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Beverly Hallam papers

Creator:
Hallam, Beverly, 1923-2013  Search this
Names:
Ogunquit Art Association (Ogunquit, Me.)  Search this
Sarton, May, 1912-  Search this
Smart, Mary, 1915-  Search this
Extent:
24.2 Linear feet
2.73 Gigabytes
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Gigabytes
Video recordings
Motion picture film
Interviews
Sound recordings
Sketchbooks
Date:
1899-2013
Summary:
The papers of painter, printmaker, photographer, and educator Beverly Hallam measure 24.2 linear feet and 2.73 Gigabytes, and date from 1899-2013. The collection includes biographical material, correspondence, personal business records, writings, journals, teaching materials, printed material, photographs, film, video, and sound recordings, guest books, and artwork.
Scope and Contents:
The papers of painter, printmaker, photographer, and educator Beverly Hallam measure 24.2 linear feet and 2.73 Gigabytes, and date from 1899-2013. The collection includes biographical material, correspondence, personal business records, writings, journals, teaching materials, printed material, photographs, film, video, and sound recordings, guest books, and artwork.

Biographical material includes family histories for both Hallam and Mary-Leigh Smart, as well as Hallam's family estate management, in addition to résumés and travel documents. Correspondence is both professional and personal, including extensive letters with the writer May Sarton. Personal business records include gallery and exhibition records, including some consignments, loans and price lists, as well as donation records. Writings include a master's thesis, artist statements, articles and lectures by Beverly Hallam, as well as student assignments and writings by others. Hallam's journals include travel and artwork journals, as well as heavily annotated and interleaved yearly planners. Teaching materials date back to Hallam's earliest lessons delivered while obtaining her bachelor's degree of education Massachusetts College of Art, and include her work at Lassell Junior College and her tenure teaching at Massachusetts College of Art.

The printed material series includes extensive clippings regarding Hallam's career as well as family history and the careers of notable friends and colleagues, in addition to those regarding regional artists and the art scene in Maine. Also included are invitations and catalogs for Beverly Hallam's exhibitions, and early research into polyvinyl acetate. Photographs include those of Beverly and her friends and family, as well as artwork and albums documenting installations for exhibitions throughout Hallam's career. Some albums more closely document the homes and estates of Surf Point belonging to Hallam and Smart, as well as Wild Knoll belonging to May Sarton. Also included are photographs Hallam created as illustrations for writing projects by Sarton.

The film, video, and audio recording series includes numerous home movies documenting Hallam's family life and her home at Surf Point, as well as some reels documenting her artwork and exhibitions and a few audio recordings most likely of artist talks. Guest books document attendance for select exhibitions in Hallam's career, as well as of her various homes. The artwork series is comprised of sketchbooks including those detailing Hallam's airbrush works, holiday cards drawn and designed by Hallam, and prints of later computer-generated works.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged in eleven series:

Series 1: Biographical Material, circa 1899-2012 (1.0 linear foot: Box 1; 0.349 GB: ER01)

Series 2: Correspondence, circa 1930s-2013 (4.3 linear feet: Boxes 2-6; 0.376 GB: ER02-ER11)

Series 3: Personal Business, circa 1952-2012, circa 1952-2012 (0.7 linear feet: Box 6; 0.066 GB: ER12-ER14, ER16)

Series 4: Writings, circa 1920s-2006 (1.4 linear feet: Boxes 7-8, 22; 0.001 GB: ER15)

Series 5: Journals, circa 1941-1999 (2.7 linear feet: Boxes 8-10)

Series 6: Teaching Material, circa 1944-1962 (0.7 linear feet: Box 11)

Series 7: Printed Material, circa 1920s-2010 (4.3 linear feet: Boxes 11-15, 22)

Series 8: Photographs, circa 1900-2013 (4.7 linear feet: Boxes 15-20; 1.95 GB: ER17-ER30)

Series 9: Film, Video, and Sound Recordings, circa 1970s-1990 (2.6 linear feet: Box 17, FC25-FC47)

Series 10: Guest Books, 1954-2004 (0.8 linear feet: Boxes 17, 21)

Series 11: Artwork, circa 1940s-2008 (1.0 linear foot (Boxes 21, 23-24)
Biographical / Historical:
Beverly Linney Hallam (1923-2013) was a painter, photographer, printmaker, and art educator in York, Maine. Hallam was born in Lynn, Massachusetts to parents Alice Linney Hallam and Edwin Hallam, who was an engineer. Beverly Hallam gravitated toward art making at a young age, and pursued a bachelor's degree in education from the Massachusetts College of Art. Shortly after graduation Hallam accepted a position at Lasell Junior College where she was Chairman of the Art Department until 1949. In 1948 she attended a summer study program at Cranbrook Academy of Art in Michigan. In 1953 she received her M.F.A. at Syracuse University where she wrote her thesis on the use of polyvinyl acetate as an artistic medium. For this and other early efforts she would be known as a pioneer for the medium of acrylic paint, which polyvinyl acetate would come to be known. From 1949-1962 Ms. Hallam was professor at the Massachusetts College of Art from 1949-1961 where she taught Painting, Drawing and Design, and Photography. She is particularly well known as a printmaker, and especially for her large-scale airbrush paintings of flowers.

Around the early 1960s with Hallam's departure from teaching, she relocated permanently to Ogunquit, Maine where she kept a studio and home known as Stonecrop, which is currently an art gallery by the same name. In 1971 Hallam and lifelong friend and companion Mary-Leigh Smart completed the construction of Surf Point, which served as both a home as well as a studio for Hallam. Surf Point was situated near the property known as Wild Knoll which was home to Hallam's close friend and correspondent, the poet and writer May Sarton, who lived there from 1974-1995. Sarton and Hallam Smart was a founder of The Barn Gallery, under the Ogunquit Art Association, for which both Hallam and Smart were board members. Smart also was also a collector and art consultant, passionate about Maine regional artists. In 1988 Mary-Leigh Smart established a Trust that would ensure their home and surrounding land would be turned into an artist residency upon their deaths, known as the Surf Point Foundation, modelled after the MacDowell Colony.
Related Materials:
The originals of some letters from May Sarton, 1954, and 1966-1994, included in this collection as photocopies, appear in the May Sarton papers held at New York Public Library's Archives and Manuscripts.
Provenance:
Material on reel 1428 was lent for microfilming in 1978. The majority of the collection was donated in 1992 and 1996 by Beverly Hallam, and in 2014 by the Beverly Hallam estate via executor Mary-Leigh Smart.
Restrictions:
This collection is open for research. Access to original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C. Research Center. Researchers interested in accessing born-digital records or audiovisual recordings in this collection must use access copies. Contact References Services for more information.
Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Occupation:
Educators -- Massachusetts -- Boston  Search this
Painters -- Maine -- York  Search this
Photographers -- Maine  Search this
Printmakers -- Maine  Search this
Topic:
Women artists  Search this
Acrylic painting  Search this
Airbrush art  Search this
Genre/Form:
Video recordings
Motion picture film
Interviews
Sound recordings
Sketchbooks
Citation:
Beverly Hallam Papers, 1899-2013. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.hallbeve
See more items in:
Beverly Hallam papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-hallbeve

N W Ayer Advertising Agency Records

Creator:
Ayer (N W) Incorporated.  Search this
Names:
American Telephone and Telegraph Company -- Advertisements  Search this
Cunningham & Walsh.  Search this
Hixson & Jorgenson  Search this
United Air Lines, Inc. -- Advertisements  Search this
Ayer, Francis Wayland  Search this
De Kooning, Willem, 1904-  Search this
O'Keeffe, Georgia, 1887-1986  Search this
Extent:
270 Cubic feet (1169 boxes )
7 Film reels
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Film reels
Business records
Interviews
Oral history
Print advertising
Proof sheets
Proofs (printed matter)
Scrapbooks
Trade literature
Tear sheets
Advertisements
Date:
1817-1851
1869-2006
Summary:
Collection consists of records documenting one of the oldest advertising agencies created in Philadelphia. The company then moves to New York and expanses to international markets. During its history NW Ayer & Sons acquires a number of other advertising agencies and is eventually purchased. The largest portion of the collection is print advertisements but also includes radio and television. NW Ayer is known for some of the slogans created for major American companies.
Scope and Contents:
The collection consists primarily of proof sheets of advertisements created by NW Ayer & Son, Incorporated for their clients. These materials are in series one through thirteen and consist primarily of print advertisements. There are also billboards, radio and television commercials. The advertisements range from consumer to corporate and industrial products. The majority of the advertisements were created for Ayer's New York, Chicago, Los Angeles and international offices. Printed advertisements created by Cunningham & Walsh, Hixson & Jorgensen and Newell-Emmett are also included among these materials. Researchers who are interested in records created by Ayer in the course of operating an advertising agency will find these materials in Series fourteen-nineteen.

Series fourteen consists of advertisements created by NW Ayer & Son to promote their services to potential clients.

Series fifteen are scrapbooks of some of the earliest advertisements created by the company. Series sixteen are publications. Some of the publications were created by Ayer while others were about Ayer or the advertising industry in general. Provides good background materials and puts the company in perspective. Series eighteen are the legal records. Materials relating to employees including photographs, oral histories etc. are found in series nineteen.

Series twenty is one of the smallest amounts of materials and includes information relating to the history of NW Ayer & Son.

The container lists for series one-thirteen are part of a database and are searchable. The list has been printed for the convenience of the researcher and is included in this finding aid. Series fourteen-twenty container lists are also a part of the finding aid but are not in a searchable format.

Series 1, Scrapbooks of Client Advertisements, circa 1870-1920, is arranged into three boxes by chronological date. There are two bound scrapbooks and one box of folders containing loose scrapbook pages. NW Ayer & Son compiled an assortment of their earliest ads and placed them into scrapbooks. Besides the earliest advertisements, the scrapbooks contain requests to run advertisements, reading notices and listings of papers Ayer advertised in. The early advertisements themselves range from medical remedies to jewelry to machines to clothing to education and more. Most of the advertisements in the bound scrapbooks are dated.

Series 2, Proofsheets, circa 1870-1930, NW Ayer was fond of creating scrapbooks containing proofsheets. The series contains proofsheets created between 1892 and 1930, organized into 526 boxes. For convenience of storage, access and arrangement, the scrapbooks were disassembled and the pages placed in original order in flat archival storage boxes. The proofsheets are arranged by book number rather than client name. Usually the boxes contain a listing of the clients and sometimes the dates of the advertisements to be found within the box.

Series 3, Proofsheets, circa 1920-1975, is organized into 532 oversize boxes, and contain proofsheets and tearsheets created between 1920 and 1972. Within this series, materials are arranged alphabetically by company name (occasionally subdivided by brand or product), and thereunder chronologically by date of production. Many major, national advertisers are represented, including American Telephone & Telegraph, Armour Company, Canada Dry, Cannon Mills, Carrier Corporation, Domino Sugar, Caterpillar tractor company, Ford Motor Company, General Electric, Goodyear, Hills Bros. Coffee, Ladies Home Journal, National Dairy, Plymouth (Chrysler Corporation), Steinway, TV Guide, United Airlines and the United States Army. Also contained in this series are three scrapbooks of client advertisements including Canada Dry, Ford Motor, and Victor Talking Machine.

Series 4, 2001 Addendum, circa 1976-2001, is organized into ninety three oversized boxes,one folder and contains proofsheets for select Ayer clients, created between 1975 and 2001. Within this series, materials are arranged alphabetically by client name and there under chronologically by date of production. Major national advertisers represented include American Telephone & Telegraph, Avon, the United States Army, DeBeers Consolidated Diamond Mines, Dupont, TV Guide, Sealtest, Kraft Foods, Gillette, General Motors, Cannon Mills.

Series 5, Billboards, circa 1952-1956, consists of mounted and un-mounted original art/mock-ups. Twenty-two pieces of original art created as mock-ups for Texaco billboards.

Series 6, Film and Video Commercials, 1967-1970,

Series 7, Radio and Television Materials, 1933-1993, undated, is arranged into eight boxes and includes radio scripts, television scripts, and story boards for commercials.

Subseries 7.1, Scripts and storyboards for Radio and Television Commercials, dates Scripts for radio and television commercials includes title, date, length of commercial, advertising agency, client information

NW Ayer's radio and television materials mainly focus on the American Telegraph and Telephone account. Some of Ayer's materials relate to Bell Telephone Hours.

Storyboards are used in television and film to assist the director in working with crew to tell the story. To show the viewer through the use of figures, visual effects and camera angles. When directors first start thinking about their storyboard they create a story in their mind. They think of all the camera angles, visual effects and how the figures will interact in their mind. They try to create an extraordinary story in their head to attract the viewer (YOU) In order for the storyboard to be entirely effective it can't be a passive document. When done properly, a storyboard serves as a central design, meeting the needs of many team members including graphics artists, video personnel and programmers.

Another function of a storyboard is to help the team communicate during the training development process. This communication is very important in working with a large team as in the movie King, produced in 1996. Figures help the director explain to the crew how they are going to record the film and how to present it to the audience. Sometimes the director wants special effects to be added to the film, but his budget might not be that big so the director will have to change the story to fit their budget.

The Visual Effects are an important part in the storyboards it adds a special touch of creativity to your film. Camera angles are an important expects in your film because the camera angles determine where the viewing audience will look. If you want your audience to look at a certain object you must turn their attention to it by focusing on that object and maybe you might try blocking something out. Then you will have your audience's attention and you may do whatever else you have to, it could be scaring them are just surprising them or whatever you do.

Also included is talent information and log sheets relating to the storage of the commercials.

Bell Telephone Hour Program, 1942-[19??], The Bell Telephone Hour, also known as The Telephone Hour, was a five minute musical program which began April 29, 1940 on National Broadcasting Company Radio and was heard on NBC until June 30, 1958. Sponsored by Bell Telephone showcased the best in classical and Broadway music, reaching eight to nine million listeners each week. It continued on television from 1959 to 1968.

Earlier shows featured James Melton and Francia White as soloists. Producer Wallace Magill restructured the format on April 27, 1942 into the "Great Artists Series" of concert and opera performers, beginning with Jascha Heifetz. Records indicate that the list of talents on the program included Marian Anderson, Helen Traubel, Oscar Levant, Lily Pons, Nelson Eddy, Bing Crosby, Margaret Daum, Benny Goodman, José Iturbi, Gladys Swarthout and .The series returned to radio in 1968-1969 as Bell Telephone Hour Encores, also known as Encores from the Bell Telephone Hour, featuring highlights and interviews from the original series.

National Broadcasting television specials sponsored by the Bell System, 1957-1987includes information relating to Science series, Bell system Theshold Series, Bell telephone hour and commercial and public sponsored programs

Series 8, Chicago Office Print Advertisements, 1954-1989, is arranged alphabetically by the name of the client in ninety boxes and six oversize folders. Clients include Illinois Bell Telephone (1955-1989), Microswitch (1969-1989), Teletype (1975-1984), John Deere (1974-1989) and Caterpillar (1966-1972) are particularly well represented. Other clients of interest include Dr. Scholl's shoes (circa 1968-1972), the Girl Scouts (1976-1980), Sunbeam Personal Products Company (1973-1981), Bell and Howell (1974-1983) and Alberto Culver shampoos (1967-1971), Honeywell, Incorporated, Blue Cross and Blue Shield Associations, Kraft, Incorporated, Sears, Roebuck and Company, and YMCA.

Series 9, Los Angeles Office Materials, 1950s-1987, include printed advertisements created by this office and information relating to the employees.

Subseries 9.1, Print Advertisements, 1977-1987, printed advertisements arranged in one box alphabetically by client. There is a sparse sampling of clients from this particular Ayer branch office. The majority of the advertisements contained within this series are from Pizza Hut (1986-1987). Also included are Computer Automation (1977-1978), State of the Art, Incorporated (1982) and Toshiba (1986).

Subseries 9.2, Personnel Files, 1950s-1970s, includes cards of employees who worked in the Los Angeles office. Information on the cards includes name, address, telephone number, birthday, date hired, departure date and why (retired, terminated, resigned, etc) and position. Not all cards have all information. There is also a photograph of the employees on the cards.

Series 10, Foreign Print Advertisements, 1977-1991, undated, NW Ayer maintained partnerships with international companies such as Sloanas Ayer in Argentina, Connaghan & May Paton Ayer in Australia, Moussault Ayer in Belgium, NW Ayer, LTD. in Canada, GMC Ayer in France, Co-Partner Ayer in Germany, Wong Lam Wang in Hong Kong, MacHarman Ayer in New Zealand, Grupo de Diseno Ayer in Spain, Nedeby Ayer in Sweden, and Ayer Barker in United Kingdom. This group of material is a small sampling of advertisements created from these International offices. It is arranged alphabetically by client. There are quite a few automobile advertisements (i.e. Audi, Fiat, General Motors, Mercedes-Benz, and Volkswagen). In addition there are numerous advertisements for various personal items from MacLean's toothpaste to Quick athletic shoes to Labello lip balm, etc. Most of the advertisements have the creator's name printed on the advertisements.

Series 11, Cunningham & Walsh, Incorporated Materials, 1915-1987, undated contains 98 boxes 11 folders materials from the New York advertising agency acquired by NW Ayer in the 1960s. The company began with Newel-Emmett, an agency of nine men which broke up in 1949. Two of the men Fred Walsh and Jack Cunningham formed this agency in bearing their names in 1950. The agency created "let your fingers for the walking campaign for American Telephone & Telegraph, Mother Nature for Chiffon, and Mrs. Olson for Folgers's coffee and let the good times roll for Kawasaki motorcycle. In 1986, NW Ayer Incorporated purchased Cunningham & Walsh Incorporated.

Subseries 11.1, Print Advertisements, 1915-1987, are contained in ninety eight boxes of primarily print advertisements arranged alphabetically by client name. Clients that are particularly well represented are Graybar (electrical implements, circa1926-1937), Johns-Manulle (circa1915-1971), Smith and Corono typewriters (circa 1934-1960), Sunshine Biscuit Company (circa 1925-1961), Texaco Company (circa 1936-1961), Western Electric (circa 1920- 1971) and Yellow Pages (circa 1936-1971). Cunningham and Walsh also represented several travel and tourism industry clients, including Cook Travel Services (circa 1951-1962), Italian Line (circa 1953-1961), Narragansett and Croft (circa 1956-1960) and Northwest Airlines (circa 1946-1955). There are photographs of Texaco advertisements dating from 1913-1962. There is also a scrapbook of advertisements from the Western Electric Company dating from 1920-1922.

Subseries 11.2, Radio and Television Advertisements, 1963-1967, consist of materials created for Western Electric. Materials are arranged in chronological order.

Subseries 11.3, Company Related Materials, 1962-1986, undated include client lists, information relating to NW Ayer purchase and annual report 1962.

Series 12, Hixson & Jorgensen Materials, 1953-1971, a Los Angeles advertising company, merged with Ayer in 1969. This series is housed in one box. Within the box are four scrapbooks and folders with a hodgepodge of materials relating to advertising. Of most interest are the scrapbooks. Two scrapbooks deal with Hixson and Jorgensen's self promotion ad campaign "the right appeal gets action" (1953-1957). The other two scrapbooks contain news clippings about the company and its activities (1959-1971).

Series 13, Newell-Emmet, 1942-1957, founded in 1919 and governed in the 1940s by a partnership of nine men. The partnership broke up in 1949 when the men went their separate ways. The materials consist of print advertisements for one of client, Permutit Company, a water conditioning company. The materials are arranged in one box in chronological order.

Series 14, House Print Advertisements, 1870-1991, 16 boxes consists of advertisements or self-promotion advertisements to campaign for new clients. The series is arranged chronologically by date into fifteen boxes. Within the series are two scrapbooks containing self promotion ads from 1888-1919 and 1892-1895. Numerous house ads relate to Ayer's "Human Contact" campaign. In addition to the self promotion ads, Ayer ran advertisements expounding about particular concepts or themes for example, one month the concept would "understand" while another month would be "teamwork" and yet another would be on "imagination". Some of the self promotion ads target specific groups like Philadelphia businessmen. Other advertisements incorporate the fine arts.

Series 15, Scrapbooks, 1872-1959, relates to company events, records and news clippings about Ayer's history. The six boxes are arranged by chronological date. Two of the boxes focus solely on the death of founder F.W. Ayer (1923). Another box houses a scrapbook that showcases Ayer's annual Typography Exhibition (1931-1959). One box contains a scrapbook that specifically deals with correspondences relating to Ayer's advertising. Yet another box's contents are folders of loose pages from scrapbooks that have newspaper clippings, order forms, correspondences and other company records. In one box, a bound scrapbook houses a variety of materials relating to Ayer and advertising (i.e. newspaper clippings, competitor's advertisements, NW Ayer's advertisements, correspondences for advertisements, clippings regarding the "theory of advertising."

Series 16, Publications, 1849-2006, are housed in thirty four boxes and are arranged into three main categories.

Subseries 16.1, House Publications, 1876-1994, covers diverse topics; some proscriptive works about the Ayer method in advertising, some commemorating people, anniversaries or events in the life of the agency. Materials consist of scattered issues of the employee newsletter The Next Step 1920-1921. The materials are arranged in chronological order by date of publication. Ayer in the News, The Show Windows of an Advertising Agency, 1915, book form of advertisements published on the cover of Printer's Ink, highlighting Ayer's relations with advertisers. The Story of the States, 1916, Reprint in book form of a series of articles published in Printer's Ink for the purpose of adding some pertinent fact, progressive thought and prophetic vision to the Nationalism of Advertising highlights major businesses, manufacturer, natural resources and other qualities or attractions of each state. The Book of the Golden Celebration, 1919, includes welcome address and closing remarks by founder F. Wayland Ayer, The Next Step, 1920 employee newsletter with photographs, employee profiles, in-house jokes, etc., Advertising Advertising: A Series of Fifty-two Advertisements scheduled one time a week. Twenty-seven, thirty and forty inches, a day of the week optional with publisher, 1924

Subseries 16.2, Publications about NW Ayer, 1949-2006, includes a book first published in 1939. Includes articles, documenting events and is arranged chronologically by date of publication.

Subseries 16.3, General Publications about Advertising, 1922-1974, are arranged chronologically by date of publication and relate primarily to the history of advertising.

Subseries 16.4, Publications about Other Subjects, 1948-1964, include four books about the tobacco industry primarily the history of the American Tobacco Company and Lorillard Company from the Cunningham and Walsh library.

Series 17, Business Records, circa 1885-1990s

Subseries 17.1, Contracts, 1885-1908, undated, are arranged alphabetically and span from 1885-1908. The majority of the contracts are with newspaper and magazine publishers from around the country.

Subseries 17.2, General client information, 1911-1999, undated, including active and cancelled lists with dates, client gains, historical client list, (should move this to series 20) Ayer Plan User Guide Strategic Planning for Human Contact, undated

Subseries 17.3, Individual Client Account Information, 1950s-1990s, undated, contain information used by Ayer to create advertisements for some of its clients. American Telephone &Telegraph Corporate Case History, American Telephone &Telegraph Corporate advertisement memo, commissioned artists for DeBeers advertisements, DeBeers information relating to the creative process and photography credits, a case history for DeBeers Consolidated Mines, Ltd., The Diamond Engagement Ring, Managing Communication at all levels, DuPont publications, JC Penny Marketing Communication Plan Recommendation, Leaf, Incorporated, Saturn presentation, and USAREC oral presentation.

Subseries 17.4, Potential Clients, 1993, includes grouping has a questionnaire sent to Ayer by a potential client. Questionnaire response for Prudential Securities, 1993 Prudential Securities advertising account review, 1993.

Subseries 17.5, Financial Records, 1929-1938, includes balance sheet, 1929 May 1 Balance sheet and adjustments Consolidated statement of assets and liabilities, Expenses 191936-37 Business review and expenses, 1937 and 1938 Business review and expenses comparative statement, 1937 and 1938.

Series 18, Legal Records, circa 1911-1982, Ayer's legal records are arranged by twelve subject groupings within four boxes. The twelve groupings are advertising service agreements (circa 1918-1982), bylaws, copyright claims, correspondences, international correspondences, dissolution of trusts, stock information, agreements between partners, incorporation materials, reduction of capital, property information and miscellaneous materials. The bulk of the materials are the advertising service agreements. These agreements are between Ayer and their clients and state the services Ayer will offer and at what cost. The bylaws are Ayer's company bylaws from 1969 and 1972. The copyright claims are certificates stating Ayer's ownership over certain published materials (i.e. "Policy", Media Equalizer Model, and Don Newman's Washington Square Experiment). The correspondences relate to either the voting trust and receipts for agreement or the New York Corporation. The international correspondences are from either Ayer's Canadian office or London office. The dissolutions of trusts contains materials about the dividend trust of Wilfred F. Fry, the investment trust of Winfred W. Fry, the voting trust, and the New York corporation. The stock information has stock certificates and capital stock information. The agreements between partners (1911-1916) specify the terms between F.W. Ayer and his partners. The incorporation materials (circa 1929-1977) deal with Ayer advertising agency becoming incorporated in the state of Delaware. The reduction of capital grouping is a notification that shares of stock have been retired. The property information grouping contains property deeds and insurance policy (circa 1921-1939), a property appraisal (1934), and a bill of sale (1948). The miscellaneous grouping contains a house memo regarding a set of board meeting minutes and a registry of foreign companies in Commonwealth of Pennsylvania (1929-1954).

Subseries 18.1, Advertising Service Agreements, 1918-1982

Subseries 18.2, Bylaw Materials, 1969-1972

Subseries 18.3, Copyright Claims, 1962-1969

Subseries 18.4, Correspondence, 1928-1933

Subseries 18.5, International Office Correspondence, 1947-1948

Subseries 18.6, Dissolution of Trusts, 1934-1937

Subseries 18.7, Stock Information, 1934-1974

Subseries 18.8, Agreements between Partners, 1911-1916

Subseries 18.9, Incorporation Materials, 1929-1977

Subseries 18.10, Certificates of Reduction of Capital, 1937; 1975

Subseries 18.11, Property Information, 1921-1948

Subseries 18.12, Miscellaneous Materials, 1929-1977

Series 19, Personnel Records, circa 1889-2001, are arranged into eight groupings within eight boxes. The groupings are employee card files, photographs, Ayer alumni, biographies, speeches, recollections, oral histories, and miscellaneous. Typed manuscript of book A Copy Writer Speaks by George Cecil, NW Ayer, Incorporated copy head 1920s-1950s

Subseries 19.1, Employee card files, circa 1892-1915; 1929-1963, consists of index cards with the name, age, job title, date and wage increases, date of hire/fire, as well as remarks about the employee's service and/or reasons for seeking or leaving the job. Materials are arranged alphabetically by the last name of the employee within three boxes.

Subseries 19.2, Photographs, circa 1924-1984, undated, are housed in two boxes. The photographs grouped together by subjects i.e. personnel, company events, Ayer buildings, and miscellaneous. This grouping primarily consists of personnel photographs. Includes a glass plate negative dated 1924 of NW Ayer.

Subseries 19.3, Ayer Alumni, circa 1989-98, include employees who have left Ayer. There is a listing of Ayer "graduates" and their current job. Emeritus, Ayer's alumni newsletter 1989-1996, makes up the majority of materials in this grouping. The newsletter keeps the alumni up to date with the happenings of Ayer and what has become of former Ayer employees. Emeritus is a quarterly newsletter devoted to the activities, thoughts and feelings of Ayer alumni a body of people who consists of retirees and former employees.

Subseries 19.4, Biographical Information, circa 1889-1994, undated, prominent members of Ayer's operations had biographical sketches completed of them. This was true for the bio sketches of Robert Ervin, Louis T. Hagopian, and George A. Rink. There is a substantial file on Dorothy Dignam ("Mis Dig"), a leading woman in the advertising world from the 1930s to the 1950s. Also of interest is a video ("The Siano Man") compiled by Ayer employees to commemorate Jerry Siano's retirement from Ayer in 1994. The series is arranged alphabetically by last name.

Subseries 19.5, Speeches, circa 1919-1931; 1975, contains speeches made by Wilfred W. Fry and Neal W. O'Connor. Wilfred W. Fry had various speaking engagements connected with Ayer. Contained in this group is a sampling of his speeches from 1919 to 1931. Neal O'Connor's speech "Advertising: Who Says It's a Young People's Business" was given at the Central Region Convention for the American Association of Advertising Agencies in Chicago on November 6, 1975. The speeches are arranged alphabetically by the speaker's last name.

Subseries 19.6, Recollections, 1954-1984, undated, are arranged alphabetically by last name. These are recollections from Ayer employees about the company and its advertisements. Some recollections are specifically about certain types of advertisements, like farm equipment while others reflect on F. W. Ayer and the company.

Subseries 19.7, Oral History Interview Transcripts, 1983-1985; 1989-1991, include interviews with key NW Ayer personnel, conducted by Ayer alumnae Howard Davis, Brad Lynch and Don Sholl (Vice President creative) for the Oral History Program. The materials are arranged alphabetically by the last name of the interviewee.

Subseries 19.8, Oral History Interview Audio Tapes, 1985-1990, include interviews on audiotape the materials are arranged alphabetically by the last name of the interviewee.

Subseries 19.9, Internal Communications, 1993-1999, includes information sent to employees relating to retirements, management changes, awards won by the company, promotions, potential new accounts, free items, grand opening of Ayer Café, donation events, sponsorship programs, holiday schedules, discounts for employees from clients, Ayer joins MacManus Group.

Subseries 19.10, General Materials, 1940; 1970, includes agency directory entry including a list of the employees, 1970s, annual banquet program for the Curfew Club May 22, 1940 a group formed by the Philadelphia employee in 1938. It sponsored numerous sports, social and educational activities. Groups were formed in public speaking, music appreciation and a series of talks on Monday evenings title the modern woman. The front page was a series of talks for general interest. A list of officers, 1991, Twenty five year club membership, 1973 December 1, List of NW Ayer graduates, 1970, List of Officers, 1991 May 31, Obituary for Leo Lionni, 1999 October 17, List of photographers of advertisements, 2001

Series 20, Background and History Information, 1817-1999, undated includes a chronology, 1817-1990, quick reference timeline, 1848-1923, loose pages from a scrapbook containing examples of correspondence, envelopes, advertisements dating from 1875-1878; slogans coined by NW Ayer & Sons, Incorporated, 1899-1990, history of management, 1909-1923, articles and photographs about the building and art galleries, 1926-1976, publications about the Philadelphia building, 1929, pamphlet relating to memories of NW Ayer & Sons, Incorporated, 1930s-1950s, television history, 1940-1948, Article about the history of the company, 1950 January, pocket guide, 1982, AdWeek reports about standings for advertising agencies, information relating to Human Contact which is NW Ayer's Information relating to Human Contact, undated which is their philosophy on advertising.

Series 21, Materials Created by other Advertising Agencies, 1945-1978, undated, consists of print advertisements collected by Ayer from other major advertising companies. The companies include Doyle Dane Bernback, Incorporated, Leo Burnett Company, Grey Advertising Agency, D'Arcy Ad Agency, Scali, McCabe, Sloves, Incorporated and Erwin Wasey Company. The materials are arranged in alphabetical order by client and include products from Ralston Purina and Van Camp (Chicken of the Sea), Kellogg, American Export Lines and No Nonsense Fashions.

Series 22, 2010 Addendum of Print Advertisements, circa 1879s-1999, undated, includes material given to the Archives Center in 2010. It is organized into seventy one oversized boxes and contains proofsheets of print advertisements for select Ayer clients. These are arranged alphabetically by client name and include substantial quantities of materials from American Telephone &Telegraph (1945-1996), Bahamas Ministry of Tourism (1967-1987), Carrier (1971-1981), Citibank (1973-1991), DeBeers (1940s-1960s and1990s), Electric Companies Advertising Program [ECAP] (1942-1970s), General Motors (1989-1998), J.C. Penney (1983-1986), Newsweek (1966-1975), and Proctor and Gamble (1980s-1890s). There are also numerous other clients represented by smaller quantities of materials.

Subseries 22.1, Print Advertisements, 1930-1990, undated

Subseries 22.2, Print Advertisements on Glass Plate Negatives, 1879-1881, undated, include Cannon towels, Cheny Brothers silks, Cornish & Company organs and pianos, Enterprise Manufacturing Company, 1879 sad iron, an ad from Harper's Weekly 1881 for ladies clothing, Ostermoor & Company mattresses, Pear's soap, Porter's cough balsam, Steinway pianos.

Series 23, Microfilm of Print Advertisements, circa 1908-1985, consists of three boxes of printed advertisements for the American Telephone and Telegraph Company. Some of the same advertisements might also be found in series two, three and four.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into twenty-three series.

Series 1: Scrapbooks of Client Print Advertisements, circa 1870-1920

Series 2: Proofsheets, circa 1870-1930

Series 3: Proofsheets, circa 1920-1975

Series 4: 2001 Addendum, circa 1976-2001

Series 5: Billboards, circa 1952-1956

Series 6: Audiovisual Materials

Series 7: Radio and Television Materials, 1933-1993, undated

Series 8: Chicago Office Print Advertisements, 1954-1989

Series 9: Los Angeles Office Materials, 1950s-1987

Subseries 9.1: Printed Advertisements, 1977-1987

Subseries 9.2: Personnel Files, 1950s-1970s

Series 10: Foreign Print Advertisements, 1977-1991, undated

Series 11: Cunningham & Walsh Incorporated Materials, 1915-1987, undated

Subseries 11.1: Printed Advertisements, 1915-1987

Subseries 11.2: Radio and Television Advertisements, 1963-1967

Subseries 11.3: Company Related Materials, 1962-1986, undated

Series 12: Hixson & Jorgensen Materials, 1953-1971, undated

Series 13: Newell-Emmet, 1942-1957

Series 14: House Print Advertisements, 1870-1991

Series 15: Scrapbooks, 1872-1959

Series 16: Publications, 1849-2006

Subseries 16.1: House Publications, 1876-1994

Subseries 16.2: Publications about NW Ayer, 1949-1995

Subseries 16.3: General Publications about Advertising, 1922-2006

Subseries 16.4: Publications about other Subjects, 1948-1964

Series 17, Business Records, circa 1885-1990s

Subseries 17.1: Contracts, 1885-1908, undated

Subseries 17.2: General Client Information, 1911-1999, undated

Subseries 17.3: Individual Client Account Information, 1950s-1990s, undated

Subseries 17.4: Potential Clients, 1993

Subseries 17.5: Financial Records, 1929-1938

Series 18: Legal Records, circa 1911-1984

Subseries 18.1: Advertising Service Agreements, 1918-1982

Subseries 18.2: Bylaw Materials, 1969-1972

Subseries 18.3, Copyright Claims, 1962-1969

Subseries 18.4: Correspondence, 1928-1933

Subseries 18.5: International Office Correspondence, 1947-1948

Subseries 18.6: Dissolution of Trusts, 1934-1937

Subseries 18.7: Stock Information, 1934-1974

Subseries 18.8: Agreements between Partners, 1911-1916

Subseries 18.9: Incorporation Materials, 1929-1977

Subseries 18.10: Certificates of Reduction of Capital, 1937; 1975

Subseries 18.11: Property Information

Subseries 18.12: Miscellaneous Materials, 1929-1977

Series 19: Employee Materials, circa 1889-2001

Subseries 19.1: Employee Card files, circa 1892-1915; 1929-1963

Subseries 19.2: Photographs, circa 1924-1984, undated

Subseries 19.3: Alumni Publications, circa 1989-1998

Subseries 19.4: Biographical Information, circa 1889-1994

Subseries 19.5: Speeches, circa 1919-1931; 1975

Subseries 19.6: Recollections, 1954-1984, undated

Subseries 19.7: Oral History Interview Transcripts, 1983-1985; 1989-1991

Subseries 19.8: Oral History Audiotapes, 1985-1990

Subseries 19.9: Internal Communications, 1993-1999

Subseries 19.1: General Materials, 1940-2001

Series 20: History and Background Information about the Company, 1817-1999, undated

Series 21: Materials Created by other Advertising Agencies, 1945-1978, undated

Series 22: 2010 Addendum of Print Advertisements, circa 1879s-1990s, undated

Subseries 22.1: Print Advertisements, 1930-1990, undated

Subseries 22.2: Print Advertisements on Glass Plate Negatives, 1879-1881, undated

Series 23: Microfilm of Print Advertisements, circa 1908-1985
Biographical / Historical:
Founded in Philadelphia in 1869, NW Ayer & Son is one of the oldest and largest advertising agencies in America. For most of its history, it was the undisputed leader and innovator in the field of advertising. In 1876, NW Ayer & Son pioneered the "open contract", a revolutionary change in the method of billing for advertising which became the industry standard for the next hundred years. NW Ayer pioneered the use of fine art in advertising and established the industry's first art department. It was the first agency to use a full-time copywriter and the first to institute a copy department. The agency relocated to New York City in 1974. During its long history, the agency's clients included many "blue-chip" clients, including American Telephone & Telegraph, DeBeers Consolidated Diamond Mines, Ford Motor Company, Nabisco, R. J. Reynolds and United Airlines. However, in later years, the Ayer's inherent conservatism left the agency vulnerable to the creative revolution of the 1960s and 1970s, the advertising industry restructuring of the 1980s and the economic recession of the early 1990s. The agency was bought out by a Korean investor in 1993. In 1996, NW Ayer merged with another struggling top twenty United States advertising agency, Darcy, Masius, Benton & Bowles, under the umbrella of the McManus Group. Ayer continues to operate as a separate, full-service agency.

Through a series of buyouts and mergers, Ayer traces its lineage to the first advertising agency founded in the United States, a Philadelphia agency begun by Volney Palmer in 1841. Palmer began his career in advertising as a newspaper agent, acting as middleman between newspaper publishers and advertisers across the country. By 1849, Palmer had founded his own newspaper, V. B. Palmer's Register and Spirit of the Press, and had developed a complete system of advertising which included securing advertising space and placing ads in scores of commercial, political, religious, scientific and agricultural journals across the country. Palmer went one step further than the "space jobbers" of the day when he began offering "advertisements carefully drawn for those who have not the time to prepare an original copy." Always an enthusiastic promoter of advertising as an incentive to trade and American economic growth, Palmer promised advertisers that "every dollar paid for advertising in country newspapers will pay back twenty-fold" and encouraged skeptical consumers that "he who wishes to buy cheap should buy of those who advertise." When Palmer died in 1863, the agency was bought by his bookkeeper, John Joy, who joined with another Philadelphia advertising agency to form Joy, Coe & Sharpe. That agency was bought out again in 1868 and renamed Coe, Wetherill & Company. In 1877, Coe, Wetherill and Company was bought out by the newly formed NW Ayer & Son.

Francis Wayland Ayer was an ambitious young schoolteacher with an entrepreneurial streak. Having worked for a year soliciting advertisements on a commission basis for the publisher of the National Baptist weekly, Francis Ayer saw the potential to turn a profit as an advertising agent. In 1869, Ayer persuaded his father, Nathan Wheeler Ayer, to join him in business, and with an initial investment of only $250.00, NW Ayer & Son was born. Notwithstanding a smallpox epidemic in Philadelphia in 1871 and the general economic depression of the early 1870s, the agency flourished. The senior Ayer died in 1873, leaving his interest in the agency to his wife, but Francis W. Ayer bought her out, consolidating his interest in the company's management. In 1877, with Coe, Wetherill & Company (the successor to Palmer's 1841 agency) on the verge of bankruptcy and heavily indebted to Ayer for advertising it had placed in Ayer publications, Ayer assumed ownership of that agency. Thus did NW Ayer lay claim to being the oldest advertising agency in the country.

Both Nathan Wheeler and Francis Wayland Ayer began their careers as schoolteachers, and one of their legacies was a commitment to the cause of education: correspondence schools and institutions of higher learning were historically well-represented among Ayer clients. Just after World War I, the agency was heralded as "co-founder of more schools than any citizen of this country" for its conspicuous efforts to advertise private schools. Well into the 1960s, an "Education Department" at Ayer prepared advertisements for over three hundred private schools, camps and colleges, representing almost half the regional and national advertising done for such institutions. In fact, to its clients Ayer presented advertising itself as being akin to a system of education. In 1886, Ayer began promoting the virtues of the Ayer way advertising with the slogan, "Keeping Everlastingly at It Brings Success."

The agency's goals were simple: "to make advertising pay the advertiser, to spend the advertiser's money as though it were our own, to develop, magnify and dignify advertising as a business." Initially, Ayer's fortunes were tied to newspapers, and the agency began to make a name for itself as compiler and publisher of a widely used American Newspaper Annual. During the first years, Ayer's singular goal was "to get business, place it [in newspapers] and get money for it"; after several years as an independent space broker, however, Francis Ayer resolved "not to be an order taker any longer." This decision led NW Ayer and Son to a change in its mode of conducting business which would revolutionize the advertising industry: in 1876, Ayer pioneered the "open contract" with Diggee & Conard, Philadelphia raised growers and agricultural suppliers. Prior to the open contract, NW Ayer & Sons and most agencies operated as "space-jobbers," independent wholesalers of advertising space, in which the opportunities for graft and corrupt practices were virtually unlimited. In contrast, the open contract, wherein the advertiser paid a fixed commission based on the volume of advertising placed, aligned the advertising agent firmly on the side of the advertiser and gave advertisers access to the actual rates charged by newspapers and religious journals. The open contract with a fixed commission has been hailed by advertising pioneer Albert Lasker as one of the "three great landmarks in advertising history." (The other two were Lasker's own development of "reason-why" advertising copy and J. Walter Thompson's pioneering of sex appeal in an advertisement for Woodbury's soap.) Although the transition to the open contract did not happen overnight, by 1884, nearly three-quarters of Ayer's advertising billings were on an open contract basis. Since Ayer was, by the 1890s, the largest agency in America, the switch to direct payment by advertisers had a significant impact on the advertising industry, as other agencies were forced to respond to Ayer's higher standard. Just as important, the open contract helped to establish N W Ayer's long-standing reputation for "clean ethics and fair dealing" -- a reputation the agency has guarded jealously for over a century. The open contract also helped to establish Ayer as a full service advertising agency and to regularize the production of advertising in-house. From that point forward, Ayer routinely offered advice and service beyond the mere placement of advertisements. Ayer set another milestone for the industry in 1888, when Jarvis Wood was hired as the industry's first full-time copywriter. Wood was joined by a second full time copywriter four years later, and the Copy Department was formally established in 1900. The industry's first Art Department grew out of the Copy Department when Ayer hired its first commercial artist to assist with copy preparation in 1898; twelve years later Ayer became the first agency to offer the services of a full time art director, whose sole responsibility was the design and illustration of ads.

Ayer's leadership in the use of fine art in advertising has roots in this period, but achieved its highest expression under the guidance of legendary art director Charles Coiner. Coiner joined Ayer in 1924, after graduating from the Chicago Academy of Fine Arts. Despite early resistance from some clients, Coiner was adamant that "the use of outstanding palette and original art forms bring a greater return in readership, in impact and prestige for the advertiser." To this end, Coiner marshaled the talents of notable painters, illustrators and photographers, including N.C. Wyeth and Rockwell Kent (Steinway), Georgia O'Keefe (Dole), Leo Lionni (DuPont), Edward Steichen (Steinway, Cannon Mills), Charles Sheeler (Ford), and Irving Penn (DeBeers). Coiner believed that there was a practical side to the use of fine art in advertising, and his success (and Ayer's) lay in the marriage of research and copywriting with fine art, an arrangement Coiner termed "art for business sake." Coiner's efforts won both awards and attention for a series completed in the 1950s for the Container Corporation of America. Titled "Great Ideas of Western Man" the campaign featured abstract and modern paintings and sculpture by leading U.S. and foreign artists, linked with Western philosophical writings in an early example of advertising designed primarily to bolster corporate image. In 1994, Charles Coiner was posthumously named to the American Advertising Federation's Hall of Fame, the first full time art director ever chosen for that honor.

Coiner and fellow art director Paul Darrow also created legendary advertising with the "A Diamond Is Forever" campaign for DeBeers; ads featured the work of Pablo Picasso, Salvador Dali and other modernist painters. The "A Diamond is Forever" tagline was written in 1949 by Frances Gerety, a woman copywriter at Ayer from 1943 to 1970. In 1999, Ad Age magazine cited "A Diamond is Forever" as the most memorable advertising slogan of the twentieth century.

Coiner also earned respect for his volunteer government service during World War II; he designed the armbands for civil defense volunteers and logos for the National Recovery Administration and Community Chest. As a founding member of the Advertising Council in 1945, Ayer has had a long-standing commitment to public service advertising. In the mid-1980s, Ayer became a leading force in the Reagan-era "War on Drugs". Lou Hagopian, Ayer's sixth CEO, brokered the establishment of the Partnership for a Drug-Free America, a media coalition which generated as much as a million dollars a day in donated advertising space and time to prevent the use and abuse of illegal drugs. Famous names appear among NW Ayer's clientele from the very earliest days of the agency. Retailer John Wanamaker, Jay Cooke and Company, and Montgomery Ward's mail-order business were among the first Ayer clients. The agency has represented at least twenty automobile manufacturers, including Cadillac, Chrysler, Ford, General Motors, Plymouth, and Rolls-Royce. Other major, long-term clients through the years have included American Telephone & Telegraph, Canada Dry, Cannon Mills, Hills Bros. Coffee Company, Kellogg's, R. J. Reynolds, Steinway and Sons, United Airlines, and the United States Army. By the time of Ayer's hundredth anniversary in 1969, some of these companies had been Ayer clients for decades if not generations, and the longevity of those relationships was for many years a source of Ayer's strength.

But the advertising industry began to change in the late 1960s and 1970s, due in part to a "creative revolution." Small advertising agencies won attention with provocative copywriting and art direction that more closely resembled art than advertising. Advances in market research allowed clients to more narrowly tailor their advertising messages to distinct groups of consumers, and this led to a rise in targeted marketing which could more readily be doled out to specialized small agencies than to larger, established firms like NW Ayer & Son. The civil rights and anti-war movements also contributed to increasing public skepticism with the values of corporate America, and by extension, with some national advertising campaigns. Older, more conservative firms like Ayer were hard pressed to meet these new challenges.

About 1970, in an effort to meet these challenges and to establish a foothold on the West Coast, Ayer bought out two smaller agencies--Hixson & Jorgenson (Los Angeles) and Frederick E. Baker (Seattle). The agency relocated from Philadelphia to New York City in 1974 in an attempt both to consolidate operations (Ayer had operated a New York office since the 1920s) and to be closer to the historic center of the advertising industry. Riding the wave of mergers that characterized the advertising industry in the late 1980s and 1990s, Ayer continued to grow through the acquisition of Cunningham & Walsh in 1986 and Rink Wells in 19xx.

During this transitional period, Ayer received widespread acclaim for its work for the United States Army, which included the widely recognized slogan "Be All You Can Be". Ayer first acquired the Army recruitment account in 1967 and with help from its direct marketing arm, the agency was widely credited with helping the Army reach its recruitment goals despite an unpopular war and plummeting enlistments after the elimination of the draft in 1973. Ayer held the account for two decades, from the Vietnam War through the Cold War, but lost the account in 1986 amid government charges that an Ayer employee assigned to the account accepted kickbacks from a New York film production house. Despite Ayer's position as the country's 18th largest agency (with billings of $880 million in 1985), the loss of the agency's second largest account hit hard.

NW Ayer made up for the loss of the $100 million dollar a year Army account and made headlines for being on the winning end of the largest account switch in advertising history to date, when fast food giant Burger King moved its $200 million dollar advertising account from arch-rival J. Walter Thompson in 1987. Burger King must have had drive-thru service in mind, however, and Ayer made headlines again when it lost the account just eighteen months later in another record-breaking account switch. Another devastating blow to the agency was the loss of its lead position on the American Telegraph and Telephone account. Ayer pioneered telecommunications advertising in 1908, when the agency was selected to craft advertising for the Bell System's universal telephone service. Despite valiant efforts to keep an account the agency had held for most of the twentieth century, and for which they had written such memorable corporate slogans as American Telephone &Telegraph "The Voice with a Smile" and "Reach Out and Touch Someone", the agency lost the account in 1996.

After a wave of mergers and acquisitions in the late 1980s, the economic recession of the early 1990s hit Madison Avenue hard, and Ayer was particularly vulnerable. Despite the agency's long history and roster of "blue-chip" clients, Ayer was not known for cutting-edge creative work. Moreover, though the agency had offices overseas, Ayer had never built a strong multinational presence, and many of the smaller international offices were sold during the financial turmoil of the 1980s. This left a real void in the new climate of global marketplace consolidation. By about 1990, earnings were declining (although Ayer was still among the top twenty United States agencies in billings), and the agency was suffering from client defections, high management turnover, expensive real estate commitments and deferred executive compensation deals, all fallout of the high-flying 1980s. This was the atmosphere in 1993, when W.Y. Choi, a Korean investor who had already assembled a media and marketing empire in his homeland, began looking for an American partner to form an international advertising network. Jerry Siano, the former creative director who had recently been named Ayer's seventh CEO, was in no position to refuse Choi's offer of $35 million to buy the now floundering agency. The infusion of cash was no magic bullet, however. Choi took a wait-and-see approach, allowing his partner Richard Humphreys to make key decisions about Ayer's future, including the purging of senior executives and the installation of two new CEOs in as many years.

The agency's downward trend continued with the loss of another longtime client, the DeBeers diamond cartel in 1995. Adweek reported that Ayer's billings fell from $892 million in 1990 to less than $850 million in 1995. Several top executives defected abruptly, and the agency failed to attract major new accounts. Ayer was facing the loss not merely of revenue and personnel, but the loss of much of the respect it once commanded. Ayer remained among the twenty largest U.S. agencies, but an aura of uncertainty hung over the agency like a cloud. A new CEO was appointed, and Mary Lou Quinlan became the agency's first woman CEO in 1995. A year later, Ayer and another struggling top twenty agency, D'arcy, Masius, Benton & Bowles, combined as part of the McManus Group of companies. In 1998, the McManus Group had worldwide billings of more than $6.5 billion.

Under the McManus Group, Ayer was able to expand its international operations and begin to rebuild a stronger global presence. Several important new clients were won in 1997 and 1998, including Avon, General Motors, Kitchenaid, several Procter & Gamble brands and, most notably, Continental Airlines worldwide accounts. Born in the nineteenth century, Ayer may be one of a very few advertising agencies to successfully weather the economic and cultural transitions of both the twentieth and twentieth first centuries. Ayer was eventually acquired by the Publicis Groupe based in Paris, France which closed down the N.W. Ayer offices in 2002.
Related Materials:
Materials in the Archives Center

Warshaw Collection of Business Americana (AC0060)

Hills Bros. Coffee Incorporated Records (AC0395)
Provenance:
The collection was donated by N W Ayer ABH International, April 15, 1975 and by Ayer & Partners, October 30, 1996.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use.

Physical Access: Researchers must use microfilm copy. Researchers must handle unprotected photographs with gloves. Researchers must use reference copies of audiovisual materials. When no reference copy exists, the Archives Center staff will produce reference copies on an "as needed" basis, as resources allow.

Technical Access: Viewing the film portion of the collection without reference copies requires special appointment, please inquire; listening to audio discs requires special arrangement. Do not use original materials when available on reference video or audio tapes.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Reproduction permission from Archives Center: reproduction fees may apply. Publication and production quality duplication is restricted due to complex copyright, publicity rights, and right to privacy issues. All duplication requests must be reviewed and approved by Archives Center staff. Potential users must receive written permission from appropriate rights holders prior to obtaining high quality copies.
Topic:
Advertising agencies  Search this
advertising  Search this
Genre/Form:
Business records -- 1840-2000
Interviews -- 1980-2000
Oral history -- 1980-1990
Print advertising
Proof sheets
Proofs (printed matter)
Scrapbooks -- 1840-1990
Trade literature
Tear sheets
Advertisements
Citation:
NW Ayer & Sons, incorporated Advertising Agency Records, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0059
See more items in:
N W Ayer Advertising Agency Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0059
Online Media:

Oral history interview with Betty Woodman, 2003 April 22 and 29

Interviewee:
Woodman, Betty, 1930-2018  Search this
Interviewer:
Perreault, John, 1937-  Search this
Subject:
Leach, Bernard  Search this
Serra, Richard  Search this
Kozloff, Joyce  Search this
Brown, Elenita  Search this
Hamada, Sh?ji  Search this
Higby, Wayne  Search this
Kushner, Robert  Search this
Shark, Bud  Search this
Carlson, Cynthia  Search this
Woodman, George  Search this
Voulkos, Peter  Search this
Fabric Workshop  Search this
University of Colorado  Search this
Nanette L. Laitman Documentation Project for Craft and Decorative Arts in America  Search this
Girl Scouts of the United States of America  Search this
Centre internationale de recherche sur le verre et les arts plastiques (Marseille, France)  Search this
Europees Keramisch Werkcentrum  Search this
Bellagio Study and Conference Center  Search this
Boulder (Colo.).Parks & Recreation Department  Search this
School for American Crafts  Search this
Type:
Sound recordings
Interviews
Topic:
Airplanes  Search this
Screen process printing  Search this
Netherlands  Search this
India  Search this
Ceramicists  Search this
Boulder (Colo.)  Search this
Glass art  Search this
Art  Search this
World War, 1939-1945  Search this
Mexico  Search this
Ceramics  Search this
Handicraft  Search this
Women artists  Search this
Decorative arts  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)13297
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)245771
AAA_collcode_woodma03
Theme:
Craft
Women
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_oh_245771
Online Media:

Oral history interview with V. V. Rankine, 1990 Mar. 2-22

Interviewee:
Rankine, V. V., 1920-2004  Search this
Interviewer:
Kirwin, Liza, 1957-  Search this
Subject:
Duncan, Augustin  Search this
Pace, Stephen S.  Search this
Halle, Kay  Search this
Albers, Josef  Search this
Richman, Robert  Search this
Guston, Philip  Search this
Renault, Jean  Search this
De Kooning, Elaine  Search this
Phillips, Duncan  Search this
Ozenfant, Amédée  Search this
Penn, Arthur  Search this
Krasner, Lee  Search this
Warhol, Andy  Search this
Sheridan, Walt  Search this
Fuller, R. Buckminster (Richard Buckminster),  Search this
Denney, Alice  Search this
Leopold, Richard  Search this
Nelson, Wretha  Search this
Graham, John D. (John Dabrowsky)  Search this
Thomas, Dylan  Search this
Russo, Alexander  Search this
Sherman, Saul  Search this
Parsons, Betty  Search this
Magruder, Esther  Search this
Noland, Kenneth  Search this
Dorrance, Nesta  Search this
Callahan, Harry M. (Harry Morey)  Search this
Newman, Bonnie  Search this
Truitt, Anne Dean  Search this
Gabo, Naum  Search this
Yektai, Manoucher  Search this
Soyer, Moses  Search this
Kinney, Gilbert H.  Search this
Pollock, Jackson  Search this
Snelson, Kenneth  Search this
Gorky, Agnes  Search this
Nevelson, Louise  Search this
Helburn, Theresa  Search this
Kennedy, Kit  Search this
Soyer, Raphael  Search this
Davis, Gene  Search this
Sweeney, James Johnson  Search this
Hare, David  Search this
Louis, Morris  Search this
Merrill, Kevin  Search this
Bader, Franz  Search this
Lassaw, Ibram  Search this
Gilliam, Sam  Search this
Downing, Thomas  Search this
De Kooning, Willem  Search this
Gorky, Arshile  Search this
Johnson, Ray  Search this
Youngerman, Jack  Search this
Kiesler, Frederick  Search this
Brooks, James  Search this
Cunningham, Merce  Search this
Rauschenberg, Robert  Search this
Black Mountain College (Black Mountain, N.C.)  Search this
Institute of Contemporary Arts (Washington, D.C.)  Search this
Jefferson Place Gallery  Search this
Betty Parsons Gallery  Search this
David Herbert Gallery  Search this
Type:
Sound recordings
Interviews
Topic:
Painters  Search this
Art, American  Search this
Sculptors  Search this
Women artists  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)12937
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)213467
AAA_collcode_rankin90
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_oh_213467
Online Media:

Oral history interview with Wilma Harris, 1964 Apr. 22

Interviewee:
Harris, Wilma, 1910-  Search this
Interviewer:
McChesney, Mary Fuller, 1922-  Search this
Subject:
Bufano, Beniamino  Search this
Arnautoff, Victor Mikhail  Search this
New Deal and the Arts Oral History Project  Search this
Type:
Sound recordings
Interviews
Topic:
Weavers  Search this
Decorative arts  Search this
Handicraft  Search this
Women artists  Search this
Federal aid to the arts  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)12681
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)213548
AAA_collcode_harris64
Theme:
Craft
New Deal
Women
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_oh_213548

Oral history interview with Faith Ringgold, 1972

Interviewee:
Ringgold, Faith, 1930-  Search this
Interviewer:
Holmes, Doloris  Search this
Subject:
Savage, Augusta  Search this
Women Students and Artists for Black Liberation  Search this
Biennale di Venezia (34th: 1968: Venice, Italy)  Search this
Type:
Interviews
Topic:
African American artists  Search this
Art, African  Search this
Minimal art  Search this
Painters  Search this
Surrealism  Search this
Women artists  Search this
Art, American  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)11488
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)214194
AAA_collcode_ringgo72
Theme:
African American
Women
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_oh_214194

Oral history interview with Demi, 1997 November 20

Interviewee:
Demi, 1955-  Search this
Interviewer:
Martínez, Juan A.  Search this
Subject:
Rodríguez, Arturo  Search this
Type:
Sound recordings
Interviews
Topic:
Hispanic American women artists  Search this
Hispanic American artists  Search this
Artists  Search this
Cuban American art  Search this
Art, Modern  Search this
Expatriate artists  Search this
Cuban American artists  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)13571
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)216455
AAA_collcode_demi97
Theme:
Latino and Latin American
Women
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_oh_216455
Online Media:

Oral history interview with Cynthia Schira, 2001 July 25-26

Interviewee:
Schira, Cynthia, 1934-  Search this
Interviewer:
Mensing, Margo, 1941-  Search this
Subject:
Haystack Mountain School of Crafts  Search this
Rhode Island School of Design  Search this
Nanette L. Laitman Documentation Project for Craft and Decorative Arts in America  Search this
Type:
Sound recordings
Interviews
Topic:
Women artists  Search this
Tapestry  Search this
Weaving  Search this
Fiber artists  Search this
Decorative arts  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)11903
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)227374
AAA_collcode_schira01
Theme:
Craft
Women
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_oh_227374
Online Media:

Oral history interview with Rosanne Somerson, 2006 August 7 and 2007 June 22

Interviewee:
Somerson, Rosanne, 1954-  Search this
Interviewer:
Michie, Thomas S., 1956-  Search this
Subject:
Osgood, Jere  Search this
Melanson, Gracie  Search this
Szasz, Merlin  Search this
Keck, Hardu  Search this
Cooke, Ned  Search this
Fairbanks, Jonathan L.  Search this
Kranov, James  Search this
Follen, Eck  Search this
Sfirri, Mark  Search this
Dunnigan, John  Search this
Abramson, Ron  Search this
Jackson, Dan  Search this
Maruyama, Wendy  Search this
Joseph, Peter T. (Peter Thomas),  Search this
Frid, Tage  Search this
Capanigro, Paul  Search this
White, Leroy  Search this
Kagan, Richard  Search this
Wolf, Hans  Search this
Callahan, Harry M. (Harry Morey)  Search this
Siskind, Aaron  Search this
Swanson, Charlie  Search this
Mattia, Alphonse  Search this
Haystack Mountain School of Crafts  Search this
Rhode Island School of Design  Search this
Snyderman Gallery  Search this
Richard Kagan Gallery  Search this
Peters Valley (Craft center)  Search this
Nanette L. Laitman Documentation Project for Craft and Decorative Arts in America  Search this
Type:
Sound recordings
Interviews
Topic:
Fine woodworking  Search this
Furniture design  Search this
Educators  Search this
Women artists  Search this
Photography  Search this
Decorative arts  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)13618
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)271125
AAA_collcode_somers06
Theme:
Craft
Women
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_oh_271125
Online Media:

Oral history interview with Moira Roth, 2011 April 22-24

Interviewee:
Roth, Moira, 1933-  Search this
Interviewer:
Heinemann, Sue  Search this
Subject:
Antin, Eleanor  Search this
Chicago, Judy  Search this
Jacob, Mary Jane  Search this
Chadwick, Whitney  Search this
Baca, Judith Francisca  Search this
Nochlin, Linda  Search this
Kaprow, Allan  Search this
Kozloff, Joyce  Search this
Stevens, May  Search this
Machida, Margo  Search this
Selz, Peter Howard  Search this
Bernardi, Claudia  Search this
Lippard, Lucy R.  Search this
Ringgold, Faith  Search this
Schapiro, Miriam  Search this
Duchamp, Marcel  Search this
Lacy, Suzanne  Search this
Women's Caucus for Art  Search this
University of California, Berkeley  Search this
University of Vienna  Search this
London School of Economics and Political Science  Search this
Elizabeth Murray Oral History of Women in the Visual Arts Project  Search this
Type:
Sound recordings
Interviews
Topic:
Asian American women  Search this
Britain, Battle of, Great Britain, 1940  Search this
Art historians  Search this
Sociology  Search this
Experimental theater  Search this
Cornwall (England : County)  Search this
Art  Search this
World War, 1939-1945  Search this
Europe  Search this
N?  Search this
Feminism  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)15938
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)300234
AAA_collcode_roth11
Theme:
Women
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_oh_300234

Ethel Schwabacher papers, 1940-1975

Creator:
Schwabacher, Ethel, 1903-1984  Search this
Subject:
Roberts, Colette Jacqueline  Search this
Kline, Franz  Search this
Still, Clyfford E.  Search this
Reynal, Jeanne  Search this
Goodrich, Lloyd  Search this
Guerrero, José  Search this
Tomlin, Bradley Walker  Search this
Tworkov, Jack  Search this
Ryan, Anne  Search this
Pousette-Dart, Richard  Search this
Thomas, Dylan  Search this
Rothko, Mark  Search this
Newman, Barnett  Search this
Cavallon, Giorgio  Search this
Baziotes, William  Search this
Pollock, Jackson  Search this
Ford, John Charles  Search this
Greenberg, Clement  Search this
Hofmann, Hans  Search this
De Kooning, Willem  Search this
Reinhardt, Ad  Search this
Motherwell, Robert Burns  Search this
Schapiro, Meyer  Search this
Gorky, Arshile  Search this
Type:
Drawings
Sound recordings
Interviews
Topic:
Art historians  Search this
Women painters  Search this
Painters  Search this
Painting, Modern  Search this
Women art historians  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)7336
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)209489
AAA_collcode_schwethe
Theme:
Women
Art Theory and Historiography
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_209489

Martin family papers and Campus Martius Museum records regarding Lilly Martin Spencer, 1825-1971

Creator:
Spencer, Lilly Martin, 1822-1902  Search this
Subject:
Hebert, William  Search this
Severance, Caroline M. Seymour (Caroline Maria Seymour),  Search this
Gage, Frances Dana Barker  Search this
Eastman, Maria M.  Search this
Parsons, Anna Q. T.  Search this
Martin, Angelique  Search this
Bagley, Sarah G.  Search this
Emerson, Mary Moody  Search this
Martin, Giles  Search this
Swift, Adeline T.  Search this
Trumbull Phalanx (Braceville, Ohio)  Search this
Ohio Historical Society  Search this
Campus Martius Museum  Search this
Topic:
Women painters  Search this
Women's rights  Search this
Collective settlements  Search this
Painting, Modern  Search this
Women's suffrage  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)6071
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)216162
AAA_collcode_spenlilm
Theme:
Lives of American Artists
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_216162

Oral history interview with Neda Al-Hilali, 2006 July 18-19

Interviewee:
Al-Hilali, Neda, 1938-  Search this
Interviewer:
Riedel, Mija, 1958-  Search this
Subject:
Jacobs, Ferne K. (Ferne Kent)  Search this
Simsar, Alice  Search this
Hunsaker, Joyce Badgley  Search this
Bassler, James W.  Search this
Kester, Bernard  Search this
Scripps College  Search this
University of California, Los Angeles  Search this
Nanette L. Laitman Documentation Project for Craft and Decorative Arts in America  Search this
Claremont Graduate University  Search this
California State University, Los Angeles  Search this
Hunsaker/Schlesinger Gallery  Search this
Taliban  Search this
Type:
Sound recordings
Interviews
Topic:
Oaxaca (Mexico : State)  Search this
Climatic changes  Search this
California  Search this
Iraq  Search this
Afghanistan  Search this
Women artists  Search this
Japan  Search this
Decorative arts  Search this
Textile crafts  Search this
Women  Search this
Art commissions  Search this
Fiberwork  Search this
Bavaria (Germany)  Search this
England  Search this
Ouija boards  Search this
Czechoslovakia  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)13545
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)261763
AAA_collcode_alhila06
Theme:
Lives of American Artists
Craft
Women
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_oh_261763
Online Media:

Oral history interview with Lia Cook, 2006 August 22-29

Interviewee:
Cook, Lia, 1942-  Search this
Interviewer:
Baizerman, Suzanne  Search this
Subject:
Jacobi, Ritzi  Search this
O'Banion, Nance  Search this
Rossbach, Ed  Search this
Jacobi, Peter  Search this
Rappaport, Deborah  Search this
Laky, Gyöngy  Search this
Hicks, Sheila  Search this
Abakanowicz, Magdalena  Search this
Haystack Mountain School of Crafts  Search this
College Art Association of America  Search this
American Craft Council  Search this
University of California, Berkeley  Search this
Perimeter Gallery (Chicago, Ill.)  Search this
Konstfack (Stockholm, Sweden)  Search this
Handarbetets vanner (Society)  Search this
Allrich Gallery  Search this
Hadler Galleries  Search this
European Textile Network  Search this
Nanette L. Laitman Documentation Project for Craft and Decorative Arts in America  Search this
Type:
Sound recordings
Interviews
Topic:
Political science  Search this
Weaving  Search this
Textile fabrics  Search this
Decorative arts  Search this
Japan  Search this
Art  Search this
Photography  Search this
Women artists  Search this
Europe  Search this
Looms  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)13568
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)266116
AAA_collcode_cook06
Theme:
Craft
Women
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_oh_266116
Online Media:

William and Leza McVey papers, 1932-1974

Creator:
McVey, William Mozart, 1905-1995  Search this
McVey, Leza S. (Leza Sullivan), 1907-1984  Search this
Subject:
Canaday, John Edwin  Search this
Gonzales, Boyer  Search this
West, Clifford B.  Search this
Sepeshy, Zoltan L. (Zoltan Leslie)  Search this
Gross, Chaim  Search this
Topic:
Sculpture, American  Search this
Women artists  Search this
Sculpture, Modern  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)7970
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)210138
AAA_collcode_mcvewill
Theme:
Women
Lives of American Artists
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_210138

Ross and Dorothy Lake Gregory Moffett papers, circa 1870-1992

Creator:
Moffett, Ross E., 1888-1971  Search this
Moffett, Dorothy Lake Gregory, 1893-1975  Search this
Subject:
Burchfield, Charles Ephraim  Search this
Moffett, Ross  Search this
Rehn, Frank Knox Morton  Search this
Eisenhower, Dwight David  Search this
Del Deo, Josephine Couch  Search this
Art Students League (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Provincetown Art Association  Search this
Federal Art Project (U.S.)  Search this
Type:
Sketchbooks
Topic:
Cape Cod National Seashore (Mass.)  Search this
Art, Modern  Search this
Art students  Search this
Provincetown (Mass.)  Search this
Women artists  Search this
Florida  Search this
Art, American  Search this
Federal aid to the arts  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)8010
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)210179
AAA_collcode_moffross
Theme:
Diaries
Sketches & Sketchbooks
Communities, Organizations, Museums
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_210179
Online Media:

Marian King papers, 1934-1964

Creator:
King, Marian  Search this
Subject:
Davis, Charles H. (Charles Harold)  Search this
Mellon, Paul  Search this
Zorach, William  Search this
Truman, Harry S.  Search this
Hoover, Herbert  Search this
Roosevelt, Franklin D. (Franklin Delano)  Search this
Henri, Robert  Search this
Wyeth, Andrew  Search this
Sendak, Maurice  Search this
Topic:
Art, American  Search this
Children in art  Search this
Women authors, American  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)9151
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)211345
AAA_collcode_kingmari
Theme:
Art Theory and Historiography
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_211345

Jacques Seligmann & Co. records, 1904-1978, bulk 1913-1974

Creator:
Jacques Seligmann & Co.  Search this
Subject:
Waegen, Rolf Hans  Search this
Glaenzer, Eugene  Search this
de Hauke, César  Search this
Seligmann, Jacques  Search this
Seligmann, René  Search this
Parker, Theresa D.  Search this
Mackay, Clarence Hungerford  Search this
Liechtenstein, House of  Search this
Schiff, Mortimer L.  Search this
Haardt, Georges  Search this
La Fresnaye, Roger de  Search this
Seligman, Germain  Search this
Arenberg  Search this
Seligmann, Arnold  Search this
Trevor, Clyfford  Search this
MM. Jacques Seligmann & fils  Search this
Eugene Glaenzer & Co  Search this
Gersel  Search this
Germain Seligmann & Co  Search this
De Hauke & Co., Inc  Search this
Topic:
Art  Search this
Art, European  Search this
World War, 1939-1945  Search this
Decorative arts  Search this
Art treasures in war  Search this
Art galleries, Commercial  Search this
Art, Renaissance  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)9936
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)212486
AAA_collcode_jacqself
Theme:
The Art Market
Art Gallery Records
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_212486
6 Page(s) matching your search term, top most relevant are shown: View entire project in transcription center
  • View Jacques Seligmann & Co. records, 1904-1978, bulk 1913-1974 digital asset number 1
  • View Jacques Seligmann & Co. records, 1904-1978, bulk 1913-1974 digital asset number 2
  • View Jacques Seligmann & Co. records, 1904-1978, bulk 1913-1974 digital asset number 3
  • View Jacques Seligmann & Co. records, 1904-1978, bulk 1913-1974 digital asset number 4
  • View Jacques Seligmann & Co. records, 1904-1978, bulk 1913-1974 digital asset number 5
  • View Jacques Seligmann & Co. records, 1904-1978, bulk 1913-1974 digital asset number 6
Online Media:

Three women artists : Gág, Greenman and Mairs, July 23-August 22, 1980, University Gallery, University of Minnesota

Author:
University of Minnesota (Minneapolis-St. Paul campus) University Gallery  Search this
Keim, Rebecca L  Search this
Subject:
Gág, Wanda 1893-1946  Search this
Greenman, Frances Cranmer  Search this
Mairs, Clara  Search this
Physical description:
34 p. : ill. ; 24 cm
Type:
Exhibitions
Place:
Minnesota
Date:
1980
20th century
Topic:
Art, American  Search this
Women artists--Exhibitions  Search this
Call number:
N40.1.G132 U5
N40.1.G132U5
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_135817

New world [dis]order / Sidra Stich ; [edited by Karen Kevorkian]

Title:
New world disorder
Author:
Stich, Sidra  Search this
Kevorkian, Karen  Search this
Center for the Arts at Yerba Buena Gardens  Search this
National Museum of Women in the Arts (U.S.) Northern California Council  Search this
Fresno Art Museum  Search this
Richard L. Nelson Gallery  Search this
Physical description:
59 p. : ill. (some col.) ; 22 x 26 cm
Type:
Exhibitions
Place:
California
Date:
1993
C1993
California
20th century
Topic:
Women artists--Exhibitions  Search this
Art, American  Search this
Call number:
N6530.C2. S754 1993
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_645212

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