G. Bague.

Series 3, Personal Correspondence, 1850-1942, contains correspondence with immediate and extended family, specifically the heirs to the Benjamin H. Hutton and Joseph Hutton estates and Adele Gorman. Correspondence is primarily arranged chronologically, but some files have been divided based on subject or author (the Deer Park and Adele Gorman files), or by form (the Telegrams, and Cablegrams file). Special note is made of the posthumous correspondence file, which includes correspondence both relating to Hutton's death and correspondence that was written by family members after the years of his death. The series contains both hand written and typed letters. Some correspondence is in French. The correspondence demonstrates his relationship with his children specifically Elizabeth (Bessie) Hutton, and illuminates his role in his family. This series also provides details about nineteenth century upper class society and activities. Special note should be made that this folder does not contain all of the personal correspondence contained in the collection. Some correspondence has been separated according to recipient, or subject in order to make researching these recipients or subjects easier.

Series 3 correspondence topics include: estate payments, distribution of assets, funds transfers, estate lines, conflicts with tenants, sketches, lot maintenance, real estate sales, deeds, real estate sales negotiations, congratulations wishes on new babies, family illnesses, family affairs and travels, traveling directions, personal investments, invitations for social occasions, family debts, professional interests, professional and personal appointments, family issues, requests for money, sketches, advice to children (specifically Frank Hutton), life insurance, books, letters of introduction, legal issues, funeral expenses, charity donations, advertisements, minutes from professional organizations, army enlistment, deaths of friends and family, recipes, estimates of personal expenses, renovations, stock certificates (Great Northern Railway Company, New York), food, social activities, the weather, marriages, real estate and construction plans, and loan agreements.

Correspondents include the following: Frank Hutton, Thomas B. Brookes, J.L. Marcauley, C.M. Matthews, Edward J. Hancy, John M. Wilson, H.A. Carson, William H. Wiley (of John Wiley and Sons Scientific Publishers, New York), Georgina Hutton, Pierre and Jane Casson, George McNaughlin, Henrietta Hutton, Aaron Pennington Whitehead, J.B. Wheeler, B. Williamson, Robert De Forest, Elizabeth (Bessie) Hutton, Grace Beukard, J.C. Saunders, Mary Hutton, William J. Pennington, C.S. Hurd, Henry C. Cooper, Henry J. Segers, S.F. Miller, Annie Theller, Alfred Noble, Maria Burton, Joseph Hobson, E. Lennon, F. Hulberg, Charles Gordon Hutton, Edward C. Ebert, A. William Lewin, E.R. Dunn, William P. Craighill, Theodore Cooper, P.I. Chapelle, Anita McAlpine, Clarence King, Victoria Raymond, and Adele Gorman.

Series 4, Personal Materials, 1835-1946, contains documentation about Hutton's personal finances, role as executor of the Benjamin H. Hutton, Joseph Hutton, Annie Theller, and Countess H. De Moltke-Hvitfeldt estates, Mary Augusta Hutton (wife), Mary Hutton (daughter), Frank Hutton, John Caulfield (son-in-law), and B.F. and C.H. Hutton. The series has been divided into four subseries: Financial Records, 1876-1901, Estate and Real Estate Records, 1835-1921, Other Huttons, 1876-1936, and Personal Material, 1878-1946. Subseries 2, Estate and Real Estate Records, 1835-1921, contains correspondence relating to specific family estates and family members. This correspondence was separated from Series 3, Personal Correspondence, 1850-1942, to make it easier for researchers to access all records relating to the family estates. This series includes hand written, typed, and printed materials. Some materials are in French. All material dated after 1901 has been added to the collection by other creators such as Hutton's wife and children.

Subseries 1, Financial Records, 1876-1901, includes account books, account records, correspondence related to bank accounts, bank statements, financial notes, bills and proofs of payment, rent receipts, tax bills (New York, Flatbush, Montgomery County), checks, money exchanges, receipts for tax payments, real estate receipts, stock and bond certificates, loan agreements, executor accounts, rebate calculation sheet, and tax and insurance payments.

Subseries 2, Estate and Real Estate Records, 1835-1921, includes property maps and information (rent, mortgage costs, deeds), correspondence, notes on estate distribution, estate assets, value of estate and estate payments, account records, loan agreements, receipts, proof of payments, checks, financial records, legal documents, insurance documents, tax bills, auction receipts, and wills relating to the estates of Benjamin H. Hutton, Joseph Hutton, Countess H. de Moltke-Hivtfeldt, Annie Theller, and William R. Hutton. Also included are correspondence, property maps and information, and deeds and mortgages on Hutton properties.

Subseries 2, the estate and real estate records correspondence topics include: Virginia state building codes, construction costs, construction notices, purchasing offers for property, real estate prices, receipts of payments, property lines, real estate purchases and sales, real estate sales negotiations, deeds insurance estimates and costs, loan costs, property estimates, renovation costs, mortgages, property damages and repairs, property tax payments, insurance rates and payments, rent payments, telephone installation, building permits, rental agreements, reports on property condition, contracts of sale, conflicts with tenants, changes of address, deeds, distribution of estate monies, details about the Countess' illness, estate arrangements, changes of address, problems arising out of estate distribution, payment of debts, will details, selling of mortgage shares, accounts, estate settlement, money cables and transfers, dealings with lawyers, rent on Hutton Park property, legal and accounting fees, power of attorney transfer, investments, property security, land appraisals, lists of assets, legacy taxes, mortgages transfers, property management, Flatbush property, property rent and values, and physicians bills.

Correspondents include the following: A.C. Weeks, Walter I. Green, John D. Probsh, A.G. Darwin, Thomas H. McCann, Allan Farguhar, Thomas Dawson, Potter and Crandall Real Estate and Insurance Brokers, George C. Tilyou, H.D. Olephant, F. Winston, Richard E. Calbraith, Frank P. Martin, Henry DeForest, Henry C. Cooper, Metropolitan Telephone and Telegraph Company, John Ecker, C.K. Avevill, Georgina Hutton, Edward J. Hancy, Robert Graham, W.M. Bennett, Willis E. Merriman, Nathan L. Miller, Harry Hutton, Marquise de Portes (Adele Gorman), Annie Theller, Samuel L. Theller, Mrs. R. Locke, Frank Z. Adams, John Palmer (Secretary of State, New York), J.T. Cammeyer, Frank P. Martin, Florence Theller, Francis H. Seger, Henry C. Cooper, D.W.G. Cammeyer, Campbell W. Adams, Jane Casson, Elizabeth Hutton, Rene de Portes, H.G. Atkins, Grace Beukard, Aaron Pennington Muikhead, J.E. Delapalme, T.H. Powers, Egerton L. Winthrop Junior, George B. Glover, William Jay and Robert W. Candler, B. Williamson, J.E. Knaff, Cornelius C. Vermeule, S.V. Hayden, Charles G. Landon[?], H.A. Hurlbert, F.A. Black, John L. Calwalder, the Health Department of New York, A.G. Darwin, William Laue, Frederick Frelinghuysen, Charles S. Brown, Henrietta Hutton, Edward Gelon.

Subseries 3, Other Huttons, 1874-1936, includes professional drawings and proposals, checks, insurance information, correspondence, tax information, medical information, tax bills, relating to Mary Augusta Hutton (wife), Mary Hutton (daughter), Henry and Harry Hutton, Frank Hutton (son), John Caulfield (son-in-law), B.F. Hutton, and C.H. Hutton.

Subseries 4, Personal Materials, 1878-1946, contains handwritten property notes, school notes, sermons, travel documents, menus, Christmas cards, jewelry box, postal guide, typed religious materials and flyers.

Series 5, Diaries, 1866-1901, contains twenty nine diary books that document both Hutton's personal and professional life. These diaries provide not only a record of Hutton's life, but were also used by Hutton himself as a reference tool. When working on projects he would refer to notes and observations he made in his diary (as evidenced by notes made in his diaries). The first pages of the diaries often list his height, weight and clothing sizes as they varied from year to year. A researcher could probably use the cashbooks (see Series 7) and the diaries in conjunction as both detail the purchases made by Hutton. Many of the diaries also include a short record of accounts in the back. The diaries are arranged chronologically.

Topics found in the diaries include short form accounts of daily activities and appointments, records of the weather, Chesapeake and Ohio Canal project, construction progress on projects, steam pumps, sketches and calculations, extension of Washington railroads, cost of food, work supplies, travel costs, costs of goods and food, work deadlines, home renovations, visits to family, cash accounts, accounts of household duties, produce on Woodlands property, records of deaths, debts owed, account of clearing Woodlands property, church visits, Hancock and Tonoloway Aqueduct, canals, Drum Point Railroad, Montgomery C. Meigs, Washington Aqueduct, Annapolis Water Works, telegram costs, wages for Chesapeake and Ohio Canal project, William Craighill, Morris Canal, Annapolis Railroad and Canal, professional duties (inspections), Kanawha River Canal, travel schedules, professional expenses, cash received from Chesapeake and Ohio Canal project, Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, John's Dam, cathedral construction (St. Patricks?), Piedmont Bridge, Cumberland, account of farm property belonging to Major Campbell Bruns, Cunard Pier, Marquise de Portes, rent costs, Baltimore Canal, Kingston Water Supply, Croton Orange Estate, Pierre Casson, Hudson River Tunnel, Washington/Harlem River Bridge, entertainment costs, Greenwood cemetery, train schedule, notes on illness, real estate sales, Hutton Park, Benjamin H. Hutton estate and heirs, estimates, accounts of correspondence received and sent, Central Railroad, rent on Orange properties, addresses, contracts and building supplies for projects, personal finances, Joseph Hutton property on Vanderbilt Avenue, New York, amounts paid and received, medical appointments, Ramapo Water Company, drawing progress of maps and diagrams, Harbor Board (New York), property repairs, inspection and test reports, reservoirs, lists of birthdays, Boston Tunnel, family financial issues, tax payments, and prayers.

Series 6, Notebooks, 1860-1900, document the engineering and architectural projects worked on by Hutton. The series has been divided into three subseries: Subseries 1, Engineering and Survey Field Notes, 1860-1899; Subseries 2, Notebooks, 1871-1886; and Subseries 3, Notes, 1863-1900. Subseries 1, Engineering and Survey Field Notes, 1860-1899, contains sixteen field notebooks used by Hutton. Subseries 2, Notebooks, 1871-1886, contains seven notebooks. Subseries three, Notes, 1863-1900, contains four documents.

Some notebooks correspond to specific projects such as the Kanawha River Canal (lockgate and Phoenix Waterline), Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, Buffalo Reservoir, Potomac Lock and Dock Company, Northern Adirondack Railroad account, Washington Aqueduct, Little Rock Bridge, Wilson-Adam Dock, Croten Brick Works, Hutton Park, Centennial Iron Works, Cumberland Canal, Williamsport Aqueduct, Catoctin Aqueduct, Alexandria Canal, Miller's Saw Mill, Seneca Dam, Union Tunnel, Cumberland Waterworks, Victoria Bridge, Welland Canal, North Sea Canal, Ramapo Water Company, Annapolis Water Company, Antietam Aqueduct, Interoceanic Canal, San Quentin Canal, Suez Canal, Amsterdam Canal, Harlem Bulkhead, Morris Canal, Blue Lake Canal, and Nicaragua Canal.

These notebooks should be used in conjunction with the other materials in the collection related to professional projects, as they often provide more detailed accounts of the construction and land surveys. Some of the notebooks contain entries from several different sources. The notebooks were probably shared among the engineers working on these projects. The notebooks also contain looseleaf ephemera such as hand written calculations, newspaper clippings, and blueprints. Languages found in this series are English and French.

Notebook topics include construction projects, supply needs, costs for labor, sketches (Woodland Mills, landscapes, dams, railway cars, Noland Tunnel), costs of crops, survey measurements, cost of livestock, aqueducts, inspections, canal bridges, seed prices, dams, measurements, coffer dam, canal maintenance, worker salaries, calculations, towpath sketches and measurements, shipping rates, worker accidents, water and coal used, geometrical sketches (Washington Aqueduct), locks, damage reports, interactions with other engineers (William Reading), coal shipments on the canal, travel expenses, land survey notes, drafts for correspondence, William Craighill, Victoria docks, lists of personal supplies used, construction time estimates, surveying expenses, telegram costs, sand pump, canal from Sherling to Tuxedo Bay, analysis of several artificial lakes and reservoirs, distances of reservoirs to main pipes, calculations for the Austin Wheel, engine construction, bridges, gauging water depth, results and observations of tests and performance, problems with construction, to-do lists, cost of land surrounding towpaths, Fawcett's Lock, Tarman's Lock, comparison of costs in transporting coal by water and by rail, inspection notes, iron work, drainages, leaks, cost of supplies, watergates, harbor ferries, railroad station distances, flood protection, Panama Canal via the Nicaraguan route, cost of jetties, water levels, pressure of steam, boilers, steam and water cycle, water depth, cement, Great Falls, Virginia, waterflow, soundings, time of floats, flow of currents, rain fall measurements, tunnel measurements, cost of trenching San Francisco water supply, record of livestock, cost of food, rates of sawing woods and mills, preliminary railroad line measurements, profile of final line, and railroad line profiles.

Series 7, Cash Books, 1856-1899, contains seven cashbooks which list prices for personal items purchased by Hutton. Topics include groceries, church dues, clothes, hygiene products, cigars, some short journal entries about his work (Williamstown), concerts, dinners, family addresses, cakes, meals, cars, stamps, office supplies (pencils and papers), valentines, glasses, gloves, fabric, medicine, needles, diapers, tobacco, shoes (adult and childrens), travel expenses, telegrams, candles, newspapers, liquor, coal oil, jewelry, allowances given to family members, bank deposits, monies paid and received, taxes, subscriptions, tailoring costs, deposits and payments into estate trusts, and notes about payments to Benjamin H. Hutton heirs. The cashbooks also contain some personal loose leaf ephemera such as prayers, sketches, and engineering notes collected by Hutton.

Series 8, Professional Projects, 1830-1965, contains documents about engineering and architectural projects throughout Hutton's career, including information about the professional organizations and the legal issues in which he was involved. This series has been divided into eight subseries based on project, document form, and document subject. Some materials are in French and Italian.

Series 8, Professional Projects, also includes correspondence related to specific projects, primarily the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, the Hudson River Tunnel, the Washington/Harlem River Bridge, and the Georgetown Incline.

Topics include construction and repair to the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, engineering and use of Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, worker contracts, supply and labor purchases, design plans and proposals, construction and repair costs, supply notes and costs of supplies, water pressure and power, shipping materials and routes (specifically the shipping of coal), inspections and their findings, condition of canal dam and locks, water supply, drainage, sketches, board proceedings, business meetings, deeds, cost comparisons to other shipping methods, hiring processes, wages, cost estimates, Hutton's consulting fees, measurements and calculations, funding issues, worker conflicts, negotiations with municipal governments, payment schedules, bills for services, air pressure in Hudson River Tunnel, permission for construction, specifications, mortality rate among workers on the Hudson River Tunnel, construction reports, outlet incline, proposals for construction, letters of introduction, railroad versus water for trade, controversy with Tiersey, construction contracts, construction schedules, construction issues, construction progress, construction damage, basis for estimates, supply requests, internal politics, changes to construction plans, contract and price adjustments, issues with suppliers, construction delays, work permits, bills, worker issues, engineering notes, construction excavations, expenses, construction instructions, Union Bridge Company, lighting installations, construction processes, hiring practices, electrical conductors, water proofing, hydraulics, cement, concrete, payment of contributors, processes of approval for construction, meeting dates of the Harlem River Bridge Commission, and contract restrictions.

Correspondents include the following: W.W.M. Kaig, Henry Dodge, E. Mulvany, John Shay, James Clarke, H.D. Whitcomb, Horace Benton, J. Rellan, J.R. Maus, W.E. Merrill, A.P. Gorman, J.H. Staats, Vernon H. Brown, Charles H. Fisher (New York Central and Hudson River Railway Company), B. Baker, John Fowler, Benjamin and John Dos Passos, Charles B. Colby, Charles B. Brush, S. Pearson, Stanford White, Horace E. Golding, R.H. Smith, Daniel Lord, A. Fteley, Herbert Hinds, J.R. Bartlett, D.M. Hirsch, M.H. Bartholomew, Thomas O. Driscoll, W.E. Porter, Thomas F. Rowland, George Edward Harding, R.H. Dames, William Watson, James B. Eads, J.D. Bright, H. Aston, Charles Suley, A.M. Maynard, W.R. Henton, G. Geddes, H.P. Gilbut, Malcolm W. Niver (Secretary of the Harlem River Bridge Commission), J.D. Patterson, George Devin (Assistant Engineer Washington/ Harlem River Bridge), J.B. Wheeler, John Bogart, Charles Burns, J. McClellon, Rob Bassee, B. Williamson, Theodore Cooper, Lewis Cass Ledyard, R.M. Hunt, John Cooper, Henry Wilson, A.A. Caille, Myles Tierney, W. Pentzen, L.B. Cantfield, George Q. Grumstaid Junior, M.J. Funton, George Pierce, W.O. Fayerweather, Noah S. Belthen, Herbert Steward, W.M. Habirsham. Subseries 1, Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, 1828-1965, consists of plans, blueprints, land profiles, drawings, boat rates, contract forms, order forms, descriptions of the canal, design information, engineering data, sketches, cost estimates, land titles, microfilm, business papers, supply bills, patent bills, news clippings, reports, specifications, stockholder's reports, receipts, water leases, printed materials, and correspondence.

The Chesapeake and Ohio Canal project was started in 1828 and completed twenty two years later in 1850. The canal's main objective was to connect Georgetown to the coal banks above Cumberland, Maryland, providing a short and cheap trade route between the eastern and western United States. It was also hoped that the canal would provide greater communication and travel between these two regions. Plagued by natural disasters, and construction setbacks, the canal was never completed in time to be useful and became obsolete shortly after its completion. Canal trade was eventually put out of business by the increase of railroads. Although it was an important development in engineering at its inception, the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal is no longer in use and has become what locals affectionately refer to as "the old ditch." The canal was designated a National Historical Park in 1971 and consists of 184.5 miles of hiking and biking trails.

Subseries 2, Hudson River Tunnel, 1887-1901, consists of agreements for construction, certificates, contracts, and cost estimates, construction reports, engineering notebooks, engineering notes, sketches, land profiles, maps, progress profiles, plans, proposals, printed material, statements of expenses, and correspondence.

The Hudson River Tunnel project was started in 1874, and the final tubes were opened in 1910 after several construction setbacks. The tunnel connects Weehawken, New Jersey and Pennsylvania Station in Manhattan, New York City. Today the Hudson River Tunnel, known as the North River Tunnels is used by Amtrak's Northeast Corridor and New Jersey Transit rail lines.

Subseries 3, Harlem River Bridge, 1878-1982, consists of blueprints, printed materials, photographs, engineer's estimates, schedules, costs, reports, proposals, contracts, specifications, and correspondence.

The Harlem River Bridge project was started in 1885 and was completed in 1889. It spans the Harlem River in New York City, New York and connects the Washington Heights section of Manhattan with the Bronx. It was later named and is still known as the Washington Bridge and has been adapted over time to carry highway traffic. These adaptations have allowed the bridge to remain in use today.

Subseries 4, Other Projects, 1858-1832, consists of drawings, maps, blueprints, plans, proposals, cost estimates, bills, correspondence, sketches, land profiles, dimensions, engineering notes, account records, photostats, supply lists, calculations, legal documents, surveys, inspection reports, financial data, and measurements on architectural and engineering projects. Highlights of this subseries include: Western Maryland Railroad, Washington Aqueduct, Panama Canal, Ramapo Water Company, Piedmont Bridge, Northern Adirondack Railroad, Columbia Railroad, Morris Canal, Pittsfield and Williamstown Railroad, Suez Canal, St. Gothard Canal, Tansa Dam, Colorado Midland Railroad Company, Memorial Bridge, Mersey Tunnel, Little Rock Bridge, Kingston Water Supply, Kanawha River Canal, Florida Ship Canal, East Jersey Water Company, Consolidated Coal Company, Dismal Swamp Canal, Boston and Baltimore Tunnels, St. Patrick's Cathedral, Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, Annapolis Water Company, Baltimore and Drum Point Railroad Company, and the Baltimore Beltline.

Subseries 5, Unidentified Project Files, 1872-1900, consists of bills of sale, engineering forms and regulations, cement test results and methods, census bulletin, contracts, cost estimates, correspondence, notes on publications, engineering data and notes, drawings, surveys, sketches, payrolls, photographs, and reports.

Subseries 6, Specifications, 1870-1900, consists of documents related to some of Hutton's projects, including specifications for bridges, reservoirs, canals, viaducts, docks, buildings, water works, and tunnels. Some specifications are more general, and some are blank proposal/specification forms. There are also proposals for estimates and a "call" or advertisement to contractors to bid on certain projects. Many of the specifications deal with projects in New York State, but projects in Pennsylvania, the City of Baltimore, and Europe are represented. The materials are arranged alphabetically by project name. There is one folder of documentation for the Potomac River Bridge (Arlington Memorial Bridge) in Washington, D.C. The Arlington Memorial Bridge was part of the 1901 McMillan Commission's plan for restoring Pierre (Peter) Charles L'Enfant's original plan for the capital. Two decades passed before construction was initiated by the architectural firm McKim, Mead, and White. The documentation for the Memorial Bridge consists of calculations and monetary figures for materials such as granite.

Subseries 7, Legal Documents, 1886, contains documents related to a patent infringement suit for moveable dams involving Alfred Pasqueau vs. the United States. This file contains both a printed version of the case and a handwritten statement from Hutton.

Subseries 8, Professional Organizations, 1870-1902, contains documents related to professional organizations where Hutton held membership. Specific organizations represented are American Institute of Architects, American Society of Civil Engineers, Institution of Civil Engineers, Boston Society of Civil Engineers, Societe des Ingenieurs Civils de France, Librarie Polytechnique, American Agency of "Engineering" in London, Imperial Institute, League of Associated Engineers, Railroad Corporation, American Institute of Mining Engineers, and the Century Association. Material in the subseries includes correspondence, candidates for membership, membership payments, membership lists, meeting minutes, schedule of terms, professional practices, charges, articles of association, invitations for membership, and election notes. Some materials are in French.

Series 9, Printed Materials, 1850-1913, contains a variety of printed materials relating to engineering and architectural projects written by Hutton and fellow engineers. This series can be used to examine not only professional developments of the period and responses to those developments, but also to track how ideas were transferred between engineers across countries and continents. This series should be used in conjunction with the professional correspondence found in this collection, as many of the authors also appear there. Some materials are in French, German, Spanish, and Italian.

Subseries 1, Printed Materials by Hutton, 1852-1900, includes printed papers on the Missouri flood wave, the Ravine du Sud, the Potomac waterfront, the Colorado midlands, and the application of water supply machinery.

Subseries 2, Printed Materials by Others, 1826-1913, includes printed materials on the Chesapeake and Ohio Canals, Tehuantec Ship Railway, Interoceanic canals and railways, jetties, Nicaragua Canal, uses of cements, mortars, concretes, steam power, harbors, Niagara Falls, Kanawha River canal, Mississippi River, Hudson River Bridge, sewage disposal, Washington Aqueduct, specifications, construction progress reports, hydraulic experiments, water supply, drainage, road surfacing, sea walls, water-cooling apparatus, pollution reports, bridges, pipes, channels, reservoirs, irrigation, water power, and sewers.

Subseries 2 contains an issue of The North American Review in which Hutton has specifically highlighted an article entitled, "The Inter-Oceanic Canal." Please see the container list for names of authors.

Subseries 3, Printed Materials with No Author, 1852-1903, includes printed materials on harbor reports, Annapolis Water Company, Ramapo Water Company, water departments and boards, maps, engineer's reports, sea walls, preservation of structures, annual reports, Coal and Iron Railway Company, sewers, Baltimore and Drum Point Railroad, contract specifications, proposals, social club life, Croton Water Supply, law suits, water supplies, moveable dams, reservoirs, East River Bridge, Eastern Canal, water filtration, Kingston New Water Supply, water pipes, locks, docks, contracts, construction reports, Croton Water Supply, and surveys. Also included are issues of journals such as Le Correspondant, Circular of the Office of Chief Engineers, The Club, VIII Congres International de Navigation, Journal of the Association of Engineering Studies, and Journal of the Franklin Institute.

Subseries 4, Newspaper, Journals and Magazine Clippings, 1873-1900, contains clippings from a variety of newspapers such as Scientific American, andRailroad Gazette. Subjects included are the Union Tunnel opening in Baltimore, Drum Point Railroad, railroad company conflicts, Washington/Harlem River Bridge, Metropolitan Railroad, Western Maryland Railroad, crop prospects, lumber trade, North Avenue Bridge, Nicaraguan Canal, harbors, river improvements, reactions to engineering projects, Belt tunnel, city transit, Washington, D.C. flood in 1880, tunnel shields, Springfield Bridge, railroad patents, Panama Canal, jetties, Hudson Tunnel, steel boilers, composition and use of cement, and the Brooklyn Bridge.

Subseries 5, Oversized Printed Materials, 1889-1892, contains large printed materials related to the Washington Aqueduct, General Post Office Building, subway arches, cornices, Warwick's Castle, Neuschwanstein Castle, Renaissance paintings, botanical drawings, school buildings, church architecture, the Hospital for the Insane of the Army and Navy and the District of Columbia, the Panama Canal, Morningside Park, and the Mississippi Jetties. Also includes engravings of Hutton, T.N. Talfound, and F. Jeffrey and photographs of Montgomery C. Meigs, and Hutton. Some materials are in German and French.


1. Ward, George Washington, "The Early Development of the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal Project," Johns Hopkins University Studies in Historical and Political Science Series XVII, no. 9-11 (1899): 8.

2. Ibid., 88.

3. Ibid., 55.

4. Ibid., 90.

5. Sanderlin, Walter S., "The Great National Project: A History of the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal," Johns Hopkins University Studies in Historical and Political Science Series LXIV, no. 1 (1946): 21.

6. Ibid., 282.

7. Gies, Joseph, Adventure Underground (Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday and Company Inc., 1962): 134.

8. Ibid., 131-132.

9. Ibid., 135-136.

10. Ibid., 145.
The collection is arranged into ten series.

Series 1, Letterpress Copybooks, 1858-1901

Series 2, Professional Correspondence, 1861-1901

Subseries 1, Project Correspondence, 1876-1899

Subseries 2, General Correspondence, 1861-1901

Series 3, Personal Correspondence, 1850-1942

Series 4, Personal Materials, 1835-1946

Subseries 1, Financial Records, 1876-1901

Subseries 2, Estate and Real Estate Records, 1835-1921

Subseries 3, Other Huttons, 1874-1936

Subseries 4, Personal Materials, 1878-1946

Series 5, Diaries, 1866-1901

Series 6, Notebooks, 1860-1900

Subseries 1, Engineering and Survey Field Notes, 1860-1899

Subseries 2, Notebooks, 1871-1886

Subseries 3, Notes, 1863-1900

Series 7, Cashbooks, 1856-1899

Series 8, Professional Projects, 1830-1965

Subseries 1, Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, 1828-1965

Subseries 2, Hudson River Tunnel, 1887-1901

Subseries 3, Harlem River Bridge, 1878-1892

Subseries 4, Other Projects, 1858-1932

Subseries 5, Identified Project Files, 1872-1900

Subseries 6, Specifications, 1870-1900

Subseries 7, Legal Documents, 1886

Subseries 8, Professional Organizations, 1870-1902

Series 9, Printed Materials, 1826-1913

Subseries 1, Printed Materials by Hutton, 1852-1900

Subseries 2, Printed Materials by Others, 1826-1913

Subseries 3, Newspaper, Journals, and Magazine Clippings, 1855-1901

Subseries 4, Oversized Printed Material, 1889-1892

Series 10: Drawings, 1875, 1883
Biographical / Historical:
Not much is known about the history of William Rich Hutton outside of his role in architectural and engineering projects of the late 1800s and early 1900s. In many cases, he is spoken of only in reference to his projects, and the short biographies that have been written read more like a resume than a life story. Because of this lack of information, this note will focus on Hutton's professional accomplishments, but will attempt to make some comments on his personal life.

William Rich Hutton was born on March 21, 1826 in Washington, D.C., the eldest son of James Hutton (died 1843) and his wife, the former Salome Rich (1). He was educated at the Western Academy (Washington, D.C.) from 1837-1840 under George J. Abbot and then at Benjamin Hallowell's School in Alexandria, Virginia, where he received special training in mathematics, drawing, and surveying (2). Hutton began his professional career in California when he, along with his younger brother James, accompanied their uncle William Rich to work for the United States Army. His uncle was a paymaster for the army and Hutton became his clerk. They traveled around the new state paying the various platoons stationed there, but Hutton also occupied his time by drawing the landscapes and structures he saw in the settlements of Los Angeles, San Francisco, La Paz, Mazatlan, Santa Barbara, Monterey, San Pedro, San Diego, and Cape San Lucas (3). These drawings are now held by the Huntington Library in San Marino, California. Hutton held the position of clerk until the spring of 1849, and in July of that year he began working with Lieutenant Edward O.C. Ord and completed the first survey of Los Angeles and its surrounding pueblo lands and islands. Hutton continued surveying in California from 1850-1851. He was hired by William G. Dana to survey the Nipomo Ranch in San Luis Obispo County and also surveyed the ranches Santa Manuela and Huer-Huero, both owned by Francis Z. Branch. After his employment with Dana, he became the county surveyor for San Luis Obispo County, where he prepared the first survey and map of the region. He also continued to survey ranches for Captain John Wilson during this time. In August 1851, he resigned from his position as county surveyor and moved to Monterey where he worked as an assistant to Captain (later General) Henry W. Hallack, superintendent of the New Almaden Quicksilver Mine in Santa Clara County (4). He remained in this position until March, 1853 when he returned to Washington, D.C. by way of Mexico (5).

Hutton began his career as a civil engineer in Washington, D.C. He was first assigned to the position of assistant engineer on a survey of the projected Metropolitan Railroad in 1853, which was chartered to connect Washington, D.C. with the mainline of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad. In 1855 he began his professional relationship with Montgomery C. Meigs when he was appointed to the position of assistant engineer on the Washington Aqueduct. He also served as division engineer on this project until construction was shut down in 1861 because of the outbreak of the Civil War. Fortunately for Hutton, the construction on the Aqueduct was resumed in 1862, and when Congress transferred the supervision of the aqueduct project from the War Department to the Department of the Interior, Hutton was made chief engineer. By the end of the Civil War, Hutton's reputation as a civil engineer was established (6).

During this decade Hutton also served as the chief engineer for the Annapolis Water Works (1866) and as chief engineer for one of his most famous projects, the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal (1869-1871). Although some historians minimize Hutton as just one of many engineers to work on the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, he did make one major contribution to its construction: the Georgetown Canal Incline. Perhaps the final effort of the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal company to compete with the emerging and fast expanding railroad, the Georgetown Incline was designed to allow canal boats to travel through the canal with low water levels and to alleviate canal congestion. Unfortunately, by the time the incline was completed use of the canal had decreased so significantly that it was no longer needed to help control traffic (7). Despite this, Hutton continued to work as a consulting engineer for the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal Company until 1881, when he was let go because of the dwindling fortunes of the company (7).

In the 1870s and 1880s Hutton was busy with several engineering projects. During 1871-1873, he was the chief engineer in the completion of the Western Maryland Railroad to Hagerstown and Williamsport (9). He also practiced as an architect with his brother, the prominent Baltimore architect Nathanial Henry Hutton, during the years 1873-1880. He relocated to New York in 1880, serving as chief engineer for the Washington Bridge in 1888 and 1889 and the Hudson River Tunnel from 1889 to 1891. In 1886, he became the consulting engineer for the New Croton Aqueduct and served in the same position for the Colorado Midland Railway between the years of 1886-1889 (10).

As his personal and professional correspondence shows, Hutton continued to work on various engineering and architectural projects until his death on December 11, 1901. In addition to these projects, he also invented the innovative system of locks and moveable dams used in the Kanawha River Canal. He was awarded the Diplome d'Honneur for this featat the Paris Exposition in 1878 (11). His correspondence also demonstrates how Hutton was respected within his professional community. These letters refer to the accuracy of his work, his willingness to help other colleagues and supply them with reference materials and information, and, in addition to all this, his politeness. It seems that these qualities defined not only his personality but also his ideology. In one of the cashbooks in the collection, dated 1899, a hand written note contains a religious parable of "The Straw." The phrase in this parable that speaks most to Hutton's work ethic, and to the spirit of inventors everywhere, is this: "Even so however lowly may be the act, however little opportunities we may have of assisting others, we may still do something. Let us beg to fulfil our duty in this regards by making ourselves useful to others by some little act of thoughtful charity..." (12). Hutton, in his dedication to civil engineering, seems to have lived up to this virtue, and in his work he changed the landscape of Washington, D.C. and New York.

The Fairy Godfather: Hutton's Personal History

His professional records reveal a man who was fiercely dedicated to his work. His obituary references his professional life more than his personal life (13). Despite his reputation in the professional engineering community, his personal records demonstrate that Hutton was also dedicated to his family and children. In 1855, he married Montgomery County native Mary Augusta Clopper (died 1915). Together they lived on her family's estate known as the Woodlands, and had five children: Frank C. Hutton, Mary Hutton, Elizabeth Hutton (later Caulfield), Rosa Hutton, and Annie Salome Hutton (14). It is at this estate that Hutton died and was buried. The personal letters to his wife found in the Woodlands Collection held at the Montgomery County Historical Society show a man in love and willing to take time from his work to write to his wife. His letters to his children show a similar interest and compassion. In the many letters found in this collection from his daughter Elizabeth (Bessie) one can see a father who is interested in not only his daughter's activities abroad, but also in her opinion. This interest also extends to his son Frank Hutton, as their correspondence shows Hutton offering his son advice on his own engineering projects.

Hutton also served as executor to many of his extended family's estates. Many letters show the conflicts that Hutton had to mediate and the dependence of his cousins on him for advice and money. Although his family was wealthy (his cousin was Benjamin H. Hutton whose daughters married into the court of Napoleon III), they were volatile, and his records seem to indicate that he served as a mediator for many of their disputes. In addition to this, as his nickname of Fairy Godfather suggests, Hutton was always willing to lend his family either financial or moral support when needed. Unfortunately, little other documentation concerning Hutton's personal life exists outside of this collection and the one held at the Montgomery County Historical Society.


1. Waters, Willard O., "Introduction," California 1847-1852 (San Marino: The Huntington Library, 1942).

2. Waters, Willard O., "Memoir," Glances at California 1847-1853 (San Marino: The Huntington Library, 1942): ix.

3. Waters, Willard O., "Introduction," California 1847-1852 (San Marino: The Huntington Library, 1942). and Waters, Willard O., "Memoir," Glances at California 1847-1853 (San Marino: The Huntington Library, 1942): x-xi.

4. Waters, Willard O., "Introduction," California 1847-1852 (San Marino: The Huntington Library, 1942).

5. Waters, Willard O., "Memoir," Glances at California 1847-1853 (San Marino: The Huntington Library, 1942): xvii.

6. Waters, Willard O., "Memoir," Glances at California 1847-1853 (San Marino: The Huntington Library, 1942): xvii-xviii.

7. Skramstad, Harold, "The Georgetown Canal Incline," Technology and Culture, Vol. 10, no. 4 (Oct. 1969): 555.

8. Business Correspondence, Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, 22 February 1881, William R. Hutton Papers, 1830-1965, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution, box number 27, folder number 29.

9. "William Rich Hutton," The Club: A Journal of Club Life for Men and Women,(July 1894):37

10. Ibid.

11. Monzione, Joseph, "William R. Hutton," A.P.W.A. Reporter (Sept. 1977): 7.

12. Cashbook, 1899, William R. Hutton Papers, 1830-1965, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution, box number 23, folder number 5.

13. The Woodlands Collection, Montgomery County Historical Society.
Related Materials:
Materials in the Archives Center

The Montgomery C. Meigs Papers, 1870-1890, (AC0987). Contains materials relating to the construction of the Washington Aqueduct including a book of drawings illustrating reservoirs, tunnels, culverts, and other structural elements, a Government Senate Document relating to construction progress, scrapbooks created by Meigs that include newspaper clippings about the Washington Aqueduct project, water supply, engineering projects, building construction, architecture and other subjects. Collection is currently unprocessed, but is available for research.

Materials in Other Organizations:

The William Rich Hutton Papers, 1840-1961, are located at the Huntington Library in California (see

The collection contains 95 drawings, 13 letters, and 39 facsimile copies of letters and manuscripts. The illustrative material includes both watercolor and pencil drawings of California (including Los Angeles, Monterey, San Francisco, the New Almaden Quicksilver Mine, and the California missions), Baja California, Mexico, and Peru. There are also five pieces in the collection related to the author María Amparo Ruiz de Burton. In 1942, the Huntington Library published Glances at California 1847--853: Diaries and Letters of William Rich Hutton, Surveyor and California 1847--852: Drawings by William Rich Hutton.

The Hutton family papers are located at the Montgomery County Historical Society, Sween Library (see

The collection contains account books from the Woodlands estate, recipe books, livestock records, records of Mary Augusta Hutton (wife), Mary and Rose Hutton (daughters), newspaper clippings (including his obituary), correspondence, record books, deeds, bills and receipts, engineering papers, religious momentos (funeral service cards), and insurance papers.
The collection was donated by Mr. and Mrs. James J. Madine, a relative of Hutton's and last owners of the Woodlands estate; the Department of Forests and Parks, Maryland; Louis Fischer; and Mr. and Mrs. Mayo S. Stuntz, 1965-1966, 1974.
The collection is open for research. Gloves must be worn when handling unprotected photographs and negatives.
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Dams  Search this
Hydraulic engineering  Search this
Canals  Search this
Underwater tunnels  Search this
Railroad bridges  Search this
Railroad construction  Search this
Water-supply  Search this
Construction workers  Search this
Construction equipment  Search this
Concrete construction  Search this
Concrete  Search this
Coal -- Transportation  Search this
Civil engineers  Search this
Civil engineering  Search this
Canals -- Panama  Search this
Canals -- Washington (D.C.)  Search this
Canals -- Maryland  Search this
Canals -- Design and construction  Search this
Bridges -- United States  Search this
Waterworks  Search this
Tunnels  Search this
Tunnels -- New York (N.Y.)  Search this
Construction -- Washington (D.C.)  Search this
Underground construction  Search this
Locks and dams  Search this
Shipping  Search this
Iron and steel bridges  Search this
Sewage disposal  Search this
Railroads -- Maryland  Search this
Railroads -- 19th century  Search this
Railroad engineering  Search this
Railroad companies  Search this
Aqueducts  Search this
Arch bridges  Search this
Architects -- 19th century  Search this
Books  Search this
Bridges -- New York (N.Y.)  Search this
Bridges -- Design and construction  Search this
Bridge construction industry -- United States  Search this
Engineering notebooks  Search this
Docks  Search this
Domestic and family life  Search this
Architecture -- United States  Search this
Architecture -- Washington (D.C.)  Search this
Western Maryland Railroad  Search this
Annapolis Waterworks  Search this
Steam engineering  Search this
Harlem River Bridge Commission  Search this
Washington (D.C.) -- 19th century  Search this
Reservoirs  Search this
Patents  Search this
Letterpress copybooks
Photographs -- 19th century
Business records -- 19th century
Business letters
Topographic maps
Tax records
Technical drawings
Stock certificates
Technical literature
Maps -- 19th century
Linen tracings
Letter books
Land titles
Legal documents
Salted paper prints
Plans (drawings)
Photographic prints
Architectural drawings
Administrative records
Albumen prints
Annual reports
Account books -- 19th century
Books -- 19th century
Family papers -- 18th century
Financial records -- 19th century
Diaries -- 19th century
Drawings -- 19th century
Correspondence -- 19th-20th century
Printed material
Harlem River Bridge
Photograph albums
Christmas cards
William R. Hutton Papers, dates, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
See more items in:
William R. Hutton Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Online Media:

Bellcomm, Inc Technical Library Collection

Bellcomm, Inc.  Search this
American Telephone and Telegraph Company  Search this
Bellcomm, Inc.  Search this
California Institute of Technology. Jet Propulsion Lab  Search this
National Aeronautics and Space Administration  Search this
Project Gemini (U.S.)  Search this
Project Mercury (U.S.)  Search this
Project Surveyor (U.S.)  Search this
81.71 Cubic feet (222 letter document boxes, 1 slim letter document box, 4 flatboxes)
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
This collection contains the non-book portion of Bellcomm's Technical Library. The material in the collection consists of technical reports prepared by NASA subcontractors and/or NASA facilities during the first decade of space exploration (1960-1970). The collections also includes some reports issued by the California Institute of Technology's Jet Propulsion Lab (JPL) at Pasadena, CA, including Space Program and Research Summaries, as well as technical and engineering documents.
Scope and Content Note:
This collection contains the non-book portion of Bellcomm's Technical Library. The material in the collection consists of technical reports prepared by NASA subcontractors and/or NASA facilities during the first decade of space exploration (1960-1970). The reports cover a variety of space exploration-related subjects, including a number of defunct programs and space medicine concerns, as well as the better-known exploration projects, such as Mercury, Gemini, Surveyor, and so forth. The library also includes some reports issued by the California Institute of Technology's Jet Propulsion Lab (JPL) at Pasadena, CA, including Space Program and Research Summaries, as well as technical and engineering documents.
Arrangement note:
Several attempts were made to organize the Bellcomm material before it was transferred from SS&E to the NASM Archives Division. The most thorough of these attempts left two sections of the collection independently organized by corporate author and a third unorganized section. As the proposed corporate-author organization would cause documents relating to a single program to be separated based upon which contractor submitted the report while juxtaposing completely unrelated materials, this arrangement has been discarded in favor of a subject (program or study) arrangement.

Following a series of Bibliographies and General Reports, the materials are organized into five series based upon NASA's functional organization during much of the 1960s: Launch Vehicle Programs, Manned Space Flight Programs, Space Science and Applications (Planetary Reconnaissance and Earth-Orbiting Satellites), Tracking and Data Acquisition, and Advanced Research and Technology. Materials relating to military programs follow in a separate series.

Under each series, materials are arranged by study and/or project. Materials relating to specific missions follow general material relating to the project under which the mission was launched. As no reference has surfaced to date positively linking a specific study to a specific project or program, series assignments have been made based upon the study name. The series assignments in this finding aid should not be taken to represent the actual NASA program or project under which the report was originally funded.

Series I. Bibliographies and General Reports

Series II. Launch Vehicle Programs

Series III. Manned Space Flight Programs

Series IV. Space Science and Applications

Series V. Tracking and Data Acquisition

Series VI. Advanced Research and Technology

Series VII. Military Programs and Studies
Historical note:
Bellcomm, Inc was a subsidiary of American Telephone and Telegraph (AT&T) established in 1963 for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Bellcomm was originally organized to provide NASA's Office of Manned Space Flight with technical and management advice for the Manned Space Flight Program. As the NASA-Bellcomm relationship evolved, the latter became directly responsible for systems engineering and analysis and assisted in the overall spacecraft integration for the Apollo program. Bellcomm's Technical Library provided company personnel with immediate access to technical reports and studies dealing with a wide variety of topics affecting the American space program. When the Apollo Program ended in 1972 the company also ceased operation and the library was transferred to the National Air and Space Museum (NASM).
Corporate Abbreviations:
ACM -- Allis-Chalmers Manufacturing Co

ACM/RD -- ACM, Research Division

Aerospace -- The Aerospace Corp

Aerospace/ETRO -- Aerospace Corp, Eastern Test Range Office

Aerospace/GLSD -- Aerospace, Gemini Launch Systems Directorate (El Segundo Technical Operations)

Aerospace/SEO -- Aerospace, Systems Engineering Operations

Aerospace/SSO -- Aerospace, Special Studies Office (System Planning Division, El Segundo Technical Operations)

AFAEDC -- United States Air Force, Arnold Engineering Development Center

AFCRL -- United States Air Force, Cambridge Research Laboratories

AFETR -- United States Air Force, Eastern Test Range (Canaveral AFS, FL)

AFMTC -- United States Air Force, Missile Test Center (Patrick AFB, FL)

AFSC -- United States Air Force, Air Force Systems Command

AFSC/ARML -- AFSC, 6570th Aerospace Medical Research Laboratory (Aerospace Medical Division)

AFSC/ESD -- AFSC, Electronic Systems Division

AFSC/FDL -- AFSC, Flight Dynamics Laboratory (Aeronautical Systems Division)

AFSC/SAM -- AFSC, School of Aerospace Medicine (Aerospace Medical Division)

AGC -- Aerojet-General Corp

AGC/LRO -- AGC, Liquid Rocket Operations

AGC/SGC -- AGC, Space-General Corp

Allison/ED -- Allison, Engineering Department

ARMC -- AiResearch Manufacturing Co.

Avco -- Avco Corp

Avco/ERL -- Avco, Everett Research Laboratories

Avco/RAD -- Avco, Research and Advanced Development Division

BBRC -- Ball Brothers Research Corp

Bell -- Bell Aerospace Corp (Textron)

Bell/BAC -- Bell, Bell Aerosystems Co

Bell Labs -- Bell Telephone Laboratories

Bendix/ASD -- Bendix Corp, Aerospace Systems Division

Bendix/BPAD -- Bendix Corp, Bendix Products Aerospace Division

Bendix/BPAD/EAES -- Bendix/BPAD, Energy Absorption Equipment Section

Bendix/BPAD/SSMG -- Bendix/BPAD, Space Structure Mechanics Group

Bendix/BSD -- Bendix Corp, Bendix Systems Division

Bendix/ECD -- Bendix, Energy Controls Division

Bendix/ECD/AMD -- Bendix/ECD, Analytical Mechanics Dept

Boeing/AG -- Boeing, Aerospace Group

Boeing/AG/SD -- Boeing/AG, Space Division

Boeing/ALASG -- Boeing, Apollo Launch Availability Study Group

Boeing/ASD -- Boeing, Aero-Space Division

Boeing/ASD/LSB -- Boeing/ASD, Launch Systems Branch

Boeing/ASD/SBB -- Boeing/ASD, Saturn Booster Branch

Boeing/S5LO -- Boeing, Saturn V Launch Operations (Atlantic Test Center)

Boeing/SD -- Boeing, Space Division

Boeing/SD/LSB -- Boeing/SD, Launch Systems Branch

Boeing/SRL -- Boeing Co, Scientific Research Laboratories

Bdefitemn/RL -- Bdefitemn Engineering Co Inc, Research Laboratories

Chrysler/DSG -- Chrysler Corp, Defense-Space Group

Chrysler/SD -- Chrysler Corp, Space Division

Cornell/CRSR -- Cornell University, Center for Radiophysics and Space Research

CUA/SSAP -- Catholic University of America, Department of Space Science and Applied Physics

CVC/VA -- Chance Vought Corp, Vought Astronautics

Douglas/MSSD -- Douglas Aircraft Co, Missile and Space Systems Division

Douglas/SSC -- Douglas, Space Systems Center

Fairchild/SSE -- Fairchild Stratos Inc, Spacecraft Systems Engineering

Ford -- Ford Motor Co

Ford/Philco/AD -- Ford, Philco Corp, Aeronutronic Division

Garrett/ARMD -- Garrett Corp, AiResearch Manufacturing Division

GATC -- General American Transportation Corp.

GATC/GARD -- GATC, General American Research Division

GD -- General Dynamics Corp.

GD/Astronautics -- GD, Astronautics Division

GD/Convair -- GD, Convair Division

GE -- General Electric Co

GE/AATD -- GE, Aircraft Accessory Turbine Department

GE/AP -- GE, Accessory Power

GE/ASD -- GE, Apollo Support Dept

GE/ASD/KCE -- GE/ASD, KSC Checkout Engineering

GE/DECO -- GE, Direct Energy Conversion Operation

GE/DSD -- GE, Defense Systems Department

GE/MSD -- GE, Missile and Space Division

GE/MSD/ANSO -- GE/MSD, Advanced Nuclear Systems Operation

GE/MSD/IPSO -- GE/MSD, Isotope Power Systems Operation

GE/RL -- GE, Research Laboratory

GE/SD -- GE, Spacecraft Department

GE/SSO -- GE, Space Systems Organization

GE/TEMPO -- GE, Technical Military Planning Operation

GM -- General Motors Corp

GM/AC -- GM, AC Electronics Division

GM/AC-DRL/LPP -- GM, AC Electronics-Defense Research Laboratories, Lunar and Planetary Programs

GM/DRL -- GM, Defense Research Laboratories

Grumman -- Grumman Aircraft Engineering Corp

Grumman/ED -- Grumman, Engineering Dept

Grumman/PSD -- Grumman, Product Support Dept

GSFC -- Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA)

GSFC/DOB -- GSFC, Data Operations Branch (Manned Flight Operations Division, Tracking and Data Systems Directorate)

GSFC/MFOB -- GSFC, Manned Flight Operations Branch (Manned Flight Operations Division)

GSFC/NSSDC -- GSFC, National Space Science Data Center

GWU/BSCP -- George Washington University, Biological Sciences Communication Project

GWU/PPS -- George Washington University, Program of Policy Studies

Harvard/HCO -- Harvard University, Harvard College Observatory

Hercules/CPD -- Hercules Inc, Chemical Propulsion Division

Honeywell/AD -- Honeywell, Aeronautical Division

Honeywell/AD/MPG -- Honeywell/AD, Military Products Group

Honeywell/SAS -- Honeywell, Space and Armament Systems

Hughes -- Hughes Aircraft Co.

Hughes/SSD -- Hughes, Space Systems Division

IAS -- Institute of the Aerospace Sciences

IBM/FSD -- IBM Federal Systems Division

IBM/SGC -- IBM Space Guidance Center

IITRI/ASC -- IIT Research Institute, Astro Sciences Center

JHU/APL/CPIA -- Johns Hopkins University, Applied Physic Laboratory, Chemical Propulsion Information Agency

JPL/ALST -- JPL, Advanced Lunar Studies Team

KSC -- Kennedy Space Center (NASA)

KSC/DASA -- KSC, Data Acquisition Systems and Analysis

KSC/ESD -- KSC, Engineering Support Division

KSC/HLSS -- KSC, Historical and Library Services Section

KSC/LSEED -- KSC, Launch Support Equipment Engineering Division

KSC/LSRO -- KSC, Launch Systems Reliability Office (Launch Support Equipment Engineering Division)

KSC/LVO -- KSC, Launch Vehicle Operations

KSC/SO -- KSC, Safety Office

Langley -- Langley Research Center (NASA)

Langley/FRPO -- Langley, Flight Reentry Programs Office

Langley/LOPO -- Langley, Lunar Orbiter Project Office

Langley/STG -- Langley, Space Task Group

Langley/VPO -- Langley, Viking Project Office

LC/AID -- Library of Congress, Aerospace Information Division

Lockheed -- Lockheed Aircraft Corp

Lockheed/LCO -- Lockheed, Lockheed-California Co

Lockheed/LCO/SO -- Lockheed/LCO, Spacecraft Organization

Lockheed/LEC -- Lockheed, Lockheed Electronics Co

Lockheed/LMSC -- Lockheed, Lockheed Missiles and Space Co

Lockheed/LMSC/CSP -- Lockheed/LMSC, Cryogenic Stage Programs

Lockheed/LMSC/HREC -- Lockheed/LMSC, Huntsville Research and Engineering Center

Lockheed/LMSC/PVS -- Lockheed/LMSC, Propulsion Vehicle Systems

Lockheed/LMSC/RDD -- Lockheed/LMSC, Research and Development Division

Lockheed/LMSC/SSD -- Lockheed/LMSC, Space Systems Division

LTV/AD -- Ling-Temco-Vought Inc., Astronautics Division

LTV/MSD -- LTV Aerospace Corp, Missiles and Space Division --Texas

Martin/AGSD -- Martin Co, Advanced Ground Systems Dept

Martin/BD -- Martin Co, Baltimore Division

McDonnell -- McDonnell Aircraft Corp

MDC/DMSSD -- MDC, Douglas Missile and Space Systems Division

MDC/MAC -- McDonnell Douglas Corp., McDonnell Astronautics Co

MDC/MDAC -- MDC, McDonnell Douglas Astronautics Co

MDC/MDAC/ED -- MDC/MDAC, Eastern Division

MIT -- Massachusetts Institute of Technology

MIT/CSR -- MIT, Center for Space Research

MIT/IL -- MIT, Instrumentation Laboratory

MIT/LL -- MIT, Lincoln Laboratory

MMC/AD -- Martin Marietta Corp, Aerospace Division

MMC/DD -- MMC, Denver Division

MMC/ND -- MMC, Nuclear Division

MSC -- Manned Spacecraft Center (NASA)

MSC/AFPS -- MSC, Apollo Flight Planning Section (Flight Planning Branch, Flight Crew Support Division)

MSC/AMPO -- MSC, Advanced Missions Program Office

MSC/ASPO -- MSC, Apollo Spacecraft Program Office

MSC/ATSO -- MSC, Apollo Trajectory Support Office (Mission and Planning Analysis Division)

MSC/FCD -- MSC, Flight Control Division

MSC/FES -- MSC, Flight Equipment Section (Mission Operations Branch, Flight Crew Support Division)

MSC/FOD -- MSC, Flight Operations Directorate

MSC/FPB -- MSC, Flight Planning Branch (Crew Procedures Division)

MSC/FSD -- MSC, Flight Support Division

MSC/GPB -- MSC, Guidance and Performance Branch (Mission Planning and Analysis Division)

MSC/ISD -- MSC, Information Systems Division,

MSC/LEPO -- MSC, Lunar Experiments Project Office

MSC/LMO -- MSC, Lunar Missions Office (Advanced Spacecraft Technology Division)

MSC/LSPO -- MSC, Lunar Surface Project Office (Engineering and Development Directorate)

MSC/MAB -- MSC, Management Analysis Branch

MSC/MATT -- MSC, Mission Analysis Task Team (Saturn V Orbital Workshop Study)

MSC/MPAD -- MSC, Mission Planning and Analysis Division

MSC/MSB -- MSC, Mapping Sciences Branch (Earth Observations Division, Science and Applications Directorate

MSC/MSL -- MSC, Mapping Sciences Laboratory

MSC/OMSFPG -- MSC, Office of Manned Space Flight Planning Group

MSC/RQAO -- MSC, Reliability and Quality Assurance Office (Reliability and Certification Office)

MSC/RSB -- MSC, Recovery Systems Branch (Landing and Recovery Division)

MSC/SED -- MSC, Systems Engineering Division

MSC/SOB -- MSC, Systems Operations Branch (Landing and Recovery Division)

MSC/TTB -- MSC, Thermochemical Test Branch (Propulsion and Power Division)

MSFC -- Marshall Space Flight Center (NASA)

MSFC/AESB -- MSFC, Airborne Electrical Systems Branch (Astrionics Laboratory)

MSFC/ASIS -- MSFC, Airborne Systems Integration Section (Astrionics Division)

MSFC/FPO -- MSFC, Future Projects Office

MSFC/LVOD -- MSFC, Launch Vehicle Operations Division

MSFC/MDC -- MSFC, Managerial Data Center

MSFC/MDWG -- MSFC, Meteoroid Damage Working Group,

MSFC/MSO -- MSFC, Management Services Office

MSFC/MSS -- MSFC, Manned Simulation Section (Man/System Integration Branch, Mechanical and Crew Systems Integration Division, Astronautics Laboratory, Science and Engineering Directorate)

MSFC/PVEL -- MSFC, Propulsion and Vehicle Engineering Laboratory (Vehicle Systems Division, Systems Requirements Branch)

MSFC/S1BPO -- MSFC, Saturn IB Program Office

MSFC/S1PCO -- MSFC, Saturn I/IB Program Control Office

MSFC/S5PCO -- MFSC, Saturn V Program Control Office

MSFC/S5PO -- MSFC, Saturn V Program Office

MSFC/S5TMO -- MSFC, Saturn V Test Management Office

MSFC/SEO -- MSFC, Systems Engineering Office

MSFC/SFEWG -- MSFC, Saturn Flight Evaluation Working Group

MSFC/SODS -- MSFC, Systems Operations Design Section (Astrionics Division)

MSFC/SPEO -- MSFC, Saturn Program Engineering Office (Mission Engineering Branch)

MSFC/SSAO -- MSFC, Scientific Spacecraft Applications Office (Saturn Systems Office)

MSFC/SSO -- MSFC, Saturn Systems Office

MSFC/THMS -- MSFC, Technical Handbooks and Manuals Section (Engineering Documentation Branch, Vehicle Systems Division, Propulsion and Vehicle Engineering Laboratory)

MSFC/TS -- MSFC, Trajectory Section (Flight Mechanics Branch, Mission Planning and Analysis Division, Aero-Astrodynamics Laboratory)

MSFC/VSIO -- MSFC, Vehicle Systems Integration Office (Propulsion and Vehicle Engineering Division)

MSFC/VTS -- MSFC, Vehicle Test Section (Mechanical Systems Analysis Branch, Quality Assurance Division)

NAA -- North American Aviation Inc

NAA/SD -- NAA, Space Division

NAA/SID -- NAA, Space and Information Systems Division

NAR -- North American Rockwell Corp

NAR/SD -- NAR, Space Division

NASA/ANWG -- NASA, Apollo Navigation Working Group (joint MSC-GSFC)

NASA/FCSD -- NASA, Flight Crew Support Division (Spacecraft Systems Operations Branch)

NASA/OART -- NASA, Office of Advanced Research and Technology

NASA/OART/MAD -- NASA/OART, Mission Analysis Division

NASA/OCR -- NASA, Office of Congressional Relations

NASA/OMSF -- NASA, Office of Manned Space Flight

NASA/OP/HD -- NASA, Office of Policy, Historical Division

NASA/OTU -- NASA, Office of Technology Utilization

Northrop -- Northrop Corp

Northrop/SL -- Northrop, Space Laboratories

Northrop/VD -- Northrop, Ventura Division

NRAO -- National Radio Astronomy Observatory

OSU/MED -- Ohio State University, Mechanical Engineering Department

PWA -- Pratt & Whitney Aircraft


RAND/ED -- RAND, Engineering Division

RAND/PD -- RAND, Physics Division

Raytheon/SISD -- Raytheon Co, Space and Information Systems Division

RCA -- Radio Corp of America

RCA/AED -- RCA, Astro-Electronics Division

Rocketdyne/J2RP -- Rocketdyne Engineering, J-2 Reliability Projects

SAE -- Society of Automotive Engineers

SAO -- Smithsonian Institution Astrophysical Observatory

STL -- Space Technology Laboratories, Inc

TI/SSD -- Texas Instruments Inc, Science Services Division

TRW/SG -- TRW Systems Group

TRW/STL -- TRW, Space Technology Laboratories

UAC -- United Aircraft Corp

UAC/HS -- United Aircraft Corp, Hamilton Standard Division

UC -- Union Carbide Corp

UC/ADD -- UC, Advanced Developments Division

USACE/AMS -- United States Army Corps of Engineers, Army Map Service

USAEWES -- United States Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station

USATEC/YPG -- United States Army Test and Evaluation Command, Yuma Proving Ground

USDC/CFSTI -- United States Department of Commerce, Clearinghouse for Federal Scientific and Technical Information (Institute for Applied Technology, National Bureau of Standards)

USDoD -- United States Department of Defence

USN/BuWeps -- United States Navy, Bureau of Naval Weapons

USN/OO -- United States Navy, Oceanography Office

Westinghouse/DSC -- Westinghouse, Defense and Space Center

Westinghouse/DSC/SOD -- Westinghouse/DSC, Systems Operation Division
Project Mercury Launches:
MissionLaunch DateLaunch vehiclePayloadRemarksLJ-121 Aug 1959Little JoeMercury boiler plateunsuccessful beach test of LESBig Joe 19 Sep 1959Big JoeMercury boiler plateLJ-64 Oct 1959Little JoeMercury boiler plateLJ-1A4 Nov 1959Little JoeMercury boiler platerepeat of LJ-1LJ-24 Dec 1959Little JoeMercury boiler platehigh-altitude LES testLJ-1B21 Jan 1960Little JoeMercury boiler platebeach abort w/rhesus (Miss Sam)MA-129 Jul 1960AtlasMercury s/c 4launch vehicle failureLJ-58 Nov 1960Little JoeMercury s/c 3unsuccessful test of LESMR-121 Nov 1960RedstoneMercury s/c 2premature booster cut-offMR-1A19 Dec 1960RedstoneMercury s/c 2suborbital reentry testMR-23 Jan 1961RedstoneMercury s/c 5suborbital w/chimp (Ham)MA-221 Feb 1961AtlasMercury s/c 6suborbital testLJ-5A18 Mar 1961Little JoeMercury s/c 14unsuccessful test of LESMR-BD24 Mar 1961RedstoneLV qualified for manned flightMA-325 Apr 1961AtlasMercury s/c 8launch vehicle failureLJ-5B28 Apr 1961Little JoeMercury s/c 14successful LES testMR-35 May 1961Redstone 7Mercury s/c 7suborbital; Shepard, "Freedom 7"MR-421 Jul 1961Redstone 8Mercury s/c 11suborbital; Grissom, "Liberty Bell 7"MA-413 Sep 1961AtlasMercury s/c 8orbital test of tracking networkMA-52 Nov 1961AtlasMercury s/c 92 orbits w/chimp (Enos)MA-620 Feb 1962Atlas 109-DMercury s/c 133 orbits; Glenn, "Friendship 7"MA-724 May 1962Atlas 107-DMercury s/c 183 orbits; Carpenter, "Aurora 7"MA-83 Oct 1962Atlas 113-DMercury s/c 166 orbits; Schirra, "Sigma 7"MA-915 May 1963Atlas 130-DMercury s/c 2022 orbits; Cooper, "Faith 7"

MissionLaunch DateLaunch vehiclePayloadRemarksMR-35 May 1961Redstone 7Mercury s/c 7suborbital; Shepard, "Freedom 7"MR-421 Jul 1961Redstone 8Mercury s/c 11suborbital; Grissom, "Liberty Bell 7"MA-620 Feb 1962Atlas 109-DMercury s/c 133 orbits; Glenn, "Friendship 7"MA-724 May 1962Atlas 107-DMercury s/c 183 orbits; Carpenter, "Aurora 7"MA-83 Oct 1962Atlas 113-DMercury s/c 166 orbits; Schirra, "Sigma 7"MA-915 May 1963Atlas 130-DMercury s/c 2022 orbits; Cooper, "Faith 7"

MissionLaunch DateLaunch vehiclePayloadRemarksBig Joe 19 Sep 1959Big JoeMercury boiler plate

MissionLaunch DateLaunch vehiclePayloadRemarksLJ-121 Aug 1959Little JoeMercury boiler plateunsuccessful beach test of LESLJ-1A4 Nov 1959Little JoeMercury boiler platerepeat of LJ-1LJ-1B21 Jan 1960Little JoeMercury boiler platebeach abort w/rhesus (Miss Sam)LJ-24 Dec 1959Little JoeMercury boiler platehigh-altitude LES testLJ-58 Nov 1960Little JoeMercury s/c 3unsuccessful test of LESLJ-5A18 Mar 1961Little JoeMercury s/c 14unsuccessful test of LESLJ-5B28 Apr 1961Little JoeMercury s/c 14successful LES testLJ-64 Oct 1959Little JoeMercury boiler plate

MissionLaunch DateLaunch vehiclePayloadRemarksMA-129 Jul 1960AtlasMercury s/c 4launch vehicle failureMA-221 Feb 1961AtlasMercury s/c 6suborbital testMA-325 Apr 1961AtlasMercury s/c 8launch vehicle failureMA-413 Sep 1961AtlasMercury s/c 8orbit test of tracking networkMA-52 Nov 1961AtlasMercury s/c 92 orbits w/chimp (Enos)MA-620 Feb 1962Atlas 109-DMercury s/c 133 orbits; Glenn, "Friendship 7"MA-724 May 1962Atlas 107-DMercury s/c 183 orbits; Carpenter, "Aurora 7"MA-83 Oct 1962Atlas 113-DMercury s/c 166 orbits; Schirra, "Sigma 7"

MissionLaunch DateLaunch vehiclePayloadRemarksMR-121 Nov 1960RedstoneMercury s/c 2premature booster cut-offMR-1A19 Dec 1960RedstoneMercury s/c 2suborbital reentry testMR-23 Jan 1961RedstoneMercury s/c 5suborbital w/chimp (Ham)MR-BD24 Mar 1961RedstoneLV qualified for manned flightMR-35 May 1961Redstone 7Mercury s/c 7suborbital; Shepard, "Freedom 7"MR-421 Jul 1961Redstone 8Mercury s/c 11suborbital; Grissom, "Liberty Bell 7"

PayloadMissionLaunch DateLaunch vehicleRemarksMercury s/c 19 May 1960beach abort testMercury s/c 2MR-121 Nov 1960Redstonepremature booster cut-offMR-1A19 Dec 1960Redstonesuborbital reentry testMercury s/c 3LJ-58 Nov 1960Little Joeunsuccessful test of LESMercury s/c 4MA-129 Jul 1960Atlaslaunch vehicle failureMercury s/c 5MR-23 Jan 1961Redstonesuborbital w/chimp (Ham)Merucry s/c 6MA-221 Feb 1961Atlassuborbital testMercury s/c 7MR-35 May 1961Redstone 7suborbital; Shepard, "Freedom 7"Mercury s/c 8MA-325 Apr 1961Atlaslaunch vehicle failureMA-413 Sep 1961Atlasorbital test of tracking networkMercury s/c 9MA-52 Nov 1961Atlas2 orbits w/chimp (Enos)Merucry s/c 10environmental test, St.LouisMercury s/c 11MR-421 Jul 1961Redstone 8suborbital; Grissom, "Liberty Bell 7"Mercury s/c 12mission cancelled; not deliveredMercury s/c 13MA-620 Feb 1962Atlas 109-D3 orbits; Glenn, "Friendship 7"Mercury s/c 14LJ-5A18 Mar 1961Little Joeunsuccessful test of LESLJ-5B28 Apr 1961Little Joesuccessful LES testMercury s/c 15mission cancelled; not deliveredMercury s/c 16MA-83 Oct 1962Atlas 113-D6 orbits; Schirra, "Sigma 7"Mercury s/c 17parts supportMercury s/c 18MA-724 May 1962Atlas 107-D3 orbits; Carpenter, "Aurora 7"Mercury s/c 19mission cancelled; not deliveredMercury s/c 20MA-915 May 1963Atlas 130-D22 orbits; Cooper, "Faith 7"
Project Gemini Launches:
MissionLaunch DateLaunch vehiclePayloadRemarksGT-18 Apr 1964GLV-1Gemini s/c 1unmanned orbital test of GLV & s/cGT-219 Jan 1965GLV-2Gemini s/c 2unmanned suborbital reentry testGT-323 Mar 1965GLV-3Gemini 3Grissom & Young, "Molly Brown"GT-43 Jun 1965GLV-4Gemini 4McDivitt & White; first EVAGT-521 Aug 1965GLV-5Gemini 5Cooper & ConradGT-6A15 Dec 1965GLV-6Gemini 6Schirra & StaffordGT-74 Dec 1965GLV-7Gemini 7Borman & LovellGT-816 Mar 1966GLV-8Gemini 8Armstrong & Scott16 Mar 1966TLV-5302GATV-5003Agena target vehicle for GT-8GT-9A3 Jun 1966GLV-9Gemini 9Stafford & Cernan1 Jun 1966TLV-5304ATDAdocking target for GT-9AGT-1018 Jul 1966GLV-10Gemini 10Young & Collins18 Jul 1966TLV-5305GATV-5005Agena target vehicle for GT-10GT-1112 Sep 1966GLV-11Gemini 11Conrad & Gordon12 Sep 1966TLV-5306GATV-5005Agena target vehicle for GT-11GT-1211 Nov 1966GLV-12Gemini 12Lovell & Aldrin11 Nov 1966TLV-5307GATV-5001Agena target vehicle for GT-12
Saturn/Apollo Program Launches:
MissionLaunch DateLaunch vehiclePayloadRemarksSA-127 Oct 1961Saturn Idummy second stageSA-225 Apr 1962Saturn Idummy second stageProject HighwaterSA-316 Nov 1962Saturn Idummy second stageProject HighwaterSA-428 Mar 1963Saturn Idummy second stageSA-529 Jan 1964Saturn ISA-628 May 1964Saturn IBP-3SA-718 Sep 1964Saturn IBP-15Saturn I declared operationalSA-825 May 1965Saturn IBP- ; Pegasus 2SA-916 Feb 1965Saturn IBP- ; Pegasus 1SA-1030 Jul 1965Saturn IBP- ; Pegasus 3last Saturn I launch

MissionLaunch DateLaunch vehiclePayloadRemarksA-00113 May 1964Little Joe IIBP-12suborbital LES testA-0028 Dec 1964Little Joe IIBP-23LES testA-00319 May 1965Little Joe IIBP-22LES testA-00420 Jan 1966Little Joe IICSM-002LES testA-101see SA-6 (Saturn development launch)A-102see SA-7 (Saturn development launch)AS-20126 Feb 1966SA-201 (Sat IB)CSM-009suborbital test of Apollo heat shieldAS-20225 Aug 1966SA-202 (Sat IB)CSM-011test of Apollo heat shieldAS-2035 Jul 1966SA-203 (Sat IB)no spacecraftAS-204not launchedSA-204 (Sat IB)CSM-012Apollo 1; CM des by fire 27 Jan 1967AS-20422 Jan 1968SA-204 (Sat IB)aero fairing; LM-1Apollo 5; unmanned launch with LMAS-20511 Oct 1968SA-205 (Sat IB)CSM-101Apollo 7; first manned Apollo launchAS-5019 Nov 1967SA-501 (Sat V)CSM-017, LTA-10RApollo 4AS-5024 Apr 1968SA-502 (Sat V)CM-020, SM-014, LTA-2RApollo 6AS-50321 Dec 1968SA-503 (Sat V)CSM-103Apollo 8; first lunar orbital flightAS-5043 Mar 1969SA-504 (Sat V)CSM-104, LM-3Apollo 9AS-50518 May 1969SA-505 (Sat V)CSM-106, LM-4Apollo 10AS-50616 Jul 1969SA-506 (Sat V)CSM-107, LM-5Apollo 11; first lunar landingAS-50714 Nov 1969SA-507 (Sat V)CSM-108, LM-6Apollo 12AS-50811 Apr 1970-04SA-508 (Sat V)CSM-109, LM-7Apollo 13AS-50931 Jan 1971SA-509 (Sat V)CSM-110, LM-8Apollo 14AS-51026 Jul 1971SA-510 (Sat V)CSM-112, LM-10, LRV-1Apollo 15AS-51116 Apr 1972SA-511 (Sat V)CSM-113, LM-11, LRV-2Apollo 16AS-5127 Dec 1972SA-512 (Sat V)CSM-114, LM-12, LRV-3Apollo 17; last lunar landing mission

MissionLaunch VehicleCommand ModuleLunar ModuleLaunch DateRemarksApollo 1SA-204CSM-204not launchedAS-204Sat IBCM destroyed by fire 27 Jan 1967Apollo 4SA-501CSM-0179 Nov 1967AS-501Sat VApollo 5SA-204aerodynamic fairingLM-122 Jan 1968AS-204Sat IBunmanned launchApollo 6SA-502CSM-0204 Apr 1968AS-502Sat Vunmanned launchApollo 7SA-205CSM-10111 Oct 1968AS-205Sat IBfirst manned Apollo launchApollo 8SA-503CSM-10321 Dec 1968AS-503Sat Vfirst manned lunar orbital flightApollo 9SA-504CSM-104LM-3 "Spider"3 Mar 1969AS-504Sat V"Gumdrop"Apollo 10SA-505CSM-106LM-4 "Snoopy"18 May 1969AS-505Sat V"Charlie Brown"Apollo 11SA-506CSM-107LM-5 "Eagle"16 Jul 1969AS-506Sat V"Columbia"first manned lunar landingApollo 12SA-507CSM-108LM-6 "Intrepid"14 nov 1969AS-507Sat V"Yankee Clipper"Apollo 13SA-508CSM-109LM-7 "Aquarius"11 Apr 1970AS-508Sat V"Odyssey"landing cancelled due to in-flight explosionApollo 14SA-509CSM-110LM-8 "Antares"31 Jan 1971AS-509Sat V"Kitty Hawk"Apollo 15SA-510CSM-112LM-10 "Falcon"26 Jul 1971AS-510Sat V"Endeavour"LRV-1Apollo 16SA-511CSM-113LM-11 "Orion"16 Apr 1972AS-511Sat V"Casper"LRV-2Apollo 17SA-512CSM-114LM-12 "Challenger"7 dec 1972AS-512Sat V"America:LRV-3last lunar landing mission
Bellcomm, Inc, transfer, XXXX-0093, unknown
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Bellcomm, Inc Technical Library Collection, Accession XXXX-0093, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
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Serge A. Scherbatskoy Papers

Scherbatskoy, Serge A., 1908-2002  Search this
Neufeld, Jacob, 1906-2000  Search this
17 Cubic feet (39 boxes)
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Diazo prints
Laboratory notebooks
Patent applications
Collection documents the professional career and business interests of inventor Serge A. Scherbatskoy, who specialized in petroleum geophysics. Papers include laboratory notebooks, license agreements, correspondence, blue line prints, patent litigation files, newspaper clippings, reference files, patents, promotional literature, and audio-visual materials.
Scope and Contents:
The Scherbatskoy papers provide insight into the relationship between inventors and the United States oil industry between the 1930s and 1990s, the evolution of the history of applied geophysics, and the development of technological innovation in oil prospecting, specifically applied and geophysics. One of the strengths of the collection is the patents Scherbatskoy pursued, renewed, or impeded. As sole proprietor of his own company, Geophysical Measurements Corp., Scherbatskoy meticulously constructed an international patenting program which made him a successful player among the giants of the oil industry. Another highlight of the collection is Scherbatskoy's fifteen laboratory notebooks that include his well logging work notes and drawings. Legal files illustrating litigation over the infringement of Scherbatskoy's patents are also found in the collection. The papers demonstrate how the oil prospecting industry worked from scientific, commercial and legal perspectives. The bulk of the papers are arranged chronologically to reflect the timeline of Scherbatskoy's career. Due to the limited number of personal materials, Scherbatskoy's personal papers are placed at the end of the series list.

Series 1, World War II Work, 1935-2002, is divided into three subseries and includes information on Scherbatskoy's relationship with physicists Bruno Pontecorvo (1913-1993) and Jacob Neufeld (1906-2000). Neufeld and Scherbatskoy worked on the application of nuclear physics to geophysical prospecting. Neufeld would later join the staff of Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Materials include a file about Pontecorvo, Neufeld's laboratory notebook, and some correspondence between Neufeld and Scherbatskoy. This series also includes materials on Scherbatskoy's well logging projects during and after World War II.

Series 2, Invention Laboratory Journals and Drawings, 1958-1992, is further divided into two subseries and includes fifteen laboratory journals and a folder of drawings related to Scherbatskoy's well logging work. The journals are arranged numerically by journal number. In some instances, journal numbers repeat. Journals are paginated and include drawings, tipped-in graphs and charts, and notes relating to Scherbatskoy's well logging work. Some of the notebooks include pages signed by a witness, which Scherbatskoy could use as evidence to prove his ownership of a particular well logging invention idea.

Series 3, Radio Corporation of America (RCA), 1946, 1948, is comprised of one folder with a license agreement between Scherbatskoy and Radio Corporation of America for magnetic recording systems.

Series 4, Canadian Geophysical Measurements Corporation (GMC), 1957-2002, is divided into three subseries and provides information on Scherbatskoy's company Canadian Geophysical Measurements Corporation. Materials include license agreements, correspondence, and Canadian Geophysical Measurements vs. Computalog Gearhart, Ltd litigation files.

Series 5, ARPS Corporation (Jan J. Arps), 1960-1995, includes information on Arps Corporation, organized by Scherbatskoy, Jacob Neufeld, and Jan J. Arps in Dallas, TX to develop and practice measurement while drilling. The Arps Corporation materials are comprised of administrative and financial records, business correspondence, contracts of consultation, patents, license agreements, and Scherbatskoy's stock information.

Series 6, Gearhart-Owen Industries (GOI) (Gearhart Industries, Inc., (GII)), 1961-1996, is divided into seven subseries and consists of records generated during Scherbatskoy's measurement while drilling (MWD™) work with Gearhart-Owen Industries, Inc. One of the largest series in the collection, the Gearhart-Owen materials include license agreements, correspondence, litigation files, measurement while drilling reports and blue line prints of measurement while drilling equipment, signal extraction measurement while drilling study reports, reference materials, and United States, United Kingdom, and Canadian patent assignments between Scherbatskoy, Gearhart-Owen, and the Scherbatskoy Family Trust. Included in the litigation subseries is the Scherbatskoy Family Trust vs. Gearhart Industries, Inc., case. The Scherbatskoy Family Trust in 1975 sued for royalty payments due Scherbatskoy under the Scherbatskoy Gearhart-Owen Agreement on nuclear well logging technology and measurement while drilling. The case was settled in the late 1980s, and Gearhart Industries, Inc., paid royalties to the Scherbatskoy Family Trust. Gearhart materials are also present in Series 7, 8 and 9.

Series 7, Halliburton Company, 1978-1999, is divided into four subseries and includes license agreements, lawsuits and patent infringements, patents, and company acquisitions. This series documents Scherbatskoy's relationship with the Halliburton Company pre-and post-Halliburton's acquisition of Gearhart Industries in the 1980s. Halliburton materials are also in Series 8 and 10.

Series 8, Other Professional Work, 1964-1999, is divided into twelve subseries: McCullough Tool Company, Exploration Logging, Inc., Eastman Whipstock, Schlumberger, Ltd., Sperry-Sun Well Surveying Company, Christensen, Inc., Gunn and Kuffner (attorneys), NL Industries, Inc., Baker Oil Tools, Inc., AMF Scientific Drilling International, Inc., Geolink (UK) Ltd., Technolink (Cyprus), Ltd., and Computalog Gearhart, Ltd. In addition to providing information on oil prospecting companies that Scherbatskoy consulted with during his career, materials also include correspondence between Scherbatskoy and attorneys Gunn and Kuffner relating to Scherbatskoy's well logging patent rights.

Series 9, Well Logging Research Materials, 1937-2002, includes correspondence, papers, reports, promotional literature, and general research files relating to Scherbatskoy's well logging research.

Series 10, Licensing Agreements, 1961-1989, contains four folders documenting the nuclear well logging agreement between oil prospecting companies such as Gearhart Owen, Halliburton, Geophysical Measurements, Inc., and Welex Jet Services. Both Marvin Gearhart and Harold Owen of Gearhart-Owen had been employees of Welex before founding Gearhart-Owen Industries.

Series 11, Patents, 1937-1998, includes copies of patents issued to, among others, Scherbatskoy, Robert E. Fearon (inventor), James Upchurch (inventor), John Westlake (inventor), Mobil Oil Corp and Exxon. Materials also include patent applications, patent protests, patent annuities, and correspondence with the United States Patent Trademark Organization and the German Trademark Office.

Series 12, Personal Materials, 1925-1983, includes materials on Scherbatskoy's immigration to the United States, school diplomas, and memorial book. Visual materials include original photographs, and color copies of original photographs of Scherbatskoy as an adult, his family, and his inventions. Also included is a 1944 submarine training 16mm reel-to-reel film and an audio cassette tape of Scherbatskoy discussing his World War II work with his daughter Mary Scherbatskoy.
Collection arranged into twelve series.

Series 1, World War II Work, 1935-2002

Subseries 1, Relationship with Bruno Pontecorvo, 1940-2002

Subseries 2, Relationship with Jacob Neufeld, 1935-1954

Subseries 3, Scherbatskoy Well Logging Project, 1940-1951

Series 2, Invention Journals and Drawings, 1958-1992

Subseries 1, Lab Journals, 1963-1992

Subseries 2, Scherbatskoy Invention Drawings, 1958, 1966

Series 3, Radio Corporation of America (RCA), 1946, 1948

Series 4, Canadian Geophysical Measurements Corporation (GMC), 1957-2002

Subseries 1, License Agreements, 1957-2002

Subseries 2, Correspondence, 1967-2002

Subseries 3, Canadian Geophysical Measurements vs. Computalog Gearhart, Ltd., 1986-1996

Series 5, ARPS Corporation (Jan J. Arps), 1960-1995

Series 6, Gearhart-Owen Industries, Inc., (GOI), (Gearhart Industries Inc., (GII), 1961-1996

Subseries 1, License Agreements, 1961-1996

Subseries 2, Correspondence, 1974-1988

Subseries 3, Scherbatskoy Family Trust (SFT) vs. Gearhart Industries, Inc., 1975-1988

Subseries 4, Measurement While Drilling (MWD) Development Reports and Blue Line Prints, 1973-1984

Subseries 5, Gearhart-Owen Signal Extraction (MWD) Study, 1979-1981

Subseries 6, Reference Materials, 1977-1990

Subseries 7, Patent Assignments, 1961-1987

Series 7, Halliburton Company, 1978-1999

Subseries 1, License Agreements, 1979-1999

Subseries 2, Lawsuits and Patent Infringements, 1989-1996

Subseries 3, Patents, 1978-1997, undated

Subseries 4, Halliburton Acquisitions, 1988-1999

Series 8, Other Professional Work, 1964-1999

Subseries 1, McCullough Tool Company, 1964-1996

Subseries 2, Exploration Logging, Inc., 1966-1998

Subseries 3, Eastman Whipstock, (Gesellschaft mit beschränkter Haftungz-(GmbH)), 1978-1995

Subseries 4, Schlumberger, Ltd., 1967-1999

Subseries 5, Sperry-Sun Well Surveying Company, 1971-1996

Subseries 6, Christensen Diamond Products, Inc., 1977-1988

Subseries 7, Gunn and Kuffner (Attorneys), 1977-1999

Subseries 8, NL Industries, Inc., 1978-1994

Subseries 9, Baker Oil Tools, Inc., 1980-1999

Subseries 10, AMF Scientific Drilling International, Inc., 1984-1987

Subseries 11, Geolink (UK), Ltd., /Technolink (Cyprus) Ltd., 1985-2002

Subseries 12, Computalog Gearhart, Ltd., 1990-2002

Series 9, Well Logging Research Materials, 1937-2002

Subseries 1, Correspondence, 1967-2002

Subseries 2, Papers and Reports, 1960-1990

Subseries 3, Promotional Literature, 1978, undated

Subseries 4, General, 1937-1996

Series 10, Licensing Agreements, 1961-1989

Series 11, Patents, 1937-1998

Subseries 1, Well Logging Patents, 1937-1998

Subseries 2, John E. Westlake (Inventor) Patents, 1972-1996

Subseries 3, James M. Upchurch (Inventor) Patents, 1990-1998

Subseries 4, Other, 1943-1997

Series 12, Personal Materials, 1925-1983

Subseries 1, Personal Papers, 1925-1966

Subseries 2, Photographs, circa 1950s, undated

Subseries 3, Audio Visual Materials, 1944, 1983
Biographical / Historical:
Serge Alexander Scherbatskoy (1908-2002), a petroleum geophysical engineer, held more than 200 patents worldwide in petroleum exploration. Scherbatskoy was born July 18, 1908, in Buyuk Dere, Turkey, a suburb of Constantinople where his father, Alexander Ippolitovich Scherbatskoy, was Third Secretary to the Russian Embassy. After the Russian Revolution of 1917, Alexander Ippolitovich planned to accept a post in the Kerensky government. When that fell, he joined the League of Nations offices in Berlin. Later, he moved the family to Paris where he was employed by Yokohama Specie Bank. Young Serge completed his education at the Sorbonne, earning a degree in physics in 1926.

In 1929, only months before the stock market crash, Scherbatskoy immigrated to the United States. He worked for Bell Labs in New York City from 1929 to 1932. While there, Scherbatskoy worked on the Type C Carrier telephone system, assisted in the Reproduction of Music in Auditory Perspective (the first Hi Fi) and invented an automatic volume control using copper oxide semiconductors, for which the patent was denied. About this time, he met Mary Ellen Dunham; they married in 1938 and had four children: Mary, Serge, Timothy, and Jonathan.

After being laid off from Bell Labs in 1932, Scherbatskoy held a number of odd jobs. He organized the "Bureau of Radio Engineering" to repair radios house-to-house. In 1933, he went to the University of Pennsylvania under a grant from the Works Progress Administration (later Work Projects Administration; WPA) and assisted with developing a "sound prism" (i.e., spectrometer). He worked for PHILCO Radio and Television Corporation from 1933 to 1934 where he developed a "sweeping frequency" oscillator for testing radios. About 1936, Scherbatskoy headed west to Tulsa, Oklahoma, and joined Seismograph Services Corporation. While at Seismograph, he developed the "Expander" and the "Automatic Signal Control" for use in seismographic exploration.

Scherbatskoy left Seismograph Corp. and, with Bill Green and Jerry Westby, started Well Surveys Incorporated in 1937 to develop his idea of nuclear logging of cased wells. In nuclear logging, logs are obtained by using radiation sources in the logging tool. Well Surveys was one of the first American companies that applied nuclear physics to oil prospecting. Standard Oil of New York financed the project, but various parties could not agree and they dissolved the Well Surveys Incorporated.

According to an audiotaped interview conducted by Scherbatskoy's daughter Mary, during World War II Serge Scherbatskoy worked for the U.S. Navy as an independent prime contractor to develop the lethal probability integrator (aircraft gunner training simulator) and other projects. Scherbatskoy also was involved tangentially with the Manhattan Project. As part of the Project, Scherbatskoy was recruited by Gilbert LaBine (1890-1977), a Canadian prospector who discovered radium and uranium deposits at Port Radium, Northwest Territories in 1930. Known as the father of Canada's uranium industry, LaBine was president of Eldorado Mining and Refining Limited from its start in the late 1920s to 1947. Scherbatskoy developed a portable radiation detector and headed a team pioneering this form of uranium exploration near Great Bear Lake, Canada, during 1944, locating deposits used in atomic weapons production.

In 1948, Scherbatskoy formed Geophysical Measurements Corporation (GMC) in Tulsa, Oklahoma. During this time, Scherbatskoy worked on the development of well logging technology. "Well logging is the process of exploring systematically the entire length of a drill hole by means of an instrument capable of measuring physical factors associated with the rocks traversed and producing a graph."1 In December 1960, Scherbatskoy, Jan J. Arps (physicist), and Jacob Neufeld (physicist) joined together with Reinholdt & Gardner (a brokerage firm) to form a limited partnership named Arps Corp. to assign, sell and license patents. The purpose was to lease to the oil industry, equipment utilizing the patented Arps process for continuous telemetering to the earth's surface of measurements made at the bottom of a borehole while drilling.

In 1964, GMC conducted a stock swap with McCullough Tool which then went bankrupt in 1968. During the 1970s, Scherbatskoy's activities included consulting with Jacob Neufeld of Oak Ridge National Laboratories. In 1973 he began a relationship with Marvin Gearhart of Gearhart-Owen Industries of Dallas, Texas. Gearhart-Owen was an instrument and oil services firm originally founded by Marvin Gearhart and Harold Owen in 1955. In 1980, Marvin Gearhart changed the name from Gearhart -Owen to Gearhart Industries, Inc., "The GO Company." Scherbatskoy was named Director of Special Projects and continued his own patent program which developed "Measurement While Drilling" and directional drilling patents.

"Measurement While Drilling" (MWD) refers to measurements acquired down hole while drilling that specifically describe directional surveying and drilling-related measurements. "Logging While Drilling" (LWD) refers to petrophysical measurements, similar to open hole wireline logs, acquired while drilling. Wireline logs are a cabling technology used by operators of oil and gas wells to lower equipment into the well. Directional drilling is the science of drilling non-vertical wells. These systems—MWD and LWD—are based on mud telemetry which is the transmission of encoded data through a drilling rig's drilling mud system using rapid fluctuations in the pressure of a closed loop circulating system.

When Gearhart-Owen went bankrupt in 1986, it was acquired by Halliburton. Scherbatskoy worked at Gearhart-Owen until 1988, when he opened his own office in Fort Worth developing Measurement While Drilling patents. Scherbatskoy died on November 25, 2002 in Fort Worth, Texas.


Oil and Gas Journal, February 22, 1940, p. 62.
Related Materials:
The Scherbatskoy Papers complement the Philip Bishop Collection documenting petroleum prospecting and extraction in the Museum's Modern Physics Collection and the American Petroleum Institute (API) Photograph and Film Collection (AC0711) in the Archives Center. The API Collection documents all aspects of the production of oil, including exploration, drilling, cracking, refineries, pipelines, tankers, storage tanks, service stations, and the numerous products other than gasoline produced by the petroleum industry.

The Division of Science, Medicine and Society holds three prototypes related to this collection. See accession 2007.0212.
The collection was donated by Serge A. Scherbatskoy's daughter, Mary Scherbatskoy, and three sons, Serge Scherbatskoy, Jr., Timothy Scherbatskoy, and Jonathan Scherbatskoy, on 2007
The collection is open for research use.
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning intellectual property rights. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Seismology  Search this
Physicists  Search this
Seismic prospecting  Search this
Physics  Search this
Petroleum -- Prospecting  Search this
Petroleum industry  Search this
Patents  Search this
Licenses  Search this
Inventors  Search this
Inventions  Search this
Geophysics  Search this
Diazo prints
Laboratory notebooks
Patent applications
Serge Scherbatskoy Papers, 1925-2002, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution.
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Gordon D. Goldstein Collection

Goldstein, Gordon D.  Search this
ENIAC.  Search this
Electrical Numerical Integrator and Computer (ENIAC).  Search this
Remington Rand.  Search this
2 Cubic feet (6 boxes)
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Technical manuals
Design drawings
1948 - 1957
Papers relate to Gordon D. Goldstein, a computer engineer and frequent seminar speaker and participant, especially in the fields of linguistics and machine translation.
Scope and Contents:
The Goldstein Collection documents an interesting and important period in the development of the early computer industry. Many of the items in the collection are technical in nature; others, however, provide an interesting perspective on the development of post-war American culture. Items in the collection include design and training materials, operational manuals, professional literature, advertisements and promotional items, photographs, business and office documentation, and conference and seminar materials.

The collection is divided into five series. The first three series correspond to Goldstein's employment history; the fourth series includes notes and minutes from UNIVAC and computer conferences attended by Goldstein; and the fifth series contains general computer publications and computer advertisements. Of particular interest in the last series is a copy of the 1954 Report to the Association for Computing Machinery: First Glossary of Programming Terminology. This item was edited by Grace Murray Hopper.
The collection is arranged into 5 series.

Series 1, National Bureau of Standards, Electronic Computers Section/Standards Eastern Automatic Computer, 1948-1953

Series 2, U.S. Navy/Applied Mathematics Laboratory, 1950-1957

Series 3, UNIVAC-Remington Rand Corporation/Eckert-Mauchly Computer Corporation, 1948--956

Series 4, UNIVAC Conferences, 1950-1956

Series 5, Publications and Competitor Materials, 1950-1955
Biographical / Historical:
Born in 1917, Gordon D. Goldstein graduated from Clarkson College of Technology with a bachelor's degree in electrical engineering. In 1941, Goldstein took a job with the Army Signal Corp as a civilian inspector of radio and navigation equipment. After leaving the Army Signal Corp, Goldstein took a job as development engineer at the Washington Institute of Technology where he was employed until 1950. From 1950 to 1951 he worked as chief engineer with computers for the Census Bureau in Philadelphia.

In 1951, Goldstein left the Census Bureau and took a job with the Navy Department. During his tenure there, Goldstein worked in three offices or divisions: the Naval Ordnance Laboratory (electronics scientist), the David Taylor Model Basin's Applied Mathematics Laboratory, and the Office of Naval Research (ONR), Information Systems Program where he was involved with applications of UNIVAC I. Goldstein worked in the Office of Naval Research from 1956 until his retirement in 1980.


Berkeley, Edmund C., ed. Who's Who in Computers and Data Processing 1971: A Biographical Dictionary of Leading Computer Professionals. New York: The New York Times Book and Educational Division, 1971.

Gordon D. Goldstein Papers, 1950-1979. Charles Babbage Institute: Center for the History of Information Processing.

Williams, Michael R. A History of Computing Technology. Los Alamitos, California: IEEE Computer Society Press, 1997.
Related Materials:
Materials in Other Organizations

The Charles Babbage Institute, Center for the History of Information Processing houses the Gordon D. Goldstein Papers, 1950-1979,

Archives Center, National Museum of American History houses the Computer Oral History Collection, 1969-1973, 1977
The collection was donated by Gordon D. Goldstein on December 13, 1978.
The collection is open for research use.
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning intellectual property rights. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Seac computer  Search this
Systems engineering  Search this
Univac computer  Search this
Computers  Search this
Technical manuals -- 20th century
Design drawings
Gordon D. Goldstein Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Gordon D. Goldstein Collection
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Online Media:

Krafft Arnold Ehricke Papers

Ehricke, Krafft, 1917-1984  Search this
Bell Aircraft Corporation  Search this
Convair (Consolidated Vultee Aircraft Corp)  Search this
North American Aviation, Inc  Search this
Rockwell International  Search this
Space Global  Search this
Dornberger, Walter, 1895-  Search this
Von Braun, Wernher, 1912-1977  Search this
124.9 Cubic Feet
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Papers, technical
VHS (videotape format)
Photographic prints
Newspaper clippings
This collection is composed of Krafft Ehricke's files including Ehricke's published and unpublished papers as well as papers and works by others that Ehricke gathered, presumably as reference material.
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of Krafft Ehricke's writings and interviews spanning 1949-1984 and items gathered by Ehricke as reference material for his various writing projects. The files on his writings include handwritten manuscripts, typed drafts, publication proofs, and/or final published versions and reprints, and in some cases include correspondences or other documents relating to publication. The collection also includes original paste-up versions of graphics created by or for Ehricke to illustrate his writings. The reference material includes technical reports, scientific papers, and newspaper and magazine articles gathered by Ehricke during his career.
The collection remained in the possession Ehricke's family for nearly two decades after his death and apparently was largely unorganized prior to processing. The material has been arranged in five series, with oversized materials filed at the end of the collection in series order by size.

Series I. Writings (Boxes 1-80) – copies of papers, articles, and lectures by Ehricke, including a mix of manuscript (MS), typescript (TS), paste-up, and published copies. Reports written by Ehricke as part of a study conducted as part of his professional duties are filed in Series IV as part of the "Studies and Projects" section of each subject group (see below). The materials are organized chronologically with different versions of the same work filed together by date of publication (if published) or completion. Ehricke rarely labeled MS or TS pages by title, generally wrote on the similar topics, and often cut finished text blocks or figures from one paper to use in another, a process he referred to cannibalization. As a result, although efforts have been made to organize loose MS and TS pages by their final works these assignments must be considered tentative and some pages have been left unassigned due to lack of sufficient information.

Series II. Graphics (Boxes 81-94) – copies of original and paste-up graphics (charts, graphs, illustrations) designed or created by Ehricke. Because these materials were mainly found in their original folders, they have been filed consistent with their original labeling. As a result they fall into groups roughly corresponding to Ehricke's tenures at General Dynamics, North American Rockwell, and Space Global.

Series III. Company Files (Boxes 94-104) – files and materials relating to business activities at the various companies for which Ehricke worked, organized by company in chronological order of Ehricke's tenure. Within each company, materials are organized by named files (filed alphabetically) and proposals and related material (filed chronologically). The proposals filed in this series represent studies or programs for which no other documentation exists in the collection.

Series IV. Reference Files (Boxes 104-253) – files and documents arranged by broad subject areas, based upon the subject organization for Ehricke's existing lecture transparencies. Within each subject area files are organized into three groups: named files (arranged alphabetically); studies (arranged chronologically by the start of the study); and other reports (arranged chronologically). Named files usually contain a variety of papers, reports, and articles and sometimes include items written by Ehricke. Studies often include correspondence, papers, or reports by Ehricke in addition to documents by other members of the study team; items by Ehricke have been filed in this series, rather than in Series I to preserve the context in which they were created and used. Other reports are generally filed chronologically by date of publication unless it could be clearly established that Ehricke acquired the material significantly later than its publication date (for instance: in cases where order forms attached to document bundles show that Ehricke had requested copies of the documents a decade after they were published). The subject areas are:


2. General (Boxes 104-108)

3. Vehicle Technology (Boxes 108-154)

4. Planets and Planetary Missions (Box 154-203)

5. Transportation Systems (Boxes 204-208)

6. Space Habitation and Human Factors (Boxes 208-219)

7. Space and Lunar Industry (Boxes 219-229)

8. Earth / Resources / Open World Synthesis (Boxes 229-234)

9. Energy (Boxes 234-249)

10. Space Light (Boxes 249-250)

11. Information Services (Boxes 250-253)

Unfortunately, there is significant overlap between these subject areas, especially between subseries 2, 3, 4, and 5; subseries 5, 6, and 9; and subseries 7, 8, and 9. Researchers are cautioned to examine several subject areas.

Series V. Miscellaneous Personal and Posthumous Materials (Boxes 253-254) – files and documents not otherwise related to Ehricke's research and writing or which post-date his death.
Biographical/Historical note:
Krafft Arnold Ehricke (1917-1984) was an engineer and scientist who made vital contributions to the American space program. Ehricke was considered "one of the few philosophers of astronautics" by the early 1960s (note 1) and until his death remained a visionary and public champion of the cause of space exploration and colonization.

Ehricke was born in Berlin, Germany on 24 March 1917. He was inspired by Fritz Lang's 1929 science fiction film Frau im Mond (Woman in the Moon) and attempted to join the German rocket society, Verein für Raumschiffarht (VfR), but, denied membership due to his youth, he instead conducted his own experiments. He spent two years (1936-1938) fulfilling military service requirements in Germany's new Panzer Corps, then earned an Aeronautical Engineering degree (MS equivalent) from the Technical University of Berlin (1938-1940). With World War II underway, Ehricke was recalled to service and was wounded during the Blitzkrieg on the Western Front in 1940. While recuperating from his wound he took graduate courses in Celestial Mechanics and Nuclear Physics from the University of Berlin (1940-1941). He returned to duty in 1941 as an officer to participate in the German attack on Russia. In 1942 he was again wounded, but his earlier engineering work had come to the attention of Wernher von Braun and he was recruited into von Braun's rocket development team, a move he later credited with saving his life. Ehricke spent the next two years (1942-1944) as a propulsion engineer at Peenemünde, then became an ordnance lecturer in Köslin, Germany (now Koszalin, Poland) until the end of the war. In January 1945 Ehricke married Ingeborg Maria Mattull. As the Third Reich collapsed in May he returned to her in Berlin and went into hiding to escape being "recruited" by the Soviet Union. He was finally located by an American officer in 1946 and was reunited with von Braun and the other Operation Paperclip (note 2) scientists under United States Army auspices.

In January 1947 Ehricke began work as a Research Engineer for the Research and Development Service of the United States Army Ordnance Corps at Ft. Bliss, TX, moving to Huntsville, AL, in 1950 when the Army transferred missile development from Ft. Bliss to Redstone Arsenal, AL. In 1952 Ehricke was recruited by Walter Dornberger (note 3), left government service for private industry, and moved to Buffalo, NY, to work as a Design Specialist at Bell Aircraft. For the next two years he worked on Bell's Orbital Glider project, a precursor to Project Dyna-Soar, the Air Force reusable boost-glide weapon system that itself prefigured NASA's Space Shuttle.

In November 1954 Ehricke moved to San Diego, CA, to begin a decade-long career with what was then the Convair Division of General Dynamics. For several years he was a key figure in the development of the Convair's SM-65 Atlas ICBM and Atlas launch vehicle. NASA used the man-rated Atlas LV-3 for the orbital flights of the Mercury Program and as of this writing the Atlas V family of Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicles remains a mainstay of the United States launch vehicle inventory. Between 1959 and 1962 Ehricke directed the development of the Centaur booster, the first high-energy upper stage powered by liquid hydrogen. Although Centaur was not successfully launched until 1965, it eventually served as the upper stage for Atlas, Titan, and Delta launch vehicles and was the last stage for the Viking (Mars) and Voyager (Outer Planets) missions. During this time he also authored Space Flight, a two-volume textbook on celestial mechanics and launch vehicle design (note 4). In 1962 Ehricke became the director of the Advanced Projects Department of General Dynamics Astronautics, where he directed and contributed to studies of next-generation (Post-Saturn) launch vehicles and propulsion systems, planetary exploration programs, and post-Apollo space activities.

At the end of October 1965 Ehricke left General Dynamics to become the assistant director of Astrionics at the Autonetics Division of North American Aviation (note 5), later rising to become Chief Scientist in the Advanced Systems Department of North American Rockwell's Space Division (1968-1973) and Chief Scientific Advisor for Rockwell International's North American Space Operations (1973-1977). While at North American Ehricke was involved in some aspects of the Space Shuttle program but primarily worked advanced project studies, including studies relating to NASA's space station and deep space exploration programs, and culminating in a multi-year study of space industrialization which began in 1976. During this time he also acted as scientific advisor to the abortive Satellite Power Corp (1974-1976), which proposed using satellites to generate and transmit electrical power to the Earth.

Ehricke retired from Rockwell in July 1977 and established Space Global Company with himself as president. Space Global was, in essence, a vehicle to promote space exploration and to promulgate his vision of a future space civilization, a concept he originally called the "Extraterrestrial Imperative" but later referred to as the "Open World Synthesis." The basic concept was relatively straightforward: because Earth's resources, although great, are limited, they place a limit on mankind's development. The only way to escape that limit is to move beyond the Earth and exploit the resources available in space. It was an argument for space exploration and colonization that Ehricke developed during the 1950s and 1960s, and finally crystallized in a manuscript he co-authored with Elizabeth Miller. Doubleday planned to publish the book in 1971, but then cancelled the project. Ehricke managed to get facets of the idea published in a number of technical journals, most notably in a four-part article in the Journal of the British Interplanetary Society (1979-1981), and gave numerous lectures on the topic, but The Extraterrestrial Imperative never appeared in the general media. Described as a "warm, witty man" and "a popular lecturer," he kept up an active speaking career until his health began to fail in 1984. He died of complications from leukemia on 11 December 1984.

During his life Ehricke wrote over 200 scientific and technical papers, contributed to a number of dictionaries and encyclopedias, and authored or co-authored several books. His final book The Seventh Continent: Industrialization and Settlement of the Moon (published in German as Der Siebente Kontinent – Die Industri Alisierung und Besiedlung des Mondes (Müchen: Thiemig Verlag, 1984)) was being edited for English publication at the time of his death. He was awarded an Honorary Doctorate of Humane Letters by the National College of Education (note 6) (1961) and received numerous awards including the International Astronautical Federation's Guenther Loeser Medal (1956), the American Rocket Society's Astronautics Award (1957) and Edward J. Pendray Award (1963), the New York Academy of Sciences' I. B. Laskowitz Award (1972), the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics' Goddard Astronautics Award (1984), and was inducted into the Aerospace Hall of Fame (1966).


2. Dandridge M. Cole to Krafft Ehricke, 12 February 1964.

3. Operation Paperclip was a program by the United States Office of Strategic Services (OSS) to bring German scientists to the United States in the immediate aftermath of World War II. More than 1500 scientists and engineers and nearly 4000 members of their families had entered the US by the end of 1947.

4. Walter Robert Dornberger (1895-1980) was a German artillery officer and engineer. In 1942 he was placed in charge of coordinating V-1 and V-2 development at Peenemünde. Captured by the British in 1945, he participated in Britain's -- Operation Backfire -- before being brought to the United States as part of -- Operation Paperclip -- , working on guided missile development for the United States Air Force. Between 1950 and 1965 he worked for Bell, eventually becoming a Vice President of the company. According to some stories he was responsible for poaching several -- Paperclip -- scientists away from the Army's Huntsville team for USAF projects.

5. Krafft A. Ehricke, -- Space Flight -- , Vol. I – -- Environment and Celestial Mechanics -- (Princeton (NJ): D. Van Norstrand, 1960) and Kraftt A. Ehricke, -- Space Flight -- , Vol. II – -- Dynamics -- (Princeton (NJ): D. Van Norstrand, 1962)

6. In September 1967 North American Aviation merged with Rockwell Standard and was renamed North American Rockwell. In 1973 North American Rockwell merged with Rockwell Manufacturing to form Rockwell International.

7. In 1990 National College of Education (NCE, est. 1886) expanded and reorganized into the National Louis University (NLU), headquartered in Chicago, IL, with NCE becoming one of the NLU's three colleges.


1917 Mar 24 -- born (Berlin, Germany)

1923-1926 -- Grammar School (Berlin, Germany)

1927-1936 -- Gynasium (Berlin, Germany)

1936-1938 -- German Army (military service, Panzer Corps)

1938-1941 -- Berlin Technical University (Aeronautical Engineering Diploma, 1941)

1940 -- German Army (Sergeant, Panzer Corps) – Western Front

1941-1942 -- University of Berlin (Nuclear Physics and Celestial Mechanics; predoctoral studies)

1942 -- German Army (Lieutenant, Panzer Corps) – Eastern Front, wounded

1942-1944 -- Peenemünde Research and Development Center (Development Engineer and Assistant to Director, Propulsion Development)

1944-1945 -- Köslin, Germany (Lecterer, Army Ordnance)

1945 Jan 19 -- married Ingeborg Maria Mattull (Berlin, Germany)

1947-1950 -- Ft Bliss, TX (Research Engineer)

1950-1952 -- Redstone Arsenal, Huntsville, AL (Thermodynamics Research Engineer, Chief of Gas Dynamics Dept)

1952-1954 -- Bell Aircraft Corp, Buffalo, NY (Preliminary Design Specialist)

1954-1955 -- General Dynamics/Convair, San Diego, CA (Design Specialist)

1956-1958 -- General Dynamics/Convair, San Diego, CA (Chief of Preliminary Design and Systems Analysis)

1956 -- received Gunther Loesler Medal (International Astronautics Federation)

1957 -- received Astronautics Award (American Rocket Society)

1958-1959 -- General Dynamics/Convair, San Diego, CA (Assistant to Chief Engineer)

1959-1962 -- General Dynamics/Convair, San Diego, CA (Director, Centaur Development)

1959-1961 -- NASA Research Advisory Committee on Electric Energy Systems (Chairman)

1961 -- awarded Honorary Doctorate of Humane Letters (National College of Education, Evanston, IL)

1962-1965 -- General Dynamics/Convair, San Diego, CA (Director, Advanced Studies Dept/Astronautics Division)

1963 -- received Edward Pendray Award (American Rocket Society)

1965-1968 -- North American Aviation, Anaheim, CA (Assistant Director, Astrionics Division)

1966 -- inducted into Aerospace Hall of Fame (San Diego, CA)

1968-1973 -- North American Aviation / Rockwell International, Anaheim, CA (Chief Scientist, Advanced Systems Department, Space Division)

1972 -- received I. B. Laskowitz Award (New York Academy of Sciences)

1973-1977 -- Rockwell International, Anaheim, CA (Chief Scientific Advisor, North American Space Operations)

1977-1984 -- Space Global Co (President)

1981 -- received Space Systems Award (IAA)

1984 -- received Goddard Astronautics Award (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics)

1984 Dec 11 -- died of complications from leukemia (La Jolla, CA)

Partial Bibliography of Papers, Reports, Lectures, and Interviews by Krafft Ehricke

"1990 A.D. and Man's Flight to the Planets" (extract from Ehricke & Betty A. Miller, -- Exploring the Planets -- (Morristown (NJ): Slver Burdett, 1969))

"Absolute Comparisons of Management Systems" (no date)

Accuracy Improvement of Martian Probe by Post-Escape Correction and Improved Determination of the Astronomical Constant -- (Convair report AZM-049; 1 Aug 1958)

"Acquisition of Geospace" (Nov 1968)

"Acquisition of the Solar System" (presented to "Contemporary Americans in an Intricate Society – 1969", The Hackley School Program for a Special Senior Conference, 19-29 May 1969)

"Advanced Nuclear Reactor Propulsion Concepts" (AIAA Lecture Series – Advanced Propulsion Systems for Space Applications, 6 Apr 1965)

"Aero-Thermodynamics of Descending Orbital Vehicles" ( -- Astronautica Acta -- 2, fasc.1 (1956))

"Aerojet-General Nucleonics Non-Chemical Propulsion Program" (presented to USAF, 11 Feb 1966)

"Aerospace and National Economic Development" (Feb 1976)

"Aerospace Contribution to Solving the Energy and Pollution Crisis" (delivered to luncheon meeting of Capital Section of AIAA, 27 Jun 1973)

"Aerospace Transportation" (Jun 1966)

"Aerospace Transportation – Concepts and Advanced Systems" (Jun 1966)

"Air Traffic in the Coming Space Age" (published as "Toward Aviation's New Infinities", -- Jet Tales -- 1/81)

An der Schwelle des Industriellen Raumzeitalters -- (report E75-9-1, Sep 1975)

"Analysis of a New Orbital Supply System and Optimization of Satellite Orbits for Interplanetary Flight" (presented to ARS 8th Annual Meeting, 2-4 Dec 1953; published as "A New Supply System for Satellite Orbits", -- Jet Propulsion -- 24, No.5 (Sep-Oct 1954) : 302-309 and No.6 (Nov-Dec 1954) : 369-373)

"Analysis of Orbital Systems" (1st edition, Feb 1954)

"Analysis of Orbital Systems" (2nd edition; presented to IAF 5th International Astronautical Congress, 5-7 Aug 1954)

"Analysis of Transportation Systems Flight Performance" (1970)

"Anthropology of Astronautics (The)" ( -- Astronautics -- 2 no.4 (Nov 1957) : 26-29, 65-68; reprinted in -- Astronautics and the Future -- )

Apollo 11 Flight [5th] Anniversary "Town Hall Talk" (circa 1974)

"Apollo and the Future" (delivered to Industrial Management Club of Reading and Berks County, Reading, PA, 25 Mar 1971)

Ascent and Descent of Rocket Vehicles -- (Convair report AZP-071; no date)

"Ascent of Orbital Vehicles" (published in -- Astronautica Acta -- 2 fasc.4 (1956))

"Aspects Concerning the Impact of Manned Heliocentric Mission on Space Station and Space Shuttle" (NR report PD70-5; Jan 1970)

"Aspects of Deep Space Probes Requiring Cryogenic Engineering Solutions" (University of California, Engineering X428GHI, Lecture 14, 14-17 May 1962)

"Astro-ecology and the Human Environment" (no date)

"Astrogenic Environments – The Effect of Stellar Spectral Classes in the Evolutionary Pace of Life" ( -- Space Flight -- 14 no.1 (Jan 1972); NR report SD71-716)

"Astronautical and Space-Medical Research with Automatic Satellites" (presented to the Franklin Institute; Jun 1956)

"Astronautical Vehicles" (no date)

"Astronautical Vehicles" ( -- Colliers Encyclopedia Year Book -- , 1960)

"Astronautics" (San Diego State College course, Physics 131, Fall Semester 1960)

"Astropolis and Androcell / Thermonuclear Power Generation Satellite / Lunar Productivity Center" (extracts from papers and testimony, 1972-1975; SG reprint SG578-1R, May 1978)

"Astropolis and Androcell – The Pyschology and Technology of Space Utilization and Extraterrestrialization" (presented to Session 2, International Space Hall of Fame Dedication Conference, 3-9 Oct 1976)

"Astropolis: The First Space Resort" ( -- Playboy -- , Nov 1968 : 96-98, 222)

"Atlas Family of Spacecraft & Preliminary Data on 990000 and 2x106 lb 3-Stage System with O -- 2 -- /H -- 2 -- Second and Third Stage" (30 Sep 1958)

Atmosphere Braking Entry and Associated Technologies -- (NR report X6-624/3061, 1968)

"Aufstieg und Abstieg von Raketengeraten" (published as Chapter 8 of -- Handbuch der Astronautik -- (Karl Schütte and Hans K. Kaiser, eds; Akademische Verlaggesellschaft Athenaion, 1958), pp.235-254; also Convair report AZP-071, circa 1958)

"Ausbeutung des Roten Planeten" (with unidentified "German author", circa Oct 1975)

"Ballistic Ascent to Satellite Orbits" (no date)

Beyond Earth: The Story of Astronautics -- (with Betty A. Miller, 1970 [not published])

"Beyond the First Space Stations" (Jan 1971; presented to Alabama AIAA Meeting, 20 Jan 1971)

"Blaue Planet hat doch eine Zukunft (Der)" ( -- Die Welt -- , 29 Jun 1974)

"Brief Outline of Steps for Commercial Development of Solar Power Systems on Earth and Power Transmission Through Space" (no date)

"Brief Study of the Application of Three Nerva Engine Models to Comparatively Modern Manned Interplanetary Missions Such as Capture in an Elliptic Orbit around Venus in 1975 and Return to Earth" (with B. Brown, B. Oman, and W. Strobl; GDA report GDA 63-1223, 20 Nov 1963)

Будущее Космической Индустрии (Москва: Машиностроение, 1979) [ -- The Future of Space Industry -- (Moscow: Mashinostroenie, 1979)]

"Buck Stops Here (The)" (Viewpoint column; -- Fusion -- , Sep 1981)

"Busy World of Outer Space (The)" ( -- Discovery -- ; ABC TV, aired 28 Jan 1968; includes Ehricke interview)

"Calculations on a Manned Nuclear Propelled Space Vehicle" (ARS paper 532-57; presented at ARS 12th Annual Meeting, 2-5 Dec 1957)

"Case for Space (A)" (presented to the Citizen's Campaign for Space, Sponsored by The Center of American Living Inc, New York City, NY, 17-18 Feb 1970; NR report SD70-65; Feb 1970)

"Case for Space" [II] (presented to unidentified meeting, 27 Jun 1970; also to California State Polytechnical College, Aerospace Education Workshop, 14 Jul 1970)

"Case for the Space Station (The)" (circa Feb 1970)

CBS News Interview (Krafft Ehricke/Walter Cronkite, Sep 1966)

"Changing Role of Technology (The) – Yesterday Today and Tomorrow" (presented to 8th Space Congress, 19-23 Apr 1971; NR SD71-536)

"Circular Satellite Orbits" (no date)

"Cislunar Operations" (ARS paper 467-57; presented at ARS Semi-Annual Meeting, 10-13 Jun 1957)

Cislunar Orbits -- (Convair report AZP-004, 30 Mar 1957)

"Comments on Space Station Paper by R Gilruth" (presented to 5th AIAA Annual Meeting, 21-25 Oct 1968; response to Robert R. Gilruth, "Manned Space Stations - Gateway to Our Future in Space," presented at the Orbital Laboratory Symposium of the International Academy of Astronautics, 18 Oct 1968)

"Comments on the Question of the Usefulness of the Scramjet to Boost and Reentry Vehicle Program" (no date)

"Communications and the New Life Style" (address to Public Broadcasting System Annual Meeting, 1972)

Comparison of Advanced Propulsion Systems: Solar-Heating, Arc Thermo-dynamics and Arc Magneto Hydrodynamics -- (Convair report AZK-002, 1 Dec 1957)

"Comparison of One-Way Transfers and the Effect of Specific Impulse I -- sp -- and Mass Fraction x on Gross Payload Fraction" (no date)

"Comparison of Propellants and Working Fluids for Rocket Propulsion (A)" (Sep 1952; published in -- Journal of ARS -- 23, no.5 (Sep/Oct 1953))

"Comparison of Rocket Propulsion at Constant Thrust and Constant Acceleration (A)" (Jun 1951; published in -- Rocket Science -- 5, no.3 (Sep 1951))

"Computation of Number of Binary Bits of Information for Venus Radar Mapping" (no date)

"Concept of Shuttle Stations and Their Functions in Geolunar Space Utilization (The)" (NR report PD70-4, 15 Jan 1970, revised Jan 1970)

"Contributions of Space Reflection Technology to Food Production, Local Weather Manipulation and Energy Supply, 1985-2020" (presented to 17th European Space Symposium, 4-6 Jun 1980; published in -- JBIS Space Technology -- 34 no.12, Dec 1981))

"Cost Reductions in Energy Supply through Space Operations" (IAF paper IAF-A-76-25; presented to the Sixth International Cost Reduction in Space Operations Symposium II, session 34 of the IAF 27th International Astronautical Congress, 10-16 Oct 1976)

"Cost Reductions in Transportation to Geosynchronous and Lunar Orbit" (presented to IAF 23rd International Astronautical Congress, 8-15 Oct 1972, 5th Lunar International Laboratory Symposium; NR report SD72 SA-0174, Sep 1972; published as "Cost Reduction in Transportation to Geosynchronous and Lunar Orbit in a Swing Station"" ( -- Raumfahrtforschung -- 17 no.3 (May/June 1973) : 126-135)

"Cost Reductions in Transportation to Geosynchronous and Lunar Orbit in a Swing Station" (Raumfahrtforschung 17 no.3 (May/June 1973) : 126-135; NR report SD72-SA-0174, Sep 1972; presented to IAF 23rd International Astronautical Congress, 8-15 Oct 1972, 5th Lunar International Laboratory Symposium as "Cost Reduction in Transportation to Geosynchronous and Lunar Orbit")

Delta -- (California Museum of Science and Industry, TV Pilot, Jun 1974; Ehricke included in on-screen interview)

"Destination Mankind – Proposal for a Saturn V-Apollo Mission into Geosynchronous Orbit" (19 May 1972)

Development of a Basic Planetary Transportation System Model, Interim Report -- (GDA report, circa 1964)

"Development of Large Earth Orbital Space Station" (presented to IAF 21st Interntional Astronautical Congress, 4-10 Oct 1970; NR report SD 70-641, Nov 1970)

Early Manned Interplanetary Missions, Intermediate Report No. 1 – Missions and Operations Studies -- (GDA report AOK 62-0001, 30 Jul 1962)

"Earth Environment and Resources Management from Space" (presented to IAF 22nd International Astronautical Congress, 20-24 Sep 1971; NR report SD 71-734, Sep 1971)

Earth's Seventh Continent – Industrialization and Settling of the Moon -- (in preparation for publication, 1984)

"Earth-Moon Transportation" (presented to AAS 16th Annual Meeting, 8-10 Jun 1970; NR report SD70-338)

"Earth-Space Meta-Environment and the Future of Man 1970-2070" (presented to ISF 1971 Conference on International Science Policy with the International Meta-University, Sep 1971)

"Economy of Large Launch Vehicles including Labor Costs" ( -- Journal of Spacecraft and Rockets -- 1, no.6 (Nov 1964) : 611-619; originally presented as part of "Nexus – Concept of a Large Reusable Launch Vehicle"; AIAA Summer Meeting, paper 63-277, 17-20 Jun 1963; originally titled "Economy of Saturn V and Post-Saturn Vehicles with Consideration of Orbital Labor Cost")

"Economy of Saturn V and Post-Saturn Vehicles with Consideration of Orbital Labor Cost" (originally presented as part of "Nexus – Concept of a Large Reusable Launch Vehicle"; AIAA Summer Meeting, paper 63-277, 17-20 Jun 1963; published as "Economy of Large Launch Vehicles including Labor Costs", -- Journal of Spacecraft and Rockets -- 1, no.6 (Nov 1964) : 611-619)

Effective Initial Contributions of a Manned Space Station -- (report KAE-11, 6 Nov 1970)

"Electric Propulsion Systems Model" (no date)

"Electromagnetic Propulsion" ( -- McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technolog -- y, vol. 4 (NY: McGraw-Hill, 3rd Ed., 1971))

Elements of Rocket Science -- (unpublished textbook, no date)

"ELV Comparison and Evaluation Methodology" (Summer 1963)

EMPIRE Follow-On Final Report -- , Vol. I – -- Condensed Summary Report -- (GDA report AOK 64-006, 1 Jan 1964)

EMPIRE Follow-On Final -- [Third] -- Presentation -- (GDA report AOK 64-002, 28 Jan 1964)

EMPIRE Follow-On – Parametric Mission Analysis -- (GDA report AOK 63-024, 30 Aug 1963)

"Energy and the Shuttle Compatible Space Energy Test (SET) Facility Briefing, September 25, 1974"

"Engineering and Space Operations" (presented to Space Station Utilization Conference, NASA/Ames Research Center; 9-10 Sep 1970)

"Engineering Problems of Manned Space Flight" (presented to USC Symposium on the 75th anniversary of the University and 59th Anniversary of the Engineering Dept, Apr 1955)

"Engineering the Reality of Lunar Industrialization" (presented to CSU Northridge School of Engineering and Computer Science Colloqium, 24 Feb 1983)

"Erde und Raum als Integrale Aktionsumwelt des Menschen" (no date)

Error Analysis of Keplerian Flights Involving a Single Central Force Field and Transfer Between Two Central Force Fields Spacecraft Orbits -- (Convair report AZM-7-551; 17 Jan 1958)

"Error Analysis of Single and Two-Force Field Spacecraft Orbits" (Ehricke; presented to Franklin Institute Lecture Series on Space Flight, Mar 1958; Convair report AZM-054, 22 Sep 1958)

"Evolution of Interstellar Operations" (presented to AAS Joint National Meeting, Denver, Colorado, 17-20 Jun 1969; NR report SD69-420, Jun 1969)

"Evolution of Space Flight" (no date)

Evolution of the Space Ship -- (not published)

"Ex Mens[is] – 1: On the Integrated Plan" (15 Feb 1970)

"Ex Mens[is] – 2: Perspective" (no date)

Excerpts of Chapter 7 "Low Thrust Space Flight" of -- Space Flight, Vol. II "Dynamics" -- (Convair report KE62/1, no date)

Exoindustrial Productivity – The Extraterrestrial Imperative of Our Time -- (report E75-5-1, May 1975)

"Exoindustrialization as a System" (no date)

Exoindustry: A Macro-System Analysis -- (report E76-1-1, Jan 1976)

Exploration of the Solar System -- (with Betty A. Miller; published as -- Exploring the Planets -- (Learning Corp, 1969))

"Exploration of the Solar System and Interstellar Space" (presented to 2nd International Conference on Planetology and Space Mission Planning, NY Academy of Science, 26-27 Oct 1967; NR report X7-3215/060)

Exploration of the Solar System and Interstellar Space -- (with Elizabeth A. Miller, 1971 [not published])

Exploring the Planets -- (with Betty A. Miller; (Learning Corp, 1969); originally titled -- Exploration of the Solar System -- )

"Extraterrestrial Contamination, Pollution and Waste Disposal" (published as "Space Dumping – Extra-terrestrial Contamination, Pollution and Waste Disposal" in -- The Environment This Month -- 1 no.1 (Jul 1972) : 36-45)

"Extraterrestrial Imperative" (published as "The Extraterrestrial Imperative – Grow and Live", NY -- Times -- , 23 May 1972)

Extraterrestrial Imperative (The) -- (with Elizabeth A. Miller, 1971 (first version), not published)

Extraterrestrial Imperative (The) -- (with Elizabeth Miller, 1974 (second version), not published)

Extraterrestrial Imperative (The), Part I – Evolutionary Logic -- (SG report SG1078-1, Oct 1978)

"Extraterrestrial Imperative (The), Part II – Productive Earth Orbits – New Partnership Through Pressures and Promise" ( -- JBIS -- 32 no.11 (November 1979) : 410-418)

"Extraterrestrial Imperative (The), Part III – New Earth-Space Energy Metabolism, I – Energy Demand Model, Near-Term Space Assist, Space Disposal of Nuclear Waste" ( -- JBIS -- 33 no.11 (November 1983) : 379-390; SG report SG779-1, Jul 1979)

Extraterrestrial Imperative (The), Part IV – Evolution II -- (SG report SG-OW-9ET-4-182, Jan 1982)

"Extraterrestrial Imperative (The)" ( -- Air University Review -- 29 no.2 (Jan-Feb 1978) : 2-20)

"Extraterrestrial Imperative (The)" ( -- Futures -- 13 no.2 (Apr 1981) : 107-114; originally titled "The Extraterrestrial Imperative – Evolutionary Perspective and a Cosmopolitan Strategy")

"Extraterrestrial Imperative (The)" ( -- Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists -- 27 no.9 (Nov 1971) : 18-26; reprinted in -- New Worlds -- 2 no.2 (Feb 1972) : 12-23)

"Extraterrestrial Imperative (The) – Evolutionary Logic and Realistic Promise" (SG report SG678-1; submitted to -- Smithsonian -- , circa 1978)

"Extraterrestrial Imperative (The) – Evolutionary Perspective and a Cosmopolitan Strategy" (published as "The Extraterrestrial Imperative", -- Futures -- 13 no.2 (Apr 1981) : 107-114)

"Extraterrestrial Imperative (The) – Grow and Live" (NY -- Times -- , 23 Mar 1972)

"Extraterrestrial Imperative – Road Into the Future" (presented to SYNCON '72, 17-21 May 1972; NR report SD72 SA-0120, Jun 1972)

"Extraterrestrial Imperative (The) – The Logic of Social and Realistic Promise" (CSU Northridge extension course SOC X496G/X896G, 30 Jan-14 May 1980)

"Extraterrestrial Imperative (The): Why Mankind Must Colonize Space" ( -- Fusion -- (English language edition) 5 no.6 (Dec 1982) : 18-24)

"Extraterrestrial Imperative and Lunar Development" (originally presented to NASA Symposium, Lunar Bases and Space Activities of the 21st Century, 29-31 Oct 1984 as "Lunar Industrialization and Settlement – Birth of Polyglobal Civilization")

"Extraterrestrial Imperatives" (presented to Future Oriented Activities in the United Nations, 30 Nov 1972)

"Extraterrestrial Industry – A Challenge to Growth Limitation" (Jun 1972)

"Extraterrestrial Industry – A Challenge to Growth Limitation" (presented to The Conference Board, The Essential Resources Conference, 16 Apr 1973; NR report SD 73-SH-0134, Apr 1973)

"Extraterrestrial Nuclear Mining" (no date)

"Fast Flight Profiles for Manned Helionautical Missions" (presented to 4th International Symposium on Bioastronautics and the Exploration of Space, 24-27 Jun 1968, San Antonio, TX))

"Flight Profiles and Navigation of Interorbital Transports in Geolunar Space" (presented to ION National Space Meeting, 23-25 Feb 1971; NR report SD71-475, Mar 1971)

"For a Synergistic Space Program – Excerpts from Material Presented to the Advanced Aerospace Projects Office, NASA Langley Research Center, on July 16, 1970" (16 Jul 1970)

Forward to -- Into the Unknown -- (Don Dwiggins; San Carlos (CA): Golden Gate Junior Books, 1971)

Foundations of Interplanetary Flight -- (unpublished textbook, no date)

"Four Objectives – The Fundamental Principles of Our Commitment to Space" (5 Jul 1970; published as "Our Commitment to Space", -- Spaceflight -- 13 no.3 (Mar 1971) : 82)

"From Closed to Open World" (presented to NASA Study Group on "Outlook for Space", 23-24 Oct 1974)

From Dust to Stars: The Evolution of Space Flight -- (with Elizabeth Miller and J. Sentovic, 1967)

"Further Analyses of the Slide Lander and of Drop Delivery Systems for Improved Lunar Surface Access" (IAF paper IAA-82-216; presented IAF 33rd International Astronautical Congress, 12th International Symposium on Space Economics and Benefits: Socio-Economics Benefits of Space Operations, 27 Sep-3 Oct 1982)

"Further Comments on the Power Relay Satellite Concept" (Jan 1974)

"Future in Space" (presented to Air Command and Staff College, Maxwell AFB, AL, 18 May 1972)

Future of Space Industry (The) -- (Moscow: Mashinostroenie, 1979) [Будущее Космической Индустрии (Москва: Машиностроение, 1979)]

"Geolunar Industrial Transportation for Low Propellant Expenditure with New Energy Management Concepts for Lunar Access, Part I" (IAF paper 79-120, presented to IAF 30th International Astronautical Congress 16-22 Sep 1979; SG report SG779-1, Jul 1979)

Geospace Development – Presentation to C. W. Mathews, Deputy Associate Administrator, Office of Manned Space Flight, NASA Headquarters, Washington, DC -- (NR report PD70-24; Mar 1970)

"Good Heavens, Santa!" (television script with Leon Leonidoff and Elizabeth A. Miller, 20 Jul 1978)

"Government, Industry and Research Responses to Space Exploration" (presented to ARDC 7th Annual Science and Engineering Symposium, 29-30 Nov 1960)

Guidance and Navigation Approach to Lifting Reentry Vehicle Missions -- (NA report T6-2580/060, Oct 1966)

"Habeus Extraterrestrium – Kultur und Technik im gesetz Jenseits der Erde" (no date)

Hard and Soft Power Relay Satellite Systems – Technical, Financial and Development-Related Aspects of Beamed Power Transmission Over Great Distances -- (SG reprint SG879-2R, Aug 1979; reprint of -- Technical, Financial and Development-Related Aspects of Beamed Power Transmission Systems Using a Power Relay Satellite (PRS) -- ; report E74-12-1, Dec 1974)

"Harenodynamic Cooling: The Use of Lunar Sand as a Cooling Medium" (published in -- Acta Astronautica -- 11 no.6 (Jun 1984) : 319-325)

"Helionautics in the Year 2000" (no date)

Helionauts (The) -- (proposed TV series, circa 1966; also titled -- The Infinauts -- )

"Heritage of Apollo – Presentation to the Town Hall of California (The)" (report E74-7-1, 16 Jul 1974)

"How Do We Get There From Here?" (presented to Los Angeles Council of Engineers and Scientists [LACES], 3 Apr 1975)

"I Can Get Us There by 1966" ( -- Space World -- 1 no.2 (Jul 1960) : 16-19, 48-49)

"Identification of Manned Space Activities Beyond Apollo at Modest Orbital Work, Attractive to Scientific Community" (n.d)

"In-Depth Exploration of the Solar System and Its Utilization for the Benefit of Earth" (presented to 3rd Conference on Planetology and Space Mission Planning, New York Academy of Sciences, 28-29 Oct 1970; NR report SD 71-290, Jan 1971)

"Industrial Productivity as a New Overarching Goal of Space Development" (Oct 1975)

"Industrialisierung des Mondes (Die) – Der erste Schritt in eine Neue Offene Welt" ( -- Fusion -- (German language edition) 3 no.2 (Mar 1982) : 38-51 and -- Fusion -- (German language edition) 3 no.3 (May 1982) : 40-50)

"Industrialization of Space" (presented to the Wisconsin American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Milwaukee, WI, 28 Apr 1978)

"Industrializing the Moon – The First Step into a New Open World" ( -- Fusion -- (English language edition) 5 no.2 (Dec 1981) : 21-31 and -- Fusion -- (English language edition) 6 no.1 (May-Jun 1984) : 46-55)

"Industrielle Evolution und Revolution im Geolunaren Raum 1980-2010" (presented to 21 Raumfahrt-tagung der HOG, Garmisch-Partenkirchen, 28 Sep-1 Oct 1972; NR report SD72-0173, Sep 1972)

Infinauts (The) -- (proposed TV series, circa 1966; originally titled -- The Helionauts -- )

"Instrumented Comets – Astroanutics of Solar and Planetary Probes" (ARS paper 493-57; presented to IAF 8th International Astronautical Congress, 6-12 Oct 1957)

Integrated Geolunar Transportation and Occupation System Using Space Station Modules in Highly Eccentric Orbits -- (report KAE-4, 18 Nov 1969)

"Interplanetary Maneuvers in Manned Helionautical Missions" (AIAA paper 65-695; presented to the AIAA/ION Astrodynamics Specialist Conference, 16-17 Sep 1965; reprinted in -- Progress in Astronautics -- , Vol. 17, -- Methods in Astrodynamics and Celestial Mechanics -- (NY: Academic Press, 1966))

Interplanetary Mission Profiles -- (GDC report AZM-023, 30 Apr 1958)

Interplanetary Mission Profiles – Pt. II -- (report KE60/2, 1 Dec 1960; published as part of -- Space Flight -- , Vol. II – -- Dynamics -- )

"Interplanetary Probes: Three Problems" ( -- Astronautics -- , Jan 1959 : 20-22, 42, 44, 46)

"Ion Propulsion" ( -- McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology -- , vol. 7 (NY: McGraw-Hill, 3rd Ed., 1971))

Ion Propulsion System for Orbital Stabilization of Satellites, Especially of Several Satellites in Closely Similar Orbits (Pt. 1) -- (Convair report ASM-2, 13 Sep 1957)

Kraftsoletta – Eine Industrie-Sonne für Europa -- (SG report SG1177-1, Nov 1977)

"Künstliche Kometen – Eine Analyse der Enforschüng der Interplanetaren Raums mit hyperbolischen Sonden" (no date)

"Large Scale Processing of Lunar Material" (presented to LSI 7th Lunar Science Conference "Utilization of Lunar Materials and Expertise for Large Scale Operations in Space", 15-19 Mar 1976; report E76-3-1, Mar 1976)

Light and Shadow Distribution in a Circular Satellite Orbit with and without Precession -- (Convair report ZP-7-019; 3 Nov 1953)

"Long-Range Perspective and Some Fundamental Aspects of Interstellar Evolution (A)" (Apr 1975; published in -- JBIS -- 28, no.11 (Nov 1975); report E75-6-1, Jun 1975)

"Low Cost Commercial Space Traffic Operations and the Swing Station" (presented to IAF 24th International Astronautical Congress, 7-13 Oct 1973; report E73-10-2, Oct 1973; published in -- Raumfahrtforschung -- 18 no.4 (Jul/Aug 1974) : 173-182)

"Lunar Atmospheric Research by Lunar Satellite and the Landing of Lunar Probes Within Pressurized Structures" (circa 1960)

"Lunar Bases – Complexes for Exploration and Colonization of the Moon" (with Betty Ann Miller, pp.1380-1391 of unidentified publication)

"Lunar Industrialization and Settlement – Birth of Polyglobal Civilization" (presented to NASA Symposium, Lunar Bases and Space Activities of the 21st Century, 29-31 Oct 1984; later retitled "Extraterrestrial Imperative and Lunar Development")

"Lunar Industries and Their Value for the Human Environment on Earth" (presented to IAF 23rd International Astronautical Congress, 8-15 Oct 1972; NR report SD72-SA-0176, Sep 1972; published in -- Acta Astronautica -- 1 no. 5 (May 1974): 585-622)

"Lunar Settlements and Their Value for the Human Environment on Earth" ( -- Acta Astronautica -- 1, no.5-6 (May-Jun 1974) : 585-622; originally titled "Permanent Lunar Settlements and Their Value for the Human Environment on Earth")

"Lunetta System Analysis" (IAF paper 80-A-11: presented at IAF 31st International Astronautic Congress, Symposium on Space and Engery; possibly SG report SG-OW-21-182)

"Magnetogas Dynamics" ( -- McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology -- , vol. 8 (NY: McGraw-Hill, 3rd Ed., 1971))

Magnificent Heritage – Missions to New Worlds and the New Solar System (The) -- (documentary; with Elizabeth Miller, Jul 1970)

"Man Can Use Interstellar Space" (Los Angeles -- Times -- , 28 Jun 1972)

"Man, Resources and Planets" (presented to IAF 19th International Astronautical Congress, 13-19 Oct 1968; NR report X8-2233/060)

"Maneuvers and Navigation in Manned Helionautics" (presented to ION National Space Meeting, 23-25 Feb 1971; NR report SD 71-474, Mar 1971)

"Manned Orbital and Lunar Space Vehicles" (presented to 2nd International Symposium on the Physics and Medicine of the Atmosphere and Space, 10-12 Nov 1958; Convair report AZM-059, 25 Nov 1958; reprinted in Southwest Research Institute, -- The Physics and Medicine of the Atmosphere and Space -- (John Wiley, 1960))

"Manned Planetary Spacecraft Commonality with Space Station" (with A. L. Jones; presented to AAS 16th Annual Meeting, 8-10 Jun 1970; NR report SD70-342, Jun 1970)

Manned Space Service Program -- (report KAE-16, Nov 1968)

"Manned Spaceflight in the Seventies, Part I – Alternatives for Manned Spaceflight in the Seventies" (Jan 1971)

"Manned Versus Unmanned Spaceflight" (Oct 1968)

"Material on Space Industrialization Presented to J. T. Murphy, NASA-MSFC, 31 Aug 1976"

"Mehr Mut, die Brücke in eine große Zukunft zu betreten" ( -- Die Welt -- no.304, 31 Dec 1982)

"Mensch, Umwelt, Technik und wachstum – Dem 'Klub von Rom' zum Zehnten ins Stammbuch" (no date)

"Metaprobe – A Concept for Regional Exploration of the Solar System and a Means to Develop International Teamwork in Space Research" (presented to IAF 19th International Astronautical Congress (Oct 13-19, 1968). NR report X-2209/060; originally presented to 5th AIAA Annual Meeting, 21-25 Oct 1968 as "Metaprobe – A Tool for the Synoptic Exploration of Space", NR report X-2291/060)

"Metaprobe – A Tool for the Synoptic Exploration of Space" (presented to 5th AIAA Annual Meeting, 21-25 Oct 1968; NR report X-2291/060; also presented to IAF 19th International Astronautical Congress (Oct 13-19, 1968) as "Metaprobe – A Concept for Regional Exploration of the Solar System and a Means to Develop International Teamwork in Space Research" (NR report X-2209/060))

"Method of High-Speed Spacecraft Ejection from the Solar System (A)" (published as "Saturn-Jupiter Rebound – A Method of High-Speed Spacecraft Ejection from the Solar System", -- JBIS -- 25 no.10 (Oct 1972) : 561-571)

"Method of Using Small Orbital Carriers for Establishing Satellites" (ARS paper 69-52, Dec 1952)

Methodology of Mission and Systems Synthesis of Manned Planetary Flights with Particular Emphasis on Venus and Mars as Target Planets -- (GD report AOK-63-019, 1 Jul 1963)

"Methods of Minimizing Shuttle-Based High- and Low-Thrust Transportation Costs to Geosynchronous Orbit" (IAF paper A74-03; presented to IAF 25th International Astronautical Congress, 30 Sep-5 Oct 1974)

"Mission Analysis of Fast Manned Flights to Venus and Mars" (presented to Interplanetary Mission Conference, AAS 9th Meeting, 15-17 Jan 1963)

Mission Map Parameters: Hyperbolic Excess Velocity, Inclination, Path Angle, Perihelion Distance, and Tranfer Angle, Vol. II – Earth-Mars-Earth 1972-1985 -- (GD report AOK63-0005, 20 Jan 1963)

"Missions Between Planets and to Selected Asteroids of this Solar System, Covering the Period of 1973 to 2000" (presented to AIAA National Meeting, Washington, DC, 28 Jun-2 Jul 1964)

"Morphological Analysis and Comparison of Nuclear Pulse Drive Mechanization Concepts" (presented to AIAA 5th Joint Propulsion Specialist Conference, 9-13 Jun 1969)

"New Cosmos and Homo Extraterrestris (The)" (delivered to AIAA Symposium: "Our Extraterrestrial Heritage – from UFOs to Space Colonies", 28 Jan 1978)

"New Growth in an Open World at the Threshold of the First Cosmopolitan Millenium – Collected Works of K. A. Ehricke, 1939 through 1980" (introduction to SG "OpenWorld" document series)

"New Growth in an Open World: Evolutionary Perspective and a Cosmopolitan Strategy" (IAF paper IAA-81-234, Aug 1981; presented to IAF 32rd International Astronautical Congress, 11th International Symposium on Space Economics and Benefits II, 6-12 Sep 1981)

"New Supply System for Satellite Orbits (A) – Part 1" ( -- Jet Propulsion -- 24 No.5 (Sep-Oct 1954) : 302-309)

"New Supply System for Satellite Orbits (A) – Part 2" ( -- Jet Propulsion -- 24 No.6 (Nov-Dec 1954) : 369-373)

"Nexus – Concept of a Large Reusable Earth Launch Vehicle (with Freeman D'Vincent; presented at AIAA Summer Meeting, 17-20 Jun 1963; GDA report 63-0065; AIAA paper 63-277)

"Nexus Concept (The)" (with Freeman D'Vincent; -- Astronautics and Aerospace -- 2 no.1 (Jan 1964))

Non-relativistic Interstellar Mission Performance Analysis to Alpha Centauri -- (report KAE-19, circa 1971)

"Notwendigkeit der Weltraumfahrt (Die) – Der Extraterrestrischel Imperativ" (published in -- Fusion -- (German language edition) 4 no.4 (Fall 1983) : 29-41)

"Offene Neue Welt" (no date)

Omni -- Interview ( -- Omni -- 3 no.12 (Sep 1981) : 87-91, 124)

"On Bounding the Problem of Growth" (17 Jul 1972)

"On the Application of Solar Power in Space Flight" (presented to IAF 7th International Astronautical Congress, 17-22 Sep 1956)

"On the Commercial Satellite Project" (no date)

"On the Descent of Winged Orbital Vehicles" ( -- Astronautica Acta -- 1, fasc.3 (1955))

"On the Mechanics of Descent to a Celestial Body" (presented to ARS Annual Meeting, Dec 1954; -- Journal of Astronautics -- 2 no.4 (Winter 1955) : 137-144)

"On the Need for New Launch Vehicles" (session paper for "Do We Need New Propulsion Systems (Post Saturn) for Lunar and Planetary Flight?", panel for AIAA Annual Meeting, 29 Nov-2 Dec 1966 (chaired by Ehricke); NA report X7-158/060)

"On Space Dynamics at Moderately Low Accelerations" (no date)

"Ӧppen värld med obegränsad tillväxt (En)" ( -- Energi and Utveckling -- , no date, 50-58)

"Orbit Change at Moderate Infra G Acceleration" (no date)

"Our Commitment to Space" ( -- Spaceflight -- 13 no.3 (Mar 1971) : 82; originally titled "Four Objectives – The Fundamental Principles of Our Commitment to Space" (5 Jul 1970))

"Our Philosophy of Space Missions", ( -- Aero/Space Engineering -- 17 no.5 (May 1958) : 38-43; originally titled "Philosophy of Our Space Mission")

"Out There ... Why Not?" (no date)

"Outer Atmosphere Research Program" (Jan 1954)

"Outlook for Space 1980-2000" (6 Sep 1974)

"Outlook for Space, Economy of Infinity aned Economy of Durability" (extract from -- Extraterrestrial Industy - A Challenge to Growth Limitations -- , Proceedings of the Essential Resources Conference, The Conference Board)

Parametric Mission Analysis -- (GDA report AOK 63-024, 30 Aug 1963)

"Passive Power Relay Satellite (The) – Concept and Appraisal of Extraterrestrial Means to Contribute to Overcoming the Energy Confrontation" (circa 1974)

"Passive Power Relay Satellites for Global Energy Distribution" (presented to 10th Annual Space Congress, 11-13 Apr 1973; RI report SD73-SA-0016, Feb 1973)

"Peenemünde: The Coming of the Future" (CSULB-Nova; Ehricke interviewed for program; possibly aired as "Hitler's Secret Weapon", -- NOVA -- , 5 Jan 77)

"Peenemuende Rocket Center" (3 Jan 1950)

"Permanent Lunar Settlements and Their Value for the Human Environment on Earth" (published as "Lunar Settlements and Their Value for the Human Environment on Earth"; -- Acta Astronautica -- 1 no.5-6 (May-Jun 1974) : 585-622)

"Perspective and Systems Engineering of Manned Planetary Flight" (presented to AAS 16th Annual Meeting, 8-10 Jun 1970; NR report SD70-339, Jun 1970)

"Pesticides, Fungicides, Oxides of Nitrogen = Recognized Environmental Hazards" (no date)

Philosophy and Outline of Long-Range Space Planning for the Needs of This Nation and Mankind -- (NR report PD71-16; Jul 1971)

"Philosophy of Our Space Mission" (published as "Our Philosophy of Space Missions", -- Aero/Space Engineering -- 17 no.5 (May 1958) : 38-43)

"Planning Space Stations for Long Range Utilization" (presented to Short Course in Space Station Utilization, University of Tennessee, Tullahoma, Mar 1971; NR report SD 71-473, Mar 1971)

"Planning Space Stations for Long Range Utilization of Space for Earthians" (presented to von Karman Institute for Fluid Dynamics, Brussels, during the Short Course on Space Station Technology and Utilization, Sep 1971; NR report SD 71-562, Sep 1971)

Pollution of the Future (The) -- (SG report SG879-1, Aug 1978)

Post-Nova Launch Vehicles, Intermediate Report No.1, Advanced Concepts, Extraterrestrial Operation Models and Launch Vehicle Requirements -- (GDA report AOK62-0005, 5 Sep 1962)

Post-Nova Launch Vehicles, Intermediate Report No.2, Extraterrestrial Options, Concept Selections and Schedule (GDA report AOK62-0012, 13 Nov 1962)

Power Relay Satellite (The) – A Means of Global Distribution of Electricity from Large Remotely Located Energy Factories Processing Solar, Nuclear or Other Sources of Primary Energy -- (report E74-11-1, Nov 1974)

Power Relay Satellite (The) – A Means of Global Energy Transmission Through Space, Part I: Technology, Operation, Performance and Economics of the Power Relay System -- (report E74-3-1, Mar 1973)

Power Relay Satellite (The) – A Means of Global Energy Transmission Through Space, Part II: The Power Relay Satellite Concept in the Framework of the Overall Energy Picture and Complete Terrestrial Energy Systems -- (report E74-6-1, Jun 1974)

"Power Relay Satellite (The) – A Means of World Electrification through Space Transmission" (Aug 1973; presented to IAF 24th International Astronautical Congress, Symposium on Cost Reduction in Space Operations, 7-13 Oct 1973)

"Power Relay Satellite (The) – Problem Areas" (circa Jan 1974)

Power Relay Satellite (PRS) Concept in the Framework of the Overall Energy Picture (The) -- (report E73-12-1, Dec 1973)

"Powered Ascension Path of Satellite Vehicles" (no date)

"Powered Flight Without Atmosphere" (published as Chapter 6.1 of -- Handbook of Astronautical Engineering -- (H.H. Koelle, ed, McGraw-Hll, 1961); Convair report AE61-0199, 19 Mar 1961)

"Powered Flyby" (no date)

"Practical Approach to the Disposal of Highly Toxic and Long-Lived Spent Nuclear Fuel Waste Between Venus and Earth (A)" (presented to 10th International Symposium on Space Economics and Benefits II: Socio-Economic Benefits of Space Operations, 31st International Astronautical Congress, 22-27 Sep 1980; published in -- Acta Astronautica -- 10 no.11 (Nov 1983))

"Producing Advanced Fusion Fuel on the Moon" ( -- Fusion -- (English language ed.), Sep 1982)

"Profitability of Manufacturing in Space in View of Lunar Industrial Development and Geo-Socio-Economic Benefit" (presented to ASME Winter Meeting – Manufacturing in Space, Boston 17-18 Nov 1983; published in L. Kops, Ed. -- Manufacturing in Space -- [PED Vol.11] (NY: ASME, 1983), pp.183-198)

Programmatic Comparison of Initial Manned Missions to Venus and Mars (A) -- (GDA report AOK 63-031, 16 Oct 1963)

"Project Orbital Carrier" (1st edition, May 1952)

"Project Orbital Carrier" (2nd edition, Aug 1952)

"Propellant for Booster of a Two-Stage Missile" (PGAF Memorandum #3, 1 Feb 1949)

"Propulsion System for Fast Manned Reconnaissance Flights to Mars and Venus" (presented to IAS National Flight Propulsion Meeting, 6 Mar 1959; Convair report AZM-068)

"Propulsion Systems Comparison and Evaluations for Space Missions" (published as Chapter 18 of -- Jet, Rocket, Nuclear, Ion, and Electric Propulsion – Theory and Design -- , W. H. T. Loh, ed. (Springer-Verlag, 1968); NA report X7-626/060, Mar 1967)

"Raumfahrtsziele und Weltraumtechnik von Morgen" (presented at Industry Fair, Hannover, 26-27 Apr 1971; published in -- Astronautik -- 8 no.3/4 (Aug-Dec 1971) : 95-109; -- Technische Möglichkeiten von Morgen III -- (Düsseldorf and Vienna: Econ Verlag, 1971); -- Junkers Nachrichten -- 14 no.2 (Mar-Apr 1972) : 3-5; no.3 (May-Jun 1972) : 5-7; no.4 (Jul-Aug 1972) : 4-6; no.5 (Sep-Oct 1972) : 4-6; no.6 (Nov-Dec 1972) : 4-6)

Re-entry Characteristics of Recoverable Spherical Satellites, Satelloids and Lunar Vehicles -- (Convair report AZP 001, 25 Jun 1957)

"Re-entry of Spherical Bodies Into the Atmosphere at Very High Speeds" (presented to ARS 12th Annual Meeting, Dec 1957)

"Regional and Global Energy Transfer Via Passive Power Relay Satellites" (presented to 10th Annual Space Congress, 11-13 Apr 1973; RI report SD73-SH-0117, Apr 1973)

"Regional Power Distribution Via Power Relay Satellite" (presented to 1st Greater Los Angeles Area Energy Symposium, 3 Apr 1975)

"Rescue from Space by a Secondary Vehicle" (presented to 2nd International Symposium on the Physics and Medicine of the Atmosphere and Space, 10-12 Nov 1958)

"Response to Questions by the Subcommittee on Energy (Congressman Mike McCormack, Chairman) and the Subcommittee on Space Science and Applications (Congressman James W. Symington, Chairman) Following Testimony Before Both Subcommittees on 24 May 1973" (23 Jul 1973)

"Restricted 3-Body Systems Flight Mechanics in Cislunar Space and the Effect of Solar Perturbation" (presented to American Mathematical Society for Orbit Symposium, January 1957; Convair report AZM-013, Mar 1957)

"Review and Evaluation of Solar Central Power Stations for Use in the U.S., Mideast and Japan and Associated Solar Engineering Business Development (A)" (19 Jul 1974)

"Review of Important Aspects Concerning the Use of Power Relay Satellite for Icelandic Energy Export by Means of Beamed Microwave Transmission (A)" (no date)

Review of Future Space Applications for House Science and Astronautics Committee -- (RI report SSV74-41; 25 Sep 1974)

"Role of the Army in Space" (presented to Association of the United States Army "Rockwell Night", 24 Feb 1970)

"Safety Aspects in Planning Manned Interplanetary Missions" (submitted to AIAA 4th Annual Meeting, 1967)

"Satellite Orbits for Interplanetary Flight" ( -- Jet Propulsion -- 24, No. 6 (Nov-Dec 1954): 381)

"Satelliten zur irdischen Energie-Übertragung Technische und sozio-ökonomische Untersuchungen" (presented at HOG 23rd Raumfahrtkongreß, Jun 1974; published in -- Astronautik -- 12 no.2 (1975) : 19-25)

"Satelloid (The)" (presented to IAF 6th International Astronautical Congress, Copenhagen, 1-6 Aug 1955; -- Astronautica Acta -- 2 no.2 (1956) : 63-100)

"Saturn-Jupiter Rebound – A Method of High-Speed Spacecraft Ejection from the Solar System" (originally titled "A Method of High-Speed Spacecraft Ejection from the Solar System", -- JBIS -- 25 no.10 (Oct 1972) : 561-571)

"Science Policy and the Extraterrestrial Imperative" (adapted and exerpted from -- Extraterrestrial Imperative -- (1971); presented to Congressman G. P. Miller, Chairman, Committee on Science and Astroanutics, US House of Representatives, Feb 1972; later identified as report KE72-1-1, Jan 1972)

Selection of Promising Initial Planetary Missions and Mission Modes -- (GDA report ASO 63/24, 18 Sep 1963)

"Shuttle and Apollo – The Nature of their Differences" (circa 1971)

Shuttle Station as Element of Low-Cost Geospace Transportation to Geosynchronous Orbit, Interlinking with Earth-Space Shuttle -- (NR report PD70-24, Feb 1970)

"Sidereal Civilization" (no date)

Siebente Kontinent (Der) – Die Industri Alisierung und Besiedlung des Mondes -- (Müchen: Thiemig Verlag, 1984)

"Significance of Earth-To-Low-Orbit Shuttle for the Cost Effectiveness of Space Operations (The)" (presented to IAF 22nd International Astronautical Congress, 20-24 Sep 1971; NR report SD 71-780, Sep 1971; published in -- Raumfahrtforschung -- 16 no.2 (Mar/Apr 1972) : 65-77)

"Social Relevance" ( -- Skyline -- 30 no.2 (1972) : 50-55)

"Socio-Economic Determinants of a Program for Lunar Industrialization In Support of Space Light Development Lunetta and Soletta" (IAF paper IAF-A-77-66; presented to the Seventh Symposium on Cost Effectiveness in Space Operations, at the IAF 28th International Astronautical Congress, 25 Sep-1 Oct 1977)

"Socio-Economic Evaluation of the Lunar Environment and Resources (A) – I. Principles and Overall System Strategy" (IAF paper 78-A-40; presented to the Symposium on Space Economics and Benefits, IAF 29th International Astronautical Congress, Dubrovnik, Yugoslavia, 1-8 Oct 1978; published in -- Acta Astronautica -- 8 no.11-12 (Nov-Dec 1981) : 1389-1433; SG report SG778-1, Jul 1978)

"Socio-Economic Evaluation of the Lunar Environment and Resources (A) – II. Energy for the Selenosphere" (IAF paper 79-A-16, presented to IAF 30th International Astronautical Congress, Symposium on Space Economics and Benefits); published in -- Acta Astronautica -- 8 no.11-12 (Nov-Dec 1981) : 1407-1433; SG report SG779-3, Jul 1979)

"Socio-Economic Evaluation of the Lunar Environment and Resources (A) – III. Selenospheric Economics and Cislunar/Terrestrial Market Analysis" (IAF paper IAA-82-235; presented IAF 33rd International Astronautical Congress, 27 Sep-3 Oct 1982,12th International Symposium on Space Economics and Benefits: Socio-Economics Benefits of Space Operations; published in -- Acta Astronautica -- 11 no.2 (Feb 1984)

"Solar Energy" ( -- McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology -- , vol. 12 (NY: McGraw-Hill, 3rd Ed., 1971))

Solar Option (The) – A Study -- (report E74-4-1, Apr 1974)

"Solar Power from Space" (circa 1973)

"Solar Power Module Concept and Data Summary" (no date)

"Solar Powered Space Ship (The)" (ARS paper 310-56; presented to ARS Semi-Annual Meeting, 18-20 Jun 1956

"Solar Transportation" (presented to AAS 4th Goddard Memorial Symposium, 15-16 Mar 1966; NA report X6 661/3061, Mar 1966 rev. May 1996)

"Some Basic Aspects of Operation in Cislunar and Lunar Space" (no date)

"Space" ( -- Young People's Science Encyclopedia -- (Edited by the Staff of the National College of Education, Chicago: Children's Press, 1970))

"Space – 1980" (circa 1970)

"Space and a World Society Under Law" (no date)

"Space and Energy Sources" (presented to the World Electrotechnical Congress, Moscow, USSR, June 21-25, 1977; RI report, May 1977)

"Space and Human Dividends" (no date)

"Space Applications for Earth-to-Low-Orbit Shuttle Vehicles" (presented as the University of Tennessee, Tullahoma Short Course in Reusable Launch and Re-Entry Vehicles for Space Flight, Oct 1970; and Von Karman Institute for Fluid Dynamics Lecture Series in the Technology of Space Shuttle Vehicles, Nov 1970; NR report SD70-637, Nov 1970)

"Space Applications for Low Cost Ferry Vehicles" (presented at the Space Institute of the University of Tennessee Tullahoma Short Course in Reusable Launch and Re-Entry Vehicles for Space Flight Technology and Applications, 18-22 Aug 1969; NR report SD70-66, Feb 1970)

"Space Dumping – Extra-terrestrial Contamination, Pollution and Waste Disposal" ( -- The Environment This Month -- 1 no.1 (Jul 1972) : 36-45; originally titled "Extraterrestrial Contamination, Pollution and Waste Disposal")

"Space Engineering" (no date)

Space Flight -- , Vol. I – -- Environment and Celestial Mechanics -- (Princeton: D Van Nostrand Co, 1960)

Space Flight -- , Vol. II – -- Dynamics -- (Princeton: D Van Nostrand Co, 1962)

Space Flight -- , Vol. III – -- Missions, Operations, Vehicles and Planning -- (not published)

"Space Industrial Productivity – New Options for the Future" (Jul 1975; presented to the Committee on Science and Technology and the Subcommittee on Space Science and Applications, Hearings on Future Space Flight, 22-30 Jul 1975)

"Space Industrialization – New Growth Through An Open World" (presented to AIAA 13th Annual Meeting; Jan 1977)

Space Industrialization – Statement to the Commitee on Science and Technology Hearing on Future Space Projects, US House of Representatives -- (SG report SG178-1, Jan 1978)

"Space Light: Space Industrial Enhancement of the Solar Option" (published in -- Acta Astronautica -- 6 no.12 (Dec 1979) : 1515-1633; SG report SG812-1, Feb 1981)

"Space Light – The Enhanced Solar Option" (published in -- Swann Oil Energy Digest -- 2 no.17 (24 Aug 1977); SG report SG777-1)

Space Light Illumination from Sun-Synchronous Orbits -- (SG report SG278-2, Feb 1978)

"Space Medicine" ( -- Young People's Science Encyclopedia -- (Edited by the Staff of the National College of Education, Chicago: Children's Press, 1970))

"Space Pilot" ( -- Young People's Science Encyclopedia -- (Edited by the Staff of the National College of Education, Chicago: Children's Press, 1970))

"Space Planning Methodology" (circa 1969)

Space Shuttle – The Timing is Right -- (RI report E73-4-1, Apr 1973)

"Space Shuttle and the Energy Crisis" (no date)

"Space Shuttle and the Power Crisis" (no date)

"Space Shuttle May Point the Way to Safe Disposal of Atomic Waste" (Huntsville -- Times -- , 30 Jun 1972)

"Space Station" ( -- Young People's Science Encyclopedia -- (Edited by the Staff of the National College of Education, Chicago: Children's Press, 1970))

Space Station Accessibility and Launch Complex Selection -- (Convair report KE-59/3, 15 Sep 1959)

Space Station Accessibility and Launch Complex Selection -- (Convair report KE-59/4, rev. 25 Feb 1960)

Space Station for Development and Orbital Flight Training -- (Convair report KE-59/2, 12 May 1959)

"Space Stations – Symbols and Tools of New Growth in an Open World" (keynote address to Session 1 (International Space Stations) of the International Space Hall of Fame Dedication Conference, 3-9 Oct 1976; RI report SD 76-SA-0200)

"Space Stations – Tools of New Growth in an Open World" (5th IAF Invited Lecture, presented to IAF 25th International Astronautical Congress, 30 Sep-5 Oct 1974; later report E74-9-1, Sep 1974)

Space Technology and Energy – Presentation to the Space Science and Applications and the Energy Subcommittee of the Committee of Science and Astronautics, US House of Representatives -- (RI report SD 73-SH-139, 24 May 1973)

Space Technology Course – "Interplanetary Operations" (UCLA course, Engineering X461, , 1958)

"Space Tourism" (AAS paper 67-127; presented to AAS 13th Annual Meeting, 1-3 May 1967)

"Space Transportation Lecture" (presented to 3rd Conference on Engineering for Executives, University of Texas; NA report BR6-802/3061, Mar 1966)

"Space Travel" -- (Young People's Science Encyclopedia -- (Edited by the Staff of the National College of Education, Chicago: Children's Press, 1970))

"Space Vehicles" (published as Chapter 24.1, "Advanced Launch and Carrier Vehicle", -- Handbook of Astronautical Engineering -- (H.H. Koelle, ed, McGraw-Hll, 1961))

"Space Vehicles" ( -- Young People's Science Encyclopedia -- (Edited by the Staff of the National College of Education, Chicago: Children's Press, 1970))

"Space Vehicles Prototypes" (published as Chapter 24.18, "Advanced Space Vehicle Prototypes", -- Handbook of Astronautical Engineering -- (H.H. Koelle, ed, McGraw-Hll, 1961)

"Spacecraft" (presented to 3rd Jet Age Conference, 26-28 Feb 1958; Convair report AZM-020, 25 Feb 1958)

"Spacecraft Propulsion" ( -- McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology -- , vol. 12 (NY: McGraw-Hill, 3rd Ed., 1971))

"Spacecraft Propulsion, Fusion Propulsion" ( -- McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology -- , vol. 12 (NY: McGraw-Hill, 3rd Ed., 1971))

"Spacecraft Propulsion, Nuclear Pulse Propulsion" ( -- McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology -- , vol. 12 (NY: McGraw-Hill, 3rd Ed., 1971))

"Spacelab – Model for International Teamwork" (presented to 12th Space Congress, 9-11 Apr 1975)

"Sprung In Die Unendlichkeit – Der Flug Des Pioneer Zum Jupiter" (circa 1974)

"STEPP, A Computerized System for Space Technology Evaluation and Program Planning" (no date)

"Statement of Krafft A. Ehricke , Chief Scientific Adviser to the Space Division of Rockwell International, Before the Committee on Aeronautical and Space Sciences, United States Senate" (RI report, 31 Oct 1973)

"Statement of Krafft A. Ehricke, Scientific Advisor, North American Space Operations, Rockwell International Corporation, before the Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs, United States Senate" (RI report, 27 Jun 1974)

"Statement of Krafft A. Ehricke , Space Division, Rockwell International, Before the Space Science and Applications and the Energy Subcommittees of the House Science and Astronautics Committee" (25 May 1973)

"Statement to Subcommittee on Science, Technology and Space; Commitee on Commerce, Science and Transportation, Symposium on the Future of Space, US Senate" (SG report SG278-1, Feb 1978)

"Statement to the Committee of Science and Astronautics, House of Representatives, Congress of the United States" [1973 NASA Authorization, 92nd Congress, Second Session] (Jan 1972)

"Strategic Approach to Interplanetary Flight (A)" (presented to 4th International Symposium on Bioastronautics and The Exploration of Space, 24-27 Jun 1968, San Antonio, TX; NR report X8-1689/060)

"Strategic Approach to the Development of Geolunar Space (A)" (presented to IAA Orbiting International Laboratory and Space Sciences Conference, Oct 1969; NR report SD69-710, Oct 1969)

Study of Interplanetary Missions -- (GDA report, circa Jan 1964)

Study of Interplanetary Missions to Mercury through Saturn with Emphasis on Manned Missions to Venus and Mars 1973/82 Involving Capture -- (GDA report GDA 63-0916, 30 Sep 1963)

Study of Interplanetary Vehicle Assembly Modes, Part I -- ( GDA report AOK 63-029, 23 Sep 1963)

"Summary of Fundamental Rules of Space Navigation" (published as part of -- Space Flight -- Vol. II, -- Dynamics -- ; Convair report KE61/2, 22 Sep 1961)

Summary of Preliminary Data on Earth-to-Orbit Vehicles -- (Convair report KE59/1, 4 May 1959)

"Sun-Synchronous Power Generation and Space Light Systems Lunetta/Soletta" (IAF paper 76-120; presented to session 15 of the IAF 27th International Astronautical Congress, 10-16 Oct 1976)

Sun-Synchronous Power Generation Satellite System (The) -- (report E76-1-2, Jan 1976)

"Sun, Wind, and Space (Testimony Before the Senate Interior Committee)" (no date)

"Synoptic Comparison of Advanced Propulsion Systems for Maneuvering Operations Associated with Several Employment Modes in Geolunar Space" (presented to 5th Symposium on Advanced Propulsion Concepts, 8-10 Apr 1968; NR report X8-1353/060, Apr 1968)

System Analysis of a New Concept for Low-Cost Transportation Involving Geosynchronous and Lunar Space -- (report KAE-8-1, no date)

"System Analysis of Fast Manned Flights to Venus and Mars – Part I: Mission Philosophy, Life Support, Scientific Reconnaissance and Prototype Vehicle Layout" (published in -- Transactions of the ASME – Journal of Engineering for Industry -- 83B no.1 (Feb 1961) : 1-12; Convair report AZM-072, 11 Mar 1959)

"System Analysis of Fast Manned Flights to Venus and Mars – Part II: Storage of Liquid and Solid Hydrogen on Nuclear Powered Interplanetary Vehicles" ( -- Transactions of the ASME - Journal of Engineering for Industry -- 83B no.1 (Feb 1961) : 13-28)

System Concepts for STS Derived Heavy Lift Launch Vehicles, Special Emphasis Task Decsription -- (circa Apr 1975)

Systems Integration, Mission-Performance Analysis, Vehicle Comparisons -- (with B. H. Ohman; GDA report AOK62-0010, 1 Dec 1962)

Technical, Financial and Development-Related Aspects of Beamed Power Transmission Systems Using a Power Relay Satellite (PRS) -- (report E74-12-1, Dec 1974; reprinted as -- Hard and Soft Power Relay Satellite Systems – Technical, Financial and Development-Related Aspects of Beamed Power Transmission Over Great Distances -- (SG reprint SG879-2R, Aug 1979))

"Technology and Economy of Extraterrestrial Industrialization (The)" (no date)

"Toward Aviation's New Infinities" (originally titled "Air Traffic in the Coming Space Age", -- Jet Tales -- 1/81)

"Toward a 3-Dimensional Civilization" (interview; -- Skyline -- 28 no.3 (Jul 1970))

"Ultraplanetary Probe (The)" (AAS paper AAS-71-164; presented to AAS 17th Annual Meeting, 28-30 Jun 1971; NA report SD 71-542)

"Und Wieder wind die Welt gerettel" ( -- Die Welt -- 106, 7 May 1983); review of Fritjof Capra, -- Wendezeit -- (Bern/Munich: Scherz Verlag, 1983), originally published as -- The Turning Point -- (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1982))

United Nations and the Power Relay Satellite as Element of Global Energy Development (The -- ) (report KE75-4-1, 5 Apr 1975)

"Use of Shuttle in Establishing Large Space Installations" (presented at American Association for the Advancement of Science 7th Annual Meeting, Dec 27-28, 1972; NR report SD 73-SA-0015, Jan 1973)

"Utilization of Space Environment for Therapeutical Purposes" (with B. D. Newsom; AAS paper 66-19; presented to AAS 12th Annual Meeting, 21-22 Feb 1966; NR report X6-1962/060, August 1966)

"Vision of Space: We Must Expand to Survive" (Don Barr interviews Ehricke; Los Angeles -- Herald Examiner -- , 9 Apr 1970)

"Wachsen in die Offene Welt" ( -- Die Welt -- no.89, 17 Apr 1982)

"Wachstum als überlebenschance des Modernen Menschen" (published as "Wie ist das eigentlich mit den Grenzen des Wachstums?", -- Geistige Welt -- 244, 18 Oct 1980)

"We Must Colonize the Planets" (Don Barr interviews Ehricke; Los Angeles -- Herald Examiner -- , 10 Apr 1970)

"Weltraum Technik als Mittel der Produktionssteigerung" (no date)

"Wie ist das eigentlich mit den Grenzen des Wachstums?" ( -- Geistige Welt -- 244, 18 Oct 1980; originally titled "Wachstum als überlebenschance des Modernen Menschen")

Wirtschaft, Weltall und Wachstum -- (with E. A. Miller, 1978)

"World Electrification through Space Transmission (WEST)" (Jan 1973)


AAS -- American Astronautical Society

ABMA -- Army Ballistic Missile Agency

AFOSR -- Air Force Office of Scientific Research (USAF)

AFSC -- Air Force Systems Command (USAF)

AIAA -- American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics

ARS -- American Rocket Society

ASME -- American Society of Mechanical Engineers

AWST -- Aviation Week and Space Technology

CRS -- Congressional Research Service (Library of Congress)

GD -- General Dynamics

GD|FW -- General Dynamics, Fort Worth

GDA -- General Dynamics Astronautics

GDC -- General Dynamics Convair

GE -- General Electric

HOG -- Hermann Oberth Gesellschaft

IAF -- International Astronautical Federation

IAS -- Institute for Aeronautical Sciences

ION -- Institute of Navigation

JBIS -- Journal of the British Interplanetary Society

JPL -- Jet Propulsion Laboratory

LC -- Library of Congress

LLL -- Lawrence Livermore Laboratory

LSI -- Lunar Science Institute

MIT -- Massachusetts Institute of Technology

MSC -- Manned Spacecraft Center (NASA)

MSFC -- Marshall Space Flight Center (NASA)

NA -- North American Aviation

NAS -- National Academy of Sciences

NASA -- National Aeronautics and Space Administration

NIH -- National Institutes of Health

NR -- North American Rockwell (successor to NA)

ONERA -- Office National d'Études et de Recherches Aérospatiale (France)

ONRL -- Oak Ridge National Laboratory

PWA -- Pratt & Whitney Aircraft Corp

RI -- Rockwell International (successor to NR)

SAMSO -- Space and Missile Systems Organization (USAF)

SG -- Space Global Co

TUB -- Technische Universität Berlin

UAC -- United Aircraft Corp

UARL -- United Aircraft Research Laboratory
Ingeborg M. Ehricke, Gift, 2003
No restrictions on access.
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Rocket engines  Search this
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Krafft A. Ehricke Papers, Accession 2003-0025, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
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The First Female Student at MIT Started an All-Women Chemistry Lab and Fought for Food Safety

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Tue, 18 Dec 2018 17:30:33 +0000
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Program Records

Museum Data Bank research report
National Museum of Natural History. Assistant Director for Automatic Data Processing  Search this
14.5 cu. ft. (14 record storage boxes) (1 document box)
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Descriptive Entry:
These records document the development of automated data management systems for the collections of NMNH and other museums, the establishment of data handling and storage standards, and the consolidation of administrative structures to control automation policy at the Smithsonian. They include documentation of the Health, Education and Welfare (HEW) Project, consisting of contract notes, quarterly technical progress reports from October 1967 through the interim report in January 1969, and the final report, issued in July 1970. The records also contain files of correspondence, memoranda, meetings, and reports created by Mello from 1968 through 1973, and as recently as 1983. The materials document Mello's involvement with several projects, including Flora North America (FNA), a tracking system for botanical loans and exchanges among institutions; and the Systematic Biology Collections Questionnaire, many of which were completed and returned to Mello in 1968.

The records also describe the evolution of the ADP Program through administrative files dating from 1971 through 1987; budget files for 1980, 1986, and 1987; memoranda files for 1981, 1982, 1988, and 1989; correspondence files from 1977 to 1980; and chronologic files from 1980 to 1985. In addition, the records contain collections inventory documentation dating from 1972 to 1982, which includes files and reports on data management in the different departments and divisions of NMNH, and files on techniques and procedures. The records also include subject and project files dating from 1967 to 1990, which document the development of SELGEM from 1970 to 1978; planning for the Smithsonian Institution Network (SINET); ADP's involvement with the Museum Computer Network (MCN); planning materials for data processing space at the Museum Support Center (MSC), 1979 to 1986; and ADP's interaction with OCS, later the Office of Information Resource Technology (OIRM).

The records also contain files on a project done in cooperation with the Rocky Mountain Laboratory (RML) in Hamilton, Montana, during which data on a tick collection belonging to the National Institutes of Health (NIH) was stored on a Smithsonian database. These materials, dating from 1976 to 1980, include program codes and microfiche. In addition, the records contain Museum Data Standards files from 1967 through 1977; the "Museum Data Bank Research Report," numbers 1 through 12, November 1974 through November 1976; the NMNH Records Manual, dated 1969; unidentified slides; and undated reel to reel recordings of speakers at various symposia.
Historical Note:
In 1963 the Director of the National Museum of Natural History formed a committee to explore the possibilities of data processing in a museum context. In July 1967 the museum received a three-year grant from the Office of Education, Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, and with the assistance of the Smithsonian's Information Systems Division, later renamed the Office of Computer Services (OCS), it began developing the Smithsonian Institution Information Retrieval System (SIIRS), also known as the Natural History Information Retrieval system (NHIR). By December 1969 several thousand records from representative collections in NMNH had been entered, and groundwork had been laid for the establishment of data standards.

After the grant ended in 1970 a central organization named the Automatic Data Processing (ADP) Program was formed at NMNH under the direction of James F. Mello to develop and coordinate permanent data-processing services for the museum. Soon after the Program was established it began working closely with OCS to develop a new system to replace SIIRS. Named SELGEM, for "SElf GEnerating Master," it became the basic data processing system at NMNH and at several other museums, universities, and government agencies. In January 1973 Mello was appointed Assistant Director of the museum, but he remained in charge of the ADP Program until May, when T. Gary Gautier became Acting Chief. Gautier was later named Chief, and by 1980 he was the Museum's Information Systems Manager in charge of the ADP Program. In 1985 he was named Assistant Director in charge of the ADP Office.
Computers  Search this
Museums -- Automatic data processing  Search this
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SELf GEnerating Master (SELGEM)  Search this
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Smithsonian Institution Archives, Accession 95-169, National Museum of Natural History. Assistant Director for Automatic Data Processing, Program Records
Accession 95-169
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Smithsonian Institution. Center for Folklife and Cultural Heritage  Search this
Archival materials
Ralph Rinzler Memorial Concert - Bernice Johnson Reagon Song Family: Continuum of Songs, Singing and Struggle. Bernice Johnson Reagon's work as a carrier of African American congregational singing traditions spans more than four decades. During that time she worked collaboratively with Ralph Rinzler on different projects related to the preservation and sharing of traditional music and the importance of music as part of the culture of struggle and resistance. Reagon, using her southwest Georgia beginnings as a foundation, began the evening with a congregational sing. The concert also featured performances by the SNCC Freedom Singers, Sweet Honey ln The Rock, and Toshi Reagon and Big Lovely.

Power and Glory: Folk Songs of the Presidency. This concert was held in conjunction with The American Presidency: A Glorious Burden exhibition at the National Museum of American History, Behring Center, and featured Oscar Brand with John Foley, Josh White Jr., Joe Glazer, and Magpie.

Across Generations: A Centennial Tribute to Margaret Mead. Anthropologist Margaret Mead (1901-1978) was an enthusiastic supporter of the Festival, and so it was fitting that the Center paid tribute to her during her centennial year with a program that reftects a shared interest: the transmission of culture across generations. The Flowers Family Singers, Walker Calhoun and the Raven Rock Dancers, and the Sau Family Orchestra presented their traditions - old and new - and shared thoughts on the interactions between age groups by which cultural traditions are communicated, how they change, and what they mean to the tradition-bearers and the identity of their larger communities.

For the Ralph Rinzler Memorial Concert, Bernice Johnson Reagon was Curator and Kate Rinzler was Program Coordinator. For the Tribute to Margaret Mead, Carla Borden was Curator and James Early, Rayna Green, and Ethel Raim were presenters. For Folk Songs of the American Presidency, Howard Bass was Curator and Dennis Callahan was Associate.

The Ralph Rinzler Memorial Concert was made possible by the Recording Industries Music Performance Trust Funds. The Tribute to Margaret Mead was made possible by the Institute for Intercultural Studies and the Office of the Senior Scholar Emeritus, Smithsonian Institution. The American Presidency exhibition was made possible by the generous support of Kenneth E. Behring; The History Channel; Chevy Chase Bank; Cisco Systems, Inc.; Elizabeth and Whitney MacMillan; and Heidi and Max Berry; with additional support provided by Automatic Data Processing, Inc.; Business 2.0; KPMG LLP; Sears, Roebuck and Co.; and T. Rowe Price Associates, Inc.
Ralph Rinzler Memorial Concert: The Bernice Johnson Reagon Song Family

Bernice Johnson Reagan

SNCC FREEDOM SINGERS -- SNCC FREEDOM SINGERSRutha Mae HarrisCharles NeblettBernice Johnson Reagan

SWEET HONEY IN THE ROCK -- SWEET HONEY IN THE ROCKBernice Johnson ReaganYsaye M. BarnwellNitanju Bolade CaselAisha KahlilShirley Childress Saxton, sign-language interpreter


Power and Glory: Folksongs of the Presidency

Oscar Brand, vocals, guitar

John Foley, guitar

Josh White Jr., vocals, guitar

Joe Glazer, vocals, guitar

MAGPIE -- MAGPIEGreg Artzner, vocals, instrumentals, Takoma Park, MarylandTerry Leonina, vocals, instrumentals, Takoma Park, Maryland
Collection Restrictions:
Access by appointment only. Where a listening copy or viewing copy has been created, this is indicated in the respective inventory; additional materials may be accessible with sufficient advance notice and, in some cases, payment of a processing fee. Older papers are housed at a remote location and may require a minimum of three weeks' advance notice and payment of a retrieval fee. Certain formats such as multi-track audio recordings and EIAJ-1 videoreels (1/2 inch) may not be accessible. Contact the Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections at 202-633-7322 or for additional information.
Collection Rights:
Copyright and other restrictions may apply. Generally, materials created during a Festival are covered by a release signed by each participant permitting their use for personal and educational purposes; materials created as part of the fieldwork leading to a Festival may be more restricted. We permit and encourage such personal and educational use of those materials provided digitally here, without special permissions. Use of any materials for publication, commercial use, or distribution requires a license from the Archives. Licensing fees may apply in addition to any processing fees.
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Folklife Festival records: 2001 Smithsonian Folklife Festival, Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections, Smithsonian Institution.
CFCH.SFF.2001, Series 5
See more items in:
Smithsonian Folklife Festival records: 2001 Smithsonian Folklife Festival
Archival Repository:
Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections