The Ethel Payne papers, which date from circa 1960s to 1980s and measure .50 linear feet, document the career of journalist Ethel Payne. The collection is comprised of passports, badges, photographs, press credentials, awards and ephemera.
Scope and Contents note:
This small collection documents the career of Ethel Payne from circa 1960s - 1980s through passports, badges, photographs, press credentials, awards and ephemera.
The Ethel Payne papers are arranged into five series:
Series 1: Biographical
Series 2: Correspondence
Series 3: Travel
Series 4: Photographs
Series 5: Posters
Ethel Payne, born August 14, 1911 was a freelance journalist and the first African American woman to become an international news correspondent. She covered issues pertaining to the political advancement and the social inequality among Blacks in America. An early crusader for African American civil rights, she remained a constant and vigorous political spokesperson in the fight to end racial discrimination. In her thirst for knowledge, and in her desire to share valuable information with the public, Payne, who would later receive international recognition for her endeavors, was dubbed the "First Lady of the Black Press" by the Washington Press Corps, of which she later became president in 1970.
While covering U.S involvement in the Vietnam War, Payne focused on the plight of the Black soldier and how issues, such as racial segregation and discrimination, remained relevant to life back home. In documenting the conditions of these soldiers, her aim was to "fully concentrate on the Negro effort," and to "paint an adequate picture of why they were in Vietnam." Later however, as a writer for the Chicago Defender, she remarked on her experience in covering the war as a failed attempt at reporting the overall immorality of it.
The daughter of a Pullman porter and a stay at home mother of 6, Payne, who desired to become a civil rights leader but was denied entrance into law school on account of her race, discovered her niche in journalism after being jailed for witnessing and questioning the brutal acts performed by a police officer on an African American man. After threatening to report the brutality to the press, she refused her approval for release, remained in jail and advocated for the liberation of the other detainees.
Her break into journalism came when she began organizing recreation and entertainment for African American troops stationed in Japan. In her diary, Payne transcribed accounts of the failed efforts of the U.S military during the war, which had later been published in the Chicago Defender. Despite the discrimination she encountered from high ranking officials in the U.S government, Payne was offered and accepted a full-time position with the Defender in 1951.
Along with her work as a Vietnam War correspondent, Payne became involved in various endeavors to move her career in journalism. During her time as White House correspondent from 1962-1966, Payne led the fight to end the segregation of interstate travel, immigration quotas, and discrimination in federal housing . Ethel was also the first African American woman to host network news by becoming a political commentator for the CBS aired program "Spectrum" in 1972. Persistently involved in international politics, Payne in 1970 completed a 10-nation tour of Africa with Secretary of State William P. Rogers, and a 6-nation tour with Secretary of State Henry Kissinger six years later. She covered several Democratic National conventions, and witnessed President Lyndon B. Johnson's signing of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965.
Over her lifetime, she has received dozens of awards and honorable mentions for her political involvement and activism for African Americans, and her legacy continues to live on today. In 2002 the United States Postal Service honored Ethel Payne by issuing her a 37-cent stamp, and each year aspiring journalists wishing to gain experience on international reporting in Africa are awarded the Ethel Payne Fellowship.
On May 28, 1991 Ethel Payne died of a heart attack in her home in Washington, D.C. She is survived by close relatives, as she forfeited marriage and children for the sake of her work. She was commemorated as one of the 100 most influential correspondents by the National Association of Black Journalists, and remained, untill her death, a longtime advocate in the struggle to bring about change, and to correct the inequalities and racial injustices in the world.
This collection contains artifacts catalogued in the ACM Ojects collection.
Use of the materials requires an appointment. Please contact the archivist to make an appointment: ACMarchives@si.edu.
Ethel Payne papers are the physical property of the Anacostia Community Museum. Literary and copyright belong to the author/creator or their legal heirs and assigns. Rights to work produced during the normal course of Museum business resides with the Anacostia Community Museum. For further information, and to obtain permission to publish or reproduce, contact the Museum Archives.
World's Columbian Exposition, Chicago, 1893 -- Photographs Search this
2 Cubic feet (7 boxes)
White House (Washington, D.C.)
Washington (D.C.) -- 1890-1900
Chicago Ill. -- 1890-1900
1993 - 1993
circa 1888-1899, 1906
Twenty glass plate negatives and reference copy prints of the images taken between the late 1880s and the early 1900s by Frances Benjamin Johnston and Thomas W. Smillie. The images depict the skyline of Washington D.C., views from the 1893 World's Fair: Columbian Exposition, blueprints for the Smithsonian Arts and Industries Building, and an unidentified orchestra.
Scope and Contents:
The collection consists of twenty glass plate negatives and associated reference copy prints depicting scenes from the 1893 World's Fair: Columbian Exposition in Chicago, Illinois as well as images of the Washington D.C. skyline dating from between 1888 and 1899. The glass plate negatives range in size from 17" x 20" to 20" x 24" while the silver gelatin, resin-coated paper prints are all 20" x 24". All the images are black and white.
Series 1, Glass Plate Negatives, 1893, 1906, circa 1888-1899, is arranged by a numbering system, possibly assigned by the Smithsonian Office of Printing and Photographic Services (OPPS). The numbers were etched or written on the negatives, for example 3107. The series begins with the numbered images from Washington DC (#3101-#3107), followed by images without identifying numbers. The numbered images from the 1893 Columbian Exposition (non-inclusive #11302-11359) come next, followed by the images without identifying numbers.
The images of Washington D.C., when arranged in the following sequence, form a panorama of the Washington D.C. city: #3103, #3107, #3104, #3101, #3106, #3105, #3102. The images were taken from the tower of the Smithsonian Castle facing north, beginning with a view of the United States Capitol Building in the east (#3102) and ending with a view of the incomplete Washington Monument in the west (#3103). An unnumbered image of the United States Capitol taken after 1899 from the tower of the Old Post Office and Clock Tower looking down Pennsylvania Avenue is included. Two unnumbered blueprints dated July 19, 1906 show the second and third floor layouts of the Smithsonian Arts and Industries Building.
The images of the 1893 World's Fair: Columbian Exposition show various buildings built for the event as well as a replica of the Battleship Illinois which was constructed to illustrate advances in naval technology. Exterior views of the Administration Building, Government Building, Palace of Fine Arts, Manufactures and Liberal Arts Building as well as an interior view of the World's Fair Post Office in the Government Building are found among the negatives. A number of the images appear to have been taken from atop some of the buildings looking down.
One unnumbered and unidentified picture of a musical orchestra sitting on stage is included at the end of the series.
Series 2, Copy prints, 1993, include duplicate or, in some instances triplicate, photographic copy prints of the images from the glass plate negatives. In the case of #11311 and #11359, no copy prints exist. The silver gelatin prints on resin-coated paper were created in the fall of 1993.
The collection is arranged in two series.
Series 1: Glass Plate Negatives, 1893, 1906, circa 1888-1899
Series 2: Copy prints (reference copies), 1993
Biographical / Historical:
While the origin and provenance of some of the glass plate negatives is uncertain, it is likely that the images were created by Smithsonian photographer and curator Thomas W. Smillie and by Frances Benjamin Johnston, a prominent female photographer who was a protege of Smillie's.
Thomas W. Smillie was born in Edinburgh, Scotland in 1843 and emigrated to the United States when he was five years old. He attended Georgetown University, where he studied medicine and chemistry. Shortly thereafter he became a photographer for the Smithsonian and remained with the institution until his death in 1917. In 1896 he was named "custodian" of photography for the Institution, in essence becoming its first photography curator. He staged photographic exhibits and actively collected both images and equipment related to photography.
Frances Benjamin Johnston was an early pioneer for women in the field of photography and photojournalism. Born in 1864 in Grafton, West Virginia, Johnston studied art in Maryland and later at the Académie Julien in Paris. Her high-profile family connection with the Eastman family as well as her insatiable appetite for knowledge about photographic processes quickly propelled her to a formidable professional career. Her work appeared in publications such as The Ladies' Home Journal, Harper's Weekly, and Cosmopolitan, among others. As an apprentice to Thomas W. Smillie, Johnston was engaged to photograph the 1893 World's Fair: Columbian Exposition in Chicago. She made Washington D.C. her home and had the opportunity to photograph a large number of high profile individuals and government officials, including five United States presidents. Her photography often documented mundane and commonplace aspects of life rather than spectacular or prominent ones. Later in her career she focused her photography on colonial architecture, with images of houses, barns, and other buildings that intentionally showed everyday life in the United States South rather than high profile structures which had already been well-documented. She moved to New Orleans in 1940 and died in 1952.
Materials at the Smithsonian Institution
Smithsonian Institution Archives
Records, circa 1883-1984 (SIA RU000529)
Field Research Photographs, circa 1909-1924 (SIA Acc. 02-086)
Personnel Records, 1892-1952 (SIA Acc. 05-123)
Collected Registers, 1908-1912 and undated (SIA Acc. 06-138)
National Anthropological Archives
Glass Negatives of Indians (Collected by Bureau of American Ethnology)
Immediate source of acquisition unknown.
The collection is open for research. Reference photograph copies should be used where possible. Gloves must be worn when handling unprotected photographs and negatives. Special care is required when handling the glass plate negatives both because of their large size and because some of the negatives are broken.
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning intellectual property rights. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
The collection documents the invention of the Jogbra and includes biographical materials, business records, photographs, promotional, marketing and advertising materials, correspondence and audiovisual materials.
Scope and Contents:
The collection documents the invention of the sports bra primarily through marketing and promotional materials. The collection also documents the Jogbra, Inc. company activities, and includes biographical materials, business records, promotional, marketing and advertising materials, photographs, patent records, and audiovisual materials.
The collection is divided into six series.
Series 1: Biographical Materials, 1980-2006
Series 2: Business Records, 1979-1999
Subseries 2.1: JBI, Inc., 1979-1996
Subseries 2.2: Champion Jogbra, 1988-1999
Series 3: Photographs, 1978-2008
Series 4: Promotional and Marketing Materials, 1979-2000
Series 5: Patent Records, 1978-2003
Series 6: Audiovisual Materials, 1993
Biographical / Historical:
Lisa Lindahl was frustrated by the inadequacy of her everyday bra when she began jogging in the early 1970s. When her sister, Victoria Woodrow began jogging she met with the same issues and called Lisa to ask what she did about it. Commiserating over their problems, Victoria asked, "What do you do about all the breast movement? It's so uncomfortable." And Lisa said, "I don't know. It really is uncomfortable." Victoria said, "Why isn't there a jock strap for women?" Lisa laughed back and said, "Yeah, same idea, different part of the anatomy. Wouldn't that be great?" The sisters hung up laughing and Lisa sat down and opened up a spiral notebook to record her thoughts and design criteria for this "jock bra." "Here's a bra made just for jogging. What would it do?" And Lindahl wrote, "Okay, the straps would not fall off my shoulders and there wouldn't be any hardware to dig in and it would be comfortable and maybe even breathable, and it would stop my breasts from bouncing."
Lindahl engaged her childhood friend Polly Palmer Smith in her effort to solve the bra problem. They found no suitable products in retail stores, but were inspired by Lisa's husband, Al Lindahl, who took a jock strap and pulled it over his head and down over his chest and said, "Hey ladies, here's your jock bra." Lisa said, "I had to get into the act, so I jumped up and said, "Let me try it. Let me try." And I pulled his jock strap up and over my head and pulled the pouch over my breast and the waistband of the jockstrap went around my rib and I kind of jumped up on bed and I said, "Polly, Polly, look at this, look at this." They went to multiple stores and inquired but could not find a bra that fit their needs--a bra that kept the breasts pressed flat against the chest and eliminated motion. They also wanted something without seams and hooks, wire or other metal elements. Lindahl, along with Polly Palmer Smith, a childhood friend from New Jersey, sewed a pair of jockstraps together creating a few prototypes.
Smith introduced Lindahl to Hinda Schreiber, a fellow costume designer and classmate at New York University. Schreiber worked as an assistant to Smith at the Champlain Shakespeare Festival held at the University of Vermont in the summer of 1977. With interest in and enthusiasm for the idea of creating more jogbras, Schreiber joined Lindahl and Smith. They called their product the "jockbra" but later changed it to "Jogbra," figuring that the word "jock" might be a turn-off for some women. On November 20, 1979, US Patent 4,174,717 for an athletic brassiere was issued to the three co-inventors. Subsequent US patents include:
Eugenie Z. Lindahl, Hinda S. Schreiber, and Polly P. Smith, Des. 259,370 for a brassiere, 1981; and US 4,311,150 for an athletic brassiere, 1982.
Eugenie Z. Lindahl and Hinda Schreiber, Des. 260,445 for an athletic shirt, 1981 and Des. 301,518 for a brassiere, 1989.
LaJean Lawson and Hinda Miller, US 6,083,080 for a protective brassiere with local energy absorption, 2000.
Lesli R. Bell and Eugenie Z. Lindahl, US 6,860,789 for a compression garment, 2005.
Lindahl started the company Jogbra, Inc. in 1977 and then re-named it SLS, Inc. (for Smith, Lindahl, Schreiber) in early 1978. As President of the company, Lindahl issued equal shares to herself, Smith and Schreiber. The name changed again to Jogbra Inc., for a brief time, before finally becoming JBI, Inc. in the early 1980s. Marketing their new product (with start-up capital lent by Miller's father, Bruce L. Schreiber) was a challenge. According to Lindahl, buyers for sporting goods stores were "squeamish" about displaying bras, which did not look like lingerie, but an athletic garment. Stores that did feature the jogbra were pleased by how well it sold. Miller placed strong emphasis on the point of purchase advertising and packaging. The jogbra line of products expanded to include a women's and men's sport brief, the Thermobra and Thermobrief. Soon, a number of other manufacturers, including Vanity Fair, Olga, and Warner, were entering the sports bra market.
JBI, Inc. was bought by Playtex Apparel, Inc. in 1990 and Playtex Apparel sold it to the Sara Lee Corporation in 1991. Throughout these transitions, Schreiber served as began as Vice-President and, in 1983, became President of the then JBI, Inc. when Lindahl became CEO and Chair of their Advisory Board of Directors. Smith was never active in the company and had become a minority shareholder. When JBI, Inc. was sold to Playtex Apparel, Miller and Lindahl became co-presidents of the new Jogbra Division until Lindahl left the company in 1991. Miller (née Schreiber) continued to serve as president and became CEO of the Champion Jogbra Division of Sara Lee in 1994. Miller left the company in 1997 to pursue other interests.
Lisa Z. Lindahl (November 23, 1948-) was born Eugénie Louise Zobian in Montclair, New Jersey to Florence and Ernest Zobian. The Zobians had four children, Ernest Jr., Mark, Victoria, and Eugénie, known as "Lisa." Lindahl graduated from Vernon Court Junior College in Newport, Rhode Island (1968), the Katherine Gibbs Secretarial School (1969), and later graduated from the University of Vermont with a bachelor's degree in education . She received a master's degree in culture and spirituality from Holy Names University in California in 2007. In 1970, Lindahl married Alfred Lindahl and divorced in 1978. Lindahl was diagnosed with epilepsy at age four and would later serve as Senior Vice President of the Board of Directors of the Epilepsy Foundation from 1991 to 2000 where, as Chair of the Women and Epilepsy Task Force she brought legitimacy to the gender differences in epilepsy and epilepsy treatments. In 2001, Lindahl co-founded, with Dr. Lesli Bell, the Lightning2 Company (dba Bellisse) to design and market their patented Compressure Comfort Bra, a compression garment for women suffering from lymphedema. Lindahl is the author of two books: Beauty As Action, The Way of True Beauty and How Its Practice Can Change Our World (2017) and Unleash the Girls, The Untold Story of the Invention of the Sports Bra and How It Changed the World (And Me), (2019). She continues to write and pursue other artistic interests.
Hinda Schreiber Miller (April 18, 1950-) was born in Montreal, Quebec, Canada. She graduated from the Parsons School of Design (B.F.A., 1972) and from New York University (M.F.A., 1976). A costume designer by training, Miller taught costume design at the University of South Carolina. Miller later became a Vermont state senator (2002-2013) representing the Chittenden District which includes all of Chittenden County. Miller ran unsuccessfully for mayor of Burlington, Vermont in 2006. She is presently president of DeForest Concepts, a consulting firm specializing in small business and the promotion of women entrepreneurs. Miller is married to Dr. Joel Miller and has two children.
Polly Palmer Smith (November 10, 1949-) was born in Montclair, New Jersey. She graduated from the Moore College of Art & Design with a (B.F.A., XXXX) and New York University (M.F.A., 197X). She joined the Jim Henson Company in 1978 where she worked as a costume designer for twenty-five years. Smith worked on films such as the Dark Crystal, The Muppets Take Manhattan, and Labyrinth. Some of her television work includes Fraggle Rock and Muppet Treasure Island. Smith received Emmy nominations for her designs for The Jim Henson Hour (1988) and Muppets Tonight (1996) and she received seven Emmy awards for her designs on Sesame Street. Smith also co-designed costumes for the television series The StoryTeller (1986-1988) which won a British Academy of Film and Television Arts (BAFTA) award for Best Costumes in 1989.
Polly Palmer Smith (November 10, 1949-) was raised in Montclair, New Jersey. She graduated from the Moore College of Art & Design with a (B.F.A., 1971) and New York University (M.F.A., 1975). She joined the Jim Henson Company in 1978 where she worked as a costume designer for twenty-five years. Smith worked on films such as the Dark Crystal, The Muppets Take Manhattan, and Labyrinth. Some of her television work includes Fraggle Rock and Muppet Treasure Island. Smith received Emmy nominations for her designs for The Jim Henson Hour (1988) and Muppets Tonight (1996) and she received seven Emmy awards for her designs on Sesame Street. Smith also co-designed costumes for the television series The StoryTeller (1986-1988) which won a British Academy of Film and Television Arts (BAFTA) award for Best Costumes in 1989.
The introduction of the sports bra made greater sports participation possible for many American women. Many women were reluctant to engage in sports such as running, basketball, and tennis because of the embarrassment and discomfort associated with excessive breast motion. The passage of Title IX (1972) and James Fixx's popular 1977 book, The Complete Book of Running, contributed to the increased popularity of sports for women. This increase in women's sports exposed the inadequacies of conventional brassieres for athletic use: weight shifts from bouncing caused straps on ordinary brassieres to slip around or off the shoulder; excessive motion caused friction and chafed skin; and hooks or other metallic elements tended to poke into the skin; and excessive bouncing caused soreness.
Materials at Other Organizations
Vermont Historical Society
Champion jogbra [publicity folder], 1988-2004
Summary: This packet of information contains photocopies and reprints of articles and advertisements from various publications, and press releases, published or released between 1988-2004, about the creation and development of the women's sports bra, Jogbra, by its inventors Hinda Miller and Lisa Lindahl.
The Metropolitan Museum of Art
Jogbra Brassiere, 1979. See Accession: 1980.51.
The Division of Culture and the Arts, National Museum of American History, holds Jogbra-related artifacts. See accession 2013.0322.
The collection was donated by Hinda Miller in 2013.
Collection is open for research.
Reference copies do not exist. Use of these materials requires special arrangement. Gloves must be worn when handling unprotected photographs and negatives.
Social Security numbers are present and numbers have been rendered unreadable and redacted. Researchers may use the photocopies in the collection. The remainder of the collection has no restrictions.
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
The personal papers of Charles Lang Freer, the industrialist and art collector who founded the Freer Gallery of Art. The papers include correspondence, diaries, art inventories, scrapbooks of clippings on James McNeil Whistler and other press clippings, and photographs.
The personal papers of Charles Lang Freer, the industrialist and art collector who founded the Freer Gallery of Art. The papers include correspondence, diaries, art inventories, scrapbooks of clippings on James McNeil Whistler and other press clippings, financial material, architectural drawings, and photographs.
Correspondence, circa 1860-1921, includes Freer's correspondence, 1876-1920, with artists, dealers, collectors, museums, and public figures; letterpress books contain copies of Freer's outgoing letters, 1892-1910; correspondence collected by Freer of James McNeill Whistler, and his wife Beatrix, 186?-1909, with Lady Colin Campbell, Thomas R. Way, Alexander Reid, Whistler's mother, Mrs. George W. Whistler, and others; correspondence of Whistler collector Richard A. Canfield, 1904-1913, regarding works in Canfield's collection; and correspondence of Freer's assistant, Katharine Nash Rhoades, 1920-1921, soliciting Freer's letters from his associates, and regarding the settlement of his estate.
Also included are twenty-nine pocket diaries, 1889-1890, 1892-1898, 1900-1919, recording daily activities, people and places visited, observations, and comments; a diary kept by Freer's caretaker, Joseph Stephens Warring, recording daily activities at Freer's Detroit home, 1907-1910. Inventories, n.d. and 1901-1921, of American, European, and Asian art in Freer's collection, often including provenance information; vouchers, 1884-1919, documenting his purchases; five volumes of scrapbooks of clippings on James McNeill Whistler, 1888-1931, labeled "Various," "Peacock Room," "Death, etc.," "Paris, etc.," and "Boston...London" ; three volumes of newsclippings, 1900-1930, concerning Freer and the opening of the Freer Gallery of Art.
Correspondence regarding Freer's gift and bequest to the Smithsonian Institution, 1902-1916; and photographs, ca. 1880-1930, of Freer, including portraits by Alvin Langdon Coburn and Edward Steichen, Freer with others, Freer in Cairo, China and Japan, Freer's death mask, and his memorial service, Kyoto, 1930; photographs of artists and others, including Thomas Dewing, Ernest Fenollosa, Katharine Rhoades taken by Alfred Stieglitz, Rosalind B. Philip, Augustus Saint-Gaudens, Abbott H. Thayer, Dwight Tryon, and Whistler; and photographs relating to Whistler, including art works depicting him, grave and memorial monuments, works of art, the Peacock Room, and Whistler's memorial exhibition at the Copley Society.
Organization of the Papers:
This collection is organized into twelve series.
Series 1: Genealogical and Biographical Data
Series 2: Correspondence
Series 3: Diaries
Series 4: Freer Colleague Materials
Series 5: Art Inventories
Series 6: Financial Materials
Series 7: Exhibition Loan Files
Series 8: Biblical Manuscripts and Gold Treasure Files
Series 9: American School of Archaeology in China
Series 10: Printed Material
Series 11: Outsize Material
Series 12: Photographs
1854 February 25 -- Born in Kingston, New York
1873 -- Appointed accountant and paymaster of New York, Kingston and Syracuse Railroad by Frank J. Hecker (1846-1927)
1876 -- Moves to Indiana to work, with Hecker, for the Detroit and Eel River and Illinois Railroad
1880 -- Moves to Detroit, participates in organization of the Peninsular Car Works with Hecker
1883 -- Becomes vice president and secretary of Peninsular Car Company when it succeeds Peninsular Car Works
1883 -- Begins collecting European prints
1884 -- Peninsular Car Company constructs plant on Ferry Avenue
1887 -- Meets Howard Mansfield (1849-1938)
1887 -- Acquires proofs of 26 etchings, Venice, Second Series(1886), by James McNeill Whistler (1834-1903)
1887 -- Purchases a small Japanese fan attributed to Ogata Karin(1658-1715)
1887 -- Buys land on Ferry Avenue
1889 -- Meets Frederick Stuart Church (1826-1900) and Dwight William Tryon (1849-1925) in New York
1890 -- Commissions Wilson Eyre (1858-1944) to design house on Ferry Avenue, Detroit, Michigan
1890 -- On first trip to London, meets James McNeill Whistler(1834-1903)
1892 -- Moves to Ferry Avenue house
1892 -- Tryon and Thomas Wilmer Dewing (1851-1938) undertake decoration of reception rooms
1893 -- Lends American paintings to World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago
1893 -- Purchases first piece of Chinese art, a small painting of white herons by an anonymous Ming dynasty (1368-1644) artist
1894 -- Begins yearlong trip around the world, which includes visit to the Whistlers in Paris and first trip to Asia, stopping in Ceylon (now Sri Lanka), India, China, and Japan
1896 -- Meets Matsuki Bunkyo (1867-1940) in Boston
1899 -- Takes part in consolidation of railroad-car building companies then retires from active business
1900 -- Attends Exposition International Universelle in Paris
1900 -- Buys villa in Capri with Thomas S. Jerome
1901 -- Meets Siegfried Bing (1838-1905) in Paris and Ernest Fenollosa(1853-1908), who visits Freer in Detroit
1902 -- Meets Dikran Kelekian (1868-1951)
1902 -- Spends summer in Britain building Whistler collection
1902 -- Views Whistler's, Harmony in Blue and Gold: The Peacock Room
1904 -- Purchases Whistler's Peacock Room
1904 -- Offers his art collections and funds to build a museum in which to house them to the Smithsonian Institution
1905 -- Smithsonian committee visits Freer in Detroit
1906 -- United States government formally accepts Freer's gift on January 24
1906 -- Freer signs Deed of Gift to Smithsonian Institution on May 5
1907 -- On second tour of Asia, meets Hara Tomitaro 1868-1939) in Yokohama, Japan
1908 -- Takes third trip to Asia, specifically to West Asia to study Rakka ware
1909 -- Tours Europe to study art museums
1909 -- On fourth trip to Asia, attends memorial ceremony for Fenollosa (d.1908 September) at Miidera, Japan, and meets Duanfang (1861-1911) in China
1910 -- On last trip to Asia, visits Longmen Buddhist caves in China
1911 -- Suffers stroke
1912 -- Lends selection of objects for exhibition at Smithsonian Institution
1913 -- Meets Eugene (1875-1957) and Agnes E. (1887-1970) Meyer
1913 -- Commissions Charles Adams Platt (1861-1933) to design museum building in Washington
1914 -- Meets Katharine Nash Rhoades (1885-1965) in Detroit
1915 -- Settles in New York City
1915 -- Site of future Freer Gallery of Art is determined
1916 -- Platt's plans for Freer Gallery are approved by Smithsonian Regents and Commission of Fine Arts and ground is broken in September
1918 -- After falling ill in Detroit, Freer travels to New York for treatment
1918 -- Work on the museum building is delayed by the war
1919 -- Freer appends codicil to will permitting acquisitions of Asian, Egyptian, and Near Eastern (West Asian) art
1919 -- Dies in New York City on 25 September and is buried in Kingston, New York
1919 -- Construction of Freer Gallery completed
1920 -- John Ellerton Lodge (1876-1942) is appointed director of the Freer Gallery
1923 -- Freer Gallery opens to the public on May 9
1930 -- Memorial ceremony for Freer is held at Koetsuji, Kyoto
Charles Lang Freer was an American industrialist who founded the Freer Gallery of Art. He was a well-known collector of Asian art, and strongly supported the synthesis of Eastern art and Western art. One of his most famous acquisitions was James McNeill Whistler's Peacock Room.
Index to cross-referenced correspondents in the series Charles Lang Freer correspondence
Beal, Junius E. -- See: -- Warring, Joseph Stephens
Black, George M. -- See: -- Saint-Gaudens, Augustus
Board of Education (Kingston, New York) See: Michael, M. J.
Bonner, Campbell See: University of Michigan
Boughton, George H. See: Yardley, F. C.
British Museum See: Binyon, Laurence; Hobson, R. L.
Brown, Harold H. See: Art Association of Indianapolis
Buchner, Evelyn B. See: Knoedler, M., and Company
Buckholder, C. H. See: Art Institute of Chicago
Butler, S. B. See: Unidentified correspondents
Carnegie Institute See: Balken, Edward Duff; Harshe, Robert B.
Carpenter, Newton H. See: Art Institute of Chicago
Caulkins, Horace James See: Pewabic Pottery
Chao, Shih-chin See: Gunn, Chu Su
Chicago & North Western Railway Co. See: Hughett, Marvin
Clark, Charles Upson See: Clark, Arthur B.
Cleveland Museum of Art See: Whiting, Frederic Allen
Columbia University See: Braun, W. A.; Gottheil, Richard; Hirth, Friederich
Commission of Fine Arts See: Moore, Charles
Corcoran Gallery of Art See: Minnigerode, C. Powell
Crocker, Anna B. See: Portland Art Association
Dannenberg, D. E. See: Karlbeck, Orvar
De Menoncal, Beatrice See: Lien, Hui Ch'ing Collection
De Ricci, Seymour See: Ricci, Seymour de
Defnet, William A., Mrs., See: Franke, Ida M.
DeMotte See: Vigouroux, J.
Detroit Institute of Arts See: Detroit Museum of Art
Detroit Publishing Company See: Livingstone, W. A.
Detroit School of Design See: George Hamilton; Stevens, Henry
DeVinne Press See: Peters, Samuel T.; Witherspoon, A. S.
Dyrenforth, P. C. See: Philip, Rosalind Birnie
Eddy, Arthur J. See: Philip, Rosalind Birnie
Eggers, George Williams See: Art Institute of Chicago
Farr, Daniel H. See: Robinson and Farr
Farrand School (Detroit) See: Yendall, Edith
Field Museum of Natural History (Chicago) See: Laufer, Berthold
Flagg, Frederick J. See: Allen, Horace N.
Fogg Art Museum, Harvard University See: Forbes, Edward; Pope, Arthur Upham; Sachs, Paul J.
French, M. R. See: Art Institute of Chicago
Fu, Lan-ya See: Pang, Lai-ch'en
Fujii, Yoshio See: Yoshio, Fujii
Gerrity, Thomas See: Knoedler, M., and Company
Goupil Gallery See: Marchant, William
Gray, William J. See: Barr, Eva
Great Lakes Engineering Works See: Hoyt, H. W.
Grolier Club See: Philip, Rosalind Birnie
Heinemann, W. See: Philip, Rosalind Birnie
Holden, Edward S. See: West Point, U. S. Military Academy
Hudson, J. L. See: Weber, William C.
Hutchins, Harry B. See: University of Michigan
Hutchins, Charles L. See: Art Institute of Chicago
Kelekian, H. G. See: Kelekian, Dikran G.
Kent, H. W. See: Metropolitan Museum of Art
Lee, Kee Son See: Li, Chi-ch'un
Levy, John See: Schneider, A. K.
Library of Congress See: Rice, Richard A.; Wright, Helen
Louvre (Paris, France) See: Midgeon, Gaston
Matsuki, Z. See: Matsuki, Kihachiro
McKim, Mead and White See: White, Stanford
Mills, A. L., Colonel See: Saint-Gaudens, Augustus
Miner, Luella See: Lien, Hui Ch'ing Collection
Minneapolis Institute of Arts See: Breck, Joseph; Van Derlip, John R.
Monif, R. Khan See: Rathbun, Richard
Museum of Fine Arts, Boston See: Lodge, John Ellerton
Naser, Katen & Nahass See: Katen, K.
Nordlinger, Marie, Miss See: Meyer-Riefstahl, Marie
Panama Pacific International Exposition See: Moore, Charles C.; Trask, John E. D.
Peabody Museum See: Morse, Edward Sylvester
Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts See: Trask, John E. D.
Saint-Gaudens, Augusta H. See: Saint-Gaudens, Augustus
Saint-Gaudens, Homer See: Saint-Gaudens, Augustus
Samurai Shokai See: Nomura, Yozo
San Francisco Art Association See: Laurvik, J. Nilsen
Scribner's, Charles, Sons See: Van Dyke, John C.
Shaw, Wilfred B. See: University of Michigan
Shirae, S. Z. See: Yamanaka and Company
Smith College See: Clark, Arthur B.
Smithsonian Institution See: Holmes, William Henry; Rathbun, Richard; Ravenel, Walcott, Charles D.
Society of Arts and Crafts (Detroit) See: Plumb, Helen
Societe des Beaux-Arts See: Reid, Alexander
Stevens, George W. See: Toledo Museum of Art
Stratton, Mary Chase Perry See: Pewabic Pottery
Tanaka, Kichijiro See: Yamanaka and Company
Tuttle, William F. See: Art Institute of Chicago
Union Trust Company (Detroit) See: Philip, Rosalind Birnie
United States Military Academy See: West Point, U. S. Military Academy
University of Chicago See: Zug, George Breed
University of Pennsylvania, Univ. Mus. See: Gordon, George Bryon
Ushikubo, D. J. R. See: Yamanaka and Company
Wallis & Son See: Barr, Eva; Thompson, C. Croal Ward, Clarence See: Oberlin College
Warren, Edward K. See: Philip, Rosalind Birnie
Warring, Stephen See: Warring, Joseph Stephens
Watkin, Williams R. T. See: Philip, Rosalind Birnie
Watson, Margaret, Miss See: Parker, Margaret Watson
Whistler, Anna See: Stanton, Anna Whistler
Whiting, Almon C. See: Toledo Museum of Art
Williams College See: Rice, Richard A
Wright, F. G. See: Orbach and Company
Yatsuhashi, H. See: Yamanaka and Company
Index to cross-referenced correspondence in the series Whistler correspondence
Bell, William See: Unidentified correspondents
Brown, Ernest See: Painter Etchers' Society, Committee
Cowen, John T. See subseries: Charles Lang Freer Correspondence
Ford, Sheridan See: Reid, Alexander
Haden, Francis Seymour See: Painter Etchers' Society, Committee
Haden, Francis Seymour, Lady See: Haden, Deborah Whistler
Leighton, Frederick, Baron See: Campbell, Lady Colin
Moore, Albert See: Reid, Alexander
Morley, Charles See: Pall Mall Gazette
Morris, Harrison S. See: Reid, Alexander
Pennell, Joseph See: Miscellaneous typescripts
Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts See: Reid, Alexander
Prange, F. G. See: Reid, Alexander
Societe des Beaux-Arts See: Reid, Alexander
Society of Portrait Painters See: Reid, Alexander
Stevens Fine Art See: Reid, Alexander
Studd, Arthur See: Miscellaneous typescripts
[Vanderbilt?], George, Mrs. See: George, Mrs.
Whistler, William McNeill, Mrs. See: Whistler, Nellie
Whistler Memorial Committee See: Miscellaneous typescripts
The Archives of American Art microfilmed portions of the Freer papers in 1992. The microfilm is available at the Archives of American Art's Washington D.C. office, the Freer Gallery of Art Library, and through interlibrary loan.
Gift of the estate of Charles Lang Freer.
Collection is open for research.
Permission to publish, quote, or reproduce must be secured from the repository.