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N W Ayer Advertising Agency Records

Creator:
Ayer (N W) Incorporated.  Search this
Names:
American Telephone and Telegraph Company -- Advertisements  Search this
Cunningham & Walsh.  Search this
Hixson & Jorgenson  Search this
United Air Lines, Inc. -- Advertisements  Search this
Ayer, Francis Wayland  Search this
De Kooning, Willem, 1904-  Search this
O'Keeffe, Georgia, 1887-1986  Search this
Extent:
270 Cubic feet (1169 boxes )
7 Film reels
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Film reels
Business records
Interviews
Oral history
Print advertising
Proof sheets
Proofs (printed matter)
Scrapbooks
Trade literature
Tear sheets
Advertisements
Date:
1817-1851
1869-2006
Summary:
Collection consists of records documenting one of the oldest advertising agencies created in Philadelphia. The company then moves to New York and expanses to international markets. During its history NW Ayer & Sons acquires a number of other advertising agencies and is eventually purchased. The largest portion of the collection is print advertisements but also includes radio and television. NW Ayer is known for some of the slogans created for major American companies.
Scope and Contents:
The collection consists primarily of proof sheets of advertisements created by NW Ayer & Son, Incorporated for their clients. These materials are in series one through thirteen and consist primarily of print advertisements. There are also billboards, radio and television commercials. The advertisements range from consumer to corporate and industrial products. The majority of the advertisements were created for Ayer's New York, Chicago, Los Angeles and international offices. Printed advertisements created by Cunningham & Walsh, Hixson & Jorgensen and Newell-Emmett are also included among these materials. Researchers who are interested in records created by Ayer in the course of operating an advertising agency will find these materials in Series fourteen-nineteen.

Series fourteen consists of advertisements created by NW Ayer & Son to promote their services to potential clients.

Series fifteen are scrapbooks of some of the earliest advertisements created by the company. Series sixteen are publications. Some of the publications were created by Ayer while others were about Ayer or the advertising industry in general. Provides good background materials and puts the company in perspective. Series eighteen are the legal records. Materials relating to employees including photographs, oral histories etc. are found in series nineteen.

Series twenty is one of the smallest amounts of materials and includes information relating to the history of NW Ayer & Son.

The container lists for series one-thirteen are part of a database and are searchable. The list has been printed for the convenience of the researcher and is included in this finding aid. Series fourteen-twenty container lists are also a part of the finding aid but are not in a searchable format.

Series 1, Scrapbooks of Client Advertisements, circa 1870-1920, is arranged into three boxes by chronological date. There are two bound scrapbooks and one box of folders containing loose scrapbook pages. NW Ayer & Son compiled an assortment of their earliest ads and placed them into scrapbooks. Besides the earliest advertisements, the scrapbooks contain requests to run advertisements, reading notices and listings of papers Ayer advertised in. The early advertisements themselves range from medical remedies to jewelry to machines to clothing to education and more. Most of the advertisements in the bound scrapbooks are dated.

Series 2, Proofsheets, circa 1870-1930, NW Ayer was fond of creating scrapbooks containing proofsheets. The series contains proofsheets created between 1892 and 1930, organized into 526 boxes. For convenience of storage, access and arrangement, the scrapbooks were disassembled and the pages placed in original order in flat archival storage boxes. The proofsheets are arranged by book number rather than client name. Usually the boxes contain a listing of the clients and sometimes the dates of the advertisements to be found within the box.

Series 3, Proofsheets, circa 1920-1975, is organized into 532 oversize boxes, and contain proofsheets and tearsheets created between 1920 and 1972. Within this series, materials are arranged alphabetically by company name (occasionally subdivided by brand or product), and thereunder chronologically by date of production. Many major, national advertisers are represented, including American Telephone & Telegraph, Armour Company, Canada Dry, Cannon Mills, Carrier Corporation, Domino Sugar, Caterpillar tractor company, Ford Motor Company, General Electric, Goodyear, Hills Bros. Coffee, Ladies Home Journal, National Dairy, Plymouth (Chrysler Corporation), Steinway, TV Guide, United Airlines and the United States Army. Also contained in this series are three scrapbooks of client advertisements including Canada Dry, Ford Motor, and Victor Talking Machine.

Series 4, 2001 Addendum, circa 1976-2001, is organized into ninety three oversized boxes,one folder and contains proofsheets for select Ayer clients, created between 1975 and 2001. Within this series, materials are arranged alphabetically by client name and there under chronologically by date of production. Major national advertisers represented include American Telephone & Telegraph, Avon, the United States Army, DeBeers Consolidated Diamond Mines, Dupont, TV Guide, Sealtest, Kraft Foods, Gillette, General Motors, Cannon Mills.

Series 5, Billboards, circa 1952-1956, consists of mounted and un-mounted original art/mock-ups. Twenty-two pieces of original art created as mock-ups for Texaco billboards.

Series 6, Film and Video Commercials, 1967-1970,

Series 7, Radio and Television Materials, 1933-1993, undated, is arranged into eight boxes and includes radio scripts, television scripts, and story boards for commercials.

Subseries 7.1, Scripts and storyboards for Radio and Television Commercials, dates Scripts for radio and television commercials includes title, date, length of commercial, advertising agency, client information

NW Ayer's radio and television materials mainly focus on the American Telegraph and Telephone account. Some of Ayer's materials relate to Bell Telephone Hours.

Storyboards are used in television and film to assist the director in working with crew to tell the story. To show the viewer through the use of figures, visual effects and camera angles. When directors first start thinking about their storyboard they create a story in their mind. They think of all the camera angles, visual effects and how the figures will interact in their mind. They try to create an extraordinary story in their head to attract the viewer (YOU) In order for the storyboard to be entirely effective it can't be a passive document. When done properly, a storyboard serves as a central design, meeting the needs of many team members including graphics artists, video personnel and programmers.

Another function of a storyboard is to help the team communicate during the training development process. This communication is very important in working with a large team as in the movie King, produced in 1996. Figures help the director explain to the crew how they are going to record the film and how to present it to the audience. Sometimes the director wants special effects to be added to the film, but his budget might not be that big so the director will have to change the story to fit their budget.

The Visual Effects are an important part in the storyboards it adds a special touch of creativity to your film. Camera angles are an important expects in your film because the camera angles determine where the viewing audience will look. If you want your audience to look at a certain object you must turn their attention to it by focusing on that object and maybe you might try blocking something out. Then you will have your audience's attention and you may do whatever else you have to, it could be scaring them are just surprising them or whatever you do.

Also included is talent information and log sheets relating to the storage of the commercials.

Bell Telephone Hour Program, 1942-[19??], The Bell Telephone Hour, also known as The Telephone Hour, was a five minute musical program which began April 29, 1940 on National Broadcasting Company Radio and was heard on NBC until June 30, 1958. Sponsored by Bell Telephone showcased the best in classical and Broadway music, reaching eight to nine million listeners each week. It continued on television from 1959 to 1968.

Earlier shows featured James Melton and Francia White as soloists. Producer Wallace Magill restructured the format on April 27, 1942 into the "Great Artists Series" of concert and opera performers, beginning with Jascha Heifetz. Records indicate that the list of talents on the program included Marian Anderson, Helen Traubel, Oscar Levant, Lily Pons, Nelson Eddy, Bing Crosby, Margaret Daum, Benny Goodman, José Iturbi, Gladys Swarthout and .The series returned to radio in 1968-1969 as Bell Telephone Hour Encores, also known as Encores from the Bell Telephone Hour, featuring highlights and interviews from the original series.

National Broadcasting television specials sponsored by the Bell System, 1957-1987includes information relating to Science series, Bell system Theshold Series, Bell telephone hour and commercial and public sponsored programs

Series 8, Chicago Office Print Advertisements, 1954-1989, is arranged alphabetically by the name of the client in ninety boxes and six oversize folders. Clients include Illinois Bell Telephone (1955-1989), Microswitch (1969-1989), Teletype (1975-1984), John Deere (1974-1989) and Caterpillar (1966-1972) are particularly well represented. Other clients of interest include Dr. Scholl's shoes (circa 1968-1972), the Girl Scouts (1976-1980), Sunbeam Personal Products Company (1973-1981), Bell and Howell (1974-1983) and Alberto Culver shampoos (1967-1971), Honeywell, Incorporated, Blue Cross and Blue Shield Associations, Kraft, Incorporated, Sears, Roebuck and Company, and YMCA.

Series 9, Los Angeles Office Materials, 1950s-1987, include printed advertisements created by this office and information relating to the employees.

Subseries 9.1, Print Advertisements, 1977-1987, printed advertisements arranged in one box alphabetically by client. There is a sparse sampling of clients from this particular Ayer branch office. The majority of the advertisements contained within this series are from Pizza Hut (1986-1987). Also included are Computer Automation (1977-1978), State of the Art, Incorporated (1982) and Toshiba (1986).

Subseries 9.2, Personnel Files, 1950s-1970s, includes cards of employees who worked in the Los Angeles office. Information on the cards includes name, address, telephone number, birthday, date hired, departure date and why (retired, terminated, resigned, etc) and position. Not all cards have all information. There is also a photograph of the employees on the cards.

Series 10, Foreign Print Advertisements, 1977-1991, undated, NW Ayer maintained partnerships with international companies such as Sloanas Ayer in Argentina, Connaghan & May Paton Ayer in Australia, Moussault Ayer in Belgium, NW Ayer, LTD. in Canada, GMC Ayer in France, Co-Partner Ayer in Germany, Wong Lam Wang in Hong Kong, MacHarman Ayer in New Zealand, Grupo de Diseno Ayer in Spain, Nedeby Ayer in Sweden, and Ayer Barker in United Kingdom. This group of material is a small sampling of advertisements created from these International offices. It is arranged alphabetically by client. There are quite a few automobile advertisements (i.e. Audi, Fiat, General Motors, Mercedes-Benz, and Volkswagen). In addition there are numerous advertisements for various personal items from MacLean's toothpaste to Quick athletic shoes to Labello lip balm, etc. Most of the advertisements have the creator's name printed on the advertisements.

Series 11, Cunningham & Walsh, Incorporated Materials, 1915-1987, undated contains 98 boxes 11 folders materials from the New York advertising agency acquired by NW Ayer in the 1960s. The company began with Newel-Emmett, an agency of nine men which broke up in 1949. Two of the men Fred Walsh and Jack Cunningham formed this agency in bearing their names in 1950. The agency created "let your fingers for the walking campaign for American Telephone & Telegraph, Mother Nature for Chiffon, and Mrs. Olson for Folgers's coffee and let the good times roll for Kawasaki motorcycle. In 1986, NW Ayer Incorporated purchased Cunningham & Walsh Incorporated.

Subseries 11.1, Print Advertisements, 1915-1987, are contained in ninety eight boxes of primarily print advertisements arranged alphabetically by client name. Clients that are particularly well represented are Graybar (electrical implements, circa1926-1937), Johns-Manulle (circa1915-1971), Smith and Corono typewriters (circa 1934-1960), Sunshine Biscuit Company (circa 1925-1961), Texaco Company (circa 1936-1961), Western Electric (circa 1920- 1971) and Yellow Pages (circa 1936-1971). Cunningham and Walsh also represented several travel and tourism industry clients, including Cook Travel Services (circa 1951-1962), Italian Line (circa 1953-1961), Narragansett and Croft (circa 1956-1960) and Northwest Airlines (circa 1946-1955). There are photographs of Texaco advertisements dating from 1913-1962. There is also a scrapbook of advertisements from the Western Electric Company dating from 1920-1922.

Subseries 11.2, Radio and Television Advertisements, 1963-1967, consist of materials created for Western Electric. Materials are arranged in chronological order.

Subseries 11.3, Company Related Materials, 1962-1986, undated include client lists, information relating to NW Ayer purchase and annual report 1962.

Series 12, Hixson & Jorgensen Materials, 1953-1971, a Los Angeles advertising company, merged with Ayer in 1969. This series is housed in one box. Within the box are four scrapbooks and folders with a hodgepodge of materials relating to advertising. Of most interest are the scrapbooks. Two scrapbooks deal with Hixson and Jorgensen's self promotion ad campaign "the right appeal gets action" (1953-1957). The other two scrapbooks contain news clippings about the company and its activities (1959-1971).

Series 13, Newell-Emmet, 1942-1957, founded in 1919 and governed in the 1940s by a partnership of nine men. The partnership broke up in 1949 when the men went their separate ways. The materials consist of print advertisements for one of client, Permutit Company, a water conditioning company. The materials are arranged in one box in chronological order.

Series 14, House Print Advertisements, 1870-1991, 16 boxes consists of advertisements or self-promotion advertisements to campaign for new clients. The series is arranged chronologically by date into fifteen boxes. Within the series are two scrapbooks containing self promotion ads from 1888-1919 and 1892-1895. Numerous house ads relate to Ayer's "Human Contact" campaign. In addition to the self promotion ads, Ayer ran advertisements expounding about particular concepts or themes for example, one month the concept would "understand" while another month would be "teamwork" and yet another would be on "imagination". Some of the self promotion ads target specific groups like Philadelphia businessmen. Other advertisements incorporate the fine arts.

Series 15, Scrapbooks, 1872-1959, relates to company events, records and news clippings about Ayer's history. The six boxes are arranged by chronological date. Two of the boxes focus solely on the death of founder F.W. Ayer (1923). Another box houses a scrapbook that showcases Ayer's annual Typography Exhibition (1931-1959). One box contains a scrapbook that specifically deals with correspondences relating to Ayer's advertising. Yet another box's contents are folders of loose pages from scrapbooks that have newspaper clippings, order forms, correspondences and other company records. In one box, a bound scrapbook houses a variety of materials relating to Ayer and advertising (i.e. newspaper clippings, competitor's advertisements, NW Ayer's advertisements, correspondences for advertisements, clippings regarding the "theory of advertising."

Series 16, Publications, 1849-2006, are housed in thirty four boxes and are arranged into three main categories.

Subseries 16.1, House Publications, 1876-1994, covers diverse topics; some proscriptive works about the Ayer method in advertising, some commemorating people, anniversaries or events in the life of the agency. Materials consist of scattered issues of the employee newsletter The Next Step 1920-1921. The materials are arranged in chronological order by date of publication. Ayer in the News, The Show Windows of an Advertising Agency, 1915, book form of advertisements published on the cover of Printer's Ink, highlighting Ayer's relations with advertisers. The Story of the States, 1916, Reprint in book form of a series of articles published in Printer's Ink for the purpose of adding some pertinent fact, progressive thought and prophetic vision to the Nationalism of Advertising highlights major businesses, manufacturer, natural resources and other qualities or attractions of each state. The Book of the Golden Celebration, 1919, includes welcome address and closing remarks by founder F. Wayland Ayer, The Next Step, 1920 employee newsletter with photographs, employee profiles, in-house jokes, etc., Advertising Advertising: A Series of Fifty-two Advertisements scheduled one time a week. Twenty-seven, thirty and forty inches, a day of the week optional with publisher, 1924

Subseries 16.2, Publications about NW Ayer, 1949-2006, includes a book first published in 1939. Includes articles, documenting events and is arranged chronologically by date of publication.

Subseries 16.3, General Publications about Advertising, 1922-1974, are arranged chronologically by date of publication and relate primarily to the history of advertising.

Subseries 16.4, Publications about Other Subjects, 1948-1964, include four books about the tobacco industry primarily the history of the American Tobacco Company and Lorillard Company from the Cunningham and Walsh library.

Series 17, Business Records, circa 1885-1990s

Subseries 17.1, Contracts, 1885-1908, undated, are arranged alphabetically and span from 1885-1908. The majority of the contracts are with newspaper and magazine publishers from around the country.

Subseries 17.2, General client information, 1911-1999, undated, including active and cancelled lists with dates, client gains, historical client list, (should move this to series 20) Ayer Plan User Guide Strategic Planning for Human Contact, undated

Subseries 17.3, Individual Client Account Information, 1950s-1990s, undated, contain information used by Ayer to create advertisements for some of its clients. American Telephone &Telegraph Corporate Case History, American Telephone &Telegraph Corporate advertisement memo, commissioned artists for DeBeers advertisements, DeBeers information relating to the creative process and photography credits, a case history for DeBeers Consolidated Mines, Ltd., The Diamond Engagement Ring, Managing Communication at all levels, DuPont publications, JC Penny Marketing Communication Plan Recommendation, Leaf, Incorporated, Saturn presentation, and USAREC oral presentation.

Subseries 17.4, Potential Clients, 1993, includes grouping has a questionnaire sent to Ayer by a potential client. Questionnaire response for Prudential Securities, 1993 Prudential Securities advertising account review, 1993.

Subseries 17.5, Financial Records, 1929-1938, includes balance sheet, 1929 May 1 Balance sheet and adjustments Consolidated statement of assets and liabilities, Expenses 191936-37 Business review and expenses, 1937 and 1938 Business review and expenses comparative statement, 1937 and 1938.

Series 18, Legal Records, circa 1911-1982, Ayer's legal records are arranged by twelve subject groupings within four boxes. The twelve groupings are advertising service agreements (circa 1918-1982), bylaws, copyright claims, correspondences, international correspondences, dissolution of trusts, stock information, agreements between partners, incorporation materials, reduction of capital, property information and miscellaneous materials. The bulk of the materials are the advertising service agreements. These agreements are between Ayer and their clients and state the services Ayer will offer and at what cost. The bylaws are Ayer's company bylaws from 1969 and 1972. The copyright claims are certificates stating Ayer's ownership over certain published materials (i.e. "Policy", Media Equalizer Model, and Don Newman's Washington Square Experiment). The correspondences relate to either the voting trust and receipts for agreement or the New York Corporation. The international correspondences are from either Ayer's Canadian office or London office. The dissolutions of trusts contains materials about the dividend trust of Wilfred F. Fry, the investment trust of Winfred W. Fry, the voting trust, and the New York corporation. The stock information has stock certificates and capital stock information. The agreements between partners (1911-1916) specify the terms between F.W. Ayer and his partners. The incorporation materials (circa 1929-1977) deal with Ayer advertising agency becoming incorporated in the state of Delaware. The reduction of capital grouping is a notification that shares of stock have been retired. The property information grouping contains property deeds and insurance policy (circa 1921-1939), a property appraisal (1934), and a bill of sale (1948). The miscellaneous grouping contains a house memo regarding a set of board meeting minutes and a registry of foreign companies in Commonwealth of Pennsylvania (1929-1954).

Subseries 18.1, Advertising Service Agreements, 1918-1982

Subseries 18.2, Bylaw Materials, 1969-1972

Subseries 18.3, Copyright Claims, 1962-1969

Subseries 18.4, Correspondence, 1928-1933

Subseries 18.5, International Office Correspondence, 1947-1948

Subseries 18.6, Dissolution of Trusts, 1934-1937

Subseries 18.7, Stock Information, 1934-1974

Subseries 18.8, Agreements between Partners, 1911-1916

Subseries 18.9, Incorporation Materials, 1929-1977

Subseries 18.10, Certificates of Reduction of Capital, 1937; 1975

Subseries 18.11, Property Information, 1921-1948

Subseries 18.12, Miscellaneous Materials, 1929-1977

Series 19, Personnel Records, circa 1889-2001, are arranged into eight groupings within eight boxes. The groupings are employee card files, photographs, Ayer alumni, biographies, speeches, recollections, oral histories, and miscellaneous. Typed manuscript of book A Copy Writer Speaks by George Cecil, NW Ayer, Incorporated copy head 1920s-1950s

Subseries 19.1, Employee card files, circa 1892-1915; 1929-1963, consists of index cards with the name, age, job title, date and wage increases, date of hire/fire, as well as remarks about the employee's service and/or reasons for seeking or leaving the job. Materials are arranged alphabetically by the last name of the employee within three boxes.

Subseries 19.2, Photographs, circa 1924-1984, undated, are housed in two boxes. The photographs grouped together by subjects i.e. personnel, company events, Ayer buildings, and miscellaneous. This grouping primarily consists of personnel photographs. Includes a glass plate negative dated 1924 of NW Ayer.

Subseries 19.3, Ayer Alumni, circa 1989-98, include employees who have left Ayer. There is a listing of Ayer "graduates" and their current job. Emeritus, Ayer's alumni newsletter 1989-1996, makes up the majority of materials in this grouping. The newsletter keeps the alumni up to date with the happenings of Ayer and what has become of former Ayer employees. Emeritus is a quarterly newsletter devoted to the activities, thoughts and feelings of Ayer alumni a body of people who consists of retirees and former employees.

Subseries 19.4, Biographical Information, circa 1889-1994, undated, prominent members of Ayer's operations had biographical sketches completed of them. This was true for the bio sketches of Robert Ervin, Louis T. Hagopian, and George A. Rink. There is a substantial file on Dorothy Dignam ("Mis Dig"), a leading woman in the advertising world from the 1930s to the 1950s. Also of interest is a video ("The Siano Man") compiled by Ayer employees to commemorate Jerry Siano's retirement from Ayer in 1994. The series is arranged alphabetically by last name.

Subseries 19.5, Speeches, circa 1919-1931; 1975, contains speeches made by Wilfred W. Fry and Neal W. O'Connor. Wilfred W. Fry had various speaking engagements connected with Ayer. Contained in this group is a sampling of his speeches from 1919 to 1931. Neal O'Connor's speech "Advertising: Who Says It's a Young People's Business" was given at the Central Region Convention for the American Association of Advertising Agencies in Chicago on November 6, 1975. The speeches are arranged alphabetically by the speaker's last name.

Subseries 19.6, Recollections, 1954-1984, undated, are arranged alphabetically by last name. These are recollections from Ayer employees about the company and its advertisements. Some recollections are specifically about certain types of advertisements, like farm equipment while others reflect on F. W. Ayer and the company.

Subseries 19.7, Oral History Interview Transcripts, 1983-1985; 1989-1991, include interviews with key NW Ayer personnel, conducted by Ayer alumnae Howard Davis, Brad Lynch and Don Sholl (Vice President creative) for the Oral History Program. The materials are arranged alphabetically by the last name of the interviewee.

Subseries 19.8, Oral History Interview Audio Tapes, 1985-1990, include interviews on audiotape the materials are arranged alphabetically by the last name of the interviewee.

Subseries 19.9, Internal Communications, 1993-1999, includes information sent to employees relating to retirements, management changes, awards won by the company, promotions, potential new accounts, free items, grand opening of Ayer Café, donation events, sponsorship programs, holiday schedules, discounts for employees from clients, Ayer joins MacManus Group.

Subseries 19.10, General Materials, 1940; 1970, includes agency directory entry including a list of the employees, 1970s, annual banquet program for the Curfew Club May 22, 1940 a group formed by the Philadelphia employee in 1938. It sponsored numerous sports, social and educational activities. Groups were formed in public speaking, music appreciation and a series of talks on Monday evenings title the modern woman. The front page was a series of talks for general interest. A list of officers, 1991, Twenty five year club membership, 1973 December 1, List of NW Ayer graduates, 1970, List of Officers, 1991 May 31, Obituary for Leo Lionni, 1999 October 17, List of photographers of advertisements, 2001

Series 20, Background and History Information, 1817-1999, undated includes a chronology, 1817-1990, quick reference timeline, 1848-1923, loose pages from a scrapbook containing examples of correspondence, envelopes, advertisements dating from 1875-1878; slogans coined by NW Ayer & Sons, Incorporated, 1899-1990, history of management, 1909-1923, articles and photographs about the building and art galleries, 1926-1976, publications about the Philadelphia building, 1929, pamphlet relating to memories of NW Ayer & Sons, Incorporated, 1930s-1950s, television history, 1940-1948, Article about the history of the company, 1950 January, pocket guide, 1982, AdWeek reports about standings for advertising agencies, information relating to Human Contact which is NW Ayer's Information relating to Human Contact, undated which is their philosophy on advertising.

Series 21, Materials Created by other Advertising Agencies, 1945-1978, undated, consists of print advertisements collected by Ayer from other major advertising companies. The companies include Doyle Dane Bernback, Incorporated, Leo Burnett Company, Grey Advertising Agency, D'Arcy Ad Agency, Scali, McCabe, Sloves, Incorporated and Erwin Wasey Company. The materials are arranged in alphabetical order by client and include products from Ralston Purina and Van Camp (Chicken of the Sea), Kellogg, American Export Lines and No Nonsense Fashions.

Series 22, 2010 Addendum of Print Advertisements, circa 1879s-1999, undated, includes material given to the Archives Center in 2010. It is organized into seventy one oversized boxes and contains proofsheets of print advertisements for select Ayer clients. These are arranged alphabetically by client name and include substantial quantities of materials from American Telephone &Telegraph (1945-1996), Bahamas Ministry of Tourism (1967-1987), Carrier (1971-1981), Citibank (1973-1991), DeBeers (1940s-1960s and1990s), Electric Companies Advertising Program [ECAP] (1942-1970s), General Motors (1989-1998), J.C. Penney (1983-1986), Newsweek (1966-1975), and Proctor and Gamble (1980s-1890s). There are also numerous other clients represented by smaller quantities of materials.

Subseries 22.1, Print Advertisements, 1930-1990, undated

Subseries 22.2, Print Advertisements on Glass Plate Negatives, 1879-1881, undated, include Cannon towels, Cheny Brothers silks, Cornish & Company organs and pianos, Enterprise Manufacturing Company, 1879 sad iron, an ad from Harper's Weekly 1881 for ladies clothing, Ostermoor & Company mattresses, Pear's soap, Porter's cough balsam, Steinway pianos.

Series 23, Microfilm of Print Advertisements, circa 1908-1985, consists of three boxes of printed advertisements for the American Telephone and Telegraph Company. Some of the same advertisements might also be found in series two, three and four.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into twenty-three series.

Series 1: Scrapbooks of Client Print Advertisements, circa 1870-1920

Series 2: Proofsheets, circa 1870-1930

Series 3: Proofsheets, circa 1920-1975

Series 4: 2001 Addendum, circa 1976-2001

Series 5: Billboards, circa 1952-1956

Series 6: Audiovisual Materials

Series 7: Radio and Television Materials, 1933-1993, undated

Series 8: Chicago Office Print Advertisements, 1954-1989

Series 9: Los Angeles Office Materials, 1950s-1987

Subseries 9.1: Printed Advertisements, 1977-1987

Subseries 9.2: Personnel Files, 1950s-1970s

Series 10: Foreign Print Advertisements, 1977-1991, undated

Series 11: Cunningham & Walsh Incorporated Materials, 1915-1987, undated

Subseries 11.1: Printed Advertisements, 1915-1987

Subseries 11.2: Radio and Television Advertisements, 1963-1967

Subseries 11.3: Company Related Materials, 1962-1986, undated

Series 12: Hixson & Jorgensen Materials, 1953-1971, undated

Series 13: Newell-Emmet, 1942-1957

Series 14: House Print Advertisements, 1870-1991

Series 15: Scrapbooks, 1872-1959

Series 16: Publications, 1849-2006

Subseries 16.1: House Publications, 1876-1994

Subseries 16.2: Publications about NW Ayer, 1949-1995

Subseries 16.3: General Publications about Advertising, 1922-2006

Subseries 16.4: Publications about other Subjects, 1948-1964

Series 17, Business Records, circa 1885-1990s

Subseries 17.1: Contracts, 1885-1908, undated

Subseries 17.2: General Client Information, 1911-1999, undated

Subseries 17.3: Individual Client Account Information, 1950s-1990s, undated

Subseries 17.4: Potential Clients, 1993

Subseries 17.5: Financial Records, 1929-1938

Series 18: Legal Records, circa 1911-1984

Subseries 18.1: Advertising Service Agreements, 1918-1982

Subseries 18.2: Bylaw Materials, 1969-1972

Subseries 18.3, Copyright Claims, 1962-1969

Subseries 18.4: Correspondence, 1928-1933

Subseries 18.5: International Office Correspondence, 1947-1948

Subseries 18.6: Dissolution of Trusts, 1934-1937

Subseries 18.7: Stock Information, 1934-1974

Subseries 18.8: Agreements between Partners, 1911-1916

Subseries 18.9: Incorporation Materials, 1929-1977

Subseries 18.10: Certificates of Reduction of Capital, 1937; 1975

Subseries 18.11: Property Information

Subseries 18.12: Miscellaneous Materials, 1929-1977

Series 19: Employee Materials, circa 1889-2001

Subseries 19.1: Employee Card files, circa 1892-1915; 1929-1963

Subseries 19.2: Photographs, circa 1924-1984, undated

Subseries 19.3: Alumni Publications, circa 1989-1998

Subseries 19.4: Biographical Information, circa 1889-1994

Subseries 19.5: Speeches, circa 1919-1931; 1975

Subseries 19.6: Recollections, 1954-1984, undated

Subseries 19.7: Oral History Interview Transcripts, 1983-1985; 1989-1991

Subseries 19.8: Oral History Audiotapes, 1985-1990

Subseries 19.9: Internal Communications, 1993-1999

Subseries 19.1: General Materials, 1940-2001

Series 20: History and Background Information about the Company, 1817-1999, undated

Series 21: Materials Created by other Advertising Agencies, 1945-1978, undated

Series 22: 2010 Addendum of Print Advertisements, circa 1879s-1990s, undated

Subseries 22.1: Print Advertisements, 1930-1990, undated

Subseries 22.2: Print Advertisements on Glass Plate Negatives, 1879-1881, undated

Series 23: Microfilm of Print Advertisements, circa 1908-1985
Biographical / Historical:
Founded in Philadelphia in 1869, NW Ayer & Son is one of the oldest and largest advertising agencies in America. For most of its history, it was the undisputed leader and innovator in the field of advertising. In 1876, NW Ayer & Son pioneered the "open contract", a revolutionary change in the method of billing for advertising which became the industry standard for the next hundred years. NW Ayer pioneered the use of fine art in advertising and established the industry's first art department. It was the first agency to use a full-time copywriter and the first to institute a copy department. The agency relocated to New York City in 1974. During its long history, the agency's clients included many "blue-chip" clients, including American Telephone & Telegraph, DeBeers Consolidated Diamond Mines, Ford Motor Company, Nabisco, R. J. Reynolds and United Airlines. However, in later years, the Ayer's inherent conservatism left the agency vulnerable to the creative revolution of the 1960s and 1970s, the advertising industry restructuring of the 1980s and the economic recession of the early 1990s. The agency was bought out by a Korean investor in 1993. In 1996, NW Ayer merged with another struggling top twenty United States advertising agency, Darcy, Masius, Benton & Bowles, under the umbrella of the McManus Group. Ayer continues to operate as a separate, full-service agency.

Through a series of buyouts and mergers, Ayer traces its lineage to the first advertising agency founded in the United States, a Philadelphia agency begun by Volney Palmer in 1841. Palmer began his career in advertising as a newspaper agent, acting as middleman between newspaper publishers and advertisers across the country. By 1849, Palmer had founded his own newspaper, V. B. Palmer's Register and Spirit of the Press, and had developed a complete system of advertising which included securing advertising space and placing ads in scores of commercial, political, religious, scientific and agricultural journals across the country. Palmer went one step further than the "space jobbers" of the day when he began offering "advertisements carefully drawn for those who have not the time to prepare an original copy." Always an enthusiastic promoter of advertising as an incentive to trade and American economic growth, Palmer promised advertisers that "every dollar paid for advertising in country newspapers will pay back twenty-fold" and encouraged skeptical consumers that "he who wishes to buy cheap should buy of those who advertise." When Palmer died in 1863, the agency was bought by his bookkeeper, John Joy, who joined with another Philadelphia advertising agency to form Joy, Coe & Sharpe. That agency was bought out again in 1868 and renamed Coe, Wetherill & Company. In 1877, Coe, Wetherill and Company was bought out by the newly formed NW Ayer & Son.

Francis Wayland Ayer was an ambitious young schoolteacher with an entrepreneurial streak. Having worked for a year soliciting advertisements on a commission basis for the publisher of the National Baptist weekly, Francis Ayer saw the potential to turn a profit as an advertising agent. In 1869, Ayer persuaded his father, Nathan Wheeler Ayer, to join him in business, and with an initial investment of only $250.00, NW Ayer & Son was born. Notwithstanding a smallpox epidemic in Philadelphia in 1871 and the general economic depression of the early 1870s, the agency flourished. The senior Ayer died in 1873, leaving his interest in the agency to his wife, but Francis W. Ayer bought her out, consolidating his interest in the company's management. In 1877, with Coe, Wetherill & Company (the successor to Palmer's 1841 agency) on the verge of bankruptcy and heavily indebted to Ayer for advertising it had placed in Ayer publications, Ayer assumed ownership of that agency. Thus did NW Ayer lay claim to being the oldest advertising agency in the country.

Both Nathan Wheeler and Francis Wayland Ayer began their careers as schoolteachers, and one of their legacies was a commitment to the cause of education: correspondence schools and institutions of higher learning were historically well-represented among Ayer clients. Just after World War I, the agency was heralded as "co-founder of more schools than any citizen of this country" for its conspicuous efforts to advertise private schools. Well into the 1960s, an "Education Department" at Ayer prepared advertisements for over three hundred private schools, camps and colleges, representing almost half the regional and national advertising done for such institutions. In fact, to its clients Ayer presented advertising itself as being akin to a system of education. In 1886, Ayer began promoting the virtues of the Ayer way advertising with the slogan, "Keeping Everlastingly at It Brings Success."

The agency's goals were simple: "to make advertising pay the advertiser, to spend the advertiser's money as though it were our own, to develop, magnify and dignify advertising as a business." Initially, Ayer's fortunes were tied to newspapers, and the agency began to make a name for itself as compiler and publisher of a widely used American Newspaper Annual. During the first years, Ayer's singular goal was "to get business, place it [in newspapers] and get money for it"; after several years as an independent space broker, however, Francis Ayer resolved "not to be an order taker any longer." This decision led NW Ayer and Son to a change in its mode of conducting business which would revolutionize the advertising industry: in 1876, Ayer pioneered the "open contract" with Diggee & Conard, Philadelphia raised growers and agricultural suppliers. Prior to the open contract, NW Ayer & Sons and most agencies operated as "space-jobbers," independent wholesalers of advertising space, in which the opportunities for graft and corrupt practices were virtually unlimited. In contrast, the open contract, wherein the advertiser paid a fixed commission based on the volume of advertising placed, aligned the advertising agent firmly on the side of the advertiser and gave advertisers access to the actual rates charged by newspapers and religious journals. The open contract with a fixed commission has been hailed by advertising pioneer Albert Lasker as one of the "three great landmarks in advertising history." (The other two were Lasker's own development of "reason-why" advertising copy and J. Walter Thompson's pioneering of sex appeal in an advertisement for Woodbury's soap.) Although the transition to the open contract did not happen overnight, by 1884, nearly three-quarters of Ayer's advertising billings were on an open contract basis. Since Ayer was, by the 1890s, the largest agency in America, the switch to direct payment by advertisers had a significant impact on the advertising industry, as other agencies were forced to respond to Ayer's higher standard. Just as important, the open contract helped to establish N W Ayer's long-standing reputation for "clean ethics and fair dealing" -- a reputation the agency has guarded jealously for over a century. The open contract also helped to establish Ayer as a full service advertising agency and to regularize the production of advertising in-house. From that point forward, Ayer routinely offered advice and service beyond the mere placement of advertisements. Ayer set another milestone for the industry in 1888, when Jarvis Wood was hired as the industry's first full-time copywriter. Wood was joined by a second full time copywriter four years later, and the Copy Department was formally established in 1900. The industry's first Art Department grew out of the Copy Department when Ayer hired its first commercial artist to assist with copy preparation in 1898; twelve years later Ayer became the first agency to offer the services of a full time art director, whose sole responsibility was the design and illustration of ads.

Ayer's leadership in the use of fine art in advertising has roots in this period, but achieved its highest expression under the guidance of legendary art director Charles Coiner. Coiner joined Ayer in 1924, after graduating from the Chicago Academy of Fine Arts. Despite early resistance from some clients, Coiner was adamant that "the use of outstanding palette and original art forms bring a greater return in readership, in impact and prestige for the advertiser." To this end, Coiner marshaled the talents of notable painters, illustrators and photographers, including N.C. Wyeth and Rockwell Kent (Steinway), Georgia O'Keefe (Dole), Leo Lionni (DuPont), Edward Steichen (Steinway, Cannon Mills), Charles Sheeler (Ford), and Irving Penn (DeBeers). Coiner believed that there was a practical side to the use of fine art in advertising, and his success (and Ayer's) lay in the marriage of research and copywriting with fine art, an arrangement Coiner termed "art for business sake." Coiner's efforts won both awards and attention for a series completed in the 1950s for the Container Corporation of America. Titled "Great Ideas of Western Man" the campaign featured abstract and modern paintings and sculpture by leading U.S. and foreign artists, linked with Western philosophical writings in an early example of advertising designed primarily to bolster corporate image. In 1994, Charles Coiner was posthumously named to the American Advertising Federation's Hall of Fame, the first full time art director ever chosen for that honor.

Coiner and fellow art director Paul Darrow also created legendary advertising with the "A Diamond Is Forever" campaign for DeBeers; ads featured the work of Pablo Picasso, Salvador Dali and other modernist painters. The "A Diamond is Forever" tagline was written in 1949 by Frances Gerety, a woman copywriter at Ayer from 1943 to 1970. In 1999, Ad Age magazine cited "A Diamond is Forever" as the most memorable advertising slogan of the twentieth century.

Coiner also earned respect for his volunteer government service during World War II; he designed the armbands for civil defense volunteers and logos for the National Recovery Administration and Community Chest. As a founding member of the Advertising Council in 1945, Ayer has had a long-standing commitment to public service advertising. In the mid-1980s, Ayer became a leading force in the Reagan-era "War on Drugs". Lou Hagopian, Ayer's sixth CEO, brokered the establishment of the Partnership for a Drug-Free America, a media coalition which generated as much as a million dollars a day in donated advertising space and time to prevent the use and abuse of illegal drugs. Famous names appear among NW Ayer's clientele from the very earliest days of the agency. Retailer John Wanamaker, Jay Cooke and Company, and Montgomery Ward's mail-order business were among the first Ayer clients. The agency has represented at least twenty automobile manufacturers, including Cadillac, Chrysler, Ford, General Motors, Plymouth, and Rolls-Royce. Other major, long-term clients through the years have included American Telephone & Telegraph, Canada Dry, Cannon Mills, Hills Bros. Coffee Company, Kellogg's, R. J. Reynolds, Steinway and Sons, United Airlines, and the United States Army. By the time of Ayer's hundredth anniversary in 1969, some of these companies had been Ayer clients for decades if not generations, and the longevity of those relationships was for many years a source of Ayer's strength.

But the advertising industry began to change in the late 1960s and 1970s, due in part to a "creative revolution." Small advertising agencies won attention with provocative copywriting and art direction that more closely resembled art than advertising. Advances in market research allowed clients to more narrowly tailor their advertising messages to distinct groups of consumers, and this led to a rise in targeted marketing which could more readily be doled out to specialized small agencies than to larger, established firms like NW Ayer & Son. The civil rights and anti-war movements also contributed to increasing public skepticism with the values of corporate America, and by extension, with some national advertising campaigns. Older, more conservative firms like Ayer were hard pressed to meet these new challenges.

About 1970, in an effort to meet these challenges and to establish a foothold on the West Coast, Ayer bought out two smaller agencies--Hixson & Jorgenson (Los Angeles) and Frederick E. Baker (Seattle). The agency relocated from Philadelphia to New York City in 1974 in an attempt both to consolidate operations (Ayer had operated a New York office since the 1920s) and to be closer to the historic center of the advertising industry. Riding the wave of mergers that characterized the advertising industry in the late 1980s and 1990s, Ayer continued to grow through the acquisition of Cunningham & Walsh in 1986 and Rink Wells in 19xx.

During this transitional period, Ayer received widespread acclaim for its work for the United States Army, which included the widely recognized slogan "Be All You Can Be". Ayer first acquired the Army recruitment account in 1967 and with help from its direct marketing arm, the agency was widely credited with helping the Army reach its recruitment goals despite an unpopular war and plummeting enlistments after the elimination of the draft in 1973. Ayer held the account for two decades, from the Vietnam War through the Cold War, but lost the account in 1986 amid government charges that an Ayer employee assigned to the account accepted kickbacks from a New York film production house. Despite Ayer's position as the country's 18th largest agency (with billings of $880 million in 1985), the loss of the agency's second largest account hit hard.

NW Ayer made up for the loss of the $100 million dollar a year Army account and made headlines for being on the winning end of the largest account switch in advertising history to date, when fast food giant Burger King moved its $200 million dollar advertising account from arch-rival J. Walter Thompson in 1987. Burger King must have had drive-thru service in mind, however, and Ayer made headlines again when it lost the account just eighteen months later in another record-breaking account switch. Another devastating blow to the agency was the loss of its lead position on the American Telegraph and Telephone account. Ayer pioneered telecommunications advertising in 1908, when the agency was selected to craft advertising for the Bell System's universal telephone service. Despite valiant efforts to keep an account the agency had held for most of the twentieth century, and for which they had written such memorable corporate slogans as American Telephone &Telegraph "The Voice with a Smile" and "Reach Out and Touch Someone", the agency lost the account in 1996.

After a wave of mergers and acquisitions in the late 1980s, the economic recession of the early 1990s hit Madison Avenue hard, and Ayer was particularly vulnerable. Despite the agency's long history and roster of "blue-chip" clients, Ayer was not known for cutting-edge creative work. Moreover, though the agency had offices overseas, Ayer had never built a strong multinational presence, and many of the smaller international offices were sold during the financial turmoil of the 1980s. This left a real void in the new climate of global marketplace consolidation. By about 1990, earnings were declining (although Ayer was still among the top twenty United States agencies in billings), and the agency was suffering from client defections, high management turnover, expensive real estate commitments and deferred executive compensation deals, all fallout of the high-flying 1980s. This was the atmosphere in 1993, when W.Y. Choi, a Korean investor who had already assembled a media and marketing empire in his homeland, began looking for an American partner to form an international advertising network. Jerry Siano, the former creative director who had recently been named Ayer's seventh CEO, was in no position to refuse Choi's offer of $35 million to buy the now floundering agency. The infusion of cash was no magic bullet, however. Choi took a wait-and-see approach, allowing his partner Richard Humphreys to make key decisions about Ayer's future, including the purging of senior executives and the installation of two new CEOs in as many years.

The agency's downward trend continued with the loss of another longtime client, the DeBeers diamond cartel in 1995. Adweek reported that Ayer's billings fell from $892 million in 1990 to less than $850 million in 1995. Several top executives defected abruptly, and the agency failed to attract major new accounts. Ayer was facing the loss not merely of revenue and personnel, but the loss of much of the respect it once commanded. Ayer remained among the twenty largest U.S. agencies, but an aura of uncertainty hung over the agency like a cloud. A new CEO was appointed, and Mary Lou Quinlan became the agency's first woman CEO in 1995. A year later, Ayer and another struggling top twenty agency, D'arcy, Masius, Benton & Bowles, combined as part of the McManus Group of companies. In 1998, the McManus Group had worldwide billings of more than $6.5 billion.

Under the McManus Group, Ayer was able to expand its international operations and begin to rebuild a stronger global presence. Several important new clients were won in 1997 and 1998, including Avon, General Motors, Kitchenaid, several Procter & Gamble brands and, most notably, Continental Airlines worldwide accounts. Born in the nineteenth century, Ayer may be one of a very few advertising agencies to successfully weather the economic and cultural transitions of both the twentieth and twentieth first centuries. Ayer was eventually acquired by the Publicis Groupe based in Paris, France which closed down the N.W. Ayer offices in 2002.
Related Materials:
Materials in the Archives Center

Warshaw Collection of Business Americana (AC0060)

Hills Bros. Coffee Incorporated Records (AC0395)
Provenance:
The collection was donated by N W Ayer ABH International, April 15, 1975 and by Ayer & Partners, October 30, 1996.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use.

Physical Access: Researchers must use microfilm copy. Researchers must handle unprotected photographs with gloves. Researchers must use reference copies of audiovisual materials. When no reference copy exists, the Archives Center staff will produce reference copies on an "as needed" basis, as resources allow.

Technical Access: Viewing the film portion of the collection without reference copies requires special appointment, please inquire; listening to audio discs requires special arrangement. Do not use original materials when available on reference video or audio tapes.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Reproduction permission from Archives Center: reproduction fees may apply. Publication and production quality duplication is restricted due to complex copyright, publicity rights, and right to privacy issues. All duplication requests must be reviewed and approved by Archives Center staff. Potential users must receive written permission from appropriate rights holders prior to obtaining high quality copies.
Topic:
Advertising agencies  Search this
advertising  Search this
Genre/Form:
Business records -- 1840-2000
Interviews -- 1980-2000
Oral history -- 1980-1990
Print advertising
Proof sheets
Proofs (printed matter)
Scrapbooks -- 1840-1990
Trade literature
Tear sheets
Advertisements
Citation:
NW Ayer & Sons, incorporated Advertising Agency Records, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0059
See more items in:
N W Ayer Advertising Agency Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0059
Online Media:

Waco Aircraft Company records

Creator:
Waco Aircraft Company  Search this
Names:
Waco Aircraft Company  Search this
Weaver Aircraft Company  Search this
Brukner, Clayton J., 1896-1977  Search this
Junkin, Elwood J. (Elwood James), 1897-1926  Search this
Weaver, George E. "Buck", 1895-1924  Search this
Extent:
184.1 Cubic feet (168 Legal document boxes; 35 drawers)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Financial records
Drawings
Reports
Date:
1930-1950
Summary:
This collection consists of the records of the Waco Aircraft Company. The material includes office files of the company, marketing and sales information, and design data. Also included are original engineering drawings and report files.
Scope and Contents note:
In 1920 Clayton J. Bruckner, Elwood "Sam" Junkin and George "Buck" Weaver formed Weaver Aircraft Co. In April of 1923, they renamed the company Advanced Aircraft Co. and, in May of 1929, Waco Aircraft Co. By the 1930s the company was a leader in the design of wood and fabric aircraft. At their most widespread use, Waco aircraft were operated by public, private, military and corporate owners in thirty-five countries. During World War II, Waco devoted itself entirely to war production, manufacturing large numbers of troop- and cargo-carrying gliders. Following the war Waco attempted to market a wholly new design, but the post- war slump in the private aviation market and the high development costs of the aircraft forced Waco to withdraw from aircraft manufacture in June 1947. During its twenty-seven year existence Waco produced sixty-two different aircraft models and led all its competitors in the number of aircraft registered.

The Waco collection is divided into two parts. Part One comprises 24,855 drawings. The locations and descriptive information of these drawings are listed on an electronic database entitled the Waco Aircraft Engineering Drawings Data Base. The drawings vary greatly in size from small drawings of 4x5" to large sheets of over 150" in length. The majority of the drawings included in Part One are numbered, but many of the drawings are unnumbered. These drawings span most of the Company's existence and depict many of its powered and glider aircraft. There are several smaller sets of drawings which include layout drawings, tool drawings and stress analyses. Production charts and data charts are also among these drawings.

Part Two includes the business records of the Waco Aircraft Company. These documents can be generally divided between the engineering and sales departments. Most of the drawings within Part Two are from sub-contractors and U.S. Government agencies.

Waco aircraft company designations are confusing. Many variations exist regarding the practice of assigning model designations. Despite these exceptions, some basic rules serve as a guideline. Prior to 1930, Waco models were designated by a single number, 1 through 10. The last aircraft designated in this manner, the Waco 10, became the Waco Model O under the new scheme of designation.

Waco early models were additionally referred to by their horsepower. This may have been a practice of distributors and salesmen.

Since 1930, The Waco Aircraft Company used a combination of three letters with which to name its models. An example would be the Model ASO. The letters are best read from right to left. The letter on the right represents the fuselage, i.e. Model O. The middle letter represents a modification to the basic model, i.e. CSO for straight wing or CTO for tapered wing. The letter on the left represents the engine, i.e. CSO for Wright J-6, 225 horse power engine. Additionally, Waco models were often followed by a number indicating the year in which the aircraft was built. A YPF-6, for example, was manufactured in 1936.

Waco World War II gliders, designed for the U.S.A.A.F, were designated by an alpha-numeric combination. The four unpowered gliders produced shared the same letter prefixes of CG, which stood for cargo glider. The numeric suffix distinguishes the aircraft. They were the Models CG-3A, CG-4A, CG-13A and CG-15A. An X preceding the designation denotes experimental, i.e. XCG-4A. An addition of two letters denotes the manufacturer, i.e. CG-4A- TI for Timm Aircraft Co. Many of the Waco designed gliders were constructed by various companies. Powered versions of the gliders were referred to by the prefix PG for powered gliders.
Arrangement note:
Series 1: Numbered Engineering Reports

Series 2: Model Engineering Reports

Series 3: Engineering Documents

Series 4: Government Contracts

Series 5: Contractor Reports

Series 6: Correspondence

Series 7: Publications

Series 8: Sales

Series 9: Blueprints & Drawings

Series 10: Drawings Lists

Series 11: Model Indexes

Series 12: Contractor Drawings
Biographical/Historical note:
In 1920 Clayton J. Bruckner, Elmwood "Sam" Junkin, and Buck Weaver formed an aircraft company known as the Weaver Aircraft Company in Troy, OH. By the 1930s the company, known as Waco Aircraft Co. since 1929, was a leader in the design of wood and fabric aircraft, with Waco aircraft being operated by public, private, and corporate owners in thirty-five countries. During World War II Waco devoted itself entirely to war production, manufacturing large numbers of troop- and cargo-carrying gliders. Following the war Waco attempted to market a wholly new design but the postwar slump in the private aviation market and the high development costs of the aircraft forced Waco to withdraw from aircraft manufacture in June 1947. During its twenty-eight year existence Waco produced sixty-two different aircraft models and led all its competitors in number of aircraft registered.
Related Archival Materials note:
Other collections within the Archives Division of the National Air and Space Museum which are relevant to Waco are as follows:

The Hattie Meyers Junkin Papers(1906-1982), Accession #XXXX-0171. Junkin was married first to George Weaver and later to Elwood Junkin, both founders of the Waco Aircraft Company.

The A. Francis Arcier(1890-1969) Collection, Accession #XXX-0072. Arcier was one of the leading engineers with the Waco Aircraft Company.

The National Air and Space Museum Archival Video Discs. Included in this collection are three blocks of Waco Aircraft photographs; prints listed by model type under the Company name in the Aircraft Finding Aid, prints listed under "Glider Aircraft" in the U.S. Air Force Collection finding aid and prints listed under the Company name in the "General Subjects" of the U.S. Air Force Collection Finding Aid.

The NASM Archives Technical Files. The documents filed under "Waco" include mostly photographs and newspaper articles. Information about some of the individual Waco employees, including Hattie Junkin and George Weaver, can be found filed under the individual's name in the biographical section of the Technical Files.
Provenance:
Ray Brandley, gift, 1970-1971, XXXX-0151
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Topic:
Aeronautics, Military  Search this
Aeronautics, Commercial -- United States  Search this
Waco Aircraft Family  Search this
Genre/Form:
Financial records
Drawings
Reports
Identifier:
NASM.XXXX.0151
See more items in:
Waco Aircraft Company records
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-xxxx-0151
Online Media:

Southern Agriculture Oral History Project Records

Director:
Daniel, Pete  Search this
Interviewee:
Accardo, Paul  Search this
Aguirre, Gloria Olmos  Search this
Allen, David  Search this
Anderson, Adra  Search this
Anderson, Walter  Search this
Andrews, John William  Search this
Ardoin, Leslie  Search this
Bailey, Charles  Search this
Bailey, Howard Taft  Search this
Baird, George E., Jr.  Search this
Baronet, Joe  Search this
Bell, Walter M.  Search this
Bennett, Novella  Search this
Bennett, W.J.  Search this
Benson, Dick  Search this
Benton, Aubrey  Search this
Benton, Ina Belle  Search this
Blackstock, Tom  Search this
Blackstock, Velva  Search this
Blanchard, J.F.  Search this
Booth, Mrs. N.J.  Search this
Booth, N.J.  Search this
Bosselman, Willie  Search this
Bossleman, Norman  Search this
Bowman, Wilbert A.  Search this
Bradford, Nara N.  Search this
Bradford, Norwood)  Search this
Brantley, L.D.  Search this
Breaux, Jessie Al., Sr.  Search this
Brinkley, Johnnie  Search this
Brinkley, Lucile  Search this
Broussard, Sam  Search this
Brown, Gordon  Search this
Brown, Mamie  Search this
Bunting, Benny  Search this
Bunting, Joe  Search this
Burkett, Ben  Search this
Burkett, Bennie F.  Search this
Bush, Miller  Search this
Byers, Ruby  Search this
Byers, Sanford  Search this
Caesar, Clarence  Search this
Carline, Herman C.  Search this
Carnahan, Cotton  Search this
Carter, Ethel H.  Search this
Castleberry, Guy W.  Search this
Caughron, Kermit  Search this
Caughron, Rex  Search this
Caughron, Roy  Search this
Cazer, Garland  Search this
Ceras, Delfino  Search this
Claffery, Clegg, Sr.  Search this
Clapp, Clyde  Search this
Clark, Fletcher Talmadge  Search this
Clayton, WIlliam P.  Search this
Cockerham, Lester  Search this
Cockerham, Marie  Search this
Cole, Buster  Search this
Coleman, Harold  Search this
Coleman, Mrs. Harold  Search this
Colvin, R.C.  Search this
Comeaux, Lewis  Search this
Connell, Alton  Search this
Cromertie, John L.  Search this
Crosby, Ruth  Search this
Crosby, Victor  Search this
Cummins, Mary Lee  Search this
Cummins, W.R.  Search this
Cunningham, Tom  Search this
Daniel, Florentine  Search this
Davies, W. J. K.  Search this
Davis, Fredda  Search this
Davis, Otto  Search this
Davis, Pauline  Search this
Delasbour, Anna  Search this
Derbigney, Durrell  Search this
Dillard, John T.  Search this
Dorminy, Henry Clayton  Search this
Dove, Dorothy  Search this
Ducrest, Jesse  Search this
Dulaney, T.W.  Search this
Elam, Edward  Search this
Feilke, Mabel  Search this
Felknor, Jessie F.  Search this
Finchum, Amos  Search this
Finchum, Eva  Search this
Fleming, Arthur B.  Search this
Fletcher, Mrs. Merle Ford  Search this
Flores, Roque Olmos  Search this
Foster, Jim  Search this
Foster, Vergie  Search this
Friesen, Viola Liechty  Search this
Gardner, C.E.  Search this
Garrich, Carl  Search this
Gay, Andrew  Search this
George, Leler  Search this
Gosney, Jessie  Search this
Gosney, Kenneth  Search this
Gray, Leonard  Search this
Gray, Wardell  Search this
Green, Alone  Search this
Green, Clarence  Search this
Griffin, A.C.  Search this
Griffin, Grace  Search this
Hahn, E.L.  Search this
Hall, Joe  Search this
Haransky, Charlotte  Search this
Harper, Woodrow, Sr.  Search this
Harrington, A.M.  Search this
Harris, Edna  Search this
Harris, John, Rev.  Search this
Harris, Robert B.  Search this
Hawkins, Charlie  Search this
Hemphill, Elvin  Search this
Hemphill, Mattie  Search this
Hill, Frank  Search this
Jefcoat, Laz  Search this
Jensen, Olga B.  Search this
Johnson, Herbert  Search this
Kilby, T.H.  Search this
Knight, Martin  Search this
Koen, Eulah  Search this
Lamson, Alfred Ellis  Search this
Landry, Steve  Search this
Lane, Clyde D.  Search this
Laney, John B.  Search this
Langley, Nellie  Search this
Latoilas, Donald  Search this
Lawrimore, Rufus B.  Search this
Leary, Mrs. Stillman  Search this
Leary, Stillman  Search this
Legnon, Hilton  Search this
Legnon, Lena Porrier  Search this
Lenius, Jane  Search this
Lewis, Bobby  Search this
Lewis, Dorothy  Search this
Lewis, Ralph  Search this
Littlejohn, Andrew  Search this
Loewer, Arthur  Search this
Long, Welchel  Search this
Lowder, Clayton  Search this
Lowder, Kathy R.  Search this
Mangum, O.L.  Search this
Martin, Lillian  Search this
McBrayer, Loomis  Search this
McCarty, Ben  Search this
McGee, Dean  Search this
Mercer, Midi  Search this
Minchew, Edna  Search this
Mire, John  Search this
Mohamed, Ethel Wright  Search this
Moody, Edgar  Search this
Morris, Edward  Search this
Murphree, Leo  Search this
Murray, Lurline S.  Search this
Nacquin, Leo  Search this
Nix, Agnes  Search this
Nix, Joe  Search this
Parker, Jonah  Search this
Patout, William A.  Search this
Patterson, Vanona  Search this
Pender, Bessie  Search this
Petticrew, Donald  Search this
Player, C.B., Jr.  Search this
Porter, Virginia  Search this
Proffitt, Harry, Jr.  Search this
Purvis, Clyde  Search this
Redmond, Virgie  Search this
Reed, Bunice  Search this
Reed, Howard  Search this
Rice, Frank  Search this
Richardson, Rosetta  Search this
Rivers, Marion  Search this
Roberts, Gerti  Search this
Roberts, James  Search this
Rodriguez, Ignacio  Search this
Rountree, G. Emory  Search this
Rucker, William  Search this
Salas, Maria  Search this
Sarten, Della  Search this
Scoggins, Lillie  Search this
Scroggins, Alma M.  Search this
Seidenschwarz, Rosie  Search this
Seidenstricker, L.F.  Search this
Seidenstricker, Laverne  Search this
Serrano, Adolofo  Search this
Serrano, Edith  Search this
Serrano, Lidia  Search this
Shannon, Jack  Search this
Shepherd, Grady  Search this
Sims, Lavana  Search this
Sizemore, Martiel  Search this
Skinner, Annie  Search this
Skinner, Jarvis  Search this
Smith, Ethel  Search this
Smith, George  Search this
Soileau, Rouseb  Search this
Spicer, J.M.  Search this
Spivey, Wayland  Search this
Starke, Granville  Search this
Steen, Albert  Search this
Stowers, J.W.  Search this
Strange, Fred  Search this
Strohl, Carl  Search this
Strohl, Mary  Search this
Sumner, Ruby C.  Search this
Temple, Effie  Search this
Thomas, Lottie  Search this
Thompson, Mioma  Search this
Thresto, Chuck  Search this
Tomlinson, Clifton  Search this
Turner, Mrs. O.C.  Search this
Van Houten, Rosetta  Search this
Van Houten, Rudy  Search this
Vickers, Lloyd  Search this
Vidrine, Levie A.  Search this
Walton, W.W.  Search this
Watson, Mary  Search this
Welborn, S.L.  Search this
Wells, Arnalee  Search this
Wells, Homer, Dr.  Search this
White, Wallace  Search this
Wigley, Mabry  Search this
Willey, Gretchen  Search this
Willey, John F.  Search this
Winskie, Dent  Search this
Woodard, Henry  Search this
Yohe, Alma M.  Search this
Yohe, Perry  Search this
Young, Walter  Search this
Interviewer:
Jones, Lu Ann  Search this
Extent:
25 Cubic feet (79 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Project files
Questionnaires
Photographs
Place:
Arkansas -- Agriculture
Mississippi -- Agriculture
Georgia -- Agriculture
South Carolina -- Agriculture
Tennessee -- Agriculture
Virginia -- Agriculture
North Carolina -- Agriculture
Louisiana -- Agriculture
Date:
1986-1991
Scope and Contents note:
The collection is divided into four series. Series 1: Oral History Transcripts, 1982-1991 are transcribed versions of the oral interviews. Correspondence and/or notes pertaining to the interviewed individual collected or written by the interviewer are filed in this series following the transcription. The majority of the oral histories were done by Lu Ann Jones between1985-1991. There are a few interviews done by Pete Daniel in the early 1980s and some reference copies of oral histories done elsewhere. This series is divided into eight sub-series: Sub-series 1a: Arkansas, Sub-series 1b: Georgia, Sub-series 1c: Louisiana, Sub-series 1d: Mississippi, Sub-series 1e: North Carolina (including transcripts of the Mexican Workers Project in English and Spanish), Sub-series 1f: South Carolina, Sub-series 1g: Tennessee, and Sub-series 1h: Virginia. Files are arranged alphabetically by state and there under by name; within the file materials are arranged chronologically. Interview files may contain transcribed copies of the oral history interviews and subsequent draft copies with corrections by the interviewer or subject. The file also may contain distillations or edited versions of the interview done by the researcher for possible publication. Correspondence and notes files may include Life History Forms, correspondence, newspaper articles, interviewer's notes, business cards, and paper copies of photographs. Signed releases are on file in the registrar's office, NMAH, with copies in the control file of the Archives Center.

Series 2: Project Files and Reference Materials, 1928-2004 contain notes and correspondence kept by Jones in support of the oral history project. This series is divided into four sub-series: Sub-series 2a: State Files, Sub-series 2b: Project and Reference Files, 1985-1991, Sub-series 2c: Reference Publications, Pamphlets and Articles, 1928-2004 and Sub-series 2d: Computer Floppy Disks, 1985 and n.d. This series include bills, receipts, photo orders, travel brochures, reference materials, articles, correspondence, fundraising proposals and materials, USDA Extension Service bulletins, product cookbooks, and ephemera. These materials are valuable in documenting the methodology of the oral history project. They are also valuable in detailing the funding and maintenance of the project over its five year lifespan. There is also a great deal of information on black farmers. This series is arranged alphabetically by state and county or by article/publication title and within the file chronologically.

Series 3: Photographic Prints and Slides, 1987-1991 documenting the individuals interviewed, their homes and businesses, and geographic locations that were studied as part of the oral history project. The series is arranged numerically then chronologically by year. This series is followed by detailed photographic descriptions arranged alphabetically by state then subject. Photograph files contain photographs taken by a Smithsonian photographer or Jones and any copies of photographs supplied by the subject. Most of the photographs are black and white. Series 4: Original Interview Tapes and Reference Compact Discs (CD), 1986-1991 are the original tapes of the individual interviews conducted by Jones. This series is divided into eight sub-series. Reference numbers for CDs matching the original tapes are noted after the tapes. CDs 495-497 are for the Smithsonian Photographer's Show: Sub-series 4a: Arkansas, Sub-series 4b: Georgia, Sub-series 4c: Louisiana, Sub-series 4d: Mississippi, Sub-series 4e: North Carolina (within this sub-series are the transcripts of the Mexican Workers Project there may be an English language transcription as well as one in Spanish), Sub-series 4f: South Carolina, Sub-series 4g: Tennessee and Sub-series 4h: Virginia and Sub-series 4i: Miscellaneous and Duplicates, within the sub-series tapes are arranged alphabetically by subject.

Series 4: Original Oral History Interview Tapes and Reference Compact Discs (CDs) are the original inteview tapes and the accompanying reference copy cds.
Arrangement:
Divided into 4 series: Series 1, Oral History Transcripts; Series 2, Project Files; Series 3, Photographic Prints and Slides, and Series 4, Original Oral History Interview Tapes and Reference Compact Discs (CDs) are the original inteview tapes and the accompanying reference copy cds.
History:
The history of the American South is intricately entwined with the history of agriculture in North America. Until very recently, post 1950, the South was predominately rural and agricultural in both its production and culture. By the 1980s American agriculture, and particularly agriculture in the south, was under attack on various fronts especially cultural, financial, and technological. This assault threatened the very existence of the small and family farm. Many small farming operations went bankrupt and the face of American agriculture was becoming more corporate. It was amidst these troubling times that the Agricultural Division of the Smithsonian's National Museum of American History undertook a massive project to document southern agriculture through oral history.

Through the efforts of NMAH staff, Pete Daniel, curator and project director, LuAnn Jones, researcher, and with countless support from staff photographers and personnel, Jones conducted approximately 159 interviews of individual persons, couples and sometimes small groups, in eight southern states over a five year period, 1986-1991. The project was funded by a series of grants from various sources. Not only were oral histories taken but also substantial documentary photographs and slides of the many interviewees. The interviews ranged from individual farmers to individuals at companies and corporations involved with agriculture. The range of crops discussed included tobacco, cotton and rice. The project interviewed a wide range of subjects: male, female, black, white, and Mexican. The project has contributed to at least two books, Mama Learned Us to Work: Farm Women in the New South by LuAnn Jones and Like a Family: The Making of a Southern Cotton Mill World by Jacquelyn Dowd Hall and others of which Jones was a contributing author.
Related Collections:
#60 Warshaw Collection

#149 Kulp Collection of Account Books, 1755-1904

#475 Robinson and Via Family Papers

#481 William C. Kost Farm Records

#767 Timothy B. Bladen, Southern Maryland Photoprints
Provenance:
A transfer from the Division of History of Technology (Agriculture), NMAH, July 2001
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Unprotected photographs must be handled with gloves.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Farm life -- 20th century  Search this
Farmers -- Arkansas  Search this
Agricultural laborers  Search this
Agriculture -- History  Search this
Periodicals  Search this
Farmers -- Georgia  Search this
Farmers -- Louisiana  Search this
Farmers -- Mexico  Search this
Farmers -- Mississippi  Search this
Farmers -- North Carolina  Search this
Farmers -- South Carolina  Search this
Farmers -- Tennessee  Search this
Farmers -- Virginia  Search this
Genre/Form:
Project files
Questionnaires
Photographs -- Black-and-white photoprints -- Silver gelatin -- 1950-2000
Citation:
Southern Agriculture Oral History Project Records, 1985-1992, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0773
See more items in:
Southern Agriculture Oral History Project Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0773
Online Media:

Joseph Cornell papers

Creator:
Cornell, Joseph  Search this
Names:
Benton, Elizabeth Cornell  Search this
Cornell, Robert  Search this
Extent:
24.9 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Date:
1804-1986
bulk 1939-1972
Summary:
The papers of Joseph Cornell (1903-1972) measure approximately 24.9 linear feet and date from 1804 to 1986 with the bulk of the material dating from 1939-1972. The collection documents the life, work, interests, and creative activities of the self-taught artist, who was best known for his shadow box constructions, assemblages, and collages. Papers include correspondence, diaries, source material, notes, writings, photographs, printed material, two- and three-dimensional ephemera, art works, and books, as well as a limited amount of legal and financial records, and some miscellaneous personal and family papers. The collection also includes the papers of his sister, Betty Cornell Benton, relating to the handling of Cornell's estate and the personal papers of his brother, Robert Cornell.
Scope and Content Note:
The Joseph Cornell papers measure approximately 24.9 linear feet and date from 1804 to 1986, with the bulk of the material dating from 1939-1972. The collection documents the life, work, interests, and creative activities of the self-taught artist, who was best known for his shadow box constructions, assemblages, and collages. Papers include correspondence, diaries, source material, notes, writings, photographs, printed material, two- and three-dimensional ephemera, art works, and books, as well as a limited amount of legal and financial records, and some miscellaneous personal and family papers (which comprise a series of biographical material). The collection also includes the papers of his sister, Betty Cornell Benton, relating to the handling of Cornell's estate and the personal papers of his brother, Robert Cornell.

Cornell's correspondence is typically with family, friends, artists, dealers, collectors, galleries, museums, admirers, individuals whom he admired, "helpers," and various charitable institutions. Correspondence generally concerns the creation, exhibition, sale, and reception of Cornell's art work; his "explorations" and other research and collecting activities; his preoccupations with certain individuals and motifs; his usual practices of giving gifts of art work to those he liked or admired and making donations to charities in aid of those less fortunate; and his relationships and shared interests with family, friends, and colleagues. Also found is correspondence between and amongst various other members of the Cornell family, including, most notably, Robert Cornell's letters to his sisters, Elizabeth (typically addressed as Nell) and Helen.

Dating from 1941 to 1972, Cornell's diaries span almost the entirety of his career as an artist, which began in earnest when he left his job at the Traphagen textile studio in 1940 to pursue art full-time and ended with his death in 1972. The diaries record his day-to-day experiences (usually comprising his thoughts, feelings, impressions, and ideas); and reflect on his various art projects (boxes, films, and collages) and creative activities ("explorations," and various other research, collecting, and publishing ventures). They also explore many of the themes and underlying concerns of his art work; and document his intense preoccupations with certain individuals, his wide-ranging interests, and the interconnectedness of his ideas and activities. Cornell's style of writing in the diaries tends to be stream-of-conscious with entries being composed of phrases, rather than complete sentences and with the progression of passages being more poetic and associative than either logical or narrative. He tended to compose by hand, occasionally typing up his notes into more formal entries, and also to use abbreviations for oft-repeated words and initials for individuals. At times, his handwriting can be difficult to read, and his references can be difficult to decipher. It was also common practice for him to review or revisit previous entries at various points in time, often making revisions or comments on them with dated annotations in the margins or on the reverse side of a page.

Cornell's source material is largely comprised of files of newspaper and magazine clippings, cutouts, notes, writings, book excerpts, photostats (or stats), prints, postcards, art reproductions, and other printed material. Some files are devoted to people (ballerinas, actresses, singers, artists, and writers) and topics (astronomy, romantic and modern ballet, birds, films, literature, music, plants, and science, among others). Other files relate to specific art works, "explorations," publishing projects, and exhibitions. Source material documents Cornell's preoccupation with certain individuals (past and present), events, subjects, and motifs; the development of some of his major "explorations" and their influence on his various artistic and commercial projects; and his work on certain box constructions and collages, publishing ventures, and exhibition catalogues. Source material also sheds light on Cornell's efforts to gain access to the past; his interest in the symbolism of images and objects; the linkages he found between seemingly unrelated things; and the connections between his many creative endeavors.

Ephemera and artifacts include various objects, mementos, and items of memorabilia, some of which were accumulated by Cornell (in much the same way that he collected his source material) and some of which are of uncertain origin. For Cornell, items such as these were not merely inanimate objects, but were instead evocative of past worlds and capable of bringing the past into the present (an idea which he often expressed in his diaries as the "metaphysique d'ephemera"). He seems to have used some of these items in a layout he designed for Good Housekeeping. Other items may have been used as source material for some of his box constructions.

The collection also houses photographs of Cornell, his family, art work, other artists, and friends, as well as photographs taken by various individuals and publicity photographs from the New York City Ballet. Also found are scattered works of art, including collage fragments and Rorschachs (or ink blot drawings) by Cornell, collages by Cornell's sister, Betty Cornell Benton, on which he collaborated, and a box by Christine Kaufman, which was a gift to Cornell. The books in the collection most likely comprise the remainder of Cornell's library, which was transferred to the Joseph Cornell Study Center, and include some that seem to have belonged to his sister, Betty. Printed material includes various publications and clippings collected by Cornell apart from that which he collected as source material. Writings about Cornell include an article by the poet, Mina Loy, and copies of various theses, presentations, and articles by graduate students in art history received by Benton (who assisted them in their research).

The Joseph Cornell Estate Papers consist of correspondence relating to Betty Cornell Benton's administration of the part of Cornell's estate for which she was responsible and legal documents relating to her various legal disputes with the executors of the estate, as well as a limited amount of printed material, some of which was originally accumulated by Cornell and subsequently shared with Benton, and miscellaneous papers belonging to Benton and their mother, Helen S. Cornell. Estate Papers provide insight on the exhibition and sale of Cornell art works after his death; the disposition of his belongings (including art work, papers, books, records, and source material); and Benton's efforts to foster and safeguard the memory and legacy of Cornell. The Robert Cornell Papers include correspondence, writings, art works, photographs, printed material, and scattered financial and personal records, documenting the full and creative life Robert led despite being confined to a wheelchair. Their inclusion in the collection suggests the family's effort to foster Robert's memory.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into eleven series:

Series 1: Biographical Material, 1918-1972, 1975 (Box 1; 0.8 linear feet)

Series 2: Correspondence, 1909-1982 (Boxes 1-5, OV 31; 4.3 linear feet)

Series 3: Diaries, 1941-1973 (Boxes 6-10; 5 linear feet)

Series 4: Source Material, 1804-1972 (Boxes 11-18, 25-28, OV 29; 8.5 linear feet)

Series 5: Ephemera and Artifacts, 1858-1946 (Boxes 18, 23; 0.8 linear feet)

Series 6: Photographs, circa 1905-1972 (Boxes 18, 28, OV 30; 0.3 linear feet)

Series 7: Art Works, circa 1966-1971 (Boxes 19, 23; 0.2 linear feet)

Series 8: Books and Printed Material, 1806-1968 (Boxes 19, 23; 0.5 linear feet)

Series 9: Writings about Cornell, 1950, circa 1975-1980 (Box 19; 0.3 linear feet)

Series 10: Joseph Cornell Estate Papers, circa 1911, 1944-1986 (Boxes 19-22; 3.5 linear feet)

Series 11: Robert Cornell Papers, 1924-1965 (Boxes 24, 28; 0.4 linear feet)
Biographical Note:
Joseph Cornell, assemblagist, collagist, and filmmaker, was born on December 24, 1903 in Nyack, New York. He was the oldest son of Joseph I. Cornell, a textile salesman and designer, and Helen Storms Cornell, and had two younger sisters, Elizabeth (b. 1905), nicknamed Nell and later Betty, and Helen (b. 1906), and a younger brother, Robert (b. 1910), who suffered from cerebral palsy. Cornell shared close relationships with his siblings, and was especially attached to his brother whom he took care of as an adult. His fondest childhood memories included family Christmas celebrations, outings to Manhattan where he saw vaudeville shows and strolled around Times Square, and trips to Coney Island where he encountered penny arcade machines. These childhood memories, among others, inspired some of the themes later explored in his art work.

After his father's death in 1917, Cornell was sent to study at the Phillips Academy in Andover, Massachusetts. He remained there for four years, but left without receiving a diploma. During this time, the family moved from Nyack to Bayside, Queens, where they lived in a series of rented houses. Cornell rejoined his family in 1921, at which time he went to work as a salesman in the Manhattan office of a textile wholesaler, the William Whitman Company. He joined the Christian Science church in the mid-1920s, and in 1929, the family bought a house at 37-08 Utopia Parkway in Flushing, where he resided for the rest of his life, living there with his mother and brother after both his sisters married and moved away.

During the 1920s, Cornell developed his passion for walking the city streets and taking in their sights, sounds, and impressions; browsing in the secondhand bookshops along Fourth Avenue; and collecting material such as books, prints, postcards, and printed and three-dimensional ephemera. He cultivated his growing interest in culture and the arts by attending opera and ballet performances, seeing plays (the 1922 play Rain, which starred Jeanne Eagels, was among his favorites), visiting galleries and museums, reading, and going to the movies.

In 1931, Cornell began to frequent the Julien Levy Gallery, where he encountered Surrealist art for perhaps the first time. Around this time, he created his first works of art - a series of black-and-white collages composed from cutouts of nineteenth-century engravings - inspired by Max Ernst's collages, in particular his collage-novel, La Femme 100 tetes (1929). Cornell went on to create three-dimensional works of art such as pill boxes and a glass bell series (consisting of objects arranged under a bell jar). His work, including several collages and a glass bell, was first exhibited as part of the groundbreaking "Surrealisme" show at the Levy Gallery in January 1932. He also designed the cover of the show announcement. His first one-man show at the gallery, "The Objects of Joseph Cornell," followed in the fall of 1932. (It was seven years before his next solo show.) By this time, Cornell had been laid off from his job at Whitman's. He was out of work for several years before getting a job as a textile designer at the Traphagen Commercial Textile Studio in 1934. During the next several years, he continued to work on his art at night.

Around this time, Cornell began collecting movies and movie stills, and embarked upon various film-related projects. In 1933, he wrote a scenario for a silent movie, Monsieur Phot. A few years later, he made his first film, Rose Hobart (1936), comprised of re-edited footage from the B-movie, East of Borneo (1931), which starred the actress, Rose Hobart. And he began work on a trilogy of collage-films - The Children's Party, Cotillion, and The Midnight Party (circa 1937). He then took a break from making films until the mid-1950s, but continued to collect film-related material, which he began to incorporate into his other art work.

In 1936, Cornell constructed his first glass-fronted shadow box, Untitled (Soap Bubble Set), which was included that same year in the "Fantastic Art, Dada and Surrealism" exhibition at the Museum of Modern Art, along with a cabinet box and several glass bells. In creating some of his other early boxes, he began the practice of using photo reproductions of images which he located in books and magazines, or in the Picture Collection at the New York Public Library, among other places. In his tribute boxes to actresses (1930s), he made use of publicity shots, and in the box, Dressing Room for Gilles (1939), he employed a photostat (or stat) of a reproduction of Jean-Antoine Watteau's painting, Gilles (1718).

Over the years, Cornell came into contact with various figures of the art, dance, and literary worlds. In the 1930s and 1940s, he met the artists, Max Ernst, Marcel Duchamp, and Salvador Dali, and befriended the artists, Lee Miller and Dorothea Tanning. His formative friendships during 1940s were with the artist, Pavel Tchelitchew, the writers, Charles Henri Ford (founder of the avant-garde periodical, View), Parker Tyler, and Donald Windham, and the balletomane, Lincoln Kirstein (founder of Dance Index). His other friends included the artists, Roberto Matta Echaurren and Robert Motherwell, the dancer and actress, Tilly Losch, and the poets, Mina Loy and Marianne Moore. In the 1950s, he associated with artists from the Abstract Expressionist movement, including Willem de Kooning, Jack Tworkov, and Mark Rothko. Beginning in the mid-1950s, he befriended many young artists, including Lee Bontecou and Carolee Schneeman, and young actresses, including Lois Smith, Gwen Van Dam, and Suzanne Miller, whom he sought to appear in his films. And in the early 1960s, he met the Pop artists, Robert Indiana, James Rosenquist, and Andy Warhol.

Beginning in 1940, Cornell developed a keen interest in dance, particularly ballet. Ballerinas from the Romantic era, such as Marie Taglioni and Fanny Cerrito, especially captured his imagination, inspiring such works as the box, Taglioni's Jewel Casket (1940), and the Portrait of Ondine "exploration," which comprised a portfolio of material relating to Cerrito and her famous role in the ballet, Ondine. Cornell was also fascinated with the modern counterparts of the Romantic ballerinas. In 1940, he befriended the Russian ballet dancer, Tamara Toumanova, and over the years produced many works in homage to her, including swan boxes (inspired by her role in Swan Lake), boxes made with scraps from her costumes, and scrapbooks of clippings, stats, and memorabilia. In 1949, he became enamored of the French dancer, Renee "Zizi" Jeanmarie, after seeing her perform in Carmen and meeting her backstage, and he created several dance-related boxes in her honor. In 1957, he met the ballerina, Allegra Kent. After meeting again in 1964, they became friends, and she served as the subject of several works based on images reproduced from a Parmigianino painting.

In December 1940, Cornell left his job at the Traphagen textile studio to pursue art full-time. He set up a workshop in the basement of the house on Utopia Parkway, which served as a combination studio and storage space. While he spent most days at home, he continued to make regular trips into Manhattan to wander around the city, visit with friends, and hunt for material. Around this time, he began to keep a diary, recording his day-to-day experiences (usually comprising his thoughts, feelings, impressions, ideas) on scraps of paper (including used envelopes, paper bags, napkins, and ticket stubs, among other fragments). He would then type up some of these notes into more formal diary entries, but most of them remained, in his word, "scribblings." Diary keeping eventually became one of his primary activities, along with box construction, collage, research, and collecting.

By this time, his art work was beginning to sell, yet he was not able to live from these sales alone. During the 1940s, he primarily supported himself by doing freelance work for magazines such as Vogue, Harper's Bazaar, and Good Housekeeping, supplying illustrations from his picture collection and designing covers and layouts. He also regularly contributed pieces to View and Dance Index. His notable contributions to View included "Enchanted Wanderer: Excerpt from a Journey Album for Hedy Lamarr" (December 1941), "Story Without a Name - for Max Ernst" (April 1942), and "The Crystal Cage [portrait of Berenice]" (January 1943). His projects for Dance Index included various collage-covers, essays, and thematic issues, such as the Summer 1944 issue, which comprised a 22-page tribute to the Romantic ballerinas, Taglioni, Carlotta Grisi, Cerrito, and Fanny Elssler. To supplement his income, Cornell also held brief positions at an electronics plant, the Allied Control Company, Inc. (in 1943), and at a nursery, the Garden Centre (in 1944).

In 1942, Cornell created one of his more memorable works, Medici Slot Machine, embarking upon a large series of Medici boxes in which he utilized reproductions of portraits by Italian Renaissance artists, such as Sofonisba Anguissola and Pinturicchio. His other boxes from this time period explored themes ranging from ballet, as in A Pantry Ballet (for Jacques Offenbach) (1942), to doomed love, as in Paolo and Francesca (1943-48), to nature, as in the Sand Boxes (1940s) and Sand Fountains (1950s). Cornell often created boxes in series, producing variations on a theme with variants that differed significantly or only slightly. Over the years, series included: Pink Palaces, Pharmacies, Habitats, Aviaries, Dovecotes, Hotels, Observatories, and Night Skies, among others.

In late 1945, Cornell joined the Hugo Gallery, which was run by Alexander Iolas, and a year later mounted the show, "Romantic Museum at the Hugo Gallery: Portraits of Women by Joseph Cornell" (December 1946). He designed the exhibition catalog for this show, which consisted of portraits - box constructions, objects, and "dossiers" - of the opera singers, Giuditta Pasta and Maria Malibran, the ballerinas, Taglioni and Cerrito, and the actresses, Eleanora Duse, Jeanne Eagels, Greta Garbo, and Jennifer Jones, and which also featured one of his most famous boxes, Untitled (Penny Arcade Portrait of Lauren Bacall) (1945-46).

In 1949, Cornell joined the Egan Gallery, which was run by Charles Egan. Around this time, he began creating his series of Aviary boxes, which explored the symbolism of birds and birdcages. He showed twenty-six of these box constructions in his first exhibition at the Egan Gallery, "Aviary by Joseph Cornell" (December 1949-January 1950). He created other series of whitewashed boxes, including the Dovecote series and a small group relating to the poet, Emily Dickinson. He then went on to explore the themes of astronomy and celestial navigation in the Observatory, Night Skies, and Hotel series. Works from these series were featured in his two remaining shows at the Egan Gallery, "Night Songs and Other Work" (December 1950-January 1951) and "Night Voyage" (February-March 1953). In the fall of 1953, sparked by seeing the painting, Figure Seated in a Cafe (1914), Cornell embarked upon a major series of bird constructions dedicated to the Cubist artist, Juan Gris. Notably, these were the only boxes he explicitly dedicated to another artist.

Over the next couple of years, Cornell's work was exhibited across the country. In 1955, he joined the Stable Gallery, which was run by Eleanor Ward. His first one-man show there, in the winter of 1955-56, was "Winter Night Skies," which featured various box constructions based on constellations. During the mid-1950s, he embarked upon a series of Sand Fountains (vertical standing boxes featuring a broken glass and sand that flowed through it when turned upside down), elaborating upon his earlier Sand Boxes (1940s). These boxes along with some of his other latest works, including the Bleriot boxes and the Space Object boxes (which comprised his final box series), were exhibited in his second and last show at the Stable Gallery, "Selected Works" (December 1957).

After leaving the Stable Gallery, Cornell had several dealers handle his work rather than allowing any one to assume too much control. Dealers included Richard Feigen (in Chicago and then in New York) and Irving Blum (in California), among others. Throughout his career, Cornell never liked selling his boxes. He was always reluctant to let his work go and became increasingly uneasy about the growing status of his work as a commodity. He preferred instead to make gifts of his art work to friends and individuals he admired (especially female ones).

In the mid-1950s, Cornell returned to making films. Rather than just splicing together found images as he had in his films of the 1930s, he began to collaborate with others to shoot original footage. He worked with the experimental filmmaker, Stan Brakhage, on two films, one about the Third Ave El which was about to be torn down ( Wonder Ring or Gnir Rednow) and the other about an old house in Cornell's neighborhood that was slated for demolition ( Centuries of June). Cornell then went on to make nine films with the filmmaker, Rudy Burckhardt, including Aviary, A Legend for Fountains, and Nymphlight, among others. In the late 1960s, he enlisted the help of Larry Jordan, who was also a filmmaker, in completing the trilogy of collage-films that he had begun in the 1930s.

Along with creating works of art and making films, Cornell was involved in a host of other creative endeavors throughout his career as an artist. These included: keeping a diary, which was for him another medium for exploring and expressing the themes, ideas, and concerns recurrent in his art work; carrying out "explorations," which typically involved conducting research, collecting material, and compiling files on persons or topics of interest to him; and other projects, such as publishing pamphlets (or brochures) dedicated to the nineteenth-century opera singers, Malibran and Giulia Grisi. Cornell's "explorations" clearly informed his artwork, but they were also works of art in and of themselves. He continually sought to share this work with an audience and twice had the opportunity to do so, when he exhibited versions of his Portrait of Ondine "exploration" at the Museum of Modern Art in 1945 and at the Wittenborn Bookstore in 1956.

Around the mid-1950s, Cornell returned to making collages as independent works of art. Unlike his earlier ones, which were composed from cutouts of black-and-white engravings, his latest collages were made with color images cut out of contemporary magazines and books. In these collages, he explored many of the same themes and preoccupations of his box constructions, including birds, as in Couleur de Peche (1967) and Untitled (Vierge Vivace) (1970), children's games, as in the Penny Arcade series (1960s), and actresses, as in The Sister Shades (1956). Towards the end of his career, collage became his principal medium.

By this time, Cornell was taking fewer trips into Manhattan. Instead, he spent more time at home or traveled only so far as downtown Flushing, where he frequented the public library, hunted for material in stores, such as Woolworth's, and passed time in the coffee-shops on Main Street. From this time on, he kept his diary with increasing regularity, taking down notations with more frequency and creating entries of greater length.

In 1961, fourteen of Cornell's boxes, including Medici Slot Machine, were exhibited as part of the "The Art of Assemblage" show at the Museum of Modern Art. As his biographer notes, Cornell came to view this show "as a turning point in his creative life," marking the "[fall] off in his work" that took place in the sixties (Solomon 271-2). He continued to work on boxes that he had begun long before, but, after this time, rarely if ever constructed new ones. Instead, he focused on making collages and became increasingly concerned with other projects, such as organizing his basement workshop, for which he hired various "helpers" or assistants (mostly young women) over the years. He also became more and more prone to obsessions (or preoccupations, as he called them) with various young women that he encountered both in fantasy (actresses on stage or in films) and in real life (working girls in the city, "teeners" on Main Street, or his female visitors and "helpers" at home). These preoccupations infused his diary writings, and inspired the keeping of "dossiers" on particular individuals and the creation of various collages dedicated to others, including most notably the Penny Arcade series dedicated to Joyce Hunter (or "Tina," as he referred to her in his writings).

After Robert's death in February 1965, Cornell created a series of collages in his memory, many of which incorporated his brother's drawings of animal characters. In January 1966, he exhibited some of these collages, alongside a selection of Robert's drawings, in a show at the Robert Schoelkopf Gallery, "Robert Cornell: Memorial Exhibition." In 1967, there were two retrospective exhibitions of Cornell's work, "An Exhibition of Works by Joseph Cornell" at the Pasadena Art Museum and "Joseph Cornell" at the Guggenheim Museum. By now, Cornell was receiving considerable public recognition for his work. He had received his first profile (by Howard Griffin) in the December 1957 issue of Art News and, ten years later, was treated to a 12-page spread (by David Bourdon) in the December 1967 issue of Life magazine. He was also the recipient of various prizes for his art work, including the M.V Kohnstamm Prize at the Art Institute of Chicago's "62nd American Exhibition of Painting and Sculpture" in 1957 and the winning prize in India's first Triennale of Contemporary World Art in 1968.

In the last years of his life (especially from the time of his mother's death in the fall of 1966), Cornell suffered from severe depression and loneliness, and withdrew even further from the outside world. However, he still maintained relationships with various young friends and artists, who frequently visited Utopia Parkway and/or served as one of his assistants. He became more and more interested in sharing his work with a younger audience and his last two exhibitions in 1972 were expressly for children, "A Joseph Cornell Exhibition for Children" at the Cooper Union School of Art and Architecture and "Joseph Cornell - Collages and Boxes" at the Albright-Knox Art Gallery in Buffalo, New York.

Cornell continued to work until the end of his life, "refurbishing" earlier boxes and creating memorial collages. Following prostate surgery in June 1972, he spent several months recuperating with family in Westhampton before returning to Utopia Parkway in November. He died of heart failure at home on December 29, 1972.

The biographical note draws heavily from Deborah Solomon's biography, Utopia Parkway: The Life and Work of Joseph Cornell (New York: Farrar, Strauss, and Giroux, 1997), and Diane Waldman's book, Joseph Cornell: Master of Dreams (New York: Harry N. Abrams, Inc., 2002).
Related Material:
The Archives holds several collections of different provenance that relate to Joseph Cornell, including the small collections of Allison Delarue (comprised of two letters from Cornell, available on reel 2803), Muriel Streeter Schwartz (comprised of two letters from Cornell, available on reel 4283), Wayne Andrews (comprised of letters from Cornell and printed material), and Marion Netter (comprised of items received from Cornell). In addition, photographs of Cornell can be found amongst the Hans Namuth photographs and papers. Also found within the Archives is a transcribed interview of Cornell's sister, Elizabeth Cornell Benton, conducted on April 21, 1976 as part of the oral history program.
Separated Material:
The bulk of Cornell's source material resides in the Joseph Cornell Study Center, Smithsonian American Art Museum, along with his library and record collection. Cornell's sister, Betty Cornell Benton, donated a portion of this material directly to SAAM (then known as the National Museum of American Art), occasioning the creation of the Study Center circa 1978. The bulk of the source material and library that she donated to AAA, including approximately 66 linear feet of three-dimensional and non-textual source material and 50 linear feet of books, was transferred to the Study Center in 1994 and 1995.

Originals of loaned material returned to the donor after microfilming include: some unidentified and miscellaneous correspondence; significant correspondence between Joseph Cornell and Helen S. Cornell; significant correspondence between Helen S. Cornell, family members and others; and some of Joseph Cornell's family correspondence and general correspondence from the Robert Cornell papers. The loaned material is available on microfilm reels 1055-1058 but is not described further in the Series Descriptions/Container Listing of this finding aid.
Provenance:
The Joseph Cornell papers were donated and microfilmed in several installments from 1974 to 1989 by Joseph Cornell's sister, Betty Cornell Benton. Most, but not all, of the correspondence, which was loaned for microfilming in 1974, was subsequently donated in 1989. Additional material was donated in 2004 by the Joseph and Robert Cornell Memorial Foundation.
Restrictions:
Use of the original papers requires an appointment.
Rights:
The Joseph Cornell papers are owned by the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Literary rights as possessed by the donor have been dedicated to public use for research, study, and scholarship. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Topic:
Celebrities  Search this
Sculptors -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Assemblage (Art)  Search this
Found objects (Art)  Search this
Art, Modern -- 20th century -- United States  Search this
Assemblage artists -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Works of art  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Citation:
Joseph Cornell papers, 1804-1986, bulk 1939-1972. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.cornjose
See more items in:
Joseph Cornell papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-cornjose
Online Media:

George H. Clark Radioana Collection

Creator:
Clark, George Howard, 1881-1956  Search this
Source:
Electricity and Modern Physics, Division of, NMAH, SI.  Search this
Names:
American Marconi Company.  Search this
Radio Corporation of America.  Search this
Former owner:
Electricity and Modern Physics, Division of, NMAH, SI.  Search this
Extent:
220 Cubic feet (700 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Technical manuals
Clippings
Patents
Correspondence
Blueprints
Letters patent
Photographs
Sale catalogs
Technical drawings
Date:
circa 1880-1950
Summary:
The collection forms a documentary record of over half a century of the history of radio, with the greatest emphasis on the period 1900-1935. The collection includes materials that span the entire history of the growth of the radio industry. It is useful for those historians and other researchers interested in technological development, economic history, and the impact of applications of technology on American life.
Scope and Contents:
The materials accumulated in this collection represent the overriding collecting passion of one individual, George H. Clark. The collection forms a documentary record of over half a century of the history of radio, with the greatest emphasis on the period 1900-1935.

The collection includes materials that span the entire history of the growth of the radio industry. It is useful for those historians and other researchers interested in technological development, economic history, and the impact of applications of technology on American life.

In particular, the collection is rich in biographical information on the men who developed the technical aspects of radio and the industry; information on the inception, growth, and activities of radio companies, most notably the National Electric Signaling Company and RCA; and in photographs of all aspects of Radioana.

While most materials document technical aspects of radio, there is much information (e.g. Series 109, 134) on broadcasting and on the early history of television.

The collection, housed in over 700 boxes (about 276 linear feet), was organized into 259 numbered "classes" or series by Clark. Sixty series numbers were never used or were eliminated by Clark and combined with other series. The unused numbers are scattered throughout the filing system. The collection also includes material from series that were eliminated. These materials were never reclassified and are included as an unprocessed series at the end of the series descriptions. The collection also contains material that was never assigned a "class" designation by Clark (Lettered Series: D, E, F, G, H).

The arrangement of the collection is Clark's own; his adaptation of the Navy filing system he helped devise in 1915. Clark periodically revised the filing system and reclassified items within it.

Clark assigned class numbers to types of equipment (e.g. broadcast receivers), systems (impulse-excited transmitters and systems), scientific theories (circuit theory), and topics (company history, biography). Box 1 contains descriptions of the classification system.

When Clark classified an item and filed it he also assigned a serial number. This classification begins with 1 (or 1A) for the first item in the class and continues with successive numbers as items were added. As a consequence, the order of individual items within a series reflects the order in which Clark filed them, not any logical relationship between the items. Clark created cross references for items dealing with more than one subject by making notations on blank sheets of paper placed in related series.

Clark made cross references between series when there was no logical relationship between them; that is, when a person using the collection would not normally look in the series. For example no cross reference would be made of an engineer from series 87 (portraits) to series 4 (biography), but one would be made from series 87 to series 142 (history of television) if the item showed the engineer, say, working on a television installation.

Clark created the insignia "SRM" as the sign on the bottom of all sheets of paper numbered by him for binding. SRM stood for Smithsonian Radio Museum. This replaced the earlier though not greatly used sign "CGM." For a time about 1930, the class number on each sheet was preceded by these: "C.G.M.", for Clark, Martin, and Goldsmith, the earliest contributors to what would become the Clark Radioana Collection. After about 1933-34 Clark used C.W.C. for Clark Wireless Collection.

There are many photographs located in most series throughout the collection. But there are also three exclusive photographic series. Lettered series A, B, C. See index; and also series descriptions under lettered series.
Arrangement:
The collection is divided into 223 series.

Numbered Series 1-233:

Series 1, Library Operating System, 1915-1950

Series 2, Apparatus Type Numbers, 1916-1931

Series 3, Photographic Lists, 1925-1928

Series 4, Biographies of Radio Personages, Technical Index to Correspondents in Series 4

Series 5, History of Radio Companies, 1895-1950

De Forest Radio Company, 1905-1930s

Jenkins Televsion Corporation, 1924-1931

Marconi Wireless Telegraph Company, 1908-1929

National Electric Signaling Company, 1896-1941

Wireless Specialty Apparatus Company, 1906-1929

Radio Corporation of America, 1895-1950

Series 6, Shore Stations, 1900-1940

Series 7, Marine Stations, 1900-1930s

Series 8, Broadcasting Stations, 1910s-1940s

Series 9, Amateur Stations, 1910s-1940s

Series 10, Miscellaneous Information, 1911-1914

Series 11, Radio Antiques, 1921-1938

Series 13, Specifications of Radio Apparatus, 1910s-1930s

Series 14, General History, 1899-1950s

Series 15, Radio Companies Catalogues & Bound Advertisements, 1873-1941

Series 16, Log Books, 1902-1923

Series 17, Radio Companies' House Organs, 1896-1942

Series 18, Prime Movers, 1904-1911

Series 19, Batteries, 1898-1934

Series 20, Rectifiers, 1875-1935

Series 21, Motor Generators, 1898-1936

Series 22, Nameplates of Apparatus, 1928

Series 23, Switchboards and Switchboard Instruments, 1910-1935

Series 24, Radio Frequency Switches, 1905-1905-1933

Series 25, Transmitter Transformers, 1893-1949

Series 26, Operating Keys, 1843-1949

Series 27, Power Type Interrupters, 1902-1938

Series 28, Protective Devices, 1910-1925

Series 30, Message Blanks, 1908-1938

Series 31, Transmitter Condensers, 1849-1943

Series 32, Spark Gaps, 1905-1913

Series 33, Transmitter Inductances, 1907-1922

Series 34, Transmitter Wave Changers, 1907-1924

Series 37, ARC Transmitters, 1907-1940

Series 38, Vacuum Tube Type of Radio Transmitter, 1914-1947

Series 39, Radio Transmitter, Radio-Frequency, Alternator Type, 1894-1940

Series 41, Vacuum Tubes, Transmitting Type, 1905-1948

Series 43, Receiving Systems, 1904-1934

Series 45, Broadcast Receivers, 1907-1948

Series 46, Code Receivers, 1902-1948

Series 47, Receiving Inductances, 1898-1944

Series 48, Receiving Condensers, 1871-1946

Series 49, Audio Signal Devices, 1876-1947

Series 50, Detectors, 1878-1944

Series 51, Amplifiers, 1903-1949

Series 52, Receiving Vacuum Tubes, 1905-1949

Series 53, Television Receivers, 1928-1948

Series 54, Photo-Radio Apparatus, 1910-1947

Series 59, Radio Schools, 1902-1945

Series 60, Loudspeakers, 1896-1946

Series 61, Insulators, 1844-1943

Series 62, Wires, 1906-1945

Series 63, Microphones, 1911-1947

Series 64, Biography, 1925-1948

Series 66, Antennas, 1877-1949

Series 67, Telautomatics, 1912-1944

Series 69, Direction Finding Equipment, Radio Compasses, 1885-1948

Series 71, Aircraft Transmitters, 1908-1947

Series 72, Field or Portables Transmitters, 1901-1941

Series 73, Mobile Radio Systems, 1884-1946

Series 74, Radio Frequency Measuring Instruments, 1903-1946

Series 75, Laboratory Testing Methods and Systems, 1891-1945

Series 76, Aircraft Receivers, 1917-1941

Series 77, Field Portable Receivers, 1906-1922

Series 78, Spark Transmitter Assembly, 1909-1940

Series 79, Spark Transmitter System, 1900-1945

Series 82, Firsts in Radio, undated

Series 85: Distance Records and Tests, 1898-1940

Series 87, Photographs of Radio Executives, and Technical Types, 1857-1952

Series 90, Radio Terms, 1857-1939

Series 92, Static Patents and Static Reducing Systems, 1891-1946

Series 93, Low Frequency Indicating Devices, 1904-1946

Series 95, Articles on Radio Subjects, 1891-1945

Series 96, Radio in Education, 1922-1939

Series 98, Special Forms of Broadcasting, 1921-1943

Series 99, History of Lifesaving at Sea by Radio, 1902-1949

Series 100, History of Naval Radio, 1888-1948

Series 101, Military Radio, 1898-1946

Series 102, Transmitting & Receiving Systems, 1902-1935

Series 103, Receiving Methods, 1905-1935

Series 108, Codes and Ciphers, 1894-1947

Series 109, Schedules of Broadcasting & TV Stations, 1905-1940

Series 112, Radio Shows and Displays, 1922-1947

Series 114, Centralized Radio Systems, 1929-1935

Series 116, United States Government Activities in Radio, 1906-1949

Series 117, Technical Tables, 1903-1932

Series 120, Litigation on Radio Subjects, 1914-1947

Series 121, Legislation, 1914-1947

Series 122, History of Radio Clubs, 1907-1946

Series 123, Special Applications of Radio Frequency, 1924-1949

Series 124, Chronology, 1926-1937

Series 125, Radio Patents & Patent Practices, 1861-1949

Series 126, Phonographs, 1894-1949

Series 127, Piezo Electric Effect, 1914-1947

Series 128, ARC Transmitting & Reciving Systems, 1904-1922

Series 129, Spark Systems, 1898-1941

Series 130, Vacuum Tubes Systems, 1902-1939

Series 132, Radiophone Transmitting & Receiving System, 1906-1947

Series 133, Photo-Radio, 1899-1947

Series 134, History of Radio Broadcasting, 1908-

Series 135, History of Radiotelephony, Other Than Broadcasting

Series 136, History of Amateur Radio

Series 138, Transoceanic Communication

Series 139, Television Transmitting Stations

Series 140, Radio Theory

Series 142, History of Television

Series 143, Photographs

Series 144, Radio Publications

Series 145, Proceedings of Radio Societies

Series 146: Radio Museums

Series 147, Bibliography of Radio Subjects and Apparatus

Series 148, Aircraft Guidance Apparatus

Series 150, Audio Frequency Instruments

Series 151, History of Radio for Aircrafts

Series 152, Circuit Theory

Series 154, Static Elimination

Series 161, Radio in Medicine

Series 162, Lighting

Series 163, Police Radio

Series 169, Cartoons

Series 173, Communications, Exclusive of Radio (after 1895)

Series 174, Television Methods and Systems

Series 182, Military Portable Sets

Series 189, Humor in Radio (see

Series 169)

Series 209, Short Waves

Series 226, Radar

Series 233, Television Transmitter

Lettered Series

Series A, Thomas Coke Knight RCA Photographs, circa 1902-1950

Series B, George H. Clark Collection of Photographs by ClassSeries C, Clark Unorganized and/or Duplicate Photographs

Series D, Miscellaneous

Series E, News Clippings Series F: Radio Publications

Series G, Patent Files of Darby and Darby, Attorneys, circa 1914-1935

Series H, Blank Telegram Forms from many Companies and Countries Throughout the World

Series I (eye), Miscellaneous Series

Series J, Research and Laboratory Notebooks

Series K, Index to Photographs of Radio Executives and Technical Types

Series L, Index to Bound Volumes of Photos in Various Series

Series M, Index to David Sarnoff Photographs
Biographical / Historical:
George Howard Clark, born February 15, 1881, at Alberton, Prince Edward Island, Canada, emigrated to the United States at the age of fourteen. He worked as a railroad telegraph operator for the Boston and Maine Railroad during high school and college. In his unpublished autobiography he wrote:

In 1888, when I was a lad of seven, I suddenly blossomed out as a scrapbook addict, and for years I gave up boyhood games for the pleasure of sitting in a lonely attic and 'pasting up' my books ... By 1897, in high school, I graduated to beautiful pictures, and made many large size scrapbooks ... Around that time, too, I became infatuated with things electrical, and spent many evenings copying in pen and ink the various electrical text books in the Everett, Mass., Public Library. Clark began collecting material pertaining to wireless or radio in 1902. In 1903 he graduated from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology with a Bachelor of Science degree in Electrical Engineering. During his last year of college he specialized in radio work under the instruction of Professor John Stone Stone and after graduation went to work for Stone's radio company, the Stone Telegraph and Telephone Company, of Boston.

In 1908 Clark took a competitive examination open to all wireless engineers in the United States and entered the civilian service of the Navy. He was stationed at the Washington Navy Yard, with special additional duty at the Navy's Bureau of Steam Engineering and at the National Bureau of Standards.

In 1915 Clark helped devise a classification system for Navy equipment, assigning a code number to each item. This system of classification for blueprints, photographs, reports, and general data, was prepared by Arthur Trogner, Guy Hill, and Clark, all civilian radio experts with the US Navy Department in Washington. In 1918 Clark adopted the 1915 Navy classification system for organizing the radio data he was accumulating. Clark created the term "Radioana" at this time. He began spending his evenings and weekends pasting up his collection and numbering pages. At this time he bound the accumulated material. It totaled 100 volumes.

In July 1919, after resigning from the Navy, Clark joined the engineering staff of the Marconi Telegraph Company of America, which became part of the Radio Corporation of America (RCA) later the same year. His first work was at Belmar and Lakewood, New Jersey, assisting the chief engineer, Roy A. Weagant, in his development of circuits to reduce the interference caused by static (static reduction). Clark and his wife were assigned to the unheated Engineer's Cottage. His wife decided not to stay and left for Florida. Clark moved his trunks of wireless material to the heated RCA hotel at Belmar and spent most of the winter "pasting." As Clark mentions, "From that time on I was wedded to scraps."

After a year of work in New Jersey, Clark was assigned to the sales department in New York, where he devised the "type number system" used by RCA. This type number system, for example, gave the designation UV 201 to the company's first amplifier tube.

From 1922 to 1934 Clark was in charge of RCA's newly created Show Division, which held exhibits of new and old radio apparatus at state fairs, department stores, and radio shows. About 1928 Clark started an antique radio apparatus museum for RCA. RCA's board of directors announced:

Recognizing the importance of providing a Museum for the Radio Art to house the rapidly disappearing relics of earlier days, and the desirability of collecting for it without further delay examples of apparatus in use since the inception of radio, the Board of Directors of RCA has made an initial appropriation of $100,000, as the nucleus of a fund for the establishment of a National Radio Museum. A plan for ultimately placing the museum under the wing of the Smithsonian Institution was coupled with the goal of the Institution's gathering the largest possible library of wireless data.

Around 1933 the RCA traveling exhibition program ended and Clark started classifying his collected "radioana" material. The objects of the museum were eventually turned over for exhibit purposes to the Rosenwald Museum in Chicago and the Henry Ford Museum in Dearborn, Michigan, when space was not forthcoming at the Smithsonian. A list of objects sent to the two museums (with tag and case numbers) is in Series 1, Box A. The "radioana" collection remained under Clark's care during the 1930s, and became of increasing use to RCA. Clark continued to add to the material.

Between 1934 and 1942 Clark was in court many times regarding patent infringements. Clark's wireless data was useful and he testified frequently, for example, in RCA's suit against the United States in the Court of Claims over the Marconi tuning patents and in the Westinghouse Company's suit against the United States over the heterodyne. Patent specifications and material regarding these and other radio industry suits are found throughout this collection.

In 1946 RCA retired George Clark and denied him space to house his "radioana" collection. Clark wished to remain in New York and house the collection somewhere in the city where it would be open at all times to the public and where it would be maintained. He hoped to continue cataloguing the collection and writing books from its information. He wanted to keep the collection under his control for as long as he was capable of using it.

George H. Clark died in 1956 and his collection was subsequently given to the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. In 1959 the collection was given to the Smithsonian's new Museum of History and Technology, where space was available to house it. The collection remained in the Division of Electricity until the spring of 1983 when it was transferred to the Archives Center.
Brief Company Histories From The Radio Industry, 1900-1930s:
Introduction

At the end of the nineteenth century, when Guglielmo Marconi began his first wireless company, Western Union, Postal Telegraph, and the American Telephone and Telegraph Company (AT&T) were the major enterprises in electrical communications. General Electric, Western Electric, and Westinghouse were the major producers of electrical equipment. All these earlier developments set the stage for the expansion of the radio industry.

General Electric, which dominated the lighting industry, was formed in 1892 as a merger of the Edison and Thomson-Houston companies. It was active in building central power station equipment; controlled nearly all the important early patents in electric railways; took a leading part in the introduction of trolley systems; and was the principal supplier of electric motors. Westinghouse promoted the alternating current system and installed the first AC central station in Buffalo, NY, during the winter of 1866-1867. After years of patent litigation, in 1896 GE and Westinghouse agreed to share their patents on electrical apparatus.

American Bell Telephone Company purchased Western Electric in 1881. Western Electric had a strong patent position in telephone equipment and in industrial power apparatus, such as arc lamps, generators, motors, and switchboard equipment.

Until RCA was formed in 1919, these established electrical companies played no active part in the early development of the American radio industry. They were in difficult financial positions, reorganizing, or concentrating their efforts and resources on improving their existing products.

The revolution in "wireless" technology, which began in earnest after 1900, centered in New York City, home of the Lee de Forest and American Marconi companies, and in Boston, headquarters of John Stone Stone and Reginald Fessenden.

Information in this section was compiled from the Clark Collection; the Invention and Innovation in the Radio Industry by W. Rupert Maclaurin, Macmillan Company, New York, 1949; and Radio Pioneers, Institute of Radio Engineers, Commemorating the Radio Pioneers Dinner, Hotel Commodore, New York, NY, November 8, 1945.

The De Forest Companies

Lee De Forest (1873-1961), inventor of the three-element vacuum tube or triode (1906) and the feedback circuit, was one of the first Americans to write a doctoral thesis on wireless telegraphy: "The Reflection of Short Hertzian Waves from the Ends of Parallel Wires," Yale University, 1899. The grid-controlled tube or audion of De Forest was first a radio detector, 1906-1907; in 1912 was adapted to an amplifier; and later to an oscillator. When it was perfected as a high vacuum tube, it became the great electronic instrument of electrical communications.

De Forest began work in the Dynamo Department at the Western Electric Company in 1899. Six months later he was promoted to the telephone laboratory. In 1900 De Forest went to work for the American Wireless Telegraph Company where he was able to carry out work on his "responder." However, after three months when De Forest refused to turn over the responder to the company, he was fired.

In the following year De Forest had a number of jobs, was active as an inventor, and created numerous firms to manufacture his inventions. In 1901 De Forest joined with Ed Smythe, a former Western Electric colleague and a collaborator in his research, to found the firm of De Forest, Smythe, and Freeman. Between 1902 and 1906 De Forest took out thirty-four patents on all phases of wireless telegraphy. The responder that he had been working on for so long never proved satisfactory.

The numerous De Forest companies, reflected his many interests and his inability to carry one project through to a conclusion. Unlike Marconi, but similar to Fessenden, De Forest had great inventive skill which resulted in a great number of companies; but none lasted long. The original partnership of 1901 led to the Wireless Telegraph Co. of America (1901), the De Forest Wireless Telegraph Company (Maine) (1902), and the American De Forest Wireless Telegraph Company (1903), to name a few.

The American De Forest Wireless Telegraph Company was incorporated after De Forest met a stock promoter, Abraham White. While many stations were built by this company, many never sent a message due to static interference. In 1907 two speculators from Denver with large holdings of company stock put the company out of business. The assets were sold to a new company that these speculators organized, the United Wireless Telephone Company. De Forest was forced to resign. He took the triode patents with him.

De Forest joined with one of White's stock salesmen, James Dunlop Smith, and together with De Forest's patent attorney, Samuel E. Darby, they formed a new corporation, the De Forest Radio Telephone Company in 1907. This company set out to develop wireless communication by means of the radio telephone.

In January 1910 De Forest staged the first opera broadcast, with Enrico Caruso singing. The Radio Telephone Company went bankrupt in 1911 following an aborted merger with North American Wireless Corporation. In 1913 he reorganized the company as the Radio Telephone and Telegraph Company and began producing the triode.

The Marconi Company brought a patent suit, claiming the triode infringed on the Fleming valve to which it had rights. In 1916 the court decided that Marconi had infringed the three element De Forest patent and that De Forest had infringed the two element Fleming valve. The result was that neither company could manufacture the triode.

In 1920 RCA acquired the De Forest triode rights through cross-licensing agreements with AT&T which had recently purchased the rights to it. De Forest's company was no match for GE, Westinghouse, and RCA. The De Forest Radio Company (1923) went bankrupt in 1928, was reorganized in 1930, and went into receivership in 1933. RCA eventually purchased its assets.

Marconi Companies

Guglielmo Marconi (1874-1937) came from a wealthy and well connected Italian family. He was able to spend his time developing his inventions and following his own course of action. Marconi spent his entire life developing wireless communication into a "practical" reality. In 1905 Marconi invented a directional antenna. In 1909 he shared with Karl Ferdinand Braun the Nobel prize in physics. And in 1912 he invented the time spark system for the generation of continuous waves. The principal patents in his name were improved types of vertical antennas; improved coherer; magnetic detector for the detection of wireless signals; and improvements on methods of selective tuning. Two other inventions of great importance to the Marconi companies' patent structure were the Oliver Lodge tuning patent and the Ambrose Fleming valve.

In 1895 Marconi made the first successful transmission of long wave signals. The following year he met William Preece, engineer-in-chief of the British Post Office, who was interested in inductive wireless telegraphy. This meeting led to the formation in 1897 of the Marconi Wireless Telegraph Company Ltd. In 1898 he transmitted signals across the English Channel. In 1899 an American subsidiary was formed. The various Marconi companies were the dominant enterprises in both British and American wireless until 1919 when RCA was formed.

From a business standpoint, wireless did not become profitable until long distance communications were accomplished. On December 12, 1901 in St. John's, Newfoundland, Marconi received a telegraph signal in the form of repetitions of the Morse telegraphic letter "S" transmitted from the Marconi station at Poldhu, Cornwall, England. This success, however, was met by opposition from vested interests, particularly the Anglo-American Telegraph Company whose cables terminated in Newfoundland.

So as not to restrict his company's future to one front alone, Marconi decided to exploit the field of communication with ships at sea. In order to control this field he decided in 1900 to lease his apparatus rather than sell it outright. This strategy did not work. Competition developed in Germany (Telefunken Corporation) and the United States (American De Forest and its successor, United Wireless) and Marconi was forced to sell rather than lease apparatus to the navies of various countries. He nevertheless retained numerous restrictions. This led to further friction. At the height of this debacle English stations worldwide refused to communicate with ships without Marconi equipment. This absurd and dangerous situation had to change and coastal stations opened up to all senders in 1908.

Marconi's system was based on spark technology. He saw no need for voice transmission. He felt the Morse code adequate for communication between ships and across oceans. He, along with most others, did not foresee the development of the radio and the broadcasting industry. He was a pragmatist and uninterested in scientific inquiry in a field where commercial viability was unknown.

For these reasons Marconi left the early experimentation with the radio telephone to others, particularly Lee De Forest and Reginald Fessenden.

National Electric Signaling Company

Canadian-born Reginald Fessenden (1866-1932), one of the principal early radio inventors and the first important inventor to experiment with wireless, left the University of Pittsburgh in 1900 to work for the U.S. Weather Bureau. There he invented the liquid barretter, an early radio receiver, and attempted to work out a means for wireless transmission of weather forecasts. After a squabble over patent rights, Fessenden resigned in 1902.

The National Electric Signaling Company (NESCO), primarily intended to support Fessenden's work on wireless, telegraphy, and telephony, was formed by Fessenden and two Pittsburgh capitalists, Hay Walker, Jr. and Thomas H. Given. It began as an inventor's laboratory and never proved successful as a business venture.

Fessenden recognized that a continuous wave transmission was required for speech and he continued the work of Nikola Tesla, John Stone Stone, and Elihu Thomson on this subject. Fessenden felt he could also transmit and receive Morse code better by the continuous wave method than with a spark-apparatus as Marconi was using.

In 1903 Fessenden's first high-frequency alternator needed for continuous wave transmission was built to his specifications by Charles Steinmetz of GE. In 1906 Fessenden obtained a second alternator of greater power from GE and on Christmas Eve broadcast a program of speech and music. The work on this alternator was given to Ernst F. W. Alexanderson. It took years for Alexanderson to develop an alternator capable of transmitting regular voice transmissions over the Atlantic. But by 1916 the Fessenden-Alexanderson alternator was more reliable for transatlantic communication than the spark apparatus.

Fessenden also worked on continuous-wave reception. This work arose out of his desire for a more effective type of receiver than the coherer, a delicate device that was limited by its sensitivity on a rolling ship at sea. In 1903 he developed a new receiving mechanism - the electrolytic detector.

As his work progressed Fessenden evolved the heterodyne system. However, due to faulty construction and the fact that it was ahead of its time, heterodyne reception was not fully appreciated until the oscillating triode was devised, thus allowing a practical means of generating the local frequency.

Between 1905 and 1913 Fessenden developed a completely self-sustaining wireless system. However, constant quarrels between Fessenden, Walker, and Given culminated in Fessenden's forming the Fessenden Wireless Company of Canada. He felt a Canadian company could better compete with British Marconi. As a result, his backers dismissed Fessenden from NESCO in January of 1911. Fessenden brought suit, won, and was awarded damages. To conserve assets pending appeal, NESCO went into receivership in 1912, and Samuel Kintner was appointed general manager of the company.

In 1917 Given and Walker formed International Signal Company (ISC) and transferred NESCO's patent assets to the new company. Westinghouse obtained majority control of ISC through the purchase of $2,500,000 worth of stock. The company was then reincorporated as The International Radio Telegraph Company. The Westinghouse-RCA agreements were signed in 1921 and International's assets were transferred to RCA.

RCA

The development of the radio industry accelerated after 1912. This was due to several factors, the most important of which was the passage of legislation by the US government requiring ships at sea to carry wireless. This created a market incentive and spurred the growth of the industry. Also, with the outbreak of World War I, the larger electrical companies turned their manufacturing output to radio apparatus, supporting the war effort. Three firms were prominent in this industrial endeavor: AT&T, GE, and Westinghouse.

AT&T's early contributions to this effort centered on their improvements of De Forest's triode, particularly in the evolution of circuits, the redesign of the mechanical structure, and an increase in the plate design. The importation of the Gaede molecular pump from Germany created a very high vacuum. The resulting high-vacuum tube brought the practical aspects of the wireless telephone closer to reality. By August 1915 speech had been sent by land wire to Arlington, Va., automatically picked up there via a newly developed vacuum-tube transmitter, and subsequently received at Darien, Canal Zone. By 1920 AT&T had purchased the rights to the De Forest triode and feedback circuit, and had placed itself in a strong position in the evolution of radio technology.

GE centered its efforts on the alternator, assigning Ernst F. W. Alexanderson to its design, and on further development of vacuum tube equipment for continuous wave telegraph transmission. By 1915 Alexanderson, Irving Langmuir, William D. Coolidge, and others had developed a complete system of continuous wave transmission and reception for GE.

As can be seen, both AT&T and GE were diverting major time and expenditures on vacuum tube research. This inevitably led to patent interferences and consequently, to cross-licensing arrangements.

Westinghouse was not in the strategic position of GE and AT&T. Nevertheless, during the war it did manufacture large quantities of radio apparatus, motors, generators, and rectifiers for the European and American governments. Postwar moves led Westinghouse into full partnership with the other two companies.

By the end of the war, all three companies had committed significant resources to wireless. They were hampered internationally, however, by the Marconi Company's dominant status, and in the United States they were blocked by opposing interests with control of key patents.

The US government also was concerned with this lack of solidarity in the wireless industry and over the British domination of the field worldwide. This impasse set a fascinating and complicated stage for the formation of the RCA.

Owen D. Young, legal counselor for GE, was instrumental in breaking the impasse. Through an innovative and far-reaching organizational consolidation, Young was able to persuade British Marconi that persistence in monopoly was a fruitless exercise, because of the strong US government feelings. Marconi, realizing the harm of a potential American boycott, finally agreed to terms. GE purchased the controlling interest in American Marconi, and RCA was formed. Young was made chairman of the board of RCA, while Edwin J. Nally and David Sarnoff of the old American Marconi were appointed president and commercial manager respectively.

On July 1, 1920, RCA signed a cross-licensing agreement with AT&T. The telephone company purchased one half million shares of RCA common and preferred stock for several considerations -- the most important being that all current and future radio patents of the two companies were available to each other royalty-free for ten years. Many provisions of these agreements were ambiguous and led to later squabbles between the RCA partners.

In May 1920 Westinghouse, which had an efficient radio manufacturing organization, formed an alliance with the International Radio and Telegraph Company (NESCO's successor). Westinghouse's part ownership gave them control of Fessenden's patents, particularly continuous-wave transmission and heterodyne transmission. Westinghouse also wisely purchased in October of 1920 Armstrong's patents on the regenerative and superheterodyne circuits -- which also included some of Columbia University professor Michael Pupin's patents. This placed Westinghouse in a strong bargaining position vis-à-vis RCA and in their new consolidated corporation. Westinghouse joined the growing group of radio companies on June 30, 1921. With these mergers, RCA agreed to purchase forty percent of its radio apparatus from Westinghouse and sixty percent from GE.

Through these and other legal arrangements, RCA obtained the rights to over 2,000 patents. These amounted to practically all the patents of importance in the radio science of that day. As a result, other firms in the radio industry, for example, the United Fruit Company and the Wireless Specialty Apparatus Company, entered into cross-licensing arrangements with RCA.

RCA also made arrangements internationally with the three dominant companies in radio communication in their respective countries. British Marconi, Compagnie Generale de Telegraphie sans fil, and Telefunken. Each corporation was given exclusive rights to use the other companies' patents within their own territories.

The rise of amateur radio in the 1920s and, to a greater extent, the demand for new products by the general public contributed to the rise of the broadcasting industry. This put a strain on the earlier agreements between the major radio corporations and between 1921 and 1928 there was a struggle over patents for control of the evolving medium.

An initial attempt by AT&T to control the broadcasting industry -- using its earlier cross-licensing agreements to manufacture radio telephone transmitting equipment -- began with AT&T's disposal of RCA stock holdings in 1922-1923. It ended in 1926 with a new cross-licensing agreement which gave AT&T exclusive patent rights in the field of public service telephony and gave GE, RCA, and Westinghouse exclusive patent rights in the areas covered by wireless telegraphy, entertainment broadcasting, and the manufacture of radio sets and receiving tubes for public sale.

In 1926 after the agreements were finalized, RCA, GE, and Westinghouse joined forces and established the National Broadcasting Company (NBC). Fifty percent of the stock went to RCA, thirty percent to GE, and twenty percent to Westinghouse. The new company was divided into three divisions: the Red, Blue, and Pacific Networks. Independent, competing networks soon emerged. William S. Paley and his family formed the Columbia Broadcasting System (CBS) in 1927. The Mutual Broadcasting System was formed in 1934.

By 1928 RCA had strong patent positions in all major areas of the radio industry, including the research, development and manufacture of vacuum tubes and speakers. Most small companies entering the industry in the 1920s produced their products based on prior research by others and on expired patents. An RCA license, therefore, was essential for the manufacture of any modern radio set or vacuum tube.

In the late 1920s new developments in the reproduction of sound, produced significant changes in the phonograph industry. Among those new developments were the introduction of the electronic record, and the marketing of the Radiola 104 Loudspeaker in 1926. In 1929 RCA purchased the Victor Talking Machine Company. This changed not only the quality but the sales of the phonograph and the phonograph record. A new entertainment industry was born and an ever-expanding market for consumer products was created with cultural implications that continue today.

Telefunken

German industrialists were eager to break the Marconi Company's monopoly. Although Marconi had patents on his inventions in Germany, the Germans developed a rival system through the Telefunken Corporation, incorporated in 1903, based on the inventions of Professor Ferdinand Braun, Dr. Rudolf Slaby, and Count George von Arco.

Before 1903 the Braun-Siemens and Halske system had been developed by Gesellschaft fur Drahtlose Telegraphie (GFDT). The Slaby-Arco system had been developed by Allgemeine Electrizitats-Gesellschaft. After litigation over patents, the German court handed down a decision in favor of the GFDT. The Kaiser, with national interests in mind, ordered that the rivalry cease. The two systems were amalgamated under GFDT, and became known as the Telefunken.

Chronology of Some Significant Events In The History of The Radio Industry

1895 -- Marconi experiments with Hertz's oscillator and Branley's coherer.

1897 -- In March Marconi demonstrates his wireless system on Salisbury Plain, near London, and files a complete patent specification. In May trials of Marconi's system are made over water between Lavernock and Flatholm, a distance of three miles. On May 13, communication is established between Lavernock Point and Brean Down, a distance of eight miles. German scientist Professor Slaby is present. The first Marconi station is erected at the Needles, Isle of Wight. A distance of fourteen and one-half miles is bridged by wireless. In December the Marconi station at the Needles communicates with a ship eighteen miles at sea.

1898 -- In England Oliver Lodge files a complete specification covering inventions in wireless telegraphy.

1899 -- The New York Herald uses Marconi's wireless telegraphy to report the progress of the International Yacht races between the Columbia and the Shamrock off New York harbor in September. US. Navy vessels make trials of Marconi's wireless telegraph system. The cruiser New York and the battleship Massachusetts are equipped with apparatus. Fessenden develops improvements in methods of wireless telegraph signaling.

1900 -- The Marconi International Marine Communication Company is organized on April 25th in London. Reginald Aubrey Fessenden begins work at the United States Weather Bureau. Over the next two years he invents the liquid barretter, an improved radio receiver.

1901 -- In February on board the SS Philadelphia, Marconi receives wireless signals over a distance of 1,551 miles. In March Marconi wireless telegraph service begins between islands of the Hawaiian group. On December 12, Marconi receives transatlantic signal at St. John's, Newfoundland from Poldhu, Cornwall, England. The Canadian government orders two Marconi telegraph sets for use at coastal points along the Strait of Belle Isle.

1901 -- Fessenden procures US patent no. 706737 for a system of radio signaling employing long waves (low frequency). De Forest develops a system of wireless telegraphy in Chicago. 1903-06 10,000 to 50,000 cycle machines, 1 kW, are developed by Steinmetz and by Alexanderson of GE for Fessenden. 1905 Marconi procures patent number 14788 in England, covering the invention of the horizontal directional antenna.

1906 -- At Brant Rock, Massachusetts, Fessenden employs a generator of one-half kW capacity, operating at 75,000 cycles, for radio purposes. He succeeds in telephoning a distance of eleven miles by means of wireless telephone apparatus.

1907 -- De Forest procures a U. S. patent for an audion amplifier of pulsating or alternating current.

1908 -- Marconi stations in Canada and England are opened for radio telegraph service across the Atlantic. Fessenden constructs a 70,000-cycle alternator with an output of 2.5 kW. at 225 volts, for radio signaling purposes. He reports successful radio telephone tests between Brant Rock and Washington, DC, a distance of 600 miles.

1909 -- US House of Representatives passes the Burke Bill for the compulsory use of radio telegraphy on certain classes of vessels. The United Wireless Telegraph Company and the Radio Telephone Company of New York (De Forest and Stone systems) begin the erection of radio stations in the Central and Western states. Marconi shares with Ferdinand Braun of Germany the Nobel prize in recognition of contributions in wireless telegraphy.

1910 -- An act of the US government requires radio equipment and operators on certain types of passenger ships. The Glace Bay, Nova Scotia, Marconi station is opened in September. This station communicates with Clifden, Ireland. The transatlantic tariff is seventeen cents a word.

1911 -- A radio section is organized by the US Department of Commerce to enforce the provisions of national radio legislation. Marconi Wireless Telegraph Company acquires the Lodge-Muirhead patents.

1912 -- Rotary gap is used with Fessenden 100 kW 500 cycle spark set at NAA, the Navy's first high-power station at Arlington, Virginia. Marconi Wireless of America acquires property of the United Wireless Telegraph Company. British Marconi secures the important radio patents of Bellini and Tosi, Italian inventors. Wreck of the SS Titanic on April 15th. The act of 1910 is extended on July 23 to cover cargo vessels. requires an auxiliary source of power on ships and two or more skilled radio apparatus operators on certain types of passenger ships. On August 13, an act provides for licensing radio operators and transmitting stations.

1912-1913 -- High vacuum amplifying tubes (an improvement on De Forest's), using the findings of pure science, are produced almost simultaneously in two great industrial laboratories, by Dr. H. D. Arnold of AT&T and Irving Langmuir of GE.

1915 -- De Forest Ultra-audion three-step (cascade) audio amplifier is announced and introduced into practice.

1916 -- GE and the Western Electric Company develop the first experimental vacuum tube radiotelephone systems for the Navy.

1917-1918 -- First production of vacuum tubes in quantity, both coated filament and tungsten filament types, by Western Electric Company and GE.

1918 -- Lloyd Espenschied procures US patent number 1,256,889 for the invention of a duplex radio telegraph system. (See Lloyd Espenschied Papers, Archives Center, NMAH, Collection #13.) The House of Representatives passes a resolution on July 5, authorizing the President to take over management of telegraph and telephone systems due to war conditions.

1919 -- Bills are introduced in Congress for permanent government control of radio stations. The widespread resentment of amateurs has more to do with the defeat of these bills than the objections of commercial companies. Roy Alexander Weagant, New York, reports having developed means of reducing disturbances to radio reception caused by atmospherics or static. This is the first successful static-reducing system. GE purchases the holdings of the British Marconi Company in the Marconi Wireless Telegraph Company of America, the name of the latter company being changed to Radio Corporation of America (RCA) in October. Edward J. Nally is elected president of the new company.

1920 -- E. F. W. Alexanderson is appointed Chief Engineer of RCA. RCA begins the installation of 200-kW Alexanderson alternators at Bolinas, California, and Marion, Massachusetts. The Tropical Radio Telegraph Company, a subsidiary of the United Fruit Company, New York, operates ten long-distance radio stations at points in Central and South Americirca RCA purchases 6,000 acres at Rocky Point, Long Island, New York, and begins erection of a Radio Central station, comprising a number of operating units for communication with European stations and stations in South Americirca On May 15, RCA inaugurates radio telegraph services between installations at Chatham and Marion, Massachusetts, and stations at Stavanger and Jaerobe, Norway. Westinghouse Company's radio station KDKA, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, broadcasts returns of the national elections, November 2. Development, design, and manufacture by GE of the early receiving and transmitting tubes made available to the public by RCA (UV-200,201,202). Radio telegraph stations and properties taken over by the government under war time powers are returned to their owners at midnight, February 29. The government calls for bids for the sale of large quantities of surplus radio and telegraph and telephone apparatus purchased for war needs and not used.

1921 -- RCA develops Vacuum tubes UV-200(detector) and UV-201(amplifier) -- both triodes with brass shells known as the UV base, and incorporating a filament that required 1 ampere at 5 volts for operation -- for storage battery operation; and at the same time also released to the public the WD-11 for dry cell operation, which employed an oxide-coated tungsten filament. RCA station at Rocky Point, Long Island, opens on November 5. WJZ station established by the Westinghouse Company in Newark, NJ. RCA broadcast station at Roselle Park, NJ (WDY) opens on December 15. It continues operation until February 15, 1922, when its operation is transferred to WJZ, Newark, previously owned by Westinghouse. RCA installs 200-kW alternator at Tuckerton, NJ.

1922 -- First use of tube transmitters by RCA for service from the United States to England and Germany. RCA begins substitution of tube transmitters on ships to replace spark sets. RCA begins replacement of crystal receivers by tube receivers on ships.

1923 -- Broadcast stations WJZ and WJY opened in New York in May by RCA. WRC opens in Washington on August 1. The UV-201A, receiving tubes developed by GE and consuming only 1/4 of an ampere are introduced by RCA. Tungsten filaments coated and impregnated with thorium were employed.

1924 -- Edwin H. Armstrong, demonstrates the superheterodyne receiver on March 6th. In November RCA experiments with radio photographs across the Atlantic. RCA markets the superheterodyne receivers for broadcast reception.

1925-26 -- Dynamic loudspeakers introduced. Magnetic pick-up phonograph recording and reproduction developed. RCA opens radio circuit to Dutch East Indies. Direction-finders introduced on ships.

1927 -- Fully self-contained AC radio receivers introduced.
Provenance:
The collection was donated to the Smithsonian in 1959.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use.

Gloves must be worn when handling unprotected photographs, negatives, and slides.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Radio engineers -- 1880-1950  Search this
Electric engineers -- 1880-1950  Search this
Radio -- History  Search this
Electricity -- 1880-1950  Search this
Communication -- 1880-1950  Search this
Genre/Form:
Technical manuals -- Electrical equipment
Clippings
Patents
Correspondence -- 1930-1950
Blueprints
Letters patent
Photographs -- 1850-1900
Sale catalogs -- Electrical equipment -- 1880-1950
Technical drawings
Photographs -- 1900-1950
Citation:
George H. Clark Radioana Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0055
See more items in:
George H. Clark Radioana Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0055
Online Media:

Alexander Archipenko papers

Creator:
Archipenko, Alexander, 1887-1964  Search this
Names:
Archipenko Art School (Woodstock, N.Y.)  Search this
Archipenko, Angelica  Search this
Archipenko, Frances  Search this
Spies, Walter  Search this
Extent:
19.5 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Transcripts
Sound recordings
Scrapbooks
Photographs
Date:
1904-1986
bulk 1930-1964
Summary:
The Alexander Archipenko papers measure 19.5 linear feet and date from 1904 to 1986, with the bulk of materials dating from 1930 to 1964. The sculptor's personal and professional life is documented by correspondence, financial records, scrapbooks, printed matter, and photographs documenting his art, exhibitions, travel, teaching activities, and the Archipenko Art School. Archipenko wrote and lectured extensively about his philosophies of art and the relationship between art and nature. The papers include drafts, notes, and final manuscripts of published and unpublished writings, and notes, outlines, transcripts, and audio recordings of some of his lectures.
Scope and Content Note:
The Alexander Archipenko papers measure 19.5 linear feet and date from 1904 to 1986, with the bulk of materials dating from 1930 to 1964. The sculptor's personal and professional life is documented by correspondence, financial records, scrapbooks, printed matter, and photographs documenting his art, exhibitions, travel, teaching activities, and the Archipenko Art School. Archipenko wrote and lectured extensively about his philosophies of art and the relationship between art and nature. The papers include drafts, notes, and final manuscripts of published and unpublished writings, and notes, outlines, transcripts, and audio recordings of some of his lectures.

Correspondence concerns both personal and professional matters. Among Archipenko's personal correspondents are relatives and friends in the Ukraine, his wife Angelica during her extended stays in Mexico and California, and other women. Professional correspondence is with dealers, curators, scholars, collectors, colleges and universities concerning exhibitions, sales and commissions, loans, and teaching and lecture engagements.

Archipenko wrote and lectured extensively about his philosophy of art, art in nature, and theories concerning creativity and the universe. His papers include manuscripts, drafts, notes and supporting materials for his book published in 1960, Archipenko: Fifty Creative Years, 1908-1958. Similar documentation of unpublished writings, as well as notes, outlines, and some transcripts of lectures and talks are also in the series.

Records concerning the Archipenko Art School are sparse, with only one photograph of students in Berlin, 1921. Surviving records include printed matter, a cashbook, student roster, and scrapbook containing photographs, printed matter, and a typescript copy of a statement by Archipenko, "How I Teach." Most of this material focuses on the New York and Woodstock schools, with only a few items concerning Chicago. In addition, files regarding Archipenko's teaching activities at schools other than his own include course descriptions, student rosters, grades, and printed matter.

Financial records consist of banking records, paid bills, and miscellaneous items. Paid bills include invoices and receipts for art supplies, shipping, and storage. Among the miscellaneous items are price lists, royalties paid by the Museum of Modern Art for Woman Combing Her Hair, and sales records.

Nine scrapbooks contain clippings, exhibition announcements and catalogs, lecture notices, advertisements and brochures of the Archipenko Art School, and a small number of photographs. Printed matter consists primarily of clippings about Archipenko and exhibition catalogs with related announcements and invitations. Miscellaneous items include books about Archipenko, catalogs of museum collections containing works by Archipenko, and reproductions. Of special interest is a brochure about the Multiplex Advertising Machine that bears a similarity to the Archipentura, an "apparatus for displaying Changeable Pictures" Archipenko invented circa 1924 and patented in 1927.

Photographs are of people, Archipenko's travels and miscellaneous places, exhibitions, works of art, events, and miscellaneous subjects. Five photograph albums mainly document travels. Slides and transparencies include black and white lantern slides probably used to illustrate lectures.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged as 10 series. Lantern slides and glass plates are housed separately and closed to researchers, but listed where they fall intellectually within the collection.

Series 1: Biographical Material, 1908-1964 (0.5 linear feet; Box 1, OV 28)

Series 2: Correspondence, 1922-1970 (4.1 linear feet; Boxes 1-5)

Series 3: Subject Files, 1940-1958 (6 folders; Box 5)

Series 4: Writings, 1923-1971 (3.2 linear feet; Boxes 5-8, Film can FC 30)

Series 5: Teaching, 1921-1952 (0.8 linear feet; Box 9, Film cans FC 31-33)

Series 6: Financial Records, 1923-1971 (1.5 linear feet; Box 9-10)

Series 7: Scrapbooks, 1910-1961 (1.2 linear feet; Boxes 22-25)

Series 8: Printed Material, 1913-1987 (3.7 linear feet; Boxes 11-14, 26, OV 29)

Series 9: Miscellaneous, 1916-1966 (0.5 linear feet; Box 14, 16, Film can FC 34)

Series 10: Photographic Material, 1904-1964 (3.6 linear feet; Boxes 14-15, 17-21, 26-27)
Biographical Note:
Alexander Archipenko (1887-1964) was the son of an engineer/inventor and grandson of an icon painter. Among the first modern sculptors of the 20th century to be associated with the Cubist movement, Archipenko was known for his innovative use of concave space. His major contribution was the realization of negative form through use of a hole to create a contrast of solid and void. His sculpto-paintings united form and color; begun in 1912, these polychromed constructions are among the earliest mixed-media works known, and sometimes incorporated objects. Eventually, his Cubist-inspired work evolved into the simplified, abstract shapes for which he is best known. Although known primarily as a sculptor, Archipenko produced paintings, drawings, and prints as well.

At age 15, Archipenko began studying art at the University of Kiev in his native city; he was expelled three years later for criticizing the teachers. He then went to Moscow where he worked on his own and exhibited in several group shows; his first solo exhibition was held in the Ukraine in 1906.

Archipenko made Paris his home from 1908 until the outbreak of World War I. Soon after his arrival, he enrolled in the Ecole des Beaux-Arts; this association lasted but two weeks, and marked the end of Archipenko's formal training. He continued to study art by spending large amounts of time visiting art museums and painting on his own. During this period, he began exhibiting in the Salon des Independents with the Cubists, and as a member of the "Section d'Or" participated in that group's exhibitions. His first one-man exhibition in Germany was held at the Folkwant Museum (1912) and his work was featured in the Armory Show (1913).

In 1912, at the age of 25, Archipenko established his first art school in Paris. He spent the war years working quietly outside of Nice, and soon afterwards circulated an extensive exhibition of his works throughout Europe. In 1921, Archipenko settled in Berlin, opened an art school there, and married sculptor Angelica Bruno-Schmitz, who was known professionally as Gela Forster.

Archipenko's reputation was solidly established and the majority of his ground-breaking work - adaptation of Cubist ideas to sculpture, sculpto-paintings and incorporation of negative space in sculpture - was accomplished prior to his 1923 arrival in the United States. One of his most innovative works executed in America was the Archipentura, invented circa 1924 and patented in 1927, a machine with rolling cylinders that displayed "animated paintings" using motion and light. Other creations of note are carved Lucite sculptures, illuminated from within, that were executed in the mid-1940s.

Upon settling in the United States in 1923, Archipenko opened his art school in New York City; a summer school was established in Woodstock, New York the following year. Within a few years, Archipenko purchased land near Woodstock and began construction of a home, personal studio, and buildings for the school. At various times during the 1930s, Archipenko resided in Chicago and Los Angeles, and operated schools while living in those cities. For many years during the 1940s, Angelica served on the sculpture faculty at the Escuela de Belles Artes in San Miguel Allende, Mexico.

In addition to running his own schools, Archipenko taught at a number of colleges and universities, where he ran workshops, and served as a visiting professor. He wrote and lectured extensively about his philosophy of art and theories of creativity, publishing several articles and a book, Archipenko: Fifty Creative Years, 1908-1958 (1960).

Angelica Archipenko died in 1957. Three years later Archipenko married sculptor Frances Gray, a former student. During the early 1960s, the couple traveled extensively on a lecture tour that accompanied a solo exhibition to several German cities. Archipenko died in New York City, February 25, 1964.

The following chronology is excerpted from Alexander Archipenko: A Centennial Tribute by Katherine Janszky Michaelsen and Nehama Guralnik (National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC, 1986) and Archipenko: The Sculpture and Graphic art, Including a Print Catalogue Raisonne by Donald Karshan, Ernst Wasmuth Verlag (Tubingen, Germany, 1974).

1887 -- Born to Porfiry Antonovich and Poroskovia Wassilievna Machova Archipenko in Kiev, Ukraine, Russia. Father a mechanical engineer, professor of engineering, and inventor; grandfather an icon painter.

1900 -- Studied and copied Michelangelo drawings from a book given him by his grandfather during a long confinement following a leg injury.

1902-1905 -- Painting and sculpture student in Kiev art school; expelled for criticizing his teachers.

1906 -- First one-man show in the Ukraine. Worked in Moscow and exhibited in several group shows.

1908 -- Moved to Paris and enrolled in the Ecole des Beaux-Arts. Quit formal art instruction after two weeks, continued to study art on his own by visiting museums.

1910 -- Exhibited in the Salon des Independants with the cubists (also in 1911-1914 and 1919).

1912 -- Opened art school in Paris. "Section d'Or" formed in Paris with Archipenko among its members. The group exhibited until 1914, and briefly after World War I. First solo exhibition in Germany, Folkwant Museum, Hagen.

1913 -- Represented in the Armory Show. Executed first prints (lithographs).

1914 -- Began making sculpto-paintings.

1914-1918 -- Spent the war years working near Nice.

1919-1920 -- Began extensive tour exhibiting his works in various European cities (Geneva, Zurich, Paris, London, Brussels, Athens, Berlin, Munich, etc.).

1920 -- One-man exhibition in the Venice Biennale.

1921 -- First solo exhibition in the United States at the Societe Anonyme, Inc., New York; a symposium, Psychology of Modern Art and Archipenko, was held during the course of the show. Moved to Berlin and opened art school. Married sculptor Angelica Bruno-Schmitz [known professionally as Gela Forster]. First print commission.

1923 -- Moved to the United States and opened art school in New York City.

1924 -- Established a summer school at Woodstock, New York.

1927 -- "Archipentura" patented ("Apparatus for displaying Changeable Pictures and methods for Decorating Changeable Display Apparatus," nos. 1,626, 946 and 1,626,497).

1928 -- Became an American citizen.

1929 -- Bought land near Woodstock, New York, and began construction of school and studio buildings.

1932 -- Lectured on his theories of creativeness at colleges and universities throughout the United States.

1933 -- Taught summer session at Mills College, Oakland, California, and Chouinard School, Los Angeles.

1935 -- Moved to Los Angeles and opened art school.

1935-1936 -- Taught summer sessions at the University of Washington, Seattle.

1936 -- Moved to Chicago and opened art school. Associate instructor at New Bauhaus School, Chicago.

1938 -- Returned to New York; reopened art school and Woodstock summer school.

1944 -- Taught at the Dalton School, New York City.

1946-1947 -- Returned to Chicago; taught at the Institute of Design.

1947 -- Began making carved plastic sculptures with internal illumination.

1950 -- Taught at University of Kansas City, Missouri.

1950-1951 -- Lecture tour of the southern cities of the United States.

1951 -- Taught at Carmel Institute of Art, California, University of Oregon, and University of Washington, Seattle.

1952 -- Taught at University of Delaware, Newark.

1953 -- Elected Associate Member of International Institute of Arts and Letters.

1955-1956 -- One-man exhibition tours in Germany (Dusseldorf, Darmstadt, Mannheim, and Recklinghausen).

1956 -- Taught at University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.

1957 -- Death of Angelica.

1959 -- Awarded gold medal, XIII Biennale de'Arte Triveneta, III Concorso Internationale del Bronzetto, Padua, Italy.

1960 -- Archipenko: Fifty Creative Years, 1908-1958 by Alexander Archipenko and Fifty Art Historians published by Tekhne (a company established by Archipenko for the purpose). Married Frances Gray, a sculptor and former student. Recovered plasters of early work stored by French friends since the end of World War I. Traveling exhibition in Germany (Hagen, Münster, and Dusseldorf).

1962 -- Elected to the Department of Art, National Institute of Arts and Letters.

1964 -- Dies in New York City.
Related Material:
Among the holdings of the Archives are the Donald H. Karshan papers relating to Alexander Archipenko, originally accessioned as part of the Alexander Archipenko papers, but later separated to form a distinct collection.

The Archives also has the National Collection of Fine Arts records relating to Alexander Archipenko.
Separated Materials:
The Archives of American Art also holds microfilm of material lent for microfilming (reels NA11-NA12, NA16-NA18, and NA 20-NA22) including biographical material, correspondence, exhibition records, writings, printed material and photographs. Loaned materials were returned to the lender and are not described in the collection container inventory.
Provenance:
In 1967, the Alexander Archipenko papers, previously on deposit at Syracuse University, were loaned to the Archives of American Art for microfilming by his widow Frances Archipenko Gray. In 1982, Ms. Gray donated most of the material previously loaned and microfilmed to the Archives of American Art, along with additional items.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C. research facility. Use of archival audiovisual recordings with no duplicate access copy requires advance notice. Lantern slides and glass plate negatives are housed separately and closed to researchers.
Rights:
The Alexander Archipenko papers are owned by the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Literary rights as possessed by the donor have been dedicated to public use for research, study, and scholarship. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Topic:
Art -- Philosophy  Search this
Sculpture, Modern -- 20th century  Search this
Sculpture -- Technique  Search this
Sculptors  Search this
Art -- Study and teaching  Search this
Cubism  Search this
Genre/Form:
Transcripts
Sound recordings
Scrapbooks
Photographs
Citation:
Alexander Archipenko papers, 1904-1986, bulk 1930-1964. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.archalex
See more items in:
Alexander Archipenko papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-archalex
Online Media:

Rutan VariEze

Designer:
Scaled Composites  Search this
Manufacturer:
Scaled Composites  Search this
Materials:
Foam covered with fiberglass.
Dimensions:
Wingspan: 6.8 m (22 ft 2 1/2 in)
Length: 4.3 m (14 ft 2 in)
Height: 1.5 m (59 in)
Weights: Empty, 263 kg (585 lb)
Gross, 472.5 kg (1,050 lb)
Engine: Continental 0-200 four-cylinder, air-cooled, 100 horsepower
Type:
CRAFT-Aircraft
Country of Origin:
United States of America
Credit Line:
Gift of Burt Rutan.
Inventory Number:
A19860067000
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
See more items in:
National Air and Space Museum Collection
Location:
Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center in Chantilly, VA
Hangar:
Boeing Aviation Hangar
Data Source:
National Air and Space Museum
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nv98f49e3d2-0c7f-4b50-829e-3439dc0d3b6f
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nasm_A19860067000

Notebook, A Decade of Marchant Progress 1938-1947 (Annual Reports)

Maker:
Marchant Calculating Machine Company  Search this
Physical Description:
leather (overall material)
paper (overall material)
Measurements:
overall: 2.5 cm x 22 cm x 28 cm; 31/32 in x 8 21/32 in x 11 1/32 in
Object Name:
Notebook
Place made:
United States: California, Oakland
Date made:
1948
Subject:
Mathematics  Search this
Credit Line:
Gift of SCM Corporation, SCM Business Equipment
ID Number:
1979.3084.029
Catalog number:
1979.3084.029
Nonaccession number:
1979.3084
See more items in:
Medicine and Science: Mathematics
Calculating Machines
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746b4-c980-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_905362

Sam DeVincent Collection of Illustrated American Sheet Music, Series 4: Songwriters Volumes I and II

Creator:
DeVincent, Sam, 1918-1997  Search this
Extent:
251 Boxes
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Date:
1847-1975
Summary:
Sam DeVincent loved music and art and began collecting sheet music with lithographs at an early age.

Series 4: Songwriters: A "songwriter" for this series is defined as a composer, a lyricist, or both.

An overview to the entire DeVincent collection is available here: Sam DeVincent Collection of Illustrated American Sheet Music.
Scope and Contents note:
A "songwriter" for this series is defined as a composer, a lyricist, or both. The songwriters included in this online finding aid are arranged alphabetically in the Biography of Songwriters section and alphabetically in the Name and Select Title Index.

The song sheets associated with each songwriter in this series are generally arranged in the following order: General Songs; Ethnic Songs; Armed Conflict Songs or other Topical Headings; Ragtime; Instrumental; Musical Theater Production Songs; Motion Picture Production Songs; Specialized Song Sheets/Editions; Professional/Artist Copy Song Sheets; and Folios/Volumes. Songs of four or more editions (multiple editions) are usually placed in individual folders and listed separately under the appropriate category, i.e., General Songs, Topical songs, etc. Copyright dates listed in the Container List represent the latest date on any given song sheet, i.e., a song originally published in 1906, but copyrighted in 1946, will show the date 1946.

In the Container List the word "Contains" in a descriptive entry identifies a folder that contains only the song sheet titles specified. For example, Subseries 4.1, folder B "contains" three song sheets and only those three are contained in that folder. The word "Includes" in a descriptive entry identifies a folder that holds not only the song sheet title(s) named but also other song sheet title(s) not specified in the Container List. For example, folder E of subseries 4.1 "includes" (or specifies) three song sheets ("Magic Moments," "Sad Sack," and "Warm and Tender"), but, in addition, folder E contains fourteen other song sheets that are not specified.

Variations in the size of the sheet music in this series may indicate its publication date. Large song sheets-approximately 11" x 13"- were superseded in April 1919, when publishers adopted a new "standard" or "regular" size for song sheets-9 1/4" x 12 1/4"-as recommended by the National Association of Sheet Music Dealers. The probable motivation was that smaller song sheets were cheaper to produce--a conservation effort prompted by World War I.

Titles of Musical Theater Production Songs and Motion Picture Production Songs are in capital letters. Individual song titles are within quotation marks. Portraits of the artist or artists that contributed to a song's success are featured on many song sheets. Songs are filed alphabetically, by title, within each folder.

Dates after the songwriter's name in the Biography of Songwriters section of this Register refer to the songwriter's birth and death dates. Dates after a songwriter's name in the Container List of this Register refer to the dates of the song sheets in this collection for that songwriter. Where two or more songwriters were a notable team over an extended period of time, their collaboration is noted in the Biography of Songwriters and included in the Container List.

The dates in the Container List represent the latest copyright year on the song sheets. The dates are not necessarily the same as the year of the productions. Copyright dates in the Container List represent the latest date on any given piece of sheet music, i.e., a song originally published in 1906, but re-copyrighted in 1946, will show the date 1946.
Arrangement note:
Arranged alphabetically

4.1 - 4.217

4.218: Ephemera
Biographies of Song Writers:
4.42 ADAMS, STANLEY -- (8/14/1907-1/27/1994). Lyricist. Former President of ASCAP; was a leader in the successful effort for Congressional revision of copyright law. Best known song is "What a Diff'rence a Day Made."

4.43 AGER, MILTON -- (10/6/1893-5/6/1979). Composer, publishers, pianist, arranger, vaudeville accompanist, stage entertainer for silent movies. First hit was "Everything is Peaches Down in Georgia," sung by Al Jolson.

4.44 AHLERT, FRED E. -- (9/19/1892-10/20/1953). Composer, publisher. Arranger for Fred Waring. One of first songwriters to quit Tin Pan Alley for Hollywood. First hit was "I'll Get By."

4.45 AKST, HARRY -- (8/15/1894-3/31/1963). Composer. Professional pianist as a teenager. Met Berlin at Camp Upton, worked for him as staff pianist. Hits include: and "Baby Face" and "A Smile Will Go a Long, Long Way."

4.46 ALLEN, STEVE -- (12/26/1921- ). Composer, author, pianist, comedian. Toured with parents in vaudeville; worked in radio; founder and first host of NBC-TV's Tonight Show. Composed the theme from PICNIC.

4.47 ARLEN, HAROLD -- (2/15/1905-4/23/1986). Composer, author, pianist, vocalist. Played professionally at age 15. Signed by The Cotton Club to write with Ted Koehler, producing many hits. Also teamed with Yip Harburg. Write "Get Happy," "Stormy Weather," and the score for THE WIZARD OF OZ.

4.48 ARMSTRONG, HARRY W. -- (7/22/1879-2/28/1951). Composer, vocalist, pianist, producer, prize fighter. Hits include "I Love My Wife, But Oh You Kid" and "Sweet Adeline."

4.49 ASH, PAUL -- (2/11/1891-7/13/1958). Composer, author, conductor, pianist. Led his first band in 1910; became very successful bandleader. Wrote "I'm Knee Deep in Daisies."

4.50 AUSTIN, GENE -- (6/24/1900-1/24/1971). Composer, author. Sang in vaudeville, radio, films, and TV. Established as a recording star with "My Blue Heaven." Wrote "When My Sugar Walks Down the Street."

4.1 BACHARACH, BURT F. -- (5/12/1928- ). Composer and pianist. Collaborated with lyricist Hal David on a number of film scores (e.g., BUTCH CASSIDY AND THE SUNDANCE KID) and popular songs, many of which were recorded by Dionne Warwick.

4.51 BALL, ERNEST R. -- (7/21/1878-5/3/1927). Composer, pianist. Began as pianist in vaudeville, performing with his wife Maude Lambert; then worked as a song demonstrator. Successful songs include "Let the Rest of the World Go By"and "Mother Machree."

4.52 BARGY, ROY -- (7/31/1894-1/15/1974). Composer, pianist. Arranger for Paul Whiteman; led several radio show bands. Edited, played, arranged, and composed piano rolls; composed rags. From 1943-1963 was music director for Jimmy Durante.

4.53 BAXTER, PHIL -- (9/5/1896-11/21/1972). Composer, pianist, lyricist, vocalist. Bandleader in 20's and 30's. Wrote "Have a Little Dream on Me" and "I'm a Ding Dong Daddy from Dumas."

4.54 BAYES, NORA -- (1880-3/19/1928). Vocalist, composer, lyricist. Was a top performing star; known as "The Wurzberger Girl" after her first hit. The first edition of Cohan's "Over There" featured Bayes on the cover. Bayes and husband Jack Norworth wrote "Shine on Harvest Moon."

4.55 BERLE, MILTON -- (7/12/1908- ). Comedian, vocalist, lyricist, composer. Began performing in silent movies at age 5; worked in vaudeville; was a MC in clubs and theaters. Was the first big TV star. Wrote "Sam, You Made the Pants Too Long."

4.2 BERLIN, IRVING -- (5/11/1888-9/22/1989). Composer and lyricist. One of the most versatile and popular songwriters of the 20th century. Wrote songs for some of the most successful Broadway musicals and Hollywood films. Best songs were sentimental ballads performed in unique ragtime or popular styles.

4.56 BERNIE, BEN -- (5/30/1891-10/20/1943). Bandleader, composer. Was a monologist in vaudeville; played violin until he formed his own dance band in early 20's. Known as The Old Maestro. Wrote "Sweet Georgia Brown."

4.57 BRAHAM, DAVID -- (1834-4/11/1905). Composer. Born in London; moved to New York at age 18. Was orchestral leader and composer for minstrel shows, Tony Pastor's, Theatre Comique. THE MULLIGAN GUARD was the first of many collaborations with Ned Harrigan.

4.58 BREUER, ERNEST -- (12/6/1886-4/3/1981). Composer, pianist. Born in Germany, moved to US in youth. Vaudeville pianist. WWII interpreter and entertainer. Wrote "Does the Spearmint Lose Its Flavor on the Bedpost Overnight?"

4.59 BROOKS, SHELTON -- (5/4/1886-9/6/1975). Composer. Parents American Indian/African American. Pianist in Detroit cafes; moved to Chicago. Composed rages; worked as a mimic in vaudeville. Wrote "Darktown Strutters' Ball" and "Some of These Days."

4.60 BROWN, A. SEYMOUR -- (5/28/1885-12/22/1947). Author, composer, actor. Worked in vaudeville. Composed "Oh You Beautiful Doll."

4.61 BROWN, GEORGE -- ...

4.3 BROWN, LEW -- (12/10/1893-2/5/1958). Lyricist. Achieved success with a number of songs in collaboration with composer Albert Von Tilzer, and later as member of the Ray Henderson and Buddy DeSylva songwriting team on Broadway.

4.62 BROWN, NACIO HERB -- (2/22/1896-9/28/1964). Composer. First toured as piano accompanist; worked as a tailor and realtor before first successes in early 20's. One of the movies most important composers during early sound years and many years thereafter. Wrote "Singin in the Rain" and "You Are My Lucky Star."

4.63 BROWN, NACIO HERB, JR. -- (2/27/1921- ). Composer, author, publisher. Son of Nacio Herb Brown. Professional manager of publishing firms; manager of music catalogs. Songs include "Who Put That Dream in Your Eyes."

4.64 BUCK, GENE -- (8/8/1885-2/25/1957). Lyricist. Chief aide to Ziegfeld; wrote book for some of his shows. Pioneer designer of sheet music covers. Songs include "Hello Frisco" and "Tulip Time."

4.65 BULLOCK, WALTER -- (5/6/1907-8/19/1953). Lyricist. Wrote screenplays and songs for movies. Hits include "This Is Where I Came In" and "When Did You Leave Heaven?"

4.66 CAESAR, IRVING -- (4/4/1895-12/17/1996). Lyricist, composer. Wrote mostly for New York stage but began working for films in 30's. Wrote message-bearing songs for children. Wrote "Count Your Blessings" and "Tea for Two."

4.4 CAHN, SAMMY -- (6/18/1913- ). Lyricist. Wrote many successful songs for Hollywood films, notably for Frank Sinatra, and in collaboration with Charlie Chaplin, Jimmy Van Heusen, and Jule Styne.

4.67 CALLAHAN, J. WILL -- (3/17/1874-11/15/1946). Vocalist, lyricist. Started as an accountant, then singer of illustrated songs. Wrote "Smiles."

4.5 CARMICHAEL, HOAGY -- (11/22/1899-12/27/1981). Composer, lyricist, bandleader, pianist, and singer. Abandoned law profession to pursue career in songwriting. Contributed songs to a number of very popular motion pictures.

4.68 CARROLL, EARL -- (9/16/1893-6/17/1948). Composer. Produced and directed many revues. Built two theaters in New York and had a restaurant in Hollywood. Produced movies. Hits include "Give Me All of You" and "So Long Letty."

4.69 CARROLL, HARRY -- (11/28/1892-12/26/1962). Composer. Pianist in movie theaters, cafes and vaudeville. Wrote for Winter Garden productions; wrote several Broadway stage scores. Hits include "I'm Always Chasing Rainbows" and "Trail of the Lonesome Pine."

4.70 CHAMINADE, MME. CECILE -- (born in Paris. Pianist, composer. Toured the US in 1908.

4.71 CLARIBEL (CHARLOTTE ALLINGTON BARNARD) -- (1830-1869) Composer, lyricist. English. Enormously popular in her time. Her "Come Back to Erin" is often regarded as an Irish folk song.

4.72 COBB, GEORGE L. -- (8/31/1886-12/25/1942). Composer. Began as composer of rags. Wrote for Melody magazine. First hit was "All Aboard for Dixieland."

4.6 COHAN, GEORGE M. -- (7/4/1878-11/5/1942). Composer, lyricist, actor, playwright, and producer. Best remembered for elaborately choreographed dance music, flag-waving songs, and songs for musical comedies and vaudeville. Best known for his patriotic songs, "Over There" and "Yankee Doodle Dandy."

4.73 COLUMBO, RUSS -- (1908-9/2/1934). Composer; primarily a singer, featured in Gus Arnheims band. Theme song for own band was "You Call It Madness." Also wrote "Too Beautiful for Words."

4.74 CONFREY, ZEZ -- (4/3/1895-11/22/1971). Pianist, bandleader, composer. Cut many piano rolls. Solo piano pieces have become standards: "Dizzy Fingers" and "Kitten on the Keys."

4.75 CONN, CHESTER -- (4/14/1896- 4/4/1973). Composer. Manager of publishing companies before owning own firm of Bregman, Vocco & Conn. Hits include "Don't Mind the Rain."

4.76 CONRAD, CON -- (6/18/1891-9/28/1938). Composer, pianist. Worked as theater pianist and in vaudeville; wrote for stage and movies. Had publishing firm. Wrote "The Continental," first film song awarded an Oscar; also wrote "Ma" and "Margie."

4.77 CONVERSE, CHARLES CROZAT -- (10/7/1832-4/8/1918). Composer. Studied in Europe; practiced law upon return. Composed partriotic overtures and cantatas, vocal quartettes. Wrote on philosophical and philological subjects under pen name Karl Redan. Wrote "What a Friend We Have in Jesus."

4.78 COOTS, J. FRED -- (5/2/1897-4/8/1985). Composer, pianist. Accompanied vaudeville acts; worked as song plugger; composed for Schuberts shows but returned to club dates in composing independently. Wrote "Love Letters in the Sand" and "You Go to My Head."

4.79 COSLOW, SAM -- (12/27/1902). Composer, lyricist, vocalist. Wrote for Broadway and movies; co-partner in music publishing; co-founded Soundies, song-movie shorts for coin machines. Hits include "Cocktails for Two" and "Was It a Dream?"

4.80 COWAN, LYNN -- (6/8/1888- ). Composer, actor, director, vocalist, pianist. Worked in vaudeville and as a film actor. Composed background scores for early sound film, and songs for LADIES MUST LOVE. Manager of Castle Terrace Club in Okinawa. Wrote "Kisses."

4.80 COWAN, RUBEY -- (2/27/1891-7/28/1957). Composer. Pianist in film theaters at age 13. Co-founded publishing company; wrote first show for Paramount Theater in New York; headed NBCs radio talent dept. then Paramounts radio dept. Wrote "You Can Expect Kisses from Me."

4.80 COWAN, STANLEY -- (2/3/1918- 12/13/1991). Composer, author, director, publicist. Wrote special material for orchestras, musicals, films; Produced shows for USAF during WWII. Joined father's (Rubey Cowan) firm, Rogers and Cowan. Wrote "Do I Worry."

4.81 COWARD, NOEL -- (12/16/1899-3/26/1973). Composer, lyricist, actor, playwright, producer. Born in England; began professional career at age 11. Best known of many popular songs are "I'll Follow My Secret Heart" and "I'll See You Again."

4.82 CRUMIT, FRANK -- (9/26/1889-9/7/1943). Composer, author, singer, actor. Vaudeville and stage performer. Had radio series with Julia Sanderson. Known for novelty numbers such as "Abdul Abulbul Amir."

4.83 CUGAT, XAVIER -- (1/1/1900- 10/27/1990). Bandleader, composer. Born in Spain; moved to Cuba when young; studied in Berlin; gave concert tours. Worked as a caricaturist for the LA Times. Led orchestra specializing in Spanish and Latin American music. Wrote "My Shawl," his theme song.

4.84 DANIELS, CHARLES N. -- (4/12/1878-1/21/1943). Composer, publisher. Pseudonym: Neil Moret. One of most significant ragtime entrepreneurs. Wrote first motion picture title song: "Mickey." Other songs include "You Tell Me Your Dream," "Moonlight and Roses," and "Chloe."

4.85 DANKS, HART PEASE -- (4/16/1834-11/20/1903). Composer. Singer and conductor in New York churches and concert stages. Published sacred and choral works; collaborated on three operettas. Best known for popular songs such as "Silver Threads Among the Gold."

4.86 DAVIS, BENNY -- (8/21/1895- 12/20/1979). Lyricist, vocalist. Performed in vaudeville as a child. Toured with Benny Fields as accompanist to Blossom Seeley. Hits include "Baby Face" and "Margie."

4.87 DEKOVEN, REGINALD -- (4/3/1859-1/16/1920). Composer, conductor, music critic. America's first significant composer of operetta: ROBIN HOOD the first American operetta to be performed in London. Founded the Philharmonic Orchestra in Washington, D.C. in 1902. Best known song is "Oh Promise Me."

4.88 DELEATH, VAUGHN -- (9/26/1896-5/28/1943). Vocalist, pianist, composer, lyricist. Reportedly the first woman on radio, sometimes credited with originating crooning. Played vaudeville, performed on Broadway, and recorded frequently. Hits include "At Eventide" and "Ducklings on Parade."

4.89 DEMING, MRS. L. L. -- (may be wife of Legrand L. Deming, born in Connecticut 10/29/1812.

4.7 DeROSE, PETER -- (3/10/1900-4/24/1953). Composer. Formed a radio team, The Sweethearts of the Air, with May Singhi Breen, whom he subsequently married. His most famous piece, "Deep Purple," became a commercial hit when lyrics were added.

4.3 DeSYLVA, BUDDY -- (1/27/1895-7/11/1950). Lyricist. Produced a number of hit songs with George Gershwin and particularly for the singer, Al Jolson. Also worked with Jerome Kern, Victor Herbert, and later as member of the Ray Henderson-Lew Brown songwriting partnership.

4.90 DILLON, HARRY -- (1866- 2/5/1916). Brother of John and Will. Started performing career on minstrel shows.

4.90 DILLON, JOHN -- (12/5/1882-9/2/1953). Brother of Will and Harry. Followed brother Harry into ministrel shows; first vaudeville engagement was at Tony Pastor's; toured. Operated grocery store in hometown, Cortland, NY, after retirement.

4.90 DILLON, WILLIAM AUSTIN -- (11/6/1877-2/10/1966). Composer, author, actor, businessman. Worked in vaudeville, medicine and minstrel shows; toured with Harry Lauder. Successes include "All Alone" and "I Want a Girl Just Like the Girl That Married Dear Old Dad."

4.91 DIXON, HAROLD -- ...

4.8 DONALDSON, WALTER -- (2/15/1893-7/15/1947). Composer. Hired in 1919 as staff writer for Irving Berlin Inc. Wrote songs throughout the 1920s that made him one of the most popular composers of the decade. Had many collaborations, the most successful with Gus Kahn.

4.9 DRESSER, PAUL -- (4/22/1858-1/30/1906). Composer, lyricist, performer and publisher. One of the first American performers to enter the music publishing trade. Wrote songs for burlesque and vaudeville stage shows. Considered the leading American writer of sentimental ballads of the late 19th century. Best-known song: "My Gal Sal."

4.92 DUBIN, AL -- (6/10/1891-2/11/1945). Lyricist. Served overseas in entertainment unit in WWI. Biggest song successes when teamed with Harry Warren. Hits include "I Only Have Eyes for You" and "Tiptoe Through the Tulips."

4.10 EDWARDS, GUS -- (8/18/1879-11/7/1945). Composer, lyricist, impresario, and singer. Collaborated with lyricist Will D. Cobb producing several hit songs introduced in Broadway reviews, notably Ziegfeld's Follies of 1907 and 1910. Best-known songs include "School Days" and "By The Light Of The Silvery Moon."

4.93 EDWARDS, LEO -- (2/22/1886-7/12/1978). Composer, author, producer. Brother of Gus Edwards. Worked in vaudeville; was staff writer for music publishing firms; cabaret producer. Hit songs include "Isle d'Amour," "Inspiration," and the official Boy Scout song "Tomorrow's America."

4.94 EMMET, JOSEPH KLINE -- (3/13/1841-1892). Actor, composer. Performed in a minstrel company using a broken German dialect that made him famous. Several plays starring his 'Fritz' character were written for him. Successful songs were "Emmet's Lullaby" and "Sweet Violets."

4.95 ERDMAN, ERNIE -- (10/23/1879-11/1/1946). Composer. Was pianist in the Original New Orleans Jazz Band. Worked on professional staff of Chicago music publishers. Songs hits include "Nobody's Sweetheart" and "Toot, Toot, Tootsie, Goodbye."

4.96 FAIN, SAMMY -- (6/17/1902- 12/6/1989). Composer, vocalist, pianist. Was a self-taught pianist; began composing songs while in grammar school. Very successful partnership with Irving Kahal writing songs for movies. Hits include "Dear Hearts and Gentle People," "I'll Be Seeing You," and "That Old Feeling." Nominated for the Oscar 10 times; won twice.

4.97 FEIST, FELIX -- (Wrote "Can't You See Im Lonely."

4.97 FEIST, LEO -- (1/3/1869-6/1/1930). Publisher, lyricist. When early songs didnt sell well Feist partnered with Joe Frankenthaler to start what became one of the leading publishing firms. His successes include "Those Lost Happy Days" and "Smokey Mokes."

4.98 FIELD, EUGENE -- (9/3/1950-11/4/1895). Author. Newspaper columnist for Chicago Morning News. His poems were set to music.

4.99 FIELDS, DOROTHY -- (7/15/1905-3/28/1974). Author, lyricist. At age 15 sang in an amateur show by Rodgers and Hart; worked with brother Herbert as co-librettist on several Broadway shows. Most successful collaboration was with Jimmy McHugh. Wrote "I Can't Give You Anything But Love" and "I'm in the Mood for Love." Won an Oscar with Jerome Kern for "The Way You Look Tonight."

4.100 FIORITO, TED -- (12/20/1900-7/22/1971). Composer, conductor, pianist. Began as a song demonstrator. First hit song was "Toot, Toot, Tootsie, Goodbye." Formed band in early 20's and continued to lead an orchestra in the 60's. Other hits include "Alone at Last" and "Charley, My Boy."

4.101 FISHER, FRED -- (9/30/1875-1/14/1942). Composer, lyricist. Immigrated from Germany at age 25 but soon assimilated popular music idioms. Early success was "Come, Josephine, in My Flying Machine." Started composing for films in late 20's. Hits include "Dardanella" and "Your Feets Too Big."

4.11 FOSTER, STEPHEN -- (7/4/1826-1/13/1864). Composer and lyricist of popular household, plantation, and minstrel songs of the 19th century. Produced over 200 songs of two main types: sentimental ballads of hearth and home, and songs for the famous Christy's Minstrels.

4.102 FRANKLIN, DAVE -- (9/28/1895-2/3/1970). Composer, lyricist, pianist. Pianist in publishing house at age 13; vaudeville accompanist; played nightclubs in New York and European cities. Hits include "The Anniversary Waltz" and "When My Dream Boat Comes Home."

4.62 FREED, ARTHUR -- (9/9/1894-4/12/1973). Lyricist, producer. Wrote for vaudeville; managed theater in Los Angeles; produced shows. Began writing for movie musicals in 1929. Many hits include "After Sundown," "All I Do Is Dream of You," and "Singin' in the Rain."

4.103 FRIEDMAN, LEO -- (7/16/1869-3/7/1927). Composer. Studied in Chicago and Berlin. Two biggest hits were "Let Me Call You Sweetheart" and "Meet Me Tonight in Dreamland."

4.104 FRIEND, CLIFF -- (10/1/1893-6/27/74). Composer, lyricist, pianist. Wrote for Broadway and movies; was a pianist for vaudeville performers in US and England. Also worked as a test pilot. Hits include "Give Me a Night in June" and "The Merry-Go-Round Broke Down."

4.12 FRIML, RUDOLF -- (12/7/1879-11/12/1972). Composer and pianist. One of the principal exponents of traditional operetta and early musical comedy in the United States. Collaborated with Oscar Hammerstein II and others to produce the most popular American musicals of the 1920s.

4.105 FROST, JACK -- (11/25/1893-10/21/1959). Composer, lyricist. Writer with Chicago music company; wrote special material for Eva Tanguay and Trixie Friganza; worked in advertising. Hits include "When You and I Were Young Maggie Blues."

4.106 GARBER, JAN -- (11/5/1897-10/4/1977). Violinist, bandleader, composer. Played violin in Philadelphia Symphony Orchestra; formed dance band in early 20's; still conducting into the 60's. Wrote his theme song, "My Dear."

4.107 GAY, BYRON -- (8/28/1886-12/23/1945). Composer, author, explorer. Educated at US Navel Academy and was on 1933 Byrd Expedition. Successful songs include "The Little Ford Rambled Right Along" and "The Vamp."

4.108 GILBERT, L. WOLFE -- (8/31/1886-7/12/1970). Lyricist. Started as a singer in New York clubs, writing parodies of popular songs for entertainers such as Al Jolson. Moved to Hollywood where he wrote for films and the Eddie Cantor radio show. Had his own publishing firm. Hits include "Lucky Lindy" and "Waiting for the Robert E. Lee."

4.13 GERSHWIN, IRA -- (12/6/1896-8/17/1983). Lyricist. Collaborated with various composers throughout his life, at times using pseudonym, Arthur Francis. He collaborated with brother George from 1924 until the latter's death in 1937. Their first musical comedy together was LADY, BE GOOD.

4.13 GERSHWIN, GEORGE -- (9/26/1898-7/11/1937). Composer, conductor, and pianist. Composer of Broadway shows and one of America's most famous composers of popular concert music. Brought jazz and classical styles together in concert pieces, African American folk music and opera, e.g. PORGY AND BESS.

4.109 GILLESPIE, HAVEN -- (2/6/1888-3/14/1975). Lyricist. Left job as journeyman printer and began writing songs in the mid-20's. Wrote for film, theater and radio. Awarded Freedoms Foundation Award for "God's Country." Hits include "Santa Claus Is Comin' to Town" and "You Go to My Head."

4.110 GLOVER, CHARLES W -- (1806-3/23/1863). Composer. English. Violinist in orchestras of Drury Lane and Covent Garden; musical director of Queen's Theatre. "Do They Think of Me at Home" was one of his greatest successes in the USA.

4.111 GLOVER, STEPHEN -- (mid 1812-1870). Composer. English. One of his most popular songs was "What Are the Wild Waves Saying?"

4.112 GOETZ, E. RAY -- (6/12/1886-6/12/1954). Composer, lyricist, producer. Contributed to many Broadway musicals. Hits include "For Me and My Gal" and "Yaaka Hula Hickey Dula."

4.113 GOODHART, AL -- (1/26/1905-11/30/1955). Composer, pianist. Early career as radio announcer, vaudeville pianist, special material writer. With USO during WWII. Hits include "Auf Wiedersehen, My Dear," "I Apologize," and "Who Walks in When I Walk Out?"

4.114 GORDON, MACK -- (6/21/1904-3/1/1959). Lyricist, vocalist. Boy soprano in minstrel shows; comedian and singer in vaudeville. Hits include "Chatanooga Choo-Choo," "Time on My Hands," and "You'll Never Know" which won an Academy Award.

4.115 GREEN, JOHN W. -- (10/10/1908- 5/15/1989 ). Composer, arranger, pianist, ` bandleader. Accompanied various singers; formed own band. On many radio shows in New York then moved to Hollywood. MGM musical director for many years. Scored and conducted three Academy Award films. Hits include "Body and Soul" and "I Cover the Waterfront."

4.116 GUEST, EDGAR -- ( 8/20/1881-8/5/1959). Poet, Newspaperman for Detroit Free Press. Poems Syndicated in nearly 300 papers; 17 volumes of poetry published. Apeared on national radio for many years.

4.117 GUMBLE, ALBERT -- (9/10/1883-11/30/1946). Composer, pianist for publishers. Entertained troops during WWII. Hits include "Are You Sincere?" and "How's Every Little Thing in Dixie?"

4.118 HALL, WENDELL WOODS -- (8/23/1896-4/2/1969). Composer, author, singer, ukelele player. Known as "The Red-Headed Music Maker." Played the ukelele on radio and in vaudeville; made world radio tour in 20's. Worked as advertizing executive. Successful songs include "Underneath the Mellow Moon" and "Whispering Trees."

4.14 HAMMERSTEIN, OSCAR, II -- (7/12/1895-8/23/1960). Lyricist, librettist, producer, and publisher. Produced and wrote some of the most successful Broadway musicals in collaboration with composer Richard Rodgers and Jerome Kern. Many of his works later appeared in Hollywood films.

4.14 HAMMERSTEIN, OSCAR, I -- (5/8/1846-8/1/1919). Composer. An impresario who wrote several works, including orchestral pieces for use before or as intermezzi in his productions, a ballet, MARGUERITE (1896), and the operettas, SANTA MARIA (1896) and THE KOHINOOR (1893).

4.119 HANLEY, JAMES F. -- (2/17/1892-2/8/1942). Composer, pianist. Accompanist in vaudeville. Produced WWI army show TOOT SWEET. Wrote for early sound movie shorts. Hits include "Second Hand Rose" and "Zing! Went the Strings of My Heart."

4.57 HARRIGAN, EDWARD -- ...

4.15 HARRIS, CHARLES K. -- (5/1/1865-12/22/1930). Composer, lyricist, and music publisher. Known principally as a successful publisher of popular music. First publisher to use an illustration of a performer on a song sheet cover. Most successful song: "After the Ball." Cofounder of ASCAP.

4.120 HARRISON, ANNIE FORTESQUE -- (Lady Arthur Hill)(1851-1944). Composer. Best known songs include "In the Gloaming."

4.14 HART, LORENZ -- (5/2/1845-11/22/1913). Lyricist and librettist. Collaborated with composer Richard Rodgers on the scores of several successful Broadway musicals and Hollywood productions.

4.121 HAYS, WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE. -- (7/19/1837-7/22/1907). Began writing songs at age 19. Very popular because of charming melodies, easy execution of music, and lyrics that projected authentic feelings.

4.122 HEMANS, MRS FELICIA DOROTHEA -- (1794-1835). Very prolific and popular English poet. Composer for some of the songs was her younger sister Harriet Mary Browne.

4.3 HENDERSON, RAY -- (12/1/1896-12/31/1970). Composer. Collaborated extensively with lyricists Lew Brown and Buddy DeSylva. Wrote many of the hit tunes of the 1920s and 1930s. Produced music of wide popular appeal performed by Al Jolson and others on stage and in films.

4.16 HERBERT, VICTOR -- (2/1/1859-5/26/1924). Composer, cellist, and conductor. Successful particularly as composer of American operettas, of which forty (40) were written between 1894 and 1924, mostly romantic and having happy endings.

4.123 HILL, DEDETTE LEE -- (11/2/1900-6/5/1950). Collaborated with her husband, Billy Hill, and later with Johnny Marks.

4.123 HILL, BILLY -- (7/14/1899-12/24/1940). Also used nom de plume George Brown. Composer, author, pianist, violinist, conductor. Worked as a cowboy and surveyors assistant in the west. Led first jazz band in Salt Lake City. Best known songs include "In the Chapel in the Moonlight" and "The Last Roundup."

4.124 HILLIARD, BOB -- (1/28/1918-2/1/1971). Lyricist. Wrote scores for Broadway. Successes include "Our Day Will Come" and "They've Got an Awful Lot of Coffee in Brazil."

4.113 HOFFMAN, AL -- (9/25/1902-7/21/1960). Composer, lyricist, drummer. Bandleader in hometown, Seattle; drummer in NY night clubs; songwriter early 30's through 50's. Hits include "Black Coffee" and "Mairzy Doats."

4.125 HOWARD, JOSEPH E. -- (2/12/1878-5/19/1961). Composer, author, actor, singer, producer, director. Boy soprano in vaudeville; wrote Broadway stage scores; also produced and directed on Broadway. Entertainer in night clubs, radio, TV. Hits include "Goodbye, My Lady Love" and "I Wonder Who's Kissing Her Now."

4.126 INGRAHAM, HERBERT -- (7/7/1883-8/24/1910) Music Director of touring theater companies. Led own orchestra. Staff composer for Shapiro Bernstein Publishing Co. Brother of Roy.

4.126 INGRAHAM, ROY -- (12/6/1893-?) Composer, author, singer. First song published at age 17. Had own orchestra; toured in vaudeville. Wrote for several motion pictures; radio broadcaster. Wrote special material for Sophie Tucher and others. Brother of Herbert.

4.17 JACOBS-BOND, CARRIE -- (8/1861-12/1946). Composer, lyricist, and music publisher. Called "the Riley of the Music World," her songs, such as "A Perfect Day," and "I Love You Truly," are beloved by many.

4.127 JENKINS, GORDON -- (5/12/1910-5/1/1984). Composer, author, conductor, arranger. Played organ in movie theater at age 10; quit high school to play piano in speakeasy. Pianist, arranger for leading bands; Broadway radio conductor. Grammy Award for arrangement of "It Was a Very Good Year" as recorded by Frank Sinatra. Hits include "P.S. I Love You" and "When a Woman Loves a Man."

4.128 JENTES, HARRY -- (8/28/1897-1/19/1958). Composer, pianist. Successes include "He May Be Old But He Has Young Ideas" and "Put Me to Sleep with an Old-Fashioned Melody."

4.18 JOHNSON, CHARLES L. -- (12/3/1876-12/28/1950). Composer and ragtime pianist. Known for his most popular ragtime piece, "Dill Pickles" (1906); also, piano pieces that evoked American Indian culture.

4.129 JONES, ISHAM -- (1/31/1894-10/19/1956). Composer, bandleader, pianist. Formed and led outstanding dance band, touring U.S. and Europe. Many radio appearances and recordings. Equally well known as composer. Two standards are "It Had to Be You" and "I'll See You in My Dreams."

4.19 KAHN, GUS -- (11/6/1886-10/8/1941). Lyricist. Writer of lyrical material for vaudeville performances and Hollywood film musicals. Collaborated with such leading composers as Donaldson, Gershwin, Romberg, Whiting, and Van Alstyne.

4.130 KALMAR, BERT -- (2/16/1884-9/18/1947). Lyricist, publisher. Worked in tent shows and vaudeville as a child. Wrote scores for Broadway and songs for movies; wrote screenplays. Hits include "I Wanna Be Loved by You," "Three Little Words," and "Who's Sorry Now?"

4.131 KASSEL, ART -- (1/18/1896-2/3/1965). Composer, author, vocalist, saxophonist, lyricist and bandleader. Early radio and TV appearances as bandleader after service in World War I. Composed his two theme songs, "Doodle Doo Doo" and "Hells Bells."

4.132 KENNEDY, HARRY -- (circa 1800-1894). Minstrel; ventriloquist who used two dummies simultaneously. Brother William H. Kennedy was his publisher and occassional collaborator.

4.133 KENNY, NICK -- (2/3/1895- ? ). Lyricist, newspaper reporter, produced early amateur radio show; radio editor of New York Daily Mirror. Successes include "Love Letters in the Sand" and "Gone Fishin'."

4.133 KENNY, CHARLES -- (6/23/1898- ? ). Composer, violinist, author. Collaborated with brother Nick.

4.20 KERN, JEROME -- (1/27/1885-11/11/1945). Composer. Considered the most prolific composer of Broadway musicals. He extended the popularity of the musical play form by introducing songs and themes, avoiding operatic styles, and using jazz rhythms and chords instead to characterize the dramatic demands of plot.

4.134 KING, ROBERT A. -- (9/20/1862-4/14/1932). Composer. Wrote under several noms de plume including Mary Earl ("Beautiful Ohio"), R. A. Wilson, and Mrs. Ravenhall. Staff composer for music publishers. Appeared in vaudeville. Hits include "I Scream, You Scream, We All Scream for Ice Cream."

4.135 KIPLING, RUDYARD -- (12/30/1865-1/18/1936). Author, poet. Best remembered for his celebrations of British imperialism, his tales and poems of British soldiers in India and Burma, and his children's stories. He won the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1907.

4.136 KLICKMANN, F. HENRI -- (2/4/1885- ? ). Composer, pianist, violinist; arranger for Broadway musicals, music publishers, dance bands, and performers. Professional violinist, pianist, and accordianist. Successes include "Sing Me the Rosary" and "Sweet Hawaiian Moonlight."

4.137 KOEHLER, TED -- (7/14/1894-1/17/1973). Lyricist. Began music career as pianist for nickelodeon, silent film theaters. Wrote for Cotton Club, other stage shows, and films. Most successful collaboration with Harold Arlen ("Stormy Weather"). Also wrote "I Love a Parade" and "I've Got the World on a String."

4.138 KRAMER, ALEX -- (9/13/1893-8/25/1955). Composer, arranger; cellist in theater orchestras; arranger for vaudeville and muscial comedy singers. Compiled and arranged many music folios. Collaborated with wife, Joan Whitney. Hits include "High on a Windy Hill" and "Candy."

4.139 KUMMER, CLARE (Clare Rodman Beecher) -- (1/9/1888-4/21/1958). Composer, playwright. Wrote scores and librettos for Broadway. Successes include "Bluebird."

4.140 LAWNHURST, VEE -- (11/24/1905- 5/16/1992). Pianist, singer, composer. Arranged piano rolls. Original member of Roxy's Radio Gang. Successful songs include "Sunday Go to Meetin' Time."

4.141 LAWRENCE, JACK -- (4/7/1912- ? ). Composer, lyricist. Organized bands for the armed services. Wrote "Tenderly," and English Lyrics for "Ay, Ay, Ay" and "Cielito Lindo."

4.142 LEONARD, EDDIE, -- (10/18/1875-7/29/1941). Composer, author, singer, actor; professional baseball player. Performed in minstrel shows, sang in variety shows. Fought in the Spanish American War. Wrote "Ida, Sweet as Apple Cider."

4.143 LESLIE, EDGAR -- (12/31/1885-1/20/1976). Lyricist, author, publisher. Wrote special material for performers and films. Hits include "For Me and My Gal" and "Moon over Miami."

4.144 LEWIS, AL -- (4/18/1901-4/4/1967). Composer, lyricist; became a music publisher later in career. Hits include "Now's the Time to Fall in Love."

4.145 LEWIS, SAM M. -- (10/25/1885-11/22/1959). Lyricist. Started as runner in a brokerage house. Sang in cafes; wrote material for self and other performers, also for stage and movies. Hits include "Dinah," "Five Foot Two, Eyes of Blue," and "How Ya Gonna Keep' Em Down on the Farm?"

4.146 LIEBER, JERRY -- (4/25/1933- ). Lyricist. Grew up in Baltimore hearing R&B. Struggled with acting in Hollywood when met and teamed with Mike Stoller to write many hits, including "Searching."

4.147 LITTLE, JACK -- (5/28/1900-4/9/1956). Pianist, composer, lyricist, vocalist, bandleader. Had a popular radio porgram in 20's. Led a band in the 30's. Successes include "In a Shanty in Old Shanty Town."

4.148 LOESSER, FRANK -- (6/29/1910-7/28/1969). Composer, lyricist, publisher. Wrote songs for college shows and later for Army shows. Worked as newspaper reporter and caricaturist in vaudeville. Became leading writer for Broadway and Hollywood musicals. Founded own publishing company. Won Oscar and Tony Awards and the Pulitzer Prize. Among many hits are "Two Sleepy People" and "On a Slow Boat to China."

4.149 LOGAN, FREDERICK KNIGHT -- (10/15/1871-6/11/1928). Composer. Wrote sentimental ballads in collaboration with his mother, Viginia. Wrote "Missouri Waltz."

4.149 LOGAN, VIRGINIA K. -- (1800's). Mother of Frederick Knight Logan.

4.150 LOMBARDO, CARMEN -- (7/16/1903-4/17/71). Arranger and composer in brother Guy Lombardo's dance band for forty years. Played sax with heavy vibrato and sang most vocals.

4.151 LYMAN, ABE -- (8/4/1897-10/23/1957). Composer, author, singer. Led own dance orchestra, The Californians.

4.69 MacDONALD, BALLARD -- (10/15/1882-11/17/1935). Lyricist. Began writing material for vaudeville after attending Princeton. Lyricist, librettist for Broadway musicals.

4.152 MANCINI, HENRY -- (4/16/1924-). Composer. Very popular composer of songs and themes for film ("Moon River" and "The Days of Wine and Roses") and TV ("Peter Gunn" and "Mr Lucky"). Began career in Pittsburgh dance bands pre-WWII.

4.153 MARKS, EDWARD B. -- (11/28/1865-12/17/1945). Publisher. Started company with focus on popular music but added the more serious composers. Bought the Cohan Publishing Company; and was the agent for Polish and English companies. His own early song success was "The Little Lost Child."

4.154 MASTERS, FRANKIE -- (4/12/1904- ). Composer, bandleader. Led hotel and ballroom bands in New York and Chicago; on the West Coast circuit in 30's and 40's; TV shows in the 50's. Active in the midwest into the 70's.

4.155 McGLENNON, FELIX -- ...

4.156 McHUGH, JIMMY -- (7/10/1894-5/23/69 ). Composer. Early fame with score for BLACKBIRDS OF 1928. Popular composer for movies during 30's-40's. Important collaboration with many songwriters, especially Dorothy Fields. Hits include "I'm in the Mood for Love" and "When My Sugar Walks Down the Street."

4.157 McKINLEY, MABEL -- (1879?-6/7/1937) Pseudonym: Vivian Grey. Daughter of President McKinley's youngest brother, Abner. Married Dr. Hermanus Baer of Reading, PA.

4.21 MERCER, JOHNNY -- (11/18/1909-6/25/1976). Composer and lyricist with a gift for incorporating southern vernacular speech and images of country settings into songs. Wrote lyrics for Broadway musicals and words and music to many popular songs.

4.158 MERRILL, BLANCHE -- (7/23/1895-10/5/1966). Author, lyricist. Wrote special material for Eva Tanguay, Fanny Brice, and other prominent singers; also wrote for musicals. Successes include "Jazz Baby."

4.159 MERRILL, BOB -- (5/17/1921- 2/17/1998). Composer, lyricist. Leading writer of novelty songs in the 50's, including "How Much Is That Doggie in the Window" and "If I Knew You Were Comin' Id've Baked a Cake."

4.145 MEYER, GEORGE W. -- (1/1/1884-8/28/1959). Composer of many popular songs during the first half of the 20th Century, including "For Me and My Gal," "Tuck Me to Sleep in My Old Tucky Home," and "Sittin in the Corner."

4.160 MILLARD, HARRISON -- (11/27/1829-9/10/1895). Composer. Singer early in career, studied in Italy and toured England and the Continent. Returned to U.S.; wounded in the Civil War. Wrote about 350 songs and many church works. Set UNCLE TOM'S CABIN to music.

4.161 MILLARD, MRS. P. -- ...

4.73 MILLER, NED -- (8/2/1899-1/26/1990)

4.22 MILLS, KERRY -- (2/1/1869-12/5/1948). Composer and music publisher. Specialized in ragtime songs and instrumental pieces. His ragtime cakewalks and the non-ragtime piece, "Meet Me in St. Louis," popularized by Judy Garland, were particularly successful.

4.162 MOHR, HALSEY -- ...

4.163 MOORE, THOMAS -- (6/28/1779-2/26/1852). Irish poet, composer, lyricist, musician.Provided words and music to a selection of Irish songs and did much to kindle an interest in little known Irish tunes. As poet, he appealed to a wide range of tastes.

4.23 MONACO, JAMES V. -- (1/13/1885-12/17/1945). Composer. Earned reputation as a Tin Pan Alley composer playing rag music in cabarets and nightclubs. Contributed several song hits to Broadway and Hollywood musical productions, among which is the song, "You Made Me Love You," made famous by Judy Garland in 1937.

4.164 MORGAN, CAREY -- (12/25/1885-1/6/1960). Composer. Wrote special material for vaudeville and scores for Broadway. Hits include "Rain" and "My Own Iona."

4.165 MORGAN, RUSS -- (4/19/1904-8/8/1969). Bandleader, composer. Arranger for Victor Herbert, Fletcher Henderson, Louis Armstrong, Chick Webb, among many others. Developed muted wha-wha trombone style with Freddy Martin. Wrote songs for Cotton Club Revues. Musical driector for Brunswick Records.

4.166 MORSE, THEODORA -- (7/11/1890-11/10/1953). Lyricist. Wrote under pseudonyms D. A. Esrom, Dorothy Terriss, and Dolly Morse. Most famous songs written in collaboration with husband Theodore Morse: "Three O'Clock in the Morning" and "My Wonderful One."

4.167 MORSE, THEODORE -- (4/13/1873-5/24/1924). Composer. Collaborated with several lyricists including his wife, Theodora. Successes include "M-O-T-H-E-R" and "Blue Bell."

4.168 MUIR, LEWIS F. -- (1884-1/19/1950). Composer. Ragtime pianist. Hits include "Take Me to That Swanee Shore" and "Waiting for the Robert E. Lee."

4.169 NELSON, STEVE -- ( ? ). Hits include "Frosty the Snowman."

4.169 NELSON, EDWARD G. -- (3/18/1885-3/30/1969). Composer, conductor; pianist in nightclubs and cabarets; orchestra leader. Wrote material for vaudeville and songs for movies. Successes include "Peggy O'Neil."

4.169 NELSON, EDWARD G., JR. -- (3/26/1916-). Composer, author. Served with Special Services during WWII.

4.24 NEVIN, ETHELBERT -- (11/25/1862-2/17/1901). Composer. Wrote songs and short piano pieces, sometimes overly sentimental but expressive of gentler and amorous moods.

4.170 NOBLE, RAY -- (12/17/1903- ). Composer, pianist, bandleader. Established as outstanding leader of dance bands in England and then in USA after emigrating. Radio work including Burns & Allen show. Successes include "Good Night Sweetheart" and "The Very Thought of You."

4.54 NORWORTH, JACK -- (1/5/1879-9/1/1959). Vocalist, Composer, lyricist. Entertainer in vaudeville and Broadway; blackface comedian in minstrel shows. Performed and collaborated with wife Nora Bayes. Their most famous song "Shine on Harvest Moon." Wrote lyrics to "Take Me Out to the Ball Game."

4.171 OLMAN, ABE -- (12/20/1888-1/4/1984). Composer, publisher. Started as a song demonstrator; established LaSalle Music Company. Wrote for early movie musicals. Hits include "Oh, Johnny Oh" and "Down Among the Sheltering Palms."

4.172 PALEY, HERMAN -- (5/5/1879-11/4/1955). Composer, publisher, radio executive. Studied music professionally. Worked as staff composer, then executive with music publishing companies. Director of New York Stage Door Canteen shows; talent scout and composer for Fox Films.

4.173 PARISH, MITCHELL -- (7/10/1900-4/2/1993). Lyricist. Attended Columbia and NYU. Staff writer for music publisher; began writing lyrics in 20's. Among the most famous songs are "Deep Purple," "Moonlight Serenade," and "Star Dust."

4.174 PETRIE, H. W. -- (3/4/1857-5/25/1925). Composer, vocalist. Performed in minstrel shows. Successes include "Asleep in the Deep" and "I Dont Want to Play in Your Yard."

4.175 PIANTADOSI, AL -- (7/18/1884-4/8/1955). Composer, pianist; accompanist in vaudeville. Popularized ragtime when touring US, Europe, and Australia. Worked for NY publishing house. Hits include "Pal of My Cradle Days."

4.25 PORTER, COLE A. -- (6/9/1891-10/15/1964). Composer and lyricist. One of the most thoroughly trained popular songwriters, whose theatrically elegant, sophisticated, and musically complex songs contributed to America's most popular music of the 20th century.

4.176 POWELL, W. C. -- (Pseudonym: Polla)

4.114 REVEL, HARRY -- (12/21/1905-11/3/1958). Composer and pianist. Born in London, had early classical piano training. Moved to USA and accompanied Mack Gordon in vaudeville. They started writing for Ziegfeld but were in Hollywood by 1933. The team broke up in 1939. He founded Realm Music Co., a publishing house, in 1949. Successes include "Did You Ever See a Dream Walking?"

4.177 ROBERTS, LEE S. -- (11/12/1884-9/10/1949). Composer, pianist. Worked in piano manufacturing business. Developed QRS artist-recorded music rolls and catalogs. Pianist on radio. Hits include "A Little Birch Canoe and You" and "Patches."

4.178 ROBINSON, J. RUSSEL -- (7/8/1892-9/30/1963). Composer, lyricist, pianist. Began performing and composing as a teenager. Played with Original Dixieland Band; wrote songs for London revues; made piano rolls; accompanied singers. Pianist and vocal coach for radio show CHILDRENS HOUR. Hits include "Margie."

4.179 ROBISON, WILLARD -- (9/18/1894-6/24/1968). Composer, lyricist, pianist, vocalist, bandleader. Radio performer most active in 20's and 30's. Formed Deep River Orchestra; often featured African American folk music and spirituals. Radio shows "Deep River Music" and "Plantation Echoes." Hits include "Cottage for Sale."

4.14 RODGERS, RICHARD -- (6/26/1902-12/30/1979). Composer. Collaborated with Lorenz Hart and Oscar Hammerstein II, whose partnership led to a series of musicals that enjoyed unprecedented artistic, critical, and financial success in both Hollywood and Broadway in the 1930's and 1940's.

4.26 ROMBERG, SIGMUND -- (7/29/1887-11/9/1951). Composer and conductor. Composed musical scores in the traditional style of the operetta of the 1920s. Proved to be more flexible than rival Rudolph Friml in adapting to the new tastes and musical styles emerging in American music of the 1930's.

4.180 ROONEY, PAT -- (7/4/1880-9/9/1962). Composer, vocalist. Dancer-singer in vaudeville and on Broadway, first with sister, then with wife Marion Brent. Successes include "You Be My Ootsie, I'll Be Your Tootsie."

4.27 ROOT, FREDERICK W. -- (6/13/1846-?). Composer and music teacher. He was the son of George Frederick Root. One of the country's most active and successful singing teachers, F. W. Root's School of Singing describes the first of his many singing methods.

4.27 ROOT, GEORGE F. -- (8/30/1820-8/6/1895). Composer and music educator. Pseudonym: G. Friedrich Wurzel. Best known for his songs of sentiment and patriotism published during the Civil War era. Also composed over 30 hymns and gospel songs rivaling Stephen Foster in number and popular success.

4.28 ROSE, BILLY -- (9/6/1899-2/10/1966). Lyricist and producer. Provided the lyrics to some of the most successful popular songs of the 1930's and 1940's. Also produced several Broadway musicals and perhaps known more for his editing, polishing, and promoting of songs than as a lyricist.

4.181 ROSE, VINCENT -- (6/13/1880-5/20/1944). Composer, pianist, vocalist, bandleader. Early training in Italy. Formed orchestra 1904. Successes include "Whispering."

4.182 ROSENFELD, MONROE H. -- (1861-12/13/1918). Pseudonyms: F. Heiser and F. Belasco. Composer, journalist. Credited with coining the term 'Tin Pan Alley.' Wrote more than 1,000 songs.

4.183 ROSSITER, WILL -- (3/15/1867-6/10/1954). Composer, publisher. Pseudonyms: Cleve Williams and W. R. Williams. Immigrated to USA from England in 1881. Appeared at Tony Pastor's. Very successful publisher of popular music; initiated innovative marketing techniques for sheet music. Wrote "I'd Love to Live in Loveland with a Girl Like You."

4.130 RUBY, HARRY -- (1/27/1895-2/23/1974). Composer. Professional pianist at age 16; song plugger for Tin Pan Alley publishers; vaudeville performer. Had many collaborators; partnership with Bert Kalmar produced many hits including score for Marx Brothers' ANIMAL CRACKERS; wrote theme for TV series THE REAL McCOYS.

4.130 RUBY, HERMAN -- (3/15/1891-7/31/1959). Composer. Older brother of Harry Ruby. Hits include "My Sunny Tennessee" and "Cecelia."

4.184 RUSSELL, HENRY -- (12/24/1812-12/8/1900). English. Composer, pianist; sang with children's opera troupe; studied composition in Italy. Came to US, worked as organist and choirmaster, then toured as one of the few major singers of his time to present unassisted entertainment. Wrote "The Old Arm Chair" and "Woodman! Spare That Tree!"

4.185 SANDERS, JOE -- (10/15/1896-5/15/1965). Composer, pianist, vocalist, arranger, bandleader. Co-leader of the Coon-Sanders Orchestra in 20's and 30's. Known as The Old Lefthander from early days as amateur baseball pitcher. Hits include "Got a Great Big Date with a Little Bitta Girl."

4.186 SCHWARTZ, JEAN -- (11/4/1878-11/30/1956). Composer, pianist. Prolific leading composer from turn of century. Pianist in cafes, publishing houses. Teamed with William Jerome on Broadway shows and performed with him in vaudeville. Successes include "Hello Central, Give Me No Man's Land."

4.140 SEYMOUR, TOT -- ( 10/23/1889-8/31/1966). Lyricist of the 30's. Worked for New York publishing house. Wrote special material for Fanny Brice, Belle Baker, Sophie Tucker, Mae West; also songs and scripts for raido shows.

4.187 SHAND, TERRY -- (10/1/1904- 11/11/1988). Composer, lyricist. Pianist in silent movie theaters early in career. Pianist/vocalist in 30's; later had own band. Hits include "Dance with a Dolly."

4.188 SHAY, LARRY -- (10/10/1897- 2/22/1988). Composer, arranger, pianist. WWI military service. Musical director for MGM; program director for NBC radio in New York. Hits include "Get Out and Get Under the Moon."

4.144 SHERMAN, AL -- (9/7/1897-9/15/1973). Composer, lyricst. As pianist provided mood music for silent movies; pianist for publishing house. Successes include "On a Dew-Dew-Dewy Day."

4.144 SILVER, ABNER -- (12/28/1899- 11/24/1966). Composer, lyricist, pianist. Dance band pianist; worked for publishing house. Song publisher. Composed many popular songs from 1920 into 60's, including songs for Elvis Presley movies JAILHOUSE ROCK, KING CREOLE, and G.I. BLUES.

4.189 SIMONS, SEYMOUR B. -- (1/14/1896-2/12/1949). Composer, lyricist, bandleader. Wrote Michigan Union operas while attending the University. In AAF during WWI, and with USO in WWII. Wrote material for revues in London and Paris early 20's, then led dance band in US. Later record company executive. Hits include "Breezin Along with the Breeze" and "All of Me."

4.190 SKYLAR, SUNNY -- (11/11/1913- ). Composer, lyricist, author; band singer with Abe Lyman, Paul Whiteman, and others; also worked as a single act. Wrote band material for Betty Hutton and others. Hits include "Besame Mucho."

4.191 SMITH, HARRY B. -- (12/28/1860-1/2/1936). Lyricist. Librettist-lyricist of Broadway musicals 1887-1932, one of most prolific. Brother of Robert B. Smith. Collaborated with DeKoven on first American comic opera. Music and drama critic for Chicago newspapers. Adaptations of French and German operettas. Successes include "The Sheik of Araby."

4.192 SMITH, LEE OREAN -- (1874-?)

4.191 SMITH, ROBERT B. -- (6/4/1875-11/6/1951). Lyricist. Reporter for Brooklyn Eagle. Publicity for Casino Theater, wrote material for shows there. Collaborated with brother Robert B. Smith in Broadway shows. Adapted some stage shows to musicals. Successes include "All the World Loves a Lover."

4.193 SNYDER, TED -- (8/15/1881-7/16/1965). Composer, lyricst, pianist. Early career pianist in cafes and publishing houses. Hired Irving Berlin as staff pianist for his publishing company; collaborated in early songs; Berlin later became partner. Successes include "Whos Sorry Now?"

4.194 SOLMAN, ALFRED -- (5/6/1868-11/15/1937)

4.29 SOUSA, JOHN PHILIP -- (11/6/1854-3/6/1932). Composer, bandleader, and writer. Known as the "March King" and as the most important figure in the history of American bands and band music. His contributions to band brass instrumentation includes the sousaphone and a bass tuba with bells, built in the 1890's.

4.195 SPENCER, HERBERT -- (5/27/1878-8/26/1944). Composer, arranger, singer. Studied voice with Enrico Caruso. In vaudeville for 12 years. Accompanist and arranger for prominent singers. Successes include "There's Egypt in Your Dreamy Eyes."

4.196 SPINA, HAROLD -- (6/21/1906-7/18/1997). Composer, lyricist. Pianist, arranger for publishing house; wrote special material. Founder-President of Telefilm. Director and producer for record companies. Hits include "Annie Doesnt Live Here Anymore."

4.197 STEPT, SAM -- (9/18/1897-12/1/1964). Composer, lyricist, bandleader. Pianist for publishing house. Vaudevile accompanist for Mae West and Jack Norworth among others. Led dance band in early 20's. Songwriting mainly in 30's and 40's. Hits include "Don't Sit Under the Apple Tree" and "That's My Weakness Now."

4.30 STERLING, ANDREW B. -- (1874-1955). Composer and lyricist. Collaborated extensively with the popular Tin Pan Alley songwriter, Harry Von Tilzer, providing the lyrics to some of the most popular songs, including so-called coon songs of the early 1900's as "One Sunday Afternoon" and "Down Where The Cotton Blossoms Grow."

4.153 STERN, JOSEPH W. -- (1/11/1870-3/31/1934)

4.146 STOLLER, MIKE -- (3/13/1933-). Composer. Early piano lessons in New York. Moved to Los Angeles and met Jerry Lieber. First hits were "Kansas City" and "Hound Dog."

4.198 STRAIGHT, CHARLEY -- (1/16/1891-9/21/ or 10/17/1940). Composer, lyricist, pianist, bandleader. Early career in vaudeville. Leader of band in 30's. Musical director of company producing player-piano rolls. Hits include "Funny, Dear, What Love Can Do."

4.31 STYNE, JULE K. -- (12/31/1905- ). Composer. Collaborated with Sammy Cahn on several Broadway musicals. Became one of the most prolific theatrical composers of the post-WWII era, creating scores for over 20 musicals performed by such artists as Carol Channing, Mary Martin, Ethel Merman, and Barbra Streisand.

4.32 SULLIVAN, SIR ARTHUR S. -- (5/13/1842-11/22/1900). English composer and conductor. Composed comic operas whose music, written to librettos by W.S. Gilbert, represents a peculiarly English style of operetta that achieved exceptional renown in both England and the United States. One of the most widely popular of all British composers.

4.199 TAYLOR, TELL -- ...

4.200 THORNTON, JAMES -- (12/5/1861-7/27/1938). Composer, performer. Worked as a singing waiter, then toured in vaudeville, often performing with wife, Bonnie. Successes include "When You Were Sweet Sixteen."

4.201 TIERNEY, HARRY -- (5/21/1890-3/22/1965). Composer, pianist. Toured US and abroad as concert pianist. Worked for Remick publishing house. Wrote scores for several Broadway shows. Hits include "Alice Blue Gown."

4.202 TOBIAS, CHARLES -- (8/15/1898-7/7/1970). Lyricist, composer, vocalist. Prolific songwriter mid-20's into 50's. Collaborated with brothers Harry and Henry. Early career sang in vaudeville, for publishing houses, and on radio. Formed publishing company in 1923. Hits include "Those Lazy Hazy Crazy Days of Summer."

4.202 TOBIAS, FRED -- (3/25/1928-). Lyricist. Son of Charles Tobias. Wrote special material for Carol Burnett and Julius Monk, among others. Made Broadway debut as co-lyricist of Ellington's POUSSE CAFE. Wrote lyrics for TV specials THE GIFT OF THE MAGI and QUINCY. Songs recorded by Patti Page, Tony Bennett, Steve Lawrence, Elvis Presley and others.

4.202 TOBIAS, HARRY -- (9/11/1895-12/15/1994). Lyricist. Brother Charles among several collaborators; most songwriting in 30's and 40's. Wrote special material for movies. Hits include "It's a Lonesome Old Town."

2.202 TOBIAS, HENRY -- (4/23/1905 - 12/5/1997). Lyricist, composer pianist, vocalist. Wrote for vaudeville and night club performers and for radio. Pianist, singer and disc jockey; TV producer for CBS. Collaborated with brothers Charles and Harry. Directed and produced shows for summer stock and resort hotels. Hits include "What Are You Doing the Rest of Your Life?"

4.33 VAN ALSTYNE, EGBERT -- (3/5/1878-7/9/1951). Composer and lyricist. Best known for his collaboration with lyricist Harry H. Williams, with whom he wrote songs exploiting Indian themes and the popular "In The Shade of the Old Apple Tree." Later joined forces with lyricist Gus Kahn.

4.203 VINCENT, NAT -- (11/6/1889-6/6/1979). Pianist on vaudeville circuit. One of radio's "Happy Chappies." Remained active in later years despite total blindness. Wrote "I'm Forever Blowing Bubbles."

4.34 VON TILZER, ALBERT -- (3/29/1878-10/1/1956). Composer, lyricist, and publisher. Wrote some of the most popular songs of the early 20th century, and contributed songs to a number of films and Broadway productions. Like brother Harry, Albert's songs incorporate dance rhythms and slang idioms typical of Tin Pan Alley that have since become standards.

4.35 VON TILZER, HARRY -- (7/8/1872-1/10/1946). Composer, lyricist, performer, and publisher. Wrote and published over 2,000 of his own songs and other sentimental and moralistic ballads. Also wrote so-called coon songs for blackfaced minstrels and vaudeville acts of the period. Plugged and published many of the Gershwin and Berlin songs that later became famous.

4.204 WALLACE, WILLIAM VINCENT -- (3/11/1812-10/12/1865). Irish composer, pianist, violinist. Debuted as composer at age 22. Moved to Australia, then various North and South American cities; finally settled in London where he had his great success with MARITANA.

4.36 WARREN, HARRY -- (12/24/1893-9/22/1951). Composer, lyricist. Wrote songs for Broadway reviews, including several co-authored and produced with Billy Rose. Considered one of the most successful composers of American films. The wide dissemination of his music through the film medium made him one of the most influential of all 20th-century songwriters.

4.205 WASHINGTON, NED -- (8/15/1901- 12/20/1996). Lyricist. Early career in vaudeville as M.C. and agent, and writing special material. Popular lyricist from late 20's into 60's; wrote for Broadway shows and movies, including title songs. Hits include "High Noo n" and "When You Wish Upon a Star."

4.206 WAYNE, BERNIE -- ( ? ). Composed "There She Is," the Miss America Pageant Theme Song.

4.207 WAYNE, SID -- (1/26/1923-). Composer, author. Wrote songs and comedy material for TV. Popular songs include "Nintey- nine Years" and "Two Different Worlds."

4.208 WEBSTER, JOSEPH PHILBRICK -- (2/18/1819-1/18/1875). Composer and performer. Toured in concerts of popular music. Managed a Connecticut troupe, The Euphonians, and composed many of their successful songs. Public opposition to slavery forced several moves. Published over 400 songs, ballads, patriotic songs and hymns.

4.209 WEBSTER, PAUL FRANCIS -- (12/20/1907- 3/22/1984). Lyricist. After college became seaman, dancing instructor. To Hollywood mid-30's for movie work. In 50's and 60's wrote many movie and title songs; had several Academy Award nominations and awards. Hits include "Giant" and "Love Is a Many Splendored Thing."

4.210 WEIL, KURT -- (3/2/1900-4/3/1950). German. Composer, arranger, pianist. Very successful career in Germany; left in 1933 with wife Lotte Lenya, first to Paris then to US in 1935. Composed many Broadway musicals in the 40's including KNICKERBOCKER HOLIDAY ("September Song") and THE THREEPENNY OPERA, first produced in Germany.

4.37 WENDLING, PETER -- (6/6/1888-4/8/1974). Composer, lyricist, and pianist. Wrote several hit songs of the post-WWII era in partnership with Bert Kalman and Edgar Leslie. Most popular song: "Oh, What a Pal Was Mary."

4.38 WENRICK, PERCY -- (1/23/1887-3/17/1952). Composer, lyricist, pianist, and singer. Best known for his pre-WWII popular songs such as "Put On Your Old Grey Bonnet," "Moonlight Bay," and others, that became favorites of barbershop quartets and sing-alongs. Known in Tin Pan Alley as "The Joplin Kid".

4.39 WHITING, RICHARD A. -- (11/12/1892-2/10/1938). Composer and lyricist. Among the most successful Tin Pan Alley songwriters of the 1920s and 1930s. He was one of the first important Hollywood composers to began writing music for silent film and later for sound productions such as the very successful movie, HOLLYWOOD HOTEL.

4.138 WHITNEY, JOAN -- (6/26/1914-7/12/1990). Composer, lyricist, vocalist. Own radio show; sang in clubs and hotels. Formed publishing firm with husband Alex Kramer. Hits include "Candy" and "High on a Windy Hill."

4.211 WILLIAMS, GUS -- (7/19/1847-1/16/1915). Composer, actor, singer. Performed at Tony Pastor's before playing legitimate leading roles. Toured in vaudeville.

4.212 WOOODBURY, ISAAC BAKER -- (10/23/1819-10/26/1858). Composer. Studied in London, Paris. Taught music; was conductor, editor, writer. Compiled music collections. Popular songs include "Be Kind to the Loved Ones at Home."

4.213 WOODS, HARRY -- (11/4/1896-1/14/1970). Composer, lyricist. Pianist and singer while student at Harvard. Wrote for English movies mid-30's. Hits include "When the Red, Red Red Robin Comes Bob-Bob-Bobbin' Along" and "Side by Side."

4.214 WRUBEL, ALLIE -- (1/15/1905-12/13/1973). Coposer, lyricist, bandleader. Saxman in bands; led own band; theater manager. Wrote for Warner Brothers, then Disney. Hits include "Gone with the Wind" and "Zip-a Dee-Doo-Dah."

4.40 YELLEN, JACK -- (7/6/1892-4/17/1991 ). Lyricist. Permanent lyricist for Tin Pan Alley songwriter, Milton Ager. Also wrote special material for entertainer Sophie Tucker for over 20 years. A famous song by the Yellen/Ager combination was "I Wonder What's Become of Sally." "Happy Days Are Here Again" was another great hit.

4.41 YOUMANS, VINCENT M. -- (9/27/1898-4/5/1946). Composer. Wrote and produced three successful Broadway musicals. Published fewer than 100 songs, but 18 of these were considered standards by ASCAP, including "Tea For Two," "Take A Chance," and "I Want To Be Happy."

4.145 YOUNG, JOE -- ...

4.215 YOUNG, VICTOR -- (b. Chicago, 8/8/1900-11/11/1956). Composer, violinist, conductor. Worked in radio and theater as violinist, arranger, conductor. Wrote over 200 scores for movies, including SHANE. Song hits include "Stella by Starlight" and "Sweet Sue."

4.216 YOUNG, VICTOR -- (b. Bristol, Tennessee, 4/9/1889-9/2/1968). Pianist and composer. Studied and toured in Europe. Accompanist to prominent singers. Music director in Thomas A. Edison's Experimental Laboratory. Composed for about 300 movies including some of the earliest sound productions.

4.217 ZAMECNIK, JOHN S. -- (5/14/1872-6/13/1953). Composer. Classical training included time under Antonin Dvorak. Violinist in Pittsburgh Orchestra under Victor Herbert. Wrote operettas.
Materials in Other Organizations:
Sam DeVincent Collection of American Sheet Music, Lilly Library, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana

This collection contains duplicates of materials in the Smithsonian collection, as well as materials acquired by Mr. DeVincent after the donation to the Smithsonian. The phonograph records described above were transferred to the University of Missouri at Kansas City.
Materials in the Archives Center, National Museum of American History:
Donald J. Stubblebine Collection of Musical Theater and Motion Picture Sheet Music and Reference Material, 1843-2010 (AC1211)
Forms Part Of:
Series 4: Songwriters forms part of the Sam DeVincent Collection of Illustrated American Sheet Music .

An ongoing, updated list of DeVincent topical series is available via the Smithsonian finding aid portal.
Provenance:
This collection was purchased by the Smithsonian Institution in 1988 from Sam and Nancy Lee DeVincent.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Citation:
The Sam DeVincent Collection of Illustrated American Sheet Music, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0300.S04
See more items in:
Sam DeVincent Collection of Illustrated American Sheet Music, Series 4: Songwriters Volumes I and II
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0300-s04
Online Media:

The Simmons Company Records

Creator:
Simmons Company  Search this
Extent:
9 Film reels
88 Cubic feet (172 boxes, 16 oversize folders)
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Film reels
Advertisements
Business records
Videotapes
Date:
1892-2000
Scope and Contents:
Series 1 includes: news articles about the company and the Simmons family; photographs of the machinery, factories, factory workers, products and showrooms; annual reports; various corporate periodicals; audit reports; patents; and materials relating to sleep research conducted by Simmons. Series 2 includes product catalogues, scrapbooks of advertisements, advertising artwork and mechanicals, sales kits, point of purchase items, marketing plans and surveys, sales training videos and filmstrips, and commercials. Of special note are the materials on Simmons involvement in the New York World's Fair in 1964-65 and the XIII Winter Olympic Games in 1980. Most newsprint in this collection has been photocopied onto acid-free bond paper and the originals destroyed. Unless otherwise noted, the materials appear in date order within each subseries or sub-subseries. Physically, the materials are arranged by type and size. Series 1: CORPORATE MATERIALS, 1892-2000, n.d.

Subseries A: History, 1892-2000, n.d. - Kenosha, WI, history (news articles and other documents), Simmons Company history (news articles, correspondence, and commemorative publications), and Simmons Centennial materials. Of note are transcripts of a series of interviews conducted for the 1996 commemorative book; the interviews are in alphabetical order by the interviewee's last name. Some WWII materials are also located within this subseries. Subseries B: Photographic Materials, 1892-1990s [bulk dates] - Included here are photographs (black and white, color), negatives, transparencies, and slides.

Sub-subseries 1: Machines, 1925-1969, n.d. - Features photos of the devices used to make Simmons mattress and furniture including the Marshall pocket machine, stitching machines, and coiling machines. The photographs are arranged alphabetically by type of machine, and there under by date.

Sub-subseries 2: Products, 1936, 1962, 1970s-1990s, n.d. - Some of the photographs may have been used in advertisements, catalogues, and other Simmons publications.

Sub-subseries 3: Personnel, 1917, 1937-1974, 1980s, n.d. - Photographs of Z.G. Simmons, Grant Simmons, Jr., sales force, and board members. Of interest are the sales force photos featuring meeting initiations and "All-American Annual Trips" for top selling employees. Sub-subseries 4: Facilities, 1892, 1920s, 1936, 1940, 1955, 1960s, 1975, 1980s, n.d. - Photographs of domestic and foreign manufacturing plants, office buildings, warehouses, and stores.

Sub-subseries 5: Other, 1915, 1935, 1940, 1964, 1979, n.d. - Slides used for presentations and photographs that do not fit into the above sub-subseries. Subseries C: Annual Reports, 1946, 1949, 1952-1983 - Reports given to stockholders focusing on Simmons financial returns and business activities for the year. Subseries D: Publications, 1926-1994 [bulk dates] - Periodicals published by Simmons for their staff (sales force, plant employees, etc.) and outside parties.

Sub-subseries 1: Owl, 1947-1954 - A nearly complete run of this in-house organ; it was published about once every two months.

Sub-subseries 2: Bedpost, 1984, 1986, 1988-1998 --In-house organ. There are no examples of an in-house organ that may have been published between 1954 and 1984.

Sub-subseries 3: Other Publications, 1926, 1929, 1941, 1970s, 1980s, 1994 - Items published by Simmons and sent to merchandisers. Subseries E: Business Records, 1903-1987 [bulk dates]

Sub-subseries 1: Records, 1903-1998, n.d. - Consists, in part, of correspondence, speeches, personnel directories, and financial accounting books. Of note is the folder of materials on Simmons participation in atomic testing in 1955.

Sub-subseries 2: Presentations, Studies, and Reports, 1936, 1958, 1960, 1970, 1980, 1987, n.d. - Business plan presentation from Gulf & Western and Wickes. Issues of Consumer Reports magazine featuring Simmons products. Subseries F: Audit Reports, 1917-1952, 1959-1967, 1977 - Year-end financial audits for Simmons Company, its subsidiaries, and foreign incarnations. Subseries G: Legal Matters, 1914-1977 [bulk dates] - Federal Trade Commission activities, bills of sale, licensing agreements, trademarks on Simmons logos, and lawsuit exhibits. Subseries H: Patents, 1904-1954, ca. 1960s, n.d. - Correspondence and legal documents for foreign and domestic patents, many by John Gail. Also included here are the Patent Committee meeting minutes. Subseries I: National Association of Bedding Manufacturers (NABM), 1949, 1952, 1960s-1970s, n.d. - Materials reflect Simmons involvement with this organization. Several Simmons employees held high ranking positions within NABM. Subseries J: Sleep Research Materials, 1929-1970s, 1994, n.d. - Materials relating to Simmons sleep research endeavors, especially the Sleep Research Center at the Mellon Institute. Included are journal articles, booklets about sleep and bedding, and a scrapbook of news clippings related to a 1956 article, "Sleep--ust 80 Minutes a Night." Series 2: MARKETING, 1896-1990s, n.d.

Subseries A: Catalogs, 1896-1956, 1970s, 1980, n.d. - The earliest catalogs are from the Northwestern Wire Mattress Company. Catalogs from the regional distributors of Simmons, as well as from England and Canada. Subseries B: Price Lists, 1939, 1940, 1952-1957 - Institutional and divisional price lists for Simmons products. Subseries C: Records of Marketing, 1920s-1930s, 1950s, 1970s-1990s, n.d. [bulk dates] - This subseries reflects the business materials used to market Simmons mattresses to consumer groups and merchandisers including artwork for advertisements, mattress labels, television and radio commercial scripts, and pamphlets aimed at consumers. Subseries D: Advertisements, 1920s-1990s, n.d. - A nearly complete continuum of Simmons advertising. The scrapbooks were dismantled to ensure proper preservation. They have been kept intact and the pages numbered to ensure order. The contents of the scrapbooks, in many cases, are duplicated both in the loose advertising and in other scrapbooks. A few of the scrapbooks were completely dismantled and integrated into the loose advertising. There is no record of the original order of these scrapbooks.

Sub-subseries 1: Consumer Advertisements, 1920s-1990s, n.d. - Advertising pamphlets, mailers, local advertisements, and national advertising campaigns. Competitors' advertisements are included in this sub-subseries.

Sub-subseries 2: Trade Advertisements, 1920s-1980s, n.d. - The trade advertisements are aimed at the bedding industry and related home furnishings publications. Literature for hospitals, hotels, and interior decorators is found here. Some trade advertising is located in scrapbooks with the consumer advertising; an effort has been made to note these occurrences in this finding aid. Subseries E: Sales Kits, 1931, 1933, 1946, 1950s-1998, n.d. - These kits were mailed or presented by Simmons sales force members to dealers/merchandisers. The materials feature Simmons products, upcoming promotions, and advertisements that could be customized for each store's location. **Please note, the Sales Kits, Sales Force Materials, and Dealer Materials, in some instances, are interchangeable. Similar items can be found in each subseries. It is therefore wise to look in all three areas to find comprehensive information. Subseries F: Point of Purchase Aids, 1960s-1990s, n.d. - Items placed at the store to be used in conjunction with Simmons products. These include counter cards, informational cards and pamphlets, and display material. Subseries G: Sales Force Materials, 1923-1927, 1931, 1937-1939, 1940s-1980s, n.d. - Materials aimed at the sales force featuring Simmons products, upcoming promotions, goals and objectives in selling the products, and correspondence. Sometimes these materials could also be shown to dealers/merchandisers. The "All-American Annual Trip" materials are found here, featuring the winners (the top sellers), travel itineraries, and commemorative posters. Subseries H: Dealer Materials, 1920s-1980s, 1990, 1998, n.d. - Materials aimed specifically at the dealer/merchandiser of Simmons products. These items feature Simmons products, upcoming promotions, and advertisements that could be customized for each store's location. Many contain promotion and publicity items designed to help the dealer/merchandiser sell Simmons products. Subseries I: Marketing Studies and Research, 1933, 1939-1949, 1986-1989 - Simmons used marketing studies to customize advertising and further promote products to the proper demographic. A study done in Danbury, CT, Simmons "Mattress Buyers : Their Homes and Occupations" (1933), and the "Magazine Interview Promotion" (1936) contain photographs of the mattress buyers and their homes, personal information, and reasons why they chose to buy a Simmons mattress. Subseries J: World's Fair Materials, ca. 1964-1965 - Simmons participated in the 1964-65 New York World's Fair. This subseries reflects their preparation and participation mainly through artwork and photographs. Most of the preparation was probably done years prior to the Fair taking place. Subseries K: Olympic Materials, 1978-1980 - Simmons was an official sponsor of the XIII Olympic Winter Games in 1980 which took place in Lake Placid, NY. Official Olympic sponsor materials make up the bulk of this subseries. Olympic Games related advertisements can be found in Series 2:D:1 and 2:F. Subseries L: Audio/Visual Materials, 1940s-1990s - Film, video, filmstrips, and audio materials featuring sales force training, commercials, and point-of-purchase videos for the consumer to view in the store. **The materials are currently arranged by medium. This arrangement will change; please see the audio-visual archivist.

Sub-subseries 1: Videos, 1940s-1970s, 1983-1990s, n.d. - Training videos for sales force, in-store videos, television appearances on MSNBC and QVC, and commercial compilations.

Sub-subseries 2: Films, 1970s, 1980, n.d. - Commercials, films sent to dealers featuring upcoming promotions.

Sub-subseries 3: Filmstrips, 1963-1964, n.d. - Informational strips on sleep research, strips directed at sales force training, and a factory tour.[16]

Sub-subseries 4: Audio, 1963, 1965, 1976-1979, 1991, n.d. - Cathy Rigby's fitness program LP, sales force training, radio commercials, and sales meeting recordings. Audiocassette and reel-to-reel.
Arrangement:
This collection is organized into two series.

Series 1: Corporate Materials, 1892-2000

Series 2: Marketing, 1896-1990s
Biographical / Historical:
An article in the Simmons in-house publication The Owl states Zalmon G. Simmons "was not the inventor or first manufacturer of bed springs. His contribution was in lowering the price so that everyone could afford them. He took a hand-made item that sold for around $5 wholesale, and developed machinery which would enable its sale for as little as 80 cents."[1]

Simmons was born in Montgomery County, New York, in 1828. He moved to Kenosha, Wisconsin, at the age of fifteen with $3.00 in "tangible cash assets."[2] Upon finishing school, Simmons became a teacher and worked as a clerk in a general store; eighteen months later he bought the business.[3] Simmons was an enterprising individual and eventually became the President of the Rock Island Railway Company, the Northwest Telegraphy Company (which was bought by Western Union), and the First National Bank of Kenosha. In addition, Simmons served as mayor of Kenosha.

On April 16, 1871, Simmons purchased a cheese box factory, which also made wooden telegraph insulators for his telegraph company. As payment for a debt at his store, Simmons accepted a patent for a handmade, woven-wire bedspring.[4] Thus the Simmons legacy of mattress making was born. The company incorporated in 1884 as the Northwestern Wire Mattress Company.[5] The name was changed to the Simmons Manufacturing Company in 1889. "By 1891 the company was the largest of its kind in the world."[6]

When Zalmon Simmons died in 1910, his son, Zalmon Simmons, Jr., assumed power and continued expanding the company. "By 1919 the company had plants from coast to coast plus sixty-four warehouses and the beginnings of an export business."[7] Zalmon Simmons, Jr. became Chairman in 1932 and his son, Grant G. Simmons, became President of the company.

Since it appeared on the market, the Simmons name has become synonymous with its best selling product, the Beautyrest mattress. Simmons introduced the Beautyrest in 1925 for the price of $39.50, about three to four times what the consumer was paying for a wire mattress at the time. Immediately the company began advertising using an innovative testimonial campaign featuring "celebrities" like Henry Ford, George Bernard Shaw, and Thomas Edison. By 1929 Beautyrest mattress sales had reached $9 million.[8] Grant G. Simmons wrote, "The consumer demand for Beautyrest stimulated by our national advertising literally forced hundreds of retailers who then had no interest in doing business with Simmons to carry our products."[9]

Card tables and folding chairs were added to the Simmons line in 1926. In 1940, the Hide-A-Bed sofa (which grew out of the studio couch of the 1930s) was born. Fold-out springs and mattresses were engineered to create the pull-out bed.[10] The Hide-A-Bed became one of the company's most famous products manufactured through the 1980s.[11] During WWII the company shifted its production to wartime needs, manufacturing 2,700 different items.[12] Almost immediately after the end of the War, Simmons resumed production; and in 1947 it introduced the Babybeauty mattress. Other Simmons mattress models have included, most notably, the Deepsleep and Maxipedic.

Throughout the years the Simmons Company has had many innovators and inventors make improvements to its mattresses and manufacturing machinery. John Marshall's pocketed-coil spring and John Gail's improvements and modifications to the manufacturing equipment are many of the most significant contributions. Together, Marshall's coil and Gail's pocketing machine made the Beautyrest mattress a reality.

The Sleep Research Foundation, established in1946 with a grant from the Simmons Company, "instituted a vast research program into the scientific aspects of sleep...dedicated to an objective study of sleep from a physiological and medical point of view."[13] The Sleep Research Center and its findings were a common feature in Simmons advertising.

Simmons has continued to use advertising as a way to make its brand known to consumers. Celebrity endorsements and "glamour girls in expensive lingerie" have been a mainstay in Beautyrest advertising.[14] Newspaper advertisements featuring so-called sale prices also have fueled demand for the products.

Company headquarters moved to New York City in 1923 and then to Atlanta, Georgia in 1975, where the company still resides. In 1979, Gulf & Western acquired the company, shifting control to outside the family for the first time. Wickes Corporation purchased Simmons from Gulf & Western in 1985. In 1991, Merrill Lynch Capital Partners, Inc. acquired a majority interest in the company. Today, Simmons has 17% of the bedding market share, second only to Sealy with 22%.[15]

[1]. "Zalmon G. Simmons." The Owl, December 1952, p. 10-11. Box 1, Folder 4.

[2]. "Kenosha Bank Celebrates 90 Years; Zalmon Simmons Is Remembered." Kenosha Evening News, 17 May 1941, n.p. Box 1, Folder 3.

[3]. Ibid. n.p.

[4]. "History of Simmons Company." Report to Stockholders for 1946: Diamond Anniversary, 1871-1946, p. 4. Box 1, Folder 3.

[5]. "Brief History of Simmons Company." ca. 1941. Box 1, Folder 2.

[6]. "History of Simmons Company." Report to Stockholders for 1946: Diamond Anniversary, 1871-1946, p. 5. Box 1, Folder 3.

[7]. "Simmons: The Bedtime Story That Became a Legend." Advertising News From Newsweek, 1969, p. 3. Box 1, Folder 5.

[8]. Simmons, Grant, Jr. "Simmons Company, 1870-1963." p. 7-8. Box 1, Folder 5.

[9]. Ibid. p. 11.

[10]. "Simmons: The Bedtime Story That Became a Legend." Advertising News From Newsweek, 1969, p. 3. Box 1, Folder 5.

[11]. In 1990, the Simmons Company sold the division that made Hide-A-Beds and recliners and licensed the use of the name to a manufacturer.

[12]. "Chronology of Simmons Company." ca. 1955. Box 1, Folder 4.

[13]. Simmons, Grant, Jr. "Simmons Credits Research and Merchandising in Sales Rise." The Christian Science Monitor, 28 June 1957. Box 1, Folder 4. & "Simmons History." ca. 1955. p. 3. Box 1, Folder 4.

[14]. Simmons, Grant, Jr. "Simmons Company, 1870-1963." p. 9. Box 1, Folder 5.

[15]. Encyclopedia of Consumer Brands,1994 ed. S.v. "Simmons Beautyrest" and "Sealy."
Related Materials:
Materials at the Archives Center

Warshaw Collection of Business Americana, ca. 1724-1977 (Beds and Bedding) (AC0060) Ivory Soap Advertising Collection (AC0791)

Breck Girl Collection, 1936-1995 (AC0651) Edward J. Orth Memorial Archives of the New York World's Fair, 1939-1940 (AC0560)

Larry Zim World's Fair Collection (AC0519) Louis S. Nixdorff 1928 Olypic Games Collection, 1926-1978 (AC0443) Lloyd A. Strickland Collection of 1936 Olympics Photographs, 1936 (AC0743)
Provenance:
The collection was donated by the Simmons Company through Mr. Charlie Eitel, Chairman and CEO, and Mr. Donald Hoffman, Senior Vice President of Marketing, to the Archives Center, National Museum of American History, in June 2000.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Bedding industry  Search this
Sleep  Search this
Mattresses  Search this
Genre/Form:
Advertisements
Business records -- 20th century
Videotapes
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0731
See more items in:
The Simmons Company Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0731
Online Media:

Hills Bros. Coffee, Incorporated Records

Creator:
Hills Bros. Coffee, Inc.  Search this
Extent:
65 Cubic feet
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Date:
1875 - 1965
Summary:
Records of the Hills Bros. Coffee Company, Incorporated, documenting overall operations of the company, the creation of advertising materials, and development of the coffee trade.
Scope and Contents:
The collection is divided into thirteen series.

Series 1, Hills Family Papers, 1856-1942; undated, consists primarily of personal and business related materials of Austin H. Hills Sr., Austin Herbert Hills Jr. and Herbert Gray Hills. Austin Herbert Hills Sr. was the father of Austin Herbert Hills Jr. and Reuben Wilmarth Hills founders of Hills Bros. Coffee Company Incorporated. Herbert Gray Hills is the son of Austin Herbert Hills Jr. In addition, there are home movies created in 1933 by members of the Hills family. The series is divided into three subseries.

Subseries 1.1, Austin Herbert Hills, Sr. Papers, 1856-1875; undated, consists primarily of materials related to his business affairs. Born in Rockland, Maine and a ship builder by trade, Austin Sr. opened a butter, eggs and cheese business in 1863. These materials are a miscellaneous assortment of correspondence and accounting ledgers relating to the partnership of Hills, Rice & Company. In addition, there is an article from the Daughters of the American Revolution Magazine about Harriet Heal Hills (Mrs. Austin H. Hills). Mrs. Hills joined the Oakland chapter in 1904 and remained a very active member most of her life. Her father was John Heal who served as corporal in the continental army. The materials are arranged in chronological order by date.

Subseries 1.2, Austin Herbert Hills, Jr. Papers, 1875-1923, contain correspondence which relate to both business and personal matters. The correspondence is arranged in the order that Mr. Hills maintained which is in alphabetical order by the last name of the recipient or sender and then in chronological order. In addition, there is an accounting ledger for Austin Hill's diary business prior to the creation of the Hills Bros. Coffee Company. Subseries 1.3, Herbert Gray Hills Correspondence, 1923-1942, contain handwritten notes, letters, telegrams and other related materials. Subjects discussed include annual stockholders meetings, golf tournaments, quantities of merchandise shipped to various locations, programs for division managers' meetings, a copy of the proposed demands by office workers' union and I. L. A. 38-44 on San Francisco business and industrial establishments, and advertising. The materials are arranged in chronological order by date as they were maintained by Mr. Hills. Series 2, Background Materials, 1896-1988; undated, contain a substantial amount of information relating to the Hills family and the history of the coffee company. Most of these materials are unpublished chronologies, historical sketches, newspaper clippings, presentations written by T. Carroll Wilson, and magazine articles. There is also a genealogy of the Hills family which dates from 1602-1950. One of the more interesting histories is the informal memoirs of Frank Veirs, Jr., who began as a plant employee and later became a factory superintendent. Veirs maintained detailed notes on the company's activities dating from 1896 to 1946. These notes are personal in nature but add to the historical events of the company. Reminiscences of daily routines, the management styles of the Hills brothers and company loyalty among employees are major themes throughout his writings. In 1948, NW Ayer advertising agency created the Hills of San Francisco which commemorates the twenty fifth anniversary of NW Ayer & Sons service to Hills Bros. Coffee, Incorporated. Limited copies of this publication were distributed to Hills Bros. top executives. The 1967 publication of a Background Story of Hills Bros. Coffee, Incorporated was designed by Walter Landor and Associates and based on a slide presentation created by T. Carroll Wilson. The original script and slides are included among these materials. In addition, there are local newspaper clippings on the history of the family and the company dating from 1922 to 1931. In 1988, Hill Bros. Company, Incorporated hired history associates to create a catalogue of artifacts and archival materials in its holdings. With the assistance of T. Carroll Wilson key items were chosen and described in the catalogue. There are a number of folders divided by the sections of the catalogue and include original samples followed by a color photocopy of the catalogue and two black and white copies. Materials are arranged in chronological order by date.

Series 3, Coffee Reference Files, 1921-1980; undated, are materials relating to the cultivation, packaging, distribution, advertising, marketing and consumption of this beverage primarily in the United States. The materials provide an in-depth analysis of the history of the coffee trade and Hills Bros. Coffee Company's unique position in its developments. The series is divided into two subseries. Subseries one is material created by Hills Bros. primarily for the company but also includes information directed at the coffee trade and consumers. Subseries two is materials created by the coffee industry and other publishers primarily for the trade with a few materials directed toward consumers.

Subseries 3.1, Hills Bros. Coffee Company Literature, 1921-1976; undated, consist of publications created by the company for promotional and educational use. Such materials provide a significant amount of information on both the history of the coffee industry, and the history of Hills Bros. Coffee Company. Important publications include a copy of "Behind the Cup" (1928) which outlines the history of Hills Bros. from the establishment of the Arabian Coffee and Spice Mills to the building of the home office and plant on Harrison Street in 1926. This publication was also used as a companion piece to the film of the same title and was created by the NW Ayer advertising agency. Hills Bros. Coffee Company publications relating to the coffee trade include a 1922 booklet entitled Cultivation and Preparation of Coffee and Tea which was distributed widely to teachers and schools. The Art of Entertaining, another NW Ayer Advertising Agency creation, was designed to educate the consumer about coffee with tips on entertaining and coffee recipes. In addition, there are a series of inspirational books written by Coleman Cox for Hills Bros. which was distributed to its employees. A number of presentations written by T. Carroll Wilson for professional meetings and publications are also included among these materials. The materials are arranged in chronological order.

Subseries 3.2, Coffee Industry Literature, 1924-1980; undated, consists of publications including articles, annuals, proceedings from conventions, pamphlets and books. Topics of discussion include major growers, coffee roasting and packaging, the history of coffee as a consumer product, marketing, distribution and recipes. These materials assist in placing Hills Bros. and its major developments in the field in historical perspective. The majority of the publications was created by the Pan American Coffee Bureau and includes materials from the Coffee Industries of America, National Coffee Association, Federation of Coffee Growers of Columbia, American Coffee Bureau, Associated Coffee Industries of America and the Bureau of Coffee Information. Materials are arranged in chronological order.

Series 4, Advertising Materials, circa 1890s-1987; undated, comprise the largest series in the collection. These materials consist of scrapbooks, advertising cards, postcards, letterhead stationery, labels, proof sheets, advertising forms, advertising portfolios, printed advertisements, schedules for newspaper advertising, storyboards for television commercials and packaging. Researchers will be able to trace the evolution of Hills Bros. advertising campaigns using a variety of formats promoted through newspaper, magazine, radio and television. In addition, there are materials that document the decision making process. Records show the amount of money Hills Bros. allocated annually for advertising and budget proposals. This information supports evidence of the percentage of advertising costs versus the total overall operating budget. Correspondence between Hills Bros. and NW Ayer Advertising Agency provide insight into the client and advertising agency relationship. The series is organized into eleven subseries.

Subseries 4.1, Scrapbooks, 1906-1978; undated, consist of seven volumes containing materials created by the company to document their products and packaging. Six of the scrapbooks are conventionally sewn and are relatively small compared to the scrapbooks referred to by the company as its historical albums in series two. These volumes contain primarily circulars, labels, postcards, advertising cards and printed advertisements. A number of the materials relate to the teas and spices that were sold by the company as well as its coffee. In addition, there is a scrapbook of mostly newspaper clippings documenting the introduction of Hills Bros. High Yield coffee in 1978. All of these scrapbooks are in fairly good condition and the contents remained securely attached to the pages. Given the sound condition of the volumes, the only preservation measure that was taken was to box the volumes. The boxes provide physical protection during storage and assist in safe retrieval and transport. The outside of the scrapbooks are identified as labels but contain other types of material. The scrapbooks are arranged by the number assigned to it by the company and then in chronological order.

Subseries 4.2, Historical Albums, 1911-1967, were created by the company and provide an overview and rich source of the company's visual materials arranged in chronological order by year. The earlier volumes were created by one of the Hills brothers and later carried out by various members of the staff. The albums contain a variety of materials such as paperboard boxes, pamphlets, metal cans, newspaper clippings, photographs, printed advertisements, street car advertisements and labels. These albums presented a number of preservation concerns. Many of the materials in the albums are partially loose or detached from the scrapbook pages because the rubber cement has lost its adhesive properties. Some of the oversized items are folded to fit the scrapbooks and show signs of deterioration. The size of these mammoth volumes made it extremely difficult to handle and transport them. Structurally the volumes could not support the contents. Based on the assumption that these volumes were valuable research tools, the recommendation was to disband the scrapbooks. Still maintaining the original order of the volumes the pages were numbered and only fifty pages were housed per box. Loose materials were sleeved and also kept in order. Most of the materials in these scrapbooks can be found in other parts of the collection. Subseries 4.3, Ephemera, 1890s-1987, contain some of the earliest forms of advertising and materials also found in the scrapbooks and historical volumes. The material consists of advertising cards, advertising forms, artwork, business cards, envelopes, handbills, record cards, letterhead stationery, postcards, labels, and point of purchase displays. Some of the materials are for products sold by the company before they became exclusively involved in the coffee market. Materials are arranged in alphabetical order by type.

Subseries 4.4, Portfolios, 1919-1985, undated consist of packets of material created by Hills Bros. and generally directed toward retailer grocers. Salesmen would utilize these portfolios as a means of introducing advertising campaigns and convincing grocers of how well supported the products were. The portfolios often included printed advertisements; directions for window and store displays; price lists of products by the case; suggested stocking requirements and/or guidelines; schedules for newspaper, radio or television coverage; advertising forms; story boards; illustrations of colorful outdoor advertisements; coupons and premiums and literature explaining the theme of each campaign. Researchers will find these materials useful in understanding product advertising from the point of view of the retail grocer. The materials document Hills Bros. suggestions for selling their products, display methods and customer satisfaction techniques. Materials are arranged in chronological order by date.

Subseries 4.5, Proof sheets, 1922-1968, consist mostly of materials created by NW Ayer & Son Advertising Agency. Generally these proof sheets are black and white copies of what appeared in magazines or journals. At the bottom of each page pertinent information such as publication title, location and date is often included. The changing messages of advertising and shifts in target audiences can be seen through the use of storylines, particularly in the earlier proof sheets. Researchers should also consult the NW Ayer Collection finding aid located in the Archives Center reference room for copies of proof sheets not included among these materials. Materials are arranged in chronological order.

Subseries 4.6, Advertising Forms, 1922-1971; undated, consist of in-store wall posters or window displays to attract the attention of the customer and to assist in selling the products. Graphically interesting and colorful, noted artists such as Norman Rockwell created some of these advertising forms. All of the advertising forms are numbered and some are dated. There is also a scrapbook containing advertising forms. In addition, there are electrotypes, mats and multi-graph plates also included among the materials. Series five contains photographs of some of the advertising forms with information about intended use in the store. Materials are arranged first by size and then in order by the number assigned to each advertising form. Photographs of some of the advertising forms can be found in the reference room located in the Archives Center.

Subseries 4.7, Newspaper and Magazine Advertising, 1926-1971; undated, consists primarily of schedules for newspaper advertisements. The schedules date from 1928-1933 and were prepared by NW Ayer & Sons Advertising Agency for the Chicago, Denver, Kansas City, Los Angeles, Minneapolis, Portland and San Francisco divisions. These materials provide useful information including the name of the publication and the amount of money that was spent for a particular time period. There are estimates for advertising in both newspapers and magazines which were also prepared by NW Ayer & Sons. The estimates document the company's management of printed advertisements noting where they appeared, the date, length of publication and cost. Hills Bros. correspondence to salesmen and grocers discuss advertising campaigns and suggest ways to sell more coffee. In addition, there are recapitulation of newspaper advertising costs and circulation for the Chicago, Denver, Los Angeles, Minneapolis, Portland and San Francisco divisions. Other materials include a report, typescripts of newspaper advertisements, dealer materials for coffee guide newspaper advertisement, press releases for newspaper advertisements, mailers to dealers about newspaper advertisements, samples of newspaper advertisements for the Chicago market and newspaper advertising circulation for the Midwest market. Materials are arranged in chronological order by date.

Subseries 4.8, Sampling Campaigns, 1928-1941 consist primarily of materials related to the sampling campaign conducted in the fall of 1941. The plan for the campaign was developed by the Reuben H. Donnelley Corporation and consisted of mailings and home-to-home coffee distribution. The sampling territories were divided into three geographical locations. Section one, the Michigan campaign, comprised of Detroit and its suburbs including Wayne county and the cities of Jackson, Ann arbor, Ypsilanti, Pontiac, Port Huron, Lansing, Flint, Saginaw, Bay City and Midland. Section two, the Ohio and Indiana campaign, included Cleveland and its suburbs, Toledo and suburbs (including Adrian and Monroe, Michigan), Indianapolis and suburbs and Fort Wayne. Section three, North Dakota, Minnesota and upper Michigan peninsula campaign, included the towns around Fargo and Grand Forks, North Dakota from Houghton and Calumet, down to Escanaba and over to Sault Ste. Marie in the upper Michigan peninsula. The procedures for conducting the campaign; information relating to sampling territories; shipping schedules for coffee samples from the warehouse in Edgewater, New Jersey; notes relating to sampling figures; instructions for carriers; 1etters and booklets to grocers; radio announcements; coffee grams; pages from telephone directories for Grand Rapids, Michigan, Peoria, Illinois and Milwaukee, Wisconsin and an article from the Detroit News Booster dated September 1941 about the campaign are included among the materials. In addition, there is a small amount of material related to sampling campaigns conducted from 1928-1934. Materials are arranged in chronological order by date.

Subseries 4.9, General Files, 1923-1978; undated consist of information used primarily by the company as reference materials. There is information on coffee advertising; the history of the National Broadcasting Company (NBC) advertising; correspondence; jig saw puzzle advertisements; printed advertisements; memorandum relating to original vacuum pack; excerpts of letters written by the advertising department in 1948; scrapbook of competitor's instant coffee advertisements in San Francisco; outline of merchandising, sales promotion activity in 1930-1952 with correlation bar chart and cross reference to advertising report, ground and instant coffee television advertising history; advertising plan for ground and instant coffee; budget proposal; information on outdoor advertising; scripts for radio commercials; advertising plans for instant coffee; dealers information on radio and television advertising and materials relating to electrotypes and mats. The materials are arranged in chronological order by date. Subseries 4.10, NW Ayer Advertising Agency Materials, 1943, 1958 consist primarily of the scrapbooks that were created by the agency in 1958 for Shirley Temple's Storybook. This program was a series of sixteen hour-long children's programs on National Broadcasting Company (NBC). Hills Bros. Coffee sponsored the programs which included Beauty and the Beast, Rumpelstiltskin, Nightingale, Legend of Sleepy Hollow, Dick Whittington and his Cat, Land of Green Ginger, Sleeping Beauty, Rip Van Winkle, Little Lame Prince, Magic Fishbone, Wild Swans, Hiawatha, Rapunzel, Ali Baba, Emperor's New Clothes and Mother Goose. The scrapbooks were assembled in the order that the programs aired and included clippings for the public and the trade. In addition, there is a menu for an event for Hills Bros. and NW Ayer employees in 1943.

Subseries 4.11, Foote, Cone & Belding Advertising Agency Materials, 1963-1968; undated, consists of material created for print, radio and television advertisements. There is a list of printed advertisements and examples of the ones that were created from 1963-1967. There are also scripts that were created for radio commercials dating from 1967-1968. Some of the printed advertisements are from the same campaigns as the radio commercials. The bulk of the material is storyboards created for television commercials and advertising instant coffee from 1965-1967. These materials are arranged in alphabetical order by title. In addition, there are also competitive consumer promotion and publicity reports prepared by the agency for Hills Bros. These materials informed Hills Bros. about the advertising activities of major competitors. The reports date from 1967-1968 and include information about Butter-Nut, Chase & Sanborn, Folgers, Maxim, Maxwell, MJB, Nescafe, Tasters Choice and Yubon. The materials are arranged in alphabetical order by the name of the company.

Series 5, Photographs, 1882-1973; undated, document advertising, company activities, office buildings, plants, packaging, grocery store displays, window and wall displays, employees and the coffee trade. Company photographer, Ken P. Allen, is credited with many of the company related images and some relating to the coffee trade. Most of the photographs are labeled and have negatives. Documentation for some of the photographs can also be found in other portions of the collection. The series is divided into twelve subseries.

Subseries 5.1, Employees, 1882-1961; undated, document the activities of people working for the company. Company employees consist of factory workers, salesmen, and executives. Company executives include Austin Hills, Reuben Hills, Edward E. Hills, Herbert Gray Hills, Leslie W. Hills and T. Carroll Wilson. A number of the employee photographs were created for company publications. Some of the company activities include female employees in the preparedness parade, the company basketball team, a groundbreaking ceremony, salesmen conventions, managers' meetings and coffee testing or cupping. The materials are arranged in chronological order by date.

Subseries 5.2, Division Offices, 1924-1931; undated, include images of Hills Bros. offices across the country including Butte, Chicago, Denver, El Paso, Kansas City, Los Angeles, Milwaukee, Phoenix, Portland, Salt Lake City, San Francisco, Seattle, Spokane, and Wichita. These photographs document both the work stations of the region and Hills Bros. personnel in their work environment. The interior and exterior of the division offices are also shown. There is one image of an unidentified office. Materials are arranged in alphabetical order by the name of the city in which the offices are located.

Subseries 5.3, Facilities and Vehicles, 1927-1973; undated, primarily document the work environment and social spaces for many of the plant and factory workers. There are a number of images of female employees engaged in work. Some of the photographs show machinery used for transporting bags of green coffee into the warehouse, controlled roasting, vacuum packing, and granulation control. The architectural design, construction and outside views of the Edgewater Plant, 1939-1940, are also included among these materials. The location of this plant was critical for shipping green coffee up the Hudson River from the New York Harbor to the plant. In addition, there are images of trucks used by the company. Images of the cafeteria dating from 1927 and exhibits for employees dating from 1938-1968 are also found among these materials. The materials are arranged in chronological order by date. Subseries 5.4, Advertising, 1925-1959; undated includes images of the various logos, designs, displays and illustrations used by Hills Bros. throughout the years. There are a number of images of the Arab trademark photographed in various settings. Many of the images have negatives and include advertising forms, point of purchase displays, outdoor displays, food show exhibits, newspaper advertisements, a 1940 medal award for newspaper campaign advertising and selling, service cards and displays installed by advertising service men. Most of the materials are dated and are arranged in chronological order.

Subseries 5.5, Sales, circa 1921-1939; undated, consist of photographic materials maintained by Hills Bros. for use in sales presentations. Included among these materials is an incomplete set of plates from a jobber portfolio for the Midwest area dating from 1921-1922. There are also a number of negatives of sales maps dating from 1931-1939 and telephones. Materials are arranged in chronological order by date.

Subseries 5.6, Packaging, 1884-1969; undated includes both prints and negatives of containers used by Hills Bros. to prepare and store coffee products. There are images of boxes, cans, glass jars, coffee guides and coffee pots. An evolution of packaging design as it relates to historical events is evident throughout the images. Of note are prints of the Hills Bros. coffee cans in the paintings by artist Fred Machetanz dating from 1969. The materials are arranged in chronological by date.

Subseries 5.7, Grocery Store Displays, circa, 1901-1935, contain the largest amount of materials in this series. Hills Bros. photographer, Ken Allen visited a number of retail grocers around the country to document Hills Bros. coffee displays. Some of these photographs were used in broadsides created by Hill Bros. entitled "Interesting Grocery Stores" and "Before and After." The broadsides were created from 1928-1933 with the retail grocer as the target market. Approximately 30,000 broadsides were mailed to customers. The photographs are identified by the name of the store and location. Most of the prints also have negatives and correspondence granting Hills Bros. permission to publish the photographs. Materials are arranged in alphabetical order by the name of the grocery store.

Subseries 5.8, Store Tests, 1938, consists of photographs, negatives, reports and drawings from merchandising tests conducted in grocery stores in California, Arizona, Oregon, Missouri and Minnesota. "Before" photographs document shelf displays while the "after" photographs document the new floor displays. Reports on the corresponding sales figures used to promote Hills Bros. merchandising service in retail grocery stores are also include among the materials. The materials were maintained in the order that they were created by the company.

Subseries 5.9, Window and Wall Displays, 1928, 1930, 1934, contain a large number of photographs documenting the installations of window and wall displays. The displays were created by the advertising department in San Francisco and given to advertising service representatives as patterns for the installations. Advertising service representatives operated throughout the entire marketing area from the Pacific Coast to Chicago. It was custom to visit every grocery store at least once a year. Representatives offered to install a window display or wall display free of cost to the store. The materials are arranged by number and include some duplicates.

Subseries 5.10, Publicity, 1933-1936; undated, include photographs and correspondence that were maintained by Hills Bros. for publicity purposes. A large portion of the photographs consist of Hollywood movie stills with scenes using Hills Bros. coffee primarily from the 1930s. There is a substantial amount of material on the Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Studios, Incorporated polar expedition (1933) for the production of the movie "Eskimo." Based on the novel of the same name by Peter Freuchen, a Scandinavian surveyor, the movie chronicles his experiences charting the North Arctic Zone for use in maps put out by the Danish government. The Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Studios, Incorporated crew was sent above the Arctic Circle to film the production using natives. A supply of Hills Bros. coffee was included among the food provisions to last the crew for a year. Photographs of the expedition and movie stills were later used by Hills Bros. for advertising in grocery stores. In addition, there is also a newspaper article from the Citizen News dated January 1934 that discusses the adventures of the cast and crew of Eskimo. The materials are arranged in chronological order by date.

Subseries 5.11, Miscellaneous, 1898-1949; undated, is a random mix of images including the return of troops from the Spanish American War on Market Street; Boeing Air Transportation, Incorporated; Frank Goss from the Columbia Broadcasting System; Fresno Bee National Recovery Administration; Infants' Choir; Kinner Airplane and Motor Corporation, Ltd.; gold miners with hot coffee by the camp fire; and Fred N. Palmiter. The materials are arranged in chronological order by date.

Subseries 5.12, Coffee and Tea Industry, 1900s-1947; undated, consist of prints and negatives relating primarily to the cultivation, growth and processing of green coffee. A number of these images document women laborers from Guatemala and El Salvador examining, hand picking and sorting coffee beans. The photographs were created to illustrate the production process in the 1930s. A photograph of Mr. and Mrs. C. H. Brown on a coffee buying trip in the 1900s is also included among the materials. There are photographs of coffee mills and Hills Bros. Company's participation in food shows. In addition, there are some images relating to the tea trade including the loading of tea in Asia. Materials are arranged in chronological order by date.

Series 6, Sales and Marketing Records, 1906-1989; undated, primarily consist of the materials that were created by the company to communicate with the sales force. Bulletins and correspondence make up the bulk of these materials. There are also materials that were used by salesmen on a daily basis while conducting business in the field. Some of the activities of the sales department including meetings and conventions are also documented. In addition, market research, reports and studies inform the sales department about the coffee industry and consumer consumption. The materials are divided into eight subseries.

Subseries 6.1, Bulletins for Salesmen, 1912-1969 were created and distributed by the company to keep the sales force informed about sales activities. Some of the earlier bulletins contain quotes by Reuben Hills. As the primary means of communication from management to the sales force, this body of materials is rather extensive and documents over a period of time issues, concerns, advertising, sales approach of the company and changes in price structure. Eventually the bulletin system phased out due to extensive use of telephone and computer communication. The San Francisco division has some of the earliest bulletins. The materials are arranged first in alphabetical order by division or city and then in chronological order by date.

Subseries 6.2, Division Bulletins and General Letters, 1925-1927 include the correspondence that was distributed to the different divisional regions including Denver, Kansas City, Los Angeles, Minneapolis, Portland and Salt Lake City. These materials were created for the salesmen and provide information on progress reports, goals of the company and sales techniques. The materials are arranged in alphabetical order by division and then in chronological order by date.

Subseries 6.3, Correspondence, 1919-1989, include general letters to sales representatives, memos, and management letters. The materials primarily document sales activities but also include the perspective of the entire company. Letters discuss trading in the green coffee market, special promotions, divisional sales performance, dealer coffee inventories, policy changes, etc. In 1962, the name of the management letters was changed from Monday to weekly; however, the company maintained the same format. The letters are arranged in chronological order by date.

Subseries 6.4, Conventions and Meetings, 1915-1971, consists primarily of programs and menus from sales conventions dating from 1915-1943. These materials provide valuable information about the activities at the sales conventions and include the location and agenda for each meeting. There are some song books that were used at the conventions. (See series five for photographs of the sales conventions). There is also information from the divisional managers' meetings which include new sales and marketing strategies and date from 1935-1956. In addition there are materials from a NED sales meeting, a District sales meeting in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania in 1966 and a sales meeting and marketing presentation in Buffalo, New York in 1971. The materials are arranged in chronological order.

Subseries 6.5, Salesmen Materials, 1906-1973; undated provide valuable information about the tools that informed the sales force. It includes materials given to salesmen upon employment and information needed to conduct daily business transactions in the field. Some of the earliest materials are a salesman's notebook dating from 1906 and a sales department territory book for the western region dating from 1907-1908. There are reference and instruction books dating from 1912-1949. Instruction books were created to provide tips and instructions on how to improve sales performance. Materials relating to salaries date from 1925-1937 and contain information on most of the sales representatives charted over this time period and presented in yearly earnings. There is a substantial number of price lists, pocket sized cards containing prices of various products, carried by each sales representative and dating from 1925-1969. An order form book, order forms and delivery forms also carried by the sales representatives are included among the materials. In addition there are monthly sales standing dating from 1931-1935, instructions on the pickup and disposition of unsalable coffee, a 1973 sales presentation and the territorial arrangement of the city of Chicago in 1930. Materials are arranged in chronological order by date.

Subseries 6.6, Reports and Studies, 1941-1978 primarily inform the company about the sales of the various coffee products primarily by division, territory or state. There is a study that compares the sales of ground and instant coffee by division. An exploratory study concerning consumer attitudes toward freeze dried coffee conducted in August and September in 1968 is also included among the materials. In addition, two studies from the 1970s relating to sales force capacity and high yield coffee can also be found among the materials. The materials are arranged in chronological order by date.

Subseries 6.7, Marketing Research, 1956-1978; undated consist of reports, research studies and surveys created by Hills Bros. and outside companies relating to various aspects of the coffee trade and consumer market. The materials include information on criteria for label design, packaging, types of coffee consumed, brand images, how advertising affects consumption and marketing plans. In addition there is a study investigating the economic and financial aspects of the United States coffee industry created in 1978 and an undated copy of the Brazilian coffee performance marketing plan. The materials are arranged in chronological order by date.

Subseries 6.8, Pricing Information, 1949-1965 include correspondence, press releases and company memos relating primarily to coffee importation and pricing. There is some correspondence between Hills Bros. and the Office of Price Stabilization relating to regulations from the federal government concerning the exchange rate of green coffee and coffee prices to the consumers. The materials are arranged in chronological order by date.

Series 7, Employee Records, 1934-1966, contain useful information relating to the employees and what it means to work for the company. Service and retirement materials include an executive employee service record created in 1934. It is a list of employees in upper management including the name, date of employment, and length of service. There is information on retirement plans for employees in 1953. A list of the retirement dates, birth dates, and employment dates for employees who were participants in the retirement plan from 1953-1959 is also included among the materials. A photograph of a silver plate commemorating the fiftieth anniversary in 1967 of Eugene F. Hoelter with the company is included among these materials. Employee guides from the 1960s provide information on the company's perception of its position in the coffee industry, short histories of the company, the organization of the company, and employee benefits. There is also general information and instructions for plant employees at the Edgewater, New Jersey plant which is undated. In addition, there is Herbert Grey Hills's company identification card and exhibitor's employee's pass. Materials are arranged in chronological order by date.

Series 8, Accounting and Financial Records, 1903-1960; undated include some of the earliest materials from the company that were not destroyed in the 1906 fire and documents the sale of other products such as tea. There is a distributor's notebook dating from 1903-1904 with a 1925 letter enclosed inside. Record books dating from 1904 provide information relating to coffee stock distribution. They also contain information relating to tea distribution by the company and pricing. Coffee acquisition ledgers dating from 1906-1917 are grouped according to the kind of coffee bean which refers to the general region or seaport from which the beans originate including Ecuador, Mexico, Costa Rica, El Salvador and Guatemala. There is one exception which is listed by stock number and contains mixed kind categories. The ledgers provide stock numbers, mark, quantity, location of coffee bean purchases, date of purchases, costs and grades. Entries are not consistently in chronological order by month. There are also a number ledgers maintained by the company that record information relating to retail grocers and how much they purchased from the company including product types, prices and quantities ordered. Analysis of expense account records date from 1917-1921. A tea acquisition ledger dating from 1920-1923 is divided into groups including natural leaf, Oarjeeling, Hilvilla Black, Ceylon, Java, Oolong, Gunpowder and sample (green and black). Information about stock numbers, mark, quantities, invoice weight, house weight, C.F.I. date, and where the tea was purchased can be obtained through these records. In addition there are financial statements dating from 1959-1960 and an undated coffee stock book. Materials are arranged in chronological order by date.

Series 9, Office Files, 1915-1970; undated consist of materials relating directly to the business of the company and some materials that were kept on file probably as reference information. The series is divided into two subseries. Subseries one is general materials and includes court documents, correspondence, manuals, maps and some images. Subseries two is T. Carroll Wilson's correspondence dating from 1941-1970.

Subseries 9.1, General, 1915-1969; undated includes information relating to the company's participation in the Panama Pacific International Exposition in 1915. At the exposition Hills Bros. installed and operated the first automatic machine created to vacuumed-pack coffee. Other materials from the expo include rules and regulations governing the delivery, location, installation, maintenance and transportation of exhibits and merchandise. The Museum's Division of Cultural History has some of the artifacts relating to the exposition.

Legal records including court documents for the Federal Trade Commission versus Hills Bros. Company case in 1925 and the United States Department of Justice, Anti-Trust Investigation, 1948 are included among the materials. There are correspondence granting Hills Bros. exclusive rights to use "Hot Coffee" for radio and advertising purposes. There is also information relating to the company's cooperation with the National Recovery Administration, President's reemployment agreement. In addition there is correspondence collected by the company relating to rumors, religion and race dating from 1958-1964 and correspondence about the jig-saw puzzle campaign.

Packaging materials dating from 1931-1969 primarily document the history and uses of various types of containers used by Hills Bros. for its products and labels. A paper written by Ralph Vilas discussing the historical evidence of vacuum packaging from 1931-1934, correspondence and photographs of packaging for the "Blue Brand", an article discussing the selling and merchandising of carton coffee, memos and newspaper clippings relating to vacuum packing, a paper discussing the tinplate used in can making, requirements for packaging and information relating to the coffee can using an Ansel Adams' photograph are all included among these materials.

In the 1930s Hills Bros. created the Arab Chronicle and Broadsides which were primarily distributed to retail grocers. The broadsides were the size of newspapers and folded to about one-sixth of a page for mailing. They consisted of photographs, advertisements, information relating to new advertising campaigns, advice to increase sales and news of events around the world. In addition to completed copies of the broadsides there are also drafts of the articles for each issue.

Hills Bros. opened a coffee house in 1958 at Disneyland in Anaheim, California. The Hills Bros. Coffee House operated as a restaurant for several years and provided a sandwich type menu with its coffee products. It was also used as a facility for taste-testing by the marketing research department.

In the 1960s Hills Bros. owned and operated three vans known as Hillsmobiles. The Hillsmobiles were used to promotion sales in various communities. The vans would ride through the neighborhoods distributing free samples of coffee. Included among the materials are letters and memos, manuals for the promotion and operation of the hillsmobiles as well as photographs, images and negatives of the vehicles.

Random materials include a Gertz Bros. Company catalogue dating from 1925, information about Chase and Sanborn coffee, maps illustrating where to go in New England, a marketing map of the United States used as a practical aid for economic sales and advertising and information about St. Augustine's oldest store museum. The materials are arranged in chronological order by date.

Subseries 9.2, T. Carroll Wilson Correspondence, 1941-1970 relate primarily to his association with the National Coffee Association. The materials date from April 7, 1941 to December 8, 1970. The correspondence is arranged in chronological order by date.

Series 10, San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge Materials, 1933-1986; undated, provide background information and a photographic almost daily account of the construction. Leslie Hills suggested placing a camera mount on the parapet of the building on Harrison Street at the beginning of the construction. From this position Ken P. Allen documented the progress until its completion in 1936. Allen also created motion film of the construction from the same position. The State Bridge Authority produced a movie in 1940 using the Hills Bros. materials. The series is divided into two subseries. Subseries one is the textual records that provide background information on the construction of the bridge. Subseries two is the photographic materials documenting to the construction.

Subseries 10.1, Background Information, 1933-1986; undated, include correspondence between Hills Bros., the State Department of Public Works and the California Commission for the Golden Gate International Exposition in reference to Hills Bros. providing the state with the original negatives of its films. The two organizations used these materials to develop a motion picture for the Golden Gate International Exposition. A list of the scenes for reels two and three and a script of the movie are also included. There are black and white photographs of the construction of the bridge and a photograph of Charles Henry Purcell, chief engineer, taken by Ken Allen. In addition there is a newspaper article from the San Francisco Chronicle dating from 1986. Materials are arranged in chronological order by date.

Subseries 10.2, Photographic Materials, 1933-1936; undated, consists of 8 x10 and 4 x 5 black and white negatives of the construction of the Bay Bridge. Most of the negatives are dated. The materials are arranged first by size and then by date in the order that they were created.

Series 11, Golden Gate International Exposition Materials, 1915-1940; undated, primarily document the construction and management of the Arabian Theater. The Arabian Theater was located inside the Food Pavilion on Treasure Island. A color and sound version of the film "Behind the Cup: The Story of Hills Bros." was created and shown in the theater. Materials include correspondence, blueprints, photographs, newspaper articles, forms, insurance documents, passes and visitors comments. Other materials relating to the Golden Gate International Exposition can also be found in volume seven of the historical albums in series four subseries two. The series is divided into nine subseries. The materials were maintained in the order created by the company.

Subseries 11.1, Coffee Theater, circa 1939, include correspondence between Hills Bros. and NW Ayer about the creation of the murals in the theater. There is also information concerning script creation, production, promotion and the success of the Behind the Cup film. In addition there is information relating to the theater staff, visitor comments and the general management of the theater. The materials are maintained in the order that the company kept them.

Subseries 11.2, Exposition Attendance, 1915-1940, contains comparisons of the 1915 and 1939 attendance figures, statistics on paid and non-paid admission, operating period, average gate receipt, total paid and non-paid admissions. Daily attendance records document numbers for the fair, theater, monthly totals and the weather. In addition, hourly attendance includes time, entrance, and cumulative totals. The materials are maintained in the order that the company kept them.

Subseries 11.3, Correspondence, 1937-1940; undated, includes both incoming and outgoing communications between Hills Bros. and the Golden Gate International Exposition Company. These letters discuss permits, contracts and agreements, payment, approval for construction, regulations, applications of exhibit colors, shipment procedures, etc. The materials are maintained in the order that the company kept them.

Subseries 11.4, Construction, 1937-1940; undated, contains information on the building of the food and beverage facility. There is correspondence and invoices relating to payments; removals; services including telephone, water, gas, electricity; estimates, and furniture. Fire insurance documents contain information on the types of coverage and public and regular liabilities. In addition there is information relating to exhibitors questionnaire and endorsements, cost of exhibit space, permission to dismantle forms, application for exhibit space and an application for a construction permit. The materials are maintained in the order that the company kept them.

Subseries 11.5, Blueprints, 1937-1939, were created by the architect Harry A. Thompsen Jr. These blueprints include the foundation plan, the main floor plan, the lobby, the auditorium, front and side elevations, details of the upper chenau, and the mezzanine. There are also plans of Vacationland, the health and education building and the science building. A small amount of material exists on the sandwich slide, prices of coffee, average revenue and expenses, coffee equipment, coffee making instructions, the production of sales, the menu and an inventory of cups and saucers and the heating and ventilation system. A description of Threlkeld's restaurant and a history of the Threlkeld's Commissary Company are also included. The materials are maintained in the order that the company kept them. Subseries 11.6, Behind the Cup, 1937-1940; undated, contains correspondence between Hills Bros. company executives and the Consulate General of El Salvador relating to filming in El Salvador and Guatemala for the "Behind the Cup" movie. There are also newspaper clippings from San Salvador, a translation of the script and a photograph of T. Carroll Wilson and Ken P. Allen. Other materials include correspondence between Ken Allen and T. Carroll Wilson, releases for photographs, camera reports, narration arrangements and contracts. A copy of the "Behind the Cup" booklet which was produced by the NW Ayer Advertising Agency is also included. The materials are maintained in the order that the company kept them. Subseries 11.7, Newspaper Cooperation, 1939, contain clippings about "Behind the Cup" in Chicago, Illinois; Denver, Colorado; Kansas City, Missouri; Los Angeles, California; Minneapolis, Minnesota; Portland, Oregon; and San Francisco, California. The materials are maintained in the order that the company kept them.

Subseries 11.8, Solicitations and Replies, 1938-1940, contain letters to Hills Bros. with replies attached. In addition there is information on the type of equipment or services available for use by Hills Bros. at the expo, business cards, postcards and promotional materials. The materials are maintained in the order that the company kept them.

Subseries 11.9, Miscellaneous, 1938-1940, contains a scrapbook including descriptions, images, a listing of business and industry participants, brochures, general summaries, construction of buildings, government involvement in the expo, personnel article and rules and regulations governing the transportation of exhibits. There is also information on the sandwich slide, model freight cars, Treasure Island employees and articles from the San Francisco Chronicle. The materials are maintained in the order that the company kept them.

Series 12, World War II Materials, 1942-1949; undated, primarily document the United State government's coffee rationing and wartime packaging requirements. The United States War Production Board issued regulations designed to control the use of metals during this time period which greatly affected the coffee industry. These materials reflect the impact of rationing and regulations not only on the coffee industry but Hills Bros. in particular. The company's response to these measures is documented among these materials. The series is divided into six subseries.

Subseries 12.1, Production and Quotas, 1942-1946, is a compilation of correspondence, memos and conservation orders from the War Production Board maintained in the files of Herbert Grey Hills and T. Carroll Wilson. These materials relate to production quotas of coffee for roasters; restrictions on manufacture, sale and delivery of glass containers; price differential in relation to ceiling prices; small buyers and consumers accounts; new accounts and the exchange of brands and sizes. A copy of the National Coffee Association Bulletin: War Production Board, Conservation orders M135 and a copy of the red can brand quota plan dating from 1944-1946 is also included among these materials. Materials are arranged in chronological order by date.

Subseries 12.2, Rationing, 1939-1946, consists primarily of correspondence, orders, instructions and forms from the War Production Board concerning quotas for coffee distribution and production, allowable inventory and operating inventory, ration stamps or certificates and army and navy re-orders. Post-rationing sales control and how it would affect or apply to consumers and the armed forces is also discussed. Materials are arranged in chronological order by date.

Subseries 12.3, Containers and Closures, 1942-1949; undated, is government orders relating to quotas on size and standards for glass jars and closures, shipping containers, cans and glass jar labels. Hills Bros. specifications based on these orders is also included. There are photographs of glass jar products, discussions on original art work for labels and considerations for packing and shipping. Materials are arranged in chronological order by date.

Subseries 12.4, Appeals, 1948, are a group of materials compiled as a presentation to the United States Department of Commerce by the Packaging and Container Committee of the National Coffee Association. This presentation was submitted on April 22, 1948. It is the National Coffee Association's attempt to use cans again.

Subseries 12.5, Advertising Campaigns, 1942; undated include correspondence relating to the "Gone with the Tin" advertising campaign. Along with the correspondence are announcements for the campaign, newspaper clippings and positive feedback from the public attesting to Hills Bros. participation in winning the war while still providing customers with the best possible products. There is also information relating to the "Waste is a Fighting Word Today" advertising campaign. Favorable responses and announcements for the advertisements are included among the materials. In addition there are some miscellaneous forms. Materials are arranged in chronological order by date.

Series 13, Machinists Strike Scrapbooks, 1945-1946, consist of three scrapbooks of press clippings covering the machinist's strike that occurred in San Francisco over more pay and less hours. Hills Bros. Coffee plant which was identified as one of the big "fringe shops" was impacted by the strike due to a few maintenance machinists' participation. Hills Bros. warned grocers and their customers not to expect large supplies of coffee due to the strike. The scrapbooks are arranged in chronological order by date.

Series 10, Audiovisual Materials, 1934-1984; undated, consists of film, vifro, and sound recordings including television and radio commercials, television and radio programs, promotional materials and Hills Bros. company activities. Hills Bros. had a photography and filming unit that began producing motion picture documentation of Hills Bros. activities in the early 1930s. This effort resulted in a detailed documentation of the construction of the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge (Bridging the Bay, 1938-39) and a promotional film that was shown at the Golden Gate International Exposition Fair (Behind the Cup, 1939). In addition, Hills Bros. became involved with radio programming and advertising in 1934 and television advertising in the early 1950s. The collection includes a substantial number of television commercials dating from 1951-1984 as well as television programs that were sponsored in part by Hills Bros. including Shirley Temples Storybook (1958) and Meet Me at Disneyland (1962). The series is divided into six subseries.

Subseries 13.1, Moving Images, 1951-1984 consists of television commercials, television programs, film and video documentation of corporate activities. The subseries is further organized into five subsubseries.

Subsubseries 13.1.1, Television Commercials, 1951-1984, consist of a representative sample of Hills Bros. television commercials beginning with their first efforts in the early 1950s. The commercials were created by a succession of adverting agencies beginning with N.W Ayer and including Doyle, Dane, Bernbach; Foote, Cone, and Belding; and Wells Rich Greene/West. Products advertised include Hills Brothers regular roast, instant, drip roast, high yield, and flavored "European Style" coffees.

Subsubseries 13.1.2, Television Programs, 1951-1967, consist of television programs that were sponsored, in part, by Hills Bros. coffee or that were related to Hills Bros. Hills Bros. major television sponsorship effort resulted in several series including Shirley Temple's Storybook (1958), Meet Me at Disneyland (1962), Bat Masterson (1959-60), and Lead off Man (1964). Hills Bros. also provided consultation services for the program Science in Action (1951) as well as major funding for NET Festival White House Red Carpet (1967).

Subsubseries 13.1.3, Promotional Materials, 1939-1977, include material created by the company to promote their products and activities. This series includes two films of particular interest. Behind the Cup: The Story of Hills Bros. Coffee (1939), created for the Golden Gate International Exposition Fair, was produced in 35mm Cinecolor for theatrical screening. Also of note are two short films probably produced for screening at a meeting of Hills Bros. employees. In the first Gene Barry, star of Bat Masterson and Hills Bros.' spokesman describes the next season's plans for Bat Masterson and presents a portion of a proposed episode. In the second film Walt Disney talks about his company's plans for the next year including additions to Disneyland and planned episodes of Walt Disney Presents.

Subsubseries 13.1.4, Hills Bros. Activities, 1930-1962, consists of primarily 16mm "home movie" documentation of activities as diverse as the 1941 Detroit Sampling Campaign, coffee production in El Salvador, and activities in the Hills Bros. processing plant.

Subsubseries 13.1.5, Miscellaneous Film and Video, 1938-1966, includes films about coffee, travelogues, and a substantial amount of film documenting the construction of the San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge.

Subseries 13.2, Sound recordings, 1934-1964; undated, include materials from Hills Bros. and other coffee manufacturers. There are the radio series Tune of the Day which includes Hills Bros. commercials, Hills Bros. radio commercials, Shirley Temple "Dreams Are Made for Children" produced by Columbia Pictures Corporation, Maxwell House Coffee programs and a coffee jingle from the Pan American Coffee Bureau.

Subsubseries 13.2.1, Radio commercials, undated, consists of the radio versions of commercials for various advertising campaigns.

Subsubseries 13.2.2, Radio Programs and Other Broadcasts, circa 1934-1964; undated, includes the Tune of the Day series, Ruth Ashton's Women's News Desk and two baseball broadcasts.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged in thirteen series.

Series 1, Hills Family Papers, 1856-1942; undated

Subseries 1.1: Austin Herbert Hills, Sr. Papers, 1856-1875; undated

Subseries 1.2,: Austin Herbert Hills, Jr. Papers, 1875-1923

Subseries 1.3: Herbert Gray Hills Correspondence, 1923-1942

Series 2: Background Materials, 1896-1988; undated

Series 3: Coffee Reference Files, 1921-1980; undated

Subseries 3.1,: Hills Bros. Coffee Company Literature, 1921-1976; undated

Subseries 3.2: Coffee Industry Literature, 1924-1980; undated

Series 4: Advertising Materials, circa 1890s-1987; undated

Subseries 4.1: Scrapbooks, 1906-1978; undated

Subseries 4.2: Historical Albums, 1911-1967

Subseries 4.3: Ephemera, 1890s-1987

Subseries 4.4: Portfolios, 1919-1985, undated

Subseries 4.5: Proof sheets, 1922-1968

Subseries 4.6: Advertising Forms, 1922-1971; undated

Subseries 4.7: Newspaper and Magazine Advertising, 1926-1971; undated

Subseries 4.8: Sampling Campaigns, 1928-1941

Subseries 4.9,: General Files, 1923-1978; undated

Subseries 4.10: NW Ayer Advertising Agency Materials, 1943, 1958

Subseries 4.11: Foote, Cone & Belding Advertising Agency Materials, 1963-1968; undated

Series 5: Photographs, 1882-1973; undated

Subseries 5.1: Employees, 1882-1961; undated

Subseries 5.2: Division Offices, 1924-1931; undated

Subseries 5.3, Facilities and Vehicles, 1927-1973; undated

Subseries 5.4: Advertising, 1925-1959; undated

Subseries 5.5: Sales, circa 1921-1939; undated

Subseries 5.6: Packaging, 1884-1969; undated

Subseries 5.7: Grocery Store Displays, circa, 1901-1935

Subseries 5.8: Store Tests, 1938

Subseries 5.9: Window and Wall Displays, 1928, 1930, 1934

Subseries 5.10: Publicity, 1933-1936; undated

Subseries 5.11: Miscellaneous, 1898-1949; undated

Subseries 5.12,: Coffee and Tea Industry, 1900s-1947; undated

Series 6: Sales and Marketing Records, 1906-1989; undated

Subseries 6.1, Bulletins for Salesmen, 1912-1969

Subseries 6.2, Division Bulletins and General Letters, 1925-1927

Subseries 6.3, Correspondence, 1919-1989

Subseries 6.4, Conventions and Meetings, 1915-1971

Subseries 6.5, Salesmen Materials, 1906-1973; undated

Subseries 6.6, Reports and Studies, 1941-1978

Subseries 6.7, Marketing Research, 1956-1978; undated

Subseries 6.8, Pricing Information, 1949-1965

Series 7: Employee Records, 1934-1966

Series 8: Accounting and Financial Records, 1903-1960; undated

Series 9: Office Files, 1915-1970; undated

Subseries 9.1: General, 1915-1969; undated

Subseries 9.2: T. Carroll Wilson Correspondence, 1941-1970

Series 10, San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge Materials, 1933-1986; undated

Subseries 10.1: Background Information, 1933-1986; undated

Subseries 10.2: Photographic Materials, 1933-1936; undated

Series 11: Golden Gate International Exposition Materials, 1915-1940; undated

Subseries 11.1,: Coffee Theater, circa 1939

Subseries 11.2: Exposition Attendance, 1915-1940

Subseries 11.3: Correspondence, 1937-1940; undated

Subseries 11.4: Construction, 1937-1940; undated

Subseries 11.5: Blueprints, 1937-1939

Subseries 11.6: Behind the Cup, 1937-1940; undated

Subseries 11.7: Newspaper Cooperation, 1939

Subseries 11.8: Solicitations and Replies, 1938-1940

Subseries 11.9: Miscellaneous, 1938-1940

Series 12,: World War II Materials, 1939-1949; undated

Subseries 12.1, Production and Quotas, 1942-1946

Subseries 12.2, Rationing, 1939-1946

Subseries 12.3, Containers and Closures, 1942-1949; undated

Subseries 12.4, Appeals, 1948

Subseries 12.5, Advertising Campaigns, 1942; undated

Subseries 12.6, Machinists Strike Scrapbooks, 1945-1946

Series 13: Audio Visual Materials, 1930-1984; undated

Subseries 13.1, Moving Images

Subsubseries 13.1.1, Television Commercials, 1951-1984

Subsubseries 13.1.2, Television Programs, 1951-1967

Subsubseries 13.1.3, Promotional Materials, 1939-1977

Subsubseries 13.1.4, Hills Bros. Activities, 1930-1962

Subsubseries 13.1.5, Miscellaneous Film and Video, 1938-1966

Subseries 13.2, Sound Recordings, 1934-1964; undated

Subsubseries 13.2.1: Radio Commercials

Subsubseries 13.2.2, Radio Programs and Other Broadcasts
Biographical / Historical:
add
Provenance:
These records were donated to the Archives Center, National Museum of American History by Hills Bros. Coffee, Incorporated.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Coffee  Search this
Citation:
Hills Brothers Coffee Incorporated Records, 1875-1965, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0395
See more items in:
Hills Bros. Coffee, Incorporated Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0395
Online Media:

Two Machines in One, A300 All-Wheel Steer Loader

Collection Creator:
Nelson, Scott  Search this
Bobcat Company  Search this
Container:
Box 110
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
undated
Scope and Contents note:
22" x 28"
Collection Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use.

Researchers must handle unprotected photographs with gloves. Researchers must use reference copies of audio-visual materials. When no reference copy exists, the Archives Center staff will produce reference copies on an "as needed" basis, as resources allow.

Viewing the film portion of the collection without reference copies requires special appointment, please inquire. Do not use original materials when available on reference video, DVD, or audio tapes.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions. The Archives Center does not own rights to these photographs. All requests for permission to use these photographs for non-museum purposes must be addressed directly to the Bobcat Company. All duplication requests must be reviewed and approved by Archives Center staff. Potential users must receive written permission from appropriate rights holders prior to obtaining high quality copies.
Collection Citation:
Bobcat Company Records, 1940s-2009, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
See more items in:
Bobcat Company Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-1129-ref1596

Changing The Way the World Works: Toolcat Utility Work Machine

Collection Creator:
Nelson, Scott  Search this
Bobcat Company  Search this
Container:
Box 110
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
undated
Scope and Contents note:
22" x 28"
Collection Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use.

Researchers must handle unprotected photographs with gloves. Researchers must use reference copies of audio-visual materials. When no reference copy exists, the Archives Center staff will produce reference copies on an "as needed" basis, as resources allow.

Viewing the film portion of the collection without reference copies requires special appointment, please inquire. Do not use original materials when available on reference video, DVD, or audio tapes.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions. The Archives Center does not own rights to these photographs. All requests for permission to use these photographs for non-museum purposes must be addressed directly to the Bobcat Company. All duplication requests must be reviewed and approved by Archives Center staff. Potential users must receive written permission from appropriate rights holders prior to obtaining high quality copies.
Collection Citation:
Bobcat Company Records, 1940s-2009, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
See more items in:
Bobcat Company Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-1129-ref1598

Everything you need for the well-oiled machine

Collection Creator:
Nelson, Scott  Search this
Bobcat Company  Search this
Container:
Box 110
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
undated
Scope and Contents note:
22 x 28"
Collection Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use.

Researchers must handle unprotected photographs with gloves. Researchers must use reference copies of audio-visual materials. When no reference copy exists, the Archives Center staff will produce reference copies on an "as needed" basis, as resources allow.

Viewing the film portion of the collection without reference copies requires special appointment, please inquire. Do not use original materials when available on reference video, DVD, or audio tapes.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions. The Archives Center does not own rights to these photographs. All requests for permission to use these photographs for non-museum purposes must be addressed directly to the Bobcat Company. All duplication requests must be reviewed and approved by Archives Center staff. Potential users must receive written permission from appropriate rights holders prior to obtaining high quality copies.
Collection Citation:
Bobcat Company Records, 1940s-2009, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
See more items in:
Bobcat Company Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-1129-ref1608

Melroe Makes It Big (1970)

Collection Creator:
Nelson, Scott  Search this
Bobcat Company  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Scope and Contents note:
16 mm composite optical track print, 800 feet, 22 minutes

This Bill Snyder film introduces the larger model Bobcat, the Melroe 970. It highlights its handling and controls and shows the "Bobtach" attachment system. There is footage of the M970, or "Big Bob" performing the following actions: moving dirt, gravel and sand, lifting concrete, loading trucks, leveling, grating, cleaning debris, handling bulk materials, moving iron ore, piling coal to help other machines, excavating, shoveling and plowing snow, cleaning manure, moving cattle feed, and lifting hay over fences. The M970 is shown in industrial and agricultural environments including a steel mill, metal foundry, scrap yard, stock yard farm, and on a barge. There are also several images of the factory, including machines on the assembly line and in the shipping process.
Collection Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use.

Researchers must handle unprotected photographs with gloves. Researchers must use reference copies of audio-visual materials. When no reference copy exists, the Archives Center staff will produce reference copies on an "as needed" basis, as resources allow.

Viewing the film portion of the collection without reference copies requires special appointment, please inquire. Do not use original materials when available on reference video, DVD, or audio tapes.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions. The Archives Center does not own rights to these photographs. All requests for permission to use these photographs for non-museum purposes must be addressed directly to the Bobcat Company. All duplication requests must be reviewed and approved by Archives Center staff. Potential users must receive written permission from appropriate rights holders prior to obtaining high quality copies.
Collection Citation:
Bobcat Company Records, 1940s-2009, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
See more items in:
Bobcat Company Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-1129-ref1965

The Story of the Bobcat Kid [1974]

Collection Creator:
Nelson, Scott  Search this
Bobcat Company  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Scope and Contents note:
16 mm composite optical track print, 775 feet, 22 minutes%A Bill Snyder film describing the safety precautions necessary to operate Bobcats via the cowboy campfire song of the Bobcat Kid, a reckless Bobcat operator. These principles include obeying the center of gravity, riding on inclines, using a secure dock plate, turning the machine off when not in use and not going where you cannot see. The cowboy and other operators are shown disobeying safety rules and comically suffering the consequences. Bobcats are shown tipping over, crashing with forklifts, falling off the edge of a loading dock, hitting a truck, carrying three girls around, being illegally operated by young boys, running over a doghouse and lawn chair, and dropping a rock on the top of the machine. The cowboy is also shown operating a Bobcat in a manner similar to riding a bull.
Collection Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use.

Researchers must handle unprotected photographs with gloves. Researchers must use reference copies of audio-visual materials. When no reference copy exists, the Archives Center staff will produce reference copies on an "as needed" basis, as resources allow.

Viewing the film portion of the collection without reference copies requires special appointment, please inquire. Do not use original materials when available on reference video, DVD, or audio tapes.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions. The Archives Center does not own rights to these photographs. All requests for permission to use these photographs for non-museum purposes must be addressed directly to the Bobcat Company. All duplication requests must be reviewed and approved by Archives Center staff. Potential users must receive written permission from appropriate rights holders prior to obtaining high quality copies.
Collection Citation:
Bobcat Company Records, 1940s-2009, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
See more items in:
Bobcat Company Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-1129-ref2105

Correspondence

Collection Creator:
Pach, Walter, 1883-1958  Search this
Extent:
2.1 Linear feet (Box 1-3, FC 23)
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1883-1980
Scope and Contents note:
This series contains family correspondence and extensive professional letters from noted artists and art world figures including critics, writers, collectors, museums and other art institutions. Scattered letters from Pach can also be found here.

See Appendix for partial chronological list of letters from Series 2.
Arrangement note:
This series is arranged as two subseries.

2.1: Family Correspondence, 1883-1980

2.2. General Correspondence, 1903-1969
Appendix: Partial Chronological List of Letters from Series 2:
From J.B. Young [?], October 5, 1900: New York, N.Y. Eric Dell recovered from consumption; Terry also had it and was treated at an English sanitarium; entertained several actors; made a brief trip to the country. 2 pp., illustrated with drawing, "an interpretation of how you will look when you next visit New York."

From Franji Vaatsvoort, September 18, 1903: Haarlem, the Netherlands. Severe storm; received Pach's postcards. Picture postcard (Frans Hals, "Cordelia Voogt Claesd., vrouw van Nicolaes van der Meer"

From Theodore Roosevelt, Washington, D.C., March 5, 1904: President's autograph. Card with engraving of the White House.

From Frank R. Wadsworth, Chicago, Ill., [postmarked] March 2, 1905: Intends to go to Spain; advises Pach to write about art; recommends the Madrid gallery; discusses Chicago's new orchestra hall and the death of Thomas; opinions about the jury system; is sending pictures to Philadelphia, the one eastern city likely to accept them. 6 pp. + enclosures (silhouettes of monkey, 3 birds, and cat by a 10-year-old child).

From Luis E. de la Rochas, Madrid, Spain, December 24, 1905: thanks Pach for photographs of works of art; inquires about the progress of Pach's own painting; will send a picture of his latest painting, as he is interested in Pach's opinion; sends regards to Mr. Chase. 3 pp., in Spanish, illustrated with drawing of a bearded man.

From Edith Bell, New York, N.Y., [postmarked] December 24, 1905: Christmas greetings; thanks Pach for showing her the Goya sketch. 2 pp.

To Claude Monet, Giverny, France, June 3, 1906: advises that knowing how to use color is most important and should become a matter of habit; lists his palette. 1 p., in French, typescript copy.

From Charles Scribner's Sons, New York, N.Y., February 13, 1907: printed form letter with payment for "The Memoria of Velasquez."

From Moriye Ogihara, Vitry-sur-Seine, France, [postmarked] April 24, 1907: mentions Kenzan picture Pach is interested in; thanks Pach for showing sketch to Henri, Ogihara's former teacher; lists some exhibitors in the Salon, with opinions of their work; thinks Rodin's work is great; he met Rodin at his studio. 4 pp. + 1 p. enclosure (note to Yamanaka & Co., New York, about Kenzan picture), in Japanese.

From Piet van der Laan, Leeuwarden, the Netherlands, May 11, 1907: likes portrait of Pach by Chase with its strong "Rembrandtic" shadow; reminisces about Chase; hopes to marry Annie in August. 4 pp.

From Moriye Ogihara, Vitry-sur-Seine, France, September 2, 1907: is glad Pach is returning to Paris; is attending classes at Académie Julian; saw Henri in France recently. 3 pp.

From Moriye Ogihara, Vitry-sur-Seine, France, [postmarked] September 10, 1907: wonders if and when Pach is returning to Paris. Postal card.

From Moriye Ogihara, Vitry-sur-Seine, France, [postmarked] September 12, 1907: urges Pach to visit after his stay in Italy. Picture postcard ("Reine d'Egypte en Isis--Bronze antique").

From [signature illegible], Director, The Royal House, Florence, Italy, October 5, 1907: the king grants permission to copy the Catherine de Medici portrait at the Pitti Palace. 1 p., in Italian.

From Claude Monet, Giverny, France, November 4, 1907: Monet will receive Pach this week on Wednesday or Thursday afternoon. 1 p., in French.

From Lelebuss, New York, N.Y., November 21, 1907: thanks Pach for birthday greetings; several friends are now married.

From Edith Bell, New York, N.Y., November 25, 1907: visited Henri and saw 40 canvases; describes Henri's new studio at 135 E. 40th St.; Lawson and Stevenson called at the studio while she was there; recalls Pach's description of visits to Monet and Ogihara; "it is my belief that Mr. Henri is afraid of George Bellows. He praises him so." 5 pp. + enclosure (photograph of a portrait by Edith Bell).

From Moriye Ogihara, Florence, Italy, December 25, 1907: Christmas greetings; discusses travels in Italy and art seen. 4 pp.

From Moriye Ogihara, Florence, Italy, December 26, 1907: has been to the Academy; praises Miss Frohberg. Picture postcard ("Firenze Lung' Arno Corsine").

To Alice Klauber from Walter Pach, Paris, France, January 3, 1908: he is looking at art; received a picture from her cousin; asks if she saw the article on Matisse he wrote for the Hearst paper. Picture postcard ("Frans Hals, La Bohemienne"), in Japanese, with English postscript.

From Moriye Ogihara, Arezzo, Italy, January 5, 1908: leaving for Assisi soon; stayed too long in Florence sightseeing with Magdalene. Picture postcard ("Arezzo, La Catte drale").

From Moriye Ogihara, Rome, Italy, [postmarked] January 14, 1908: staying at the same pensione as Frost. Picture postcard ("Torso di Belvedere di Dietro").

From Moriye Ogihara, Athens, Greece, January 22, 1908: discusses sightseeing in Greece and his trip through Italy; observations about Frost; "I appreciate Rodin very much since I have been in Italy"; offers to correct Pach's written Japanese.

From Gerda Stein, [place unknown], January 29, 1908: "Dearest love to Lena and best wishes for a very happy Birthday." Greeting card.

From Roger Marx, Editor, -- Gazette des Beaux-Arts -- , Paris, France, February 12, 1908: wants to publish a comprehensive study of the state of painting in the United States; must choose between original engravings and photographic reproductions for illustrations. 2 pp., in French.

From Moriye Ogihara, Cairo, Egypt, February 13, 1908: steamer has been delayed two days but he can continue to work. Picture postcard ("Ramesseum at Thebes").

From [Rais?], Paris, France, [postmarked] March 19, 1908: invites Pach to visit on Friday. 1 p., in French.

From William Merritt Chase, Florence, Italy, July 16, 1908: is leaving for Paris tomorrow; invites Pach to meet him at Caffe [sic] Du Paix that evening. 1 p.

From Helen R. Wilson, Furnes, Belgium, July 30, 1908: enumerates 13 highlights of her stay in Paris, including first view of a Cézanne painting. 4 pp.

From Senateur de la Sarthe, Paris, France, August 4, 1908: expression of sympathy. Note on business card, in French.

From Morton Livingston Schamberg, Paris, France, November 5, 1908: is doing small paintings outdoors and in his hotel room; is reluctant to leave Paris but wants to visit Italy, too; went to the Autumn Salon 3 times and found the work of Matisse "very beautiful"; "I am inclined to consider it a very personal art rather than the part of a great movement considering Matisse the leader, and the art doctrines evolved by the Steins (damn nice people...)... are to me the most awful nonsense"; prefers Renoir to Cézanne; is impressed by Egyptian portraits in the Louvre; has completed about 36 panels. 3 pp.

From Olga [de?], Paris, France, December 24, 1908: has completed 3 portrait commissions; wants to see the Velasquez, which is said to be "splendid." Picture postcard ("Paris, Eglise Saint-Augustin"), in French.

From Piet van der Laan, Leeuwarden, the Netherlands, February 6, 1909: is looking for a new teaching position; their infant son is now healthier. 3 pp.

From Annie van der Laan, Leeuwarden, the Netherlands, March 13, 1909: thanks Pach for the brush and birthday greetings; invites him to the Netherlands; tells about their baby. 1 p., in Dutch.

From Piet van der Laan, Leeuwarden, the Netherlands, March 15, 1909: discusses Shaw's -- Candida -- and -- Man and Superman -- ; is studying Nietzsche. 2 pp.

From Arthur B. Davies, New York, N.Y., May 29, 1909: discusses Pach's essay about him. 1 p.

From Moriye Ogihara, Tokyo, Japan, May 30, 1909: "Devil came into my mind and I am suffering and suffering"; Saito visited with news of Pach and pictures to exhibit at the Taiheiyo Art Association. Sequence of 5 picture postcards (1, "Wisteria"; 2. "Peony Blossoms at Yotsame"; 3. [bridge--title in Japanese]; 4. "Iris"; 5. "Peony Blossoms at Yotsame").

From Arthur B. Davies, New York, N.Y., June 1 [10?], 1909: wishes to reschedule studio visit by Pach and Mr. Of. 2 pp.

From Arthur B. Davies, New York, N.Y., [postmarked] July 9, 1909: interested in Gauguin and how he compares with Degas. 1 p.

From Maurice Brazil Prendergast, Boston, Mass., December 6, 1909: saw the Cézanne painting in Boston and agrees it is beautiful, "conscientious and absolutely sincere"; has not heard recently From Davi[e]s, "one of the few very sympathetic friends I am fortunate to possess." 4 pp.

From Arthur B. Davies, New York, N.Y., April 8, 1910: sends clipping about Matisse; recommends article about the Venus de Milo. 1 p.

From K. Tohary, Tokyo, Japan, May 11, 1910: Moriye Ogihara died in Tokyo, April 22, following an attack of vomiting blood; Tohary plans to publish a book about him; requests that Pach send Ogihara's letters and any recollections he wants to contribute. Rice paper scroll.

From Arthur B. Davies, New York, N.Y., May 14, 1910: "I found your article on Matisse the most enlightening I have read so far." 1 p.

From Albert Pinkham Ryder, New York, N.Y., May 26, 1910: thanks Pach for "kindly interest" in his work. 1 p. + enclosure (reprint of a poem, "The Voice of the Forest").

From Henri Rouart, La Queue en Brie, France, September 17, 1910: sorry he was unavailable to welcome Pach and his friends. 1 p., in French.

From [unknown], New York, N.Y., [postmarked] October 5, 1910: empty envelope with no return address. Sketch of head on reverse.

From Clifton A. Wheeler, Mooresville, Ind., October 12, 1910: describes fellow passengers aboard ship; gives details of getting paintings through customs; advises Pach to start preparing necessary documents for bringing home his property. 5 pp. + enclosures (4 small etchings: 2 portraits, 2 landscapes).

From Charles Sheeler, Philadelphia, Pa., October 26, 1910: after a period of difficulty, his work shows progress; Schamberg thinks Sheeler's recent landscapes are "Cézanne like"; has had little opportunity to see the work of modern painters; hopes to go to New York for upcoming exhibitions at the Photo Secession Gallery, particularly Picasso, Cézanne, and Matisse; rejected by Macbeth last fall and by the Art Institute; a Chicago dealer wants to show his work, but friends there advise against involvement with that gallery. 6 pp.

From Julian Alden Weir, New York, N.Y., November 25, 1910: discusses his interest in etching, especially drypoint. 4 pp.

From Morton Livingston Schamberg, Philadelphia, Pa., December 27, 1910: met Stieglitz and "was well satisfied with his attitude. He hasn't the intelligence of a Leo Stein but he is sincerely interested and is getting into a position where he could do one lots of good"; met Hartley; visited Henri's studio; Stieglitz and Henri think "I am too cock-sure of myself. If they only knew"; completed 20 to 25 pictures in the last year; sends photographs of some. 3 pp. + enclosures (7 photographs of Schamberg's work: 6 figures, 1 exhibition installation).

From Adolph Werner, New York, N.Y., December 21, 1910: is teaching less at the university now that he is the "President's lieutenant." 2 pp.

From Clifton A. Wheeler, Mooresville, Ind., January 3, 1911: discusses Davies' collection of Cézanne photographs; he and Hila were married; regrets that Pach was not named director of the museum in Indianapolis. 7 pp.

From Auguste Renoir, Cagnes, France, March 28, 1911: thanks Pach for allowing him to review the article before publication; wants the interview portion withheld because it seems critical of Saint-Saens and Pillet-Will and suggests posthumous publication; feels flattered by Pach's review. 4 pp., in French.

From Eugène Leroy, Paris, France, March 27, 1911: is happy to have been of service; the Association Philotechnique enjoys meeting foreigners who appreciate its teachings and will take home pleasant memories of France. Note on calling card, in French.

From Charles Loeser, Florence, Italy, April 28, 1911: exchanged 4 of his Cézanne paintings for a larger one From Vollard; Pach's German friend should contact Vollard immediately if she is interested in acquiring one; Denis Cochin traded a Cézanne for a Goya at Durand-Ruel. 8 pp.

From Auguste Rodin, Paris, France, June 1, 1911: is willing to meet with Pach to discuss Fujikawa's book on Ogihara. 2 pp., in French.

From E. D. Smyth, Côtes-du-Nord, France, August 31, 1911: will answer Pach's letter; apologizes for being fussy about the Stendahl etc." Picture postcard (Etables, Côtes-du-Nord, Les Grottoes.")

From E.D. Smyth, Côtes-du-Nord, France, September 5, 1911: is leaving soon for Saint-Malo; will return Pach's "Tuscan book" and send 2 others; recounts events of the summer; describes some hotel guests and the cottage where her family is staying; wants to see Daumier originals. 14 pp.

From Ruth A. Wilmot, Brooklyn, N.Y., October 7, 1911: is glad their misunderstanding is straightened out; someone on the boat unintentionally insulted her companion; homesick for Paris; working again; finds New York "invigorating." 5 pp.

From Joe Garvey, Alpine, N.J., November 21, 1911: is back From honeymoon; wants to go to Europe but first must sell property. 4 pp.

From Herman Reimers, Christiana, Norway, November 24, 1911: thanks Pach for the gift of an etching; will not be moving to Paris after all; was appointed director of political affairs at the ministry. 4 pp., in French.

From Tete, New York, N.Y., December 14, 1911: Christmas greetings; misses him; family news; has been in contact with Pach's parents. 4 pp., with sketches of busts on the envelope.

From Margherita Innocenti, Pensione Innocenti, Florence, Italy, December 22, 1911: thanks Pach for kind words about her and for recommending the pensione; 4 American women are there now. 3 pp., in Italian.

From Margherita Innocenti, Pensione Innocenti, Florence, Italy, February 9, 1912: -- Ladies -- . Will be happy to have friends of Pach stay at the pensione. 1 p., in Italian.

From E.D. Smyth, Florence, Italy, February 21, 1912: describes guests at Pensione Innocenti; met young Italian artist, Gino "Sensano or Sanseno [Severini]," who knows Stella and other mutual friends; recounts visits with Signorina A.B. and Mr. Loeser; returning by sea due to Helen's illness; will not see Pach again this trip. 6 pp.

From Louis Lombard, [place unknown], April 15, 1912: note of dedication, 1 p. + 2 pp. enclosure (copy of "Chants d'Amour," a poem by Henry Marx), in French.

From E.D. Smyth, [place unknown], Ireland, April 27, 1912: "Have made half my notes From the cahier" and will send them to H.M. soon. Postal card.

From Eugène, Paris, France, [postmarked] April 26, 1912: will come on Sunday at 9:00; is happy that Pach was not expelled because now he can work in peace for a few more days. 1 p., in French.

From Arthur Burdett Frost, Davos, Switzerland, May 5, 1912: has eye problems that doctors cannot treat; Jack is recovering; plans to spend summer in the Black Forest and return to Davos for the winter; Pach writes well; finds it "refeshing to read really honest stuff"; is working on a book of caricatures. 8 pp.

From Fujikawa, Paris, France, June 4, 1912: saw Mr. Molissa and is interested in his work; Pach should express Fujikawa's thanks to Molissa; is going to Florence where he hopes to see Pach; requests photographs of any new work Pach completes. 3 pp. + 5 enclosures (brief thank you notes From M. Lernait, Tererco?, L. Lombard, Louis Varday, and Romanet), in French.

From Georges Speirer, Paris, France, June 6, 1912: heard From friends that Pach is in Florence. 2 pp., in French.

From Arthur B. Davies, New York, N.Y., June 19, 1912: discusses arrangements for payment and shipping of Cézanne painting; has found a buyer; Macbeth will handle customs; Macbeth will send Pach photographs of Rockwell Kent's pictures; will see Pach in Paris in October. 3 pp.

From [signature illegible (L.L.?)], Levallois, France, July 1, 1912: hopes Pach will spend the winter in Paris; is glad Pach is pleased with his paintings of Arezzo. 4 pp., in French.

From Maurice Socard, Paris, France, July 19, 1912: thanks Pach for his letters; will send photographs taken at his country house; friends agree with Pach's assessment of Milan. 6 pp., in French.

From Elie Faure, Paris, France, July [30?], 1912: is not surprised that Pach received a discouraging letter From Floury, who has requested another translator; Faure wants Pach to do the job. 4 pp., in French.

From Arthur B. Davies, New York, N.Y., October 2, 1912: Cézanne painting is now at Macbeth's; gives details of problems with customs; is unable to accompany Walt Kuhn in search of artists for the Armory Show; "the possibilities [of the Armory Show] loom tremendous yet so many can only see another opportunity of showing their work"; "you can do so much for Kuhn in every way and I also believe he has a really healthy outlook with considerable ability." 2 pp.

From Egisto Fabbri, Paris, France, November 28, 1912: declines Pach's invitation, due to illness. 1 p.

From G.A. Bourdelle, [place unknown], December 4, 1912: the Toussaint sculpture can be installed with or without a socle; declined to participate in the New York exhibition before realizing Pach was the organizer; keep the photograph of Toussaint's work. 3 pp., in French.

From [unknown], Gambier, Ohio, [postmarked] December 4, 1912: empty envelope with no return address.

From Wilhelm Lehmbruck, Paris, France, December 6, 1912: Two sculptures, -- Woman Kneeling -- and -- Large Torso -- , and 2 drawings are being sent to Pach for his exhibition. 1 p., in French.

From Henri Matisse, Tangier, Morocco, December 6, 1912: agrees to lend the 7 paintings requested for exhibition in New York; lists titles, insurance values, and indicates which are for sale; -- Le Luxe -- is fragile; no drawings are available; will ask Fénéon to loan as many paintings as possible. 2 pp., in French.

From Robert Henri, New York, N.Y., January 3, 1913: discusses photographs of Besnard's work; reminisces about discovering decorations by Besnard at the College of Pharmacie; compliments Pach's Winslow Homer article; "there is a growing state of expectancy about the 'armory' exhibition, and there is little doubt but that it will make a great stir, and do a great deal of good in a great variety of directions"; news of George Bellows, Guy Pène du Bois, Boss, Kent, Coleman, Sprinchorn, Sloan, Van Sloun, and Bohnen. 4 pp.

From Odilon Redon, [place unknown], France, January 6, 1913: he is flattered by Pach's article, which he believes will enhance his reputation in America; Pach should try to visit soon, as they plan to go south in a few days. 2 pp., in French.

From Raymond Duchamp-Villon, Paris, France, January 16, 1913: agrees with Pach that each generation of artists draws inspiration From undeveloped ideas found in the work of preceding generations; no French architectural style has emerged since the 18th century, confirming the idea that eras without defined aspirations produce no monuments; current politics and intellectual freedom presage hope for the 20th century; as Pach demonstrated, painting was the dominant 19th-century aesthetic, thus developments in other arts will come From painting; a new architecture is needed for modern life; in a time when money reigns supreme, artists should practice simplicity; machines are now a powerful presence in all of life. 4 pp., in French.

From Constantin Brancusi, Paris, France, [postmarked] January 24, 1913: his cousin has just finished a painting that Pach should see; invites Pach to dinner. 1 p., in French.

From Elie Faure, Paris, France, February 11, 1913: if he goes to England, he will contact Mr. Fry; wants to introduce a painter friend to the Steins; Pach is a rare friend and intellectual equal. 2 pp., in French.

From Jacqueline d'Argent, Chinon, France, March 1, 1913: has fond memories of their interesting conversations; present acquaintances are not intellectual and gossip too much; applied for a medical assignment in Algeria but is unsure about moving. 2 pp., in French.

From Constantin Brancusi, Paris, France, March 13, 1913: asks Pach to decide the price of the bronze; congratulations on the success of the exhibition. 3 pp., in French.

From Arthur B. Davies, New York, N.Y., [postmarked] April 5, 1913: borrowed works are being returned to Europe; Roman Bronze Co. could make a good cast of Brancusi's -- Mlle. Pogany -- owned by Belle Greene; "looking forward to a genuine recreation in Boston as to art interest"; doubts Chicago's appreciation, Mr. Eddy notwithstanding. 2 pp.

From Ary Le Bland, Paris, France, April 5, 1913: a copy of -- La Vie -- , featuring the information Pach provided about Redon, is being sent; asks Pach to write about art trends in America for -- La Vie -- and publicize the magazine. Postal card, in French.

From Jacques Villon, Paris, France, April 13, 1913: congratulates and thanks Pach for promoting the acceptance of modern art; extends appreciation to Davies and Kuhn. 3 pp., in French.

From Raymond Duchamp-Villon, [place unknown], France, April 18, 1913: received Pach's letter and check; the Duchamp brothers are embarrassed by their success and do not talk about it; wishes Gleizes were having his share of it; asks how the other artists fared; a commission agency requested cubist paintings for America; worried that cubism is becoming a commodity; the 4 copies of -- Noa, Noa -- he purchased at a good price have been shipped. 2 pp., in French.

From M. Lernait [Lemaitre?], Saigon, Indochina, May 25, 1913: thanks Pach for writing and for his friendship; the countryside near Saigon is beautiful; he misses Paris. 4 pp., in French.

From Jacques Villon, Versailles, France, June 19, 1913: thanks Pach for selling another painting; Salon d'Automne opens later than usual this year; Torrey called on him, Marcel, and Picabia; Raymond is going on vacation soon; sends regards to Davies and Kuhn. 4 pp., in French.

From Maurice Brazil Prendergast, Boston, Mass., June 25, 1913: is recovering From surgery; thanks Pach for sending postcards and showing interest in him. 3 pp.

From Jean Le Roy, Paris, France, [postmarked] July 1, 1913: comments on the success of Pach's exhibition; has a temporary job; finished college; might travel to Guinea; discusses his poetry published in -- Les Bandeaux d'Oro -- ; met de Verhaeren, whom he admires. 4 pp., in French.

From Marcel Duchamp, Neuilly-sur-Seine, France, July 2, [1913?]: heard all about the American exhibition From his brothers; thanks Pach for "enthusiastically defending their work"; still awaiting payment; will spend August in England; Torrey called on them. 3 pp., in French.

From Maurice Brazil Prendergast, Boston, Mass., [postmarked] July 11, 1913: is recovering From his "hospital experience"; recounts trouble with studio lease; asks Pach to notify him of suitable space available in New York. 4 pp.

From Maurice Socard, Paris, France, August 1, 1913: Pach is a kindred spirit; Pach's competence and ability to elicit appreciation for modern painting made the show a success. 2 pp., in French.

From F. Wentscher, [place unknown], Hungary, August 24, 1913: is painting out of doors; won't return to Paris until November. Postal card, with original illustration of horse-drawn carriage, in German.

From Elie Faure, Paris, France, August 25, 1913: is delighted with Americans' enthusiastic acceptance of French painting; current prices are ridiculous and scandalous; bought a great Delacroix at reasonable cost; complains about his editor; awaits word From Mr. Fry, to whom he has sent a Cézanne; will go to London in September; saw an interesting Matisse show but preferred Bonnard's exhibition; he sees Renoir frequently; finds it deeply moving to see Renoir make constant improvements in his work despite old age and sickness. 4 pp., in French.

From Jacqueline d'Argent, Blida, Algeria, September 8, 1913: is now practicing medicine in Blida; describes the scenery and local people; congratulates Pach on his marriage. 6 pp., in French.

From Raymond Duchamp-Villon, Neuilly-sur-Seine, France, September 25, 1913: just received Pach's article and will comment on it in the next letter; thanks Pach for promoting his and friends' work; will see the Steins soon and try to learn more of the rumored American reaction against their ideas; the Salon d'Automne opening is delayed until November; Pach's mention of the Delaunay affair confirms rumors of discord; asks Pach to determine if and when unsold paintings and sculpture were returned. 2 pp., in French.

From Clifton A. Wheeler, Indianapolis, Ind., December 22, 1913: museum's schedule cannot accommodate Pach's exhibition; describes upcoming January show; the museum hopes to acquire a Davies painting; "the exhibition in Chicago (The International) did not strike me with overwhelming force, but I have enough respect for the opinions of Mr. Davies and yourself to admit that the fault may have been my own"; congratulations on engagement to Miss Frohberg. 7 pp. + 1 p. postscript from -- Hila Drake Wheeler -- wishing Pach and Miss Frohberg happiness.

From G. Villon, Paris, France, [1914]: congratulations on the birth of Pach's son; heard From her husband who is in the army; asks Pach's opinion of some drawings; is working with blind children in a hospital. 4 pp., in French.

From Constantin Brancusi, Paris, France, January 26, 1914: asks Pach to determine whether the owner of -- Muse Endormie -- wants the piece in marble; a reduced price is possible, but he must know soon; met Mrs. Stieglitz; asks Pach's advice about showing his marbles in New York. 4 pp., in French.

From Constantin Brancusi, Paris, France, February 19, 1914: received the check; distressed to be participating in a show that may prove harmful to Pach's cause; asks Pach not to be hurt by his unwitting mistake. 4 pp., in French.

From Walter Arensberg, Boston, Mass., March 1, 1914: "The exhibition was tremendously fresh and fine"; compliments Pach's work. 1 p.

From Jean Le Roy, Paris, France, [postmarked] March 4, 1914: congratulations on Pach's marriage; encourages him to continue painting; news of Lombard and Clapp. 2 pp., in French.

From Maurice Brazil Prendergast, Saint-Malo, France, June 12, 1914: thanks Pach for reproducing his work in -- Century -- magazine; is returning home sooner than planned; Renoir's new work is "way ahead of his former landscapes." 3 pp.

From Raymond Duchamp-Villon, Courbevoie, France, June 26, 1914: is impatient for news of a proposed project; Mrs. A. Roosevelt will be in touch with Pach; her work has shown progress; during the past year, modern art has begun to attract interest and generate discussion among some previously unreceptive people. 2 pp., in French.

From Morton Livingston Schamberg, Paris, France, June 30, 1914: "Would love to meet Brancusi and Duchamp-Villon but damn it, I can't speak French." Picture postcard ("P. Cézanne, -- L'été -- fragment").

From Odilon Redon, Bièvres, France, July 10, 1914: if Pach organizes another exhibition, he wants to participate. 3 pp., in French.

From Joseph Stella, Venice, Italy, July 20, 1914: discusses his travels in Europe; Greece reminded him of Davies's pictures; no reply From the futurists in Milan; recounts a meeting with Walkowitz in Patrai, Greece. 5 pp.

From Alexandre Mercereau, Paris, France, [postmarked] July 30, 1914: can secure work by interesting artists for exhibition; inquires whether foreign works and jewelry are acceptable; he organized an international exhibition of cubism with an accompanying symposium in Prague; offers to lecture in the United States if Pach can find a way to pay for the trip; is sending information about an organization he founded; wants to establish an American branch; needs an American editor for his books; Brancusi's participation is essential. 4 pp., in French.

From Raymond Duchamp-Villon, Paris, France, August 7, 1914: just received registered letter and invitations; continuing with exhibit plans is impossible, as all of their friends are mobilized; work of Gleizes, Villon, and Metzinger being exhibited in Berlin probably will be lost; a negative reply From Chapell ended long-held hopes; wholehearted thanks due to Pach for countless efforts and true friendship; the French are ready to die for peace and freedom; confident of the future, despite anxiety over friends now in danger. 4 pp., in French.

From Raymond Duchamp-Villon, Saint-Germain-en-Laye, France, August 26, 1914: war conditions make collaboration impossible; is serving as a paramedic; no bad news concerning anyone Pach knows. 2 pp., in French.

From Raymond Duchamp-Villon, Saint-Germain-en-Laye, September 11, 1914: will consult with friends about planning an exhibition in the United States; Gleizes is at Toul; Villon is with the British army at Rouen. 2 pp., in French.

From Albert Pinkham Ryder, New York, N.Y., September 13, 1914: is looking forward to having the Pachs and Mr. Wheeler visit his studio. 2 pp.

From Michael Stein, Agay, France, October 19, 1914: requests details about the exhibition Pach is organizing; Pach should tell Matisse "he must now look to America for a market for his art for some time to come"; "it is about time he [Matisse] were ranked among the accepted classics and bought freely." 3 pp.

From Jean Le Roy, Brest, France, [postmarked] November 10, 1914: plans to enlist soon; is worried about Kohler at the front. 4 pp., in French.

From Jacques Villon, [place unknown], France, November 23, 1914: comments on the war and his painting; congratulates Pach on his New York exhibition. 1 p., in French.

From Piet van der Laan, Zutphen, the Netherlands, January 24 and February 8, 1915: Congratulations on the birth of Raymond; cannot visit Pach in Paris because of the war. 4 pp. + 3 pp. enclosure (copy of a poem by Dante), in Italian.

From Raoul Dufy, Le Havre, France, January 29, 1915: sent 2 copies of his Bestiarie; wants Pach to choose a drawing, watercolor, or Bestiarie as a gift of thanks; heard From Derain, Apollinaire, and Gleizes, all in the army; de la Fresnaye was wounded; asks if Basler, Brummer, and Kahnweiler are art dealers now that they have settled in New York; considers Basler an honest man. 4 pp., in French.

From Raymond Duchamp-Villon, Acheux, France, February 26, 1915: still in Saint-Germain where his wife continues her work at the military hospital; Villon spent the entire winter in the trenches but bears it well; glad Quinn bought Cat and Parrot; thinks Quinn should have the final versions in wood rather than cast reproductions and instructs Pach to discuss it with him; received Marcel's articles and reproductions; understands the change that has affected Pach's desire for new means of artistic expression. 2 pp., in French.

From Raoul Dufy, Le Havre, France, March 3, 1915: lists the 4 paintings he is sending; accepts and reiterates the payment schedule; Pach should select a painting for himself; will send some paintings on silk; promises to write about decorative art in his next letter. 4 pp., in French.

From Marcel Duchamp, Paris, France, March 12, [1915?]: received the Matisse catalog and remembers the goldfish painting; Villon is in good health and good spirits; is optimistic about prospects for peace by summer; after a family vacation in Rouen, he finished glass and other projects; Raymond is happy in Saint-Germain, where his wife is a hospital nurse; does Pach know if Delaunay is in America; wants to visit Brancusi; has no news of Picasso, Braque, or Derain. 4 pp., in French.

From Marcel Duchamp, Paris, France, April 2, [1915?]: is preparing for an exhibition; describes arrangements for sending Raymond's works to Pottier; 2 paintings, a drawing, and papers are being sent to Pach; reports on the work and conditions of Raymond, Rifemont-Dessaisner, and Villon; has decided to leave France and go to New York; wants to know when he should come and if securing employment as a librarian will be difficult; does not want his family to know of these plans for a while; includes price list for paintings. 3 pp., in French.

From Jacques Villon, Acheux, France, April 13, 1915: glad to learn that his paintings and engravings have sold; is looking forward to returning to normal life and working with greater intensity; being welcomed in New York should boost his self-confidence and provide some peace of mind regarding financial security; the matter of Dr. Stum's paintings cannot be settled until the war ends; is sending Pach engravings and drawings; a shipment of sketches made during the war can be published as documentaries; after being away From home for 8 months, he envies Pach's happy family life; emerging spring contrasts sharply with human evil. 3 pp., in French.

From Marcel Duchamp, Paris, France, April 27, [1915?]: is displeased by the reply received; understands that Pach misses Paris and the artist's life he led there; he is increasingly dissatisfied and the point is to leave Paris rather than to go to New York; asks help in finding a library job in New York so he will not have to depend on selling paintings; does not want his family to know yet. 7 pp., in French.

From Marcel Duchamp, Paris, France, May 21, 1915: has decided to depart on June 5, despite family and sentimental reasons for rescheduling; spoke to Raymond about Arensberg's magazine; Mme. Picon probably has articles by Mercereau, Gleizes may have articles, and other friends could contribute poems and prose; has decided on a job for the duration of his stay in America, but it will prevent him From painting. 3 pp., in French

From Theodore Duret, Paris, France, May 22, 1915: hopes Pach's efforts at promoting the latest in modern art, especially Van Gogh and Lautrec, have been successful; has written a comprehensive book on Van Gogh, which is to be published when the war ends; asks if the Van Gogh painting he loaned to the exhibition has been sold. 4 pp., in French

From Alice Derain, Paris, France, May 28, 1915: thanks Pach for sending a check and for handling her affairs; the paintings From Mme. Lebas were not shipped because Derain is not satisfied with them and decided not to sell; some landscapes may be available soon because Derain has spare time and can try to work; a recent portrait of the couturier Monsieur Poiret may be his best painting yet. 2 pp., in French

From Georges Rouault, Versailles, France, [postmarked] June 1, 1915: (1) Discusses works in progress that may be suitable for the exhibition Pach is organizing; the shipment will also include a ceramic plaque for Quinn; Quinn persists in asking about Rouault's military status; 6 times already he has been disqualified due to a weak heart; academies, medals, and awards are not about art; nature and other artists are more inspiring than unimaginative teachers. (2) Pach should keep a Rouault piece unless he prefers to select one when in France; his simplified ceramics are real faiences; his paintings are lighter and more fluid; his show after the war will include German types and landscape and religious paintings. (3) Perhaps Quinn will be interested in the paintings shipped; within the year, a larger selection of ceramics will be available for Quinn, but at the moment his focus is on painting. 4 pp. (3 separate notes), in French

From Jean Le Roy, [place unknown], France, June 12, 1915: describes his flower-decorated trench and the surrounding countryside; started a magazine called Les Imberbes with an editor and typographer friend; intends to send poems to Pach's American publication. 5 pp. + 1 p. enclosure (poem, "Printemps"), in French

From Maurice Brazil Prendergast, Boston, Mass., July 7, 1915: thanks Pach for Dufy's book; "tell Monsieur Dufy when you write him I felt more pleased than if I got a gold medal"; he and Charlie will leave soon for Maine. 4 pp

From Marcel Duchamp, New York, N.Y., [postmarked] July 28, 1915: inquires whether Pach received the palette he sent; spent the evening with Quinn, Gregg, and Kuhn; Gregg was likable and Kuhn fascinating; thinks Quinn could be supportive; Quinn was anxious to know if cubism has been killed by the war; once his English improves, he wants to convince Quinn to discard his ideas about the politics of art. 2 pp., in French

From Alice Derain, Paris, France, August 7, 1915: sends receipt for payment in full; her husband is in the service; Braque was seriously wounded; Doucet died; Picasso is in Paris; her husband hopes to meet Pach. 2 pp., in French

From Raoul Dufy, Paris, France, September 18, 1915: has received a payment toward Quinn's account; Quinn has purchased additional works; credits many sales to his association with Pach; is able to paint while in the military; after the war, he hopes the French can become better acquainted with American painters; is pleased to hear that Prendergast liked his gift; wants to see photographs of Prendergast's work; requests catalogs with reproductions of American furniture. 4 pp., in French

From Raymond Duchamp-Villon, [place unknown], October 17, 1915: feels renewed interest in his work; continues his research; observations about the war; Villon has suffered and was awarded a Military Cross; requests news of Pach and mutual friends; Pach should determine Quinn's intentions. 3 pp., in French

From Henri Matisse, Issy-les-Moulineaux, France, November 20 and 29, 1915: is delighted by the prospect of an exhibition of French art; will do what he can to help obtain the Seurat painting for exhibition; thanks Pach for selecting his work for the exhibition at Bourgeois and agrees to send additional pieces; lists etchings sent to Miss Bryant via Pottier; the photographs showed great improvement in Pach's portraits; advises a warmer palette; will offer additional frank comments after seeing new pictures; is working hard and just finished an important painting, which already has been sold; is still recovering From bronchitis. 12 pp., in French

From Louis Lombard, [place unknown], France, December 28, 1915: best wishes for the coming year. Postal card, in French

From Theodore Duret, Paris, France, December 29, 1915: read a favorable review of the Van Gogh exhibition; asks if Pach was able to sell Duret's Van Gogh still life; his book about Van Gogh will be printed after the war. 4 pp., in French

From Maurice Socard, [place unknown], December 31, 1915: has been in Paris throughout the war; is teaching at the Lycée Ch. [ sic]; believes Germany wants to organize the world; explains his view of the causes of the war and predicts the outcome. 6 pp., in French

From Mary Socard, Paris, France, December 31, 1915: greetings and good wishes; believes the war will be followed by much misery and great changes. 2 pp., in French

From Jean Le Roy, [place unknown], France, [postmarked] [?,?] 1916: his commanding officer knows Picasso, Marie Laurencin, and Derain; Lafitte was killed; wants news of Pach; thank the magazine Others if his poem "Spring" is accepted. 5 pp., in French

From Georges Rouault, [place unknown], France, [undated] [1916?]: received the catalog and Pach's review with the reproduction of his painting; his grandchild is sick; they are going to the seashore; is working on an exhibit; thanks Pach for helping sell a painting; though in poor health, he may have to join the army; suggests an album of reproductions. 10 pp., in French

From Jacques Villon, Paris, France, January 5, [1916]: he is assigned to the central atelier for camouflage; works with other artists, not all of whom share his outlook; has many ideas for new work; no news From Marcel or Picabia. 4 pp., in French

From Georges Rouault, [place unknown], France, [postmarked] January 22, 1916: personally delivered the paintings to Pottier for shipment; worries that the large works will not have the style and the color of the small ones; wants to have his exhibition ready before going to Italy; has not seen Villon recently. 2 pp., in French

From Piet van der Laan, Zutphen, the Netherlands, February 7, 1916: thanks Pach for the "ex-libris"; he is busy translating a lengthy book on medieval Italy; discusses Dante. 4 pp

From Jacques Villon, [place unknown], February 10, 1916: speculates that an art form may develop From the war. 1 p., in French

From Maurice Brazil Prendergast, New York, N.Y., March 23, 1916: confirms 5 titles for inclusion in the exhibition catalog; has a good photograph for Pach's book. 2 pp

From Maurice Socard, Paris, France, April 2, 1916: remembers Pach as one of his best students; one of the many reasons for their friendship is Pach's love for France; quotes Descartes; compares the French ideal of liberty with the German interpretation; comments on French and German science. 4 pp., in French

From Ruth Wilmot, New York, N.Y., [postmarked] April 9, 1916: compliments Pach on the lectures he presented to her group; encloses payment. 2 pp

From Henri Matisse, Issy-les-Moulineaux, France, April 28, 1916: extends best wishes for the success of the exhibition; asks Pach not to reveal the extremely reduced price of the painting Arensberg bought; asks if Max Weber has a large gallery; wants to obtain sound recordings of typical exotic chants. 4 pp., in French

From Jean Le Roy, [place unknown], [postmarked] May 8, 1916: thanks Pach for sending the Cézanne catalog; has been at the front for 13 months; Kohler is a decorated hero; Siegfried's fate is unknown; plans to publish his poems when next in Paris. 4 pp., in French

From Gino Severini, Paris, France, May 29, 1916: wants to have an exhibition in New York; has 30 or 35 paintings and 20 drawings representing several periods and can supply text for a lecture; recently published on Mallarmé and pictorial aesthetics; is presently writing another critical study; suggests Pach arrange for a show at Montross or Macbeth and specifies his usual terms; philosophical differences have caused him to part From the group of futurists Pach knows; still considers himself a futurist and will use the term because it helps the public grasp his ideas; no one, including Picasso, Derain, Dufy, and Metzinger, is making a profit From exhibitions. 4 pp., in French

From Mme. Victor Le Roy, Paris, France, May 30, 1916: belatedly acknowledges receipt of Jean's poems; [UNK] husband, Victor, died near Verdun; Jean may come home on leave. 1 p., in French

From Jean Le Roy, [place unknown], [postmarked] June 2, 1916: thanks Pach for forwarding his poems to American publications; believes poets are well treated in the United States; uncle Victor died in the war; Carreau was wounded. 4 pp., in French

From Raoul Dufy, Paris, France, June 3, 1916: thanks Pach for writing an article defending the ideas of modern French art, which had come under attack by a young American critic; wants to know if there are opponents of French modern art in New York; exhibitions are returning to Paris; Quinn purchased -- The Yellow Hat -- ; is sending a thank-you gift and an etching. 1 p., in French

From Emil Gay, Watkins Glen, N.Y., June 12, 1916: enjoyed Pach's lectures. 6 pp

From E.D. Smyth, [place unknown], England, June 16, 1916: news of a mutual friend killed in the war; discusses Jean Le Roy. 4 pp

From Camille Redon, Cannes, France, [July 1916?]: Redon is recuperating in Cannes; asks for the return of their pictures, when feasible. 2 pp., in French

From Camille Redon, [place unknown], July 4, 1916: Redon is gravely ill with pulmonary congestion; the doctors are concerned. 1 p., in French

From Jacques Villon, Puteaux, France, [postmarked] July 12, 1916: Miss Bryant's purchase boosted his morale and was welcome financially; Marcel is delighted with America; speculates that Marcel may eventually settle in America. 3 pp., in French

From Camille Redon, Bièvres, France, August 6, 1916: Redon was buried several days ago; a gallery in the Petit Palais will be devoted to him and there will be an exhibition at the Beaux-Arts in the spring; reflects on the solitude and anonymity of many great artists during their lifetimes. 4 pp., in French

From Georges Rouault, Paris, France, [postmarked] August 14, 1916: Pach should return all paintings and drawings when he can; thanks Pach for his help; his wife and infant daughter are unwell; bought a new house; will be able to work when the family leaves Paris; received the item Pach sent him From Quinn much sooner than anticipated. 2 pp., in French

From Souza Cardoso, [place unknown], Portugal, [postmarked] September 25, 1916: comments on the picture shown on the card. Picture postcard (photograph of a woman and child in costume), in French

From Henri Matisse, Issy-les-Moulineaux, France, October 14, 1916: the information Pach sent about Bourgeois raises hopes for a good exhibition at his gallery; in reply to the question about a frame for the portrait of Arensberg, insists that modern paintings do not need frames, especially gold ones that contain a picture by stopping its extension; will look at Pach's paintings any time; Mrs. Havemeyer parted with the Ingres as a condition for another purchase; From photographs, gives his opinion of the authenticity and condition of 12 paintings. 11 pp., in French

From Henri Matisse, Issy-les-Moulineaux, France, November 6, 1916: sends description and opinion of a picture he omitted From a previous letter; art is selling well in Paris. 4 pp., in French

From Paul Signac, Saint-Tropez, France, November 18, 1916: illness prevents him from complying with Pach's request to select works for exhibition; suggests sources From which to borrow Seurat paintings. 3 pp., in French

From Florence Bing, New York, N.Y., [undated (1917)]: condolences on the death of Pach's mother. 1 p

From Albert Gabriel, [place unknown], [undated (1917)]: "Accept my sincere sympathy." Note on calling card

From Leigh Hunt, [place unknown], [undated (1917)]: "Heartfelt sympathy." Note on calling card

From Professor Adolph Werner, [place unknown], [undated (1917)]: "Condolence." Note on calling card

From Ruth Wilmot, [place unknown], [undated (1917)]: condolences on the death of Pach's mother. 2 pp

From Mme. Raymond Duchamp-Villon, Compiègne, France, [postmarked] January 6, 1917: her husband is hospitalized with multiple ailments, including typhoid; condolences on the death of Pach's mother. 2 pp., in French

From Constantin Brancusi, Paris, France, January 19, 1917: thanks for check From Quinn; is pleased that he was satisfied with the sculptures, despite difficulty in assembly; plans to visit the United States after the war. 3 pp., in French

From Gino Severini, Paris, France, February 7, 1917: has written a preface explaining the ideas of the avant-garde; wants Pach to oversee the translation; asks that the three fragile pastels be framed inexpensively by Stieglitz. 2 pp., in French

From Childe Hassam, New York, N.Y., March 30, 1917: thanks Pach for help in determining latest possible date to submit work for exhibition. Note on the reverse of printed announcement of a show of Hassam's etchings and drawings at Frederick Keppel & Co., November 16- December 2

From Gino Severini, Paris, France, April 28, 1917: expresses appreciation for the success of his exhibition; his paintings should be returned at a more favorable time; a longer version of his preface on modern art will appear in -- Le Mercure de France -- ; asks to be remembered to his friends and for news of sales and reviews of his show. 4 pp., in French

From [signature illegible], New York, NY., May 14, 1917

From [signature illegible], New York, NY., May 16, 1917

From Charles Sheeler, Philadelphia, PA., May 17, [1917?]

From Charles Cooper, New York, NY., May 19, 1917

From [signature illegible], [Vienna, Austria?], July 22, 1917

From Alexandre Mercereau, [place unknown (at the front)], July 26, 1917: is sending Pach a selection of his writings, which he hopes can be published in the United States; is anxious for a good translation; believes the book he just wrote is his best and is willing to offer it to an American publisher before it appears in France. 4 pp., in French

From Gino Severini, Paris, France, September 6, 1917: discusses work in progress; offers congratulations on the first Independents show; praises Pach's selfless efforts; authorizes use of any remaining works for other exhibitions; thanks Pach for arranging sales and sending reviews. 4 pp., in French

From [signature illegible], [place unknown], October 26, 1917

From Louis Lombard, [place unknown], France, October 26, 1917: reminisces about good times together; has less desire to write poetry now; is learning German and Italian. 2 pp., in French

From Maurice Socard, Paris, France, November 3, 1917: describes superb Renoirs seen in the Rue de la Boetie; hopes Pach's remarkable efforts on behalf of modern art will be fruitful; notes qualities needed for portrait and landscape painting. 4 pp., in French

From Louis Lombard, Ingolstadt, Germany, [postmarked] November 26, 1917: boredom and solitude are his routine; thanks Pach for gifts of books and tobacco; sends holiday greetings. Postal card, in French

From Camille Redon, Paris, France, December 8, 1917: if it remains unsold, Pach should keep the Redon painting until the war is over; American troops are arriving; she follows the exhibitions; likes Matisse; Mr. Quinn is behind in his payments. 4 pp., in French

From Arthur Burdett Frost, Madison, N.J., January 5, 1918: thanks Pach for condolences upon the death of his son; wants Pach to look at his son's work and consider writing an article. 4 pp

From Georges Rouault, Versailles, France, [postmarked] January 15, 1918: discusses titles of 2 pieces; general terms are more suitable titles for his subjects; Matisse was ridiculed by many because for a year he numbered all canvases; Rouault's albums will be numbered rather than titled; suggests framing and matting techniques for the double-sided piece; his new paintings won't need glass; he has always been lonely, but now is isolated as well; has a new daughter. 4 pp., in French

From Arthur Burdett Frost, [place unknown], February 1, 1918: thanks Pach for his interest in his son Arthur; offers a photograph of Arthur to illustrate Pach's forthcoming article. 4 pp

From Arthur Burdett Frost, [place unknown], [between February 1 and March 12, 1918]: thanks Pach for the manuscript; plans to send additional photographs of Arthur. 4 pp

From Arthur Burdett Frost, [place unknown], [between February 1 and March 12, 1918]: returning Pach's manuscript; requests a copy. 2 pp

From Alexandre Mercereau, Paris, France, [postmarked] February 9, 1918: thanks Pach for finding him a publisher; financial gain is secondary to having a publisher of good reputation who will provide proper translation; mentions Pach's frequent contact with Gleizes and Duchamp, who surely support his efforts on behalf of modern art; Vareze recommends Julio Gonzales's decorative work for Pach's exhibition; wants to help a friend sell a de Miranda painting. 2 pp., in French, + business card ("Alexandre Mercereau, Homme de Lettres, President de la Société Les Grandes Conférences") + 2 photographs (inscribed portrait of Mercereau taken at the front, June 1915, and portrait of Charles III and Maria-Ana by Carreño de Miranda)

From Maurice Socard, Paris, France, February 20, 1918: letter of gratitude for Pach's friendship and efforts on behalf of modern art; discusses idealism, imagination, art, and the search for truth. 3 pp., in French

From Elie Faure, Paris, France, March 12, 1918: is sending copies of his last 3 books; thinks -- The Holy Face -- is his most important book; it is about war in general and includes personal experiences From the present war. 4 pp., in French

From Mme. Le Roy, Paris, France., May 19, 1918: Jean died while a prisoner of war. 3 pp., in French

From Raymond Duchamp-Villon, Cannes, France, May 20, 1918: is sending Quinn a drawing and photograph that relate to his rooster sculpture and show the original architectural setting for the piece; will send the script of a comedy written with a friend for performance at a military hospital, which Pach may translate and publish in America; glad that the rift between Pach and Marcel is mended; recently saw Matisse hard at work; Villon is in the army and has no time for work. 4 pp., in French

From Gaby Duchamp, [place unknown], France, May 23, 1918: thanks Pach for arranging sales to Quinn; her husband is well, doing research, and will resume his art when the war ends; Raymond is in the hospital in Cannes; there were interesting Matisse and Picasso exhibitions in Paris. 2 pp., in French

From French Army, [place unknown], July [?], 1918: confirms the death of Jean Le Roy on April 26; sends details of the battle, as Pach requested, and text of citation. 4 pp., in French

From Mme. Le Roy, Paris, France, August 19, 1918: thanks Pach for the touching gesture of dedicating his University of California course to Jean's memory; sends a copy of the citation Jean received the day he died. 3 pp., in French

From J. Van Gogh Bonger, Far Rockaway, N.Y., August 20, 1918: sons wrote of good times with Pach in Berkeley; they were in Honolulu and now should be in Japan; first volume of the "Letters" has been translated; discusses her brother's friendship with Redon. 4 pp

From Camille Redon, Bièvres, France, September 23, 1918: thanks Pach for lecturing on Redon and his work; has a full set of engravings and lithographs; litho stones were erased, but copper plates are at the museum in Amsterdam; plans to sell prints after the war and will offer Pach some he lacks; comments on arrival of American forces, with whom her son-in-law is an officer. 4 pp., in French

From Morton Livingston Schamberg, Philadelphia, Pa., September 30, 1918: belated thanks for the two Indian tiles; he and Sheeler readily agreed who should have which tile. 2 pp

From Frederic C. Torrey, San Francisco, Calif., October 8, 1918: is glad Pach is in California; anticipating the end of the war; tell Mme. Van Gogh he regrets not meeting her. 4 pp

From Mme. Duchamp-Villon, Paris, France, October 11, 1918: Raymond died of uremia; she plans to return to work at the front; will send Raymond's design for a chess set; wonders if Quinn purchased the rooster drawing. 2 pp., in French

From Vincent Van Gogh Bonger, Kobe, Japan, October 27, 1918: "Best regards From Vincent." Picture postcard ("Joie de Vivre")

From Elie Faure, [place unknown], October 30, 1918: thanks Pach for sincere appreciation of The Holy Face; the book received mixed reviews; if there is an English edition, Pach should be the translator; agrees to contribute to the magazine; suggests an article on "America in the War"; the final volume of History of Art will not be published until after the war due to paper shortages; maybe Pach can obtain appropriate paper. 2 pp., in French

From Maurice Socard, Paris, France, November 12, 1918: finally met with Pach's friend for a discussion of Pach's aesthetic preferences and the relationship between philosophy and art; read about Pach's University of California lectures; Paris is celebrating the end of the war. 7 pp., in French

From Jacques Villon, Paris, France, November 13, 1918: Raymond died following a second operation; is determined not to leave Raymond's work unfinished. 2 pp., in French

From Marcel Duchamp, Buenos Aires, Argentina, November 15, [1918?]: as a close friend and admirer of Raymond, Pach must be grieving his death; although provincial, Buenos Aires is calm and conducive to work; brought notes for the glass and plans to continue drawings for it; Argentines are aware of cubism but do not understand it; is planning an exhibition for Buenos Aires in May or June; asks Pach to help H.M. Barzun, who will be contacting him about the show; outlines his schedule for the coming year; anticipates readjusting to peacetime. 3 pp., in French

From Jean Le Roy, [place unknown], [postmarked] December 15, 1918: thanks Pach for bringing his pamphlet to Arensberg's attention; discusses his interest in rhythm in poetry. 4 pp., in French

From Frederic C. Torrey, San Francisco, Calif., December 19, 1918: holiday greetings; compliments Pach's writing, specifically his latest article in the Dial; discusses the Dana prize awarded in Philadelphia to McComas. 5 pp

From the Butlers, New York, NY., [postmarked] December 23, 1918: Christmas card, "Victory Christmas"

From Frederic C. Torrey, San Francisco, Calif., January 3, 1919: Pach was misidentified as curator of Hindu art in American Art News; discusses taxes on art sales; still wants to sell his Cézanne lithograph and can reduce the price; asks if Arensberg would be interested in purchasing Un Descendant. 4 pp

From Mabel Torrance, New York, N.Y., January 12, 1919: just learned the classes will be discontinued. 3 pp

From Elie Faure, [place unknown], January 21, 1919: thanks Pach for efforts with American publishers on his behalf; before the war only Germany had a culture large enough to take immediate interest in his kind of intellectual endeavors; awaiting instructions From Johnson concerning the articles he is writing; comments on diplomats of the Entente and political matters; compliments -- Modern School -- ; is sending a brochure about a restored castle his brother is attempting to sell. 4 pp., in French

From Frederic C. Torrey, San Francisco, Calif., February 3, 1919: nude is on the way to Arensberg a day late; his wife will be very happy to sell Un Descendant; "I want the Russian experiment to be given a fair chance"; comments on "Russian 'refugees"'; thanks Pach for assistance in the "Arensberg matter." 7 pp

From Frederic C. Torrey, San Francisco, Calif., February 7, 1919: received Arensberg's check; painting was shipped late, with a lesser valuation, due to changes in regulations; discusses new tax bill. 3 pp

From Elie Faure, [place unknown], May 4, 1919: notes the poor reception of his book in France and the United States; discusses his current work; opinions of world politics. 4 pp., in French

From Maurice Socard, [place unknown], May 12, 1919: much disagreement about the terms of the peace treaty; feels that Germany must serve a term in purgatory. 3 pp., in French [filmed with the wrong envelope]

From Félix Fénéon, Paris, France, May 15, 1919: thanks Pach for selling -- Esquisse d'un Dimanche d'Eté a la Grande Jatte -- and for the check. 1 p., in French

From Marcel Duchamp, Buenos Aires, Argentina, June 6, 1919: regrets having abandoned plans for an exhibition there; Buenos Aires is ready for new art. 2 pp., in French

From Xavier Martinez, Piedmont, Calif., June 16, 1919: received Courbet, Society of Independent Artists, and Redon catalogs; congratulates Pach. 2 pp., in Spanish

From Ismael Smith, New York, N.Y., June 25, 1919: Margarita Cordoba From Cuba, representing the Independents, is sending a picture of la Mazantinita, a famous Spanish ballerina. 1 p., in Spanish, +8 pp. enclosure (11 designs for bookplates)

From Jacques Villon, Neuilly-sur-Seine, France, June 26, 1919: thanks Pach for check, letter, and catalog; writes of his work plans for the coming year, when he expects to make up for lost time; comments favorably on Pach's painting; notes activities of his friends, including Gleizes, Picabia, and Marcel. 2 pp., in French

From Marion L. Chamberlain, Santa Barbara, Calif., August 10, 1919: she and Miss Phillips enjoyed Pach's lectures at the Berkeley Summer School; they purchased 2 Renoir lithographs From Mr. Torrey. 4 pp

From Marcel Duchamp, Paris, France, [postmarked] September 3, 1919: his friends and their lives seem little changed since the war; other than the work of his brother and Picabia, he sees little of artistic interest; will be in New York in December; saw Yvonne Duchamp-Villon. 3 pp., in French

From Charles Loeser, Florence, Italy, November 18, 1919: describes his house with its special music rooms; 6 Cézanne paintings hang in one room; has a drawing which he believes is by Velasquez; discusses art collecting; "I have always liked Leo Stein, so long as he talked to me on any matter other than art." 6 pp

From Sybil Kent Kane, New York, N.Y., [postmarked] November 26, 1919: thanks Pach for etchings of "my beloved Chapel." 1 p

From Pietro Brunelleschi, Florence, Italy, [postmarked] December 5, 1919: accepts Pach's invitation for the following day. Note on business card, in Italian

From [Mme.] Duchamp-Villon, Laon, France, January 4, 1920: looks forward to Pach's proposed visit to France; discusses widowhood, her new job in Laon, and the material difficulties of postwar existence; Marcel took Cézanne paintings with him to New York; will send a print of Le Coq. 2 pp., in French

From Elie Faure, Paris, France, January 11, 1920: economic conditions preclude publication of his fourth volume at this time; saw Redon a month before he died, when he spoke of indifference to the opinions of others and concern with expressing himself; discusses the masterpieces in his personal collection, among them Redon, Delacroix, Daumier, and Van Gogh. 8 pp., in French

From Edgar L. Hewett, Archaeological Institute of America, San Diego, Calif., February 2, 1920: met with Sloan and Henri to make arrangements for the "Indian art exhibition"; thanks Pach for encouragement with the exhibition plan; compliments Pach's article in the Dial. 1 p

From Xavier Martinez, Piedmont, Calif., March 12, 1920: thanks for the Dial and the invitation; compliments Pach's article on American Indian art; thinks Pach writes just as well as he paints; is enthusiastic about plans for an American Indian exhibition. 2 pp., in Spanish, + enclosure (sketch of American Indian head)

From Elie Faure, Paris, France, April 20, 1920: is happy about what Pach tells him of Delacroix; he owns 3 works by Delacroix and considers him one of the greatest painters; paper shortages have delayed publication of volume 4; asks if Pach is willing to undertake more translation work; someone else has offered, but Pach is preferred; -- The Dance on Fire and Water -- is being sent for Pach's opinion; the book best condenses Faure's ideas on the aesthetic interpretation of history; like Pach, he organizes exhibits around topics. 4 pp., in French

From Elie Faure, Paris, France, April 23, 1920: Pach must let him know right away if he can do the translation; discusses publishers' contracts; Faure will furnish all photographs for illustration at prewar prices; Pach's other Faure translations have drawn high praise. 2 pp., in French

From J. Metzinger, [place unknown], May 15, 1920: thanks Pach for the check and efforts on his behalf in New York; Pach should keep an unsold painting and dispose of the others as he wishes; people no longer laugh at cubism, but they don't yet understand it; despite war and the hard times that followed, cubism survives; offers his help if Pach wants to exhibit there. 2 pp., in French

From Elie Faure, Paris, France, May 23, 1920: discusses the details of his 4-volume -- History of Art -- now being published; a copy of volume 1 is being sent to Pach. 2 pp., in French

From John Sloan, Santa Fe, N.M., June 9, 1920: began painting the week after arriving in Santa Fe; a Corpus Christi procession provided subject matter; had work accepted for the "Metropolitan Anniversary Ex."; comments on "Art and Craftsmanship" article in the Dial. 2 pp., illustrated with a drawing of Sloan in his studio

From Elie Faure, Paris, France, June 20, 1920: discusses the publication of his book, especially the quality and cost of illustrations for the English edition; judging any work of art requires distance in time and space. 4 pp., in French

From Elie Faure, [place unknown], July 3, 1920: discusses costs for engraved plates and cheaper electrotype plates; asks Pach to select photographs of Peruvian and Mexican monuments, Mexican sculpture, and an American Indian decorated tent or other appropriate images for use in Mediaeval Art; this second volume will contain new illustrations of the art of India and Gothic art. 2 pp., in French

From Elie Faure, Paris, France, July 11, 1920: thanks Pach for writing an article about him; comments favorably on Pach's paintings; is considering adding a section on modernist painting, which would mention Pach, to the third edition of -- History of Modern Art -- . 2 pp., in French

From Jacques Villon, Puteaux, France, July 25, 1920: he recently read the notes found among Raymond's papers, but the haphazard and often obscure ideas would reveal nothing new to Pach; is sending pictures of the horse, some showing the prewar plaster version and others the beginning of the final verson; Raymond's experience in the cavalry made him an expert horseman, and many sketches of horses made during the war show he continued to think of the sculpture he had started; is also sending photographs of sketches, a bust of Professor Gosset, plans for a chess set, and other works; some of Raymond's notes pertain to the design of a surgical center; is certain that Raymond would have continued the research that led him From literal representation to mechanical aspects; thanks Pach for preserving the memory and work of the late artist. 5 pp., in French

From Jacques Villon, [place unknown], August 1, 1920: is sending Pach several photographs and 2 drawings; gives installation instructions for Raymond Duchamp-Villon's last sculpture, Dr. Gosset, with sketches of front and side views of the piece [large portions illegible]. 2 pp., in French

From Elie Faure, Neuilly-sur-Seine, France, August 13, 1920: discusses illustrations for his book; Marcel Duchamp will not be included; mentions other artists he has omitted or included and the relative value assigned to each, perhaps mistakenly; discusses those classified as impressionists and neoimpressionists; mentions new directions in art, among them scientific ones. 8 pp., in French

From L.L. Kane, Long Lake, N.Y., August 26, 1920: Pach's pictures are "quite safe at 47th St. until your return"; he especially appreciates Mme. Derain, which hangs with 2 Copley portraits in the breakfast room. 4 pp

September 12, 1920: note indicating Samuel Ramos is with the Comision Mexicana de Cooperacion Intelectual

From Elie Faure, Paris, France, September 28, 1920: provides correct spellings for works of art, as requested; will send proof sheets of printed photographs with placement instructions; still waiting for the promised photographs of American Indian art. 2 pp., in French

From Elie Faure, Paris, France, November 10, 1920: discusses in detail the illustrations for his book, their placement and captions; an article about cinema in the -- Freeman -- expresses ideas very close to his own; reflects on current politics. 6 pp., in French

From Elie Faure, Paris, France, November 26, 1920: thanks Pach for the photographs; hopes instructions regarding illustrations and page-setting were received; requests a signed copy of the contract with -- Harpers -- ; is still thinking about writing an article for the -- Freeman -- ; is enclosing an advertising circular designed for his book and suggests something similar for the American edition. 2 pp., in French

From Elie Faure, Paris, France, December 22, 1920: the photograph of Herculeum arrived; his editors are pleased; volume 4 will be ready in a few days and a copy will be sent to Pach; the American edition contains stupid mistakes; plans to write an article for the Freeman; will send Pach his article on cinema. 2 pp., in French

From Elie Faure, Paris, France, January 17, 1921: describes his visit to London, emphasizing the British Museum; likes little of British art; considers Bonnard, Matisse, Picasso, and Derain in the forefront of modern art; he appreciates Pach's opinions on art, even when in disagreement; because Pach is younger, his views are an excellent indicator of current taste. 4 pp., in French

From Piet van der Laan, Utrecht, the Netherlands, January 21, 1921: thanks for the bookplate Pach designed; compliments his article in the Freeman; is attempting to sell paintings by a young Dutch artist friend. 3 pp

From Elie Faure, Paris, France, February 3, 1921: hopes to rewrite volume 1, as he is unhappy with it; Spanish translation is delayed due to paper shortages; his brother's chateau is to be sold; wrote an article on Charlot. 3 pp., in French

From [Mme.] Duchamp-Villon, Paris, France, February 11, 1921: discusses in detail the choice of lodgings available to the Pach family for their stay in Paris; Marcel can help Pach place the Gosset figure as he saw it assembled; instructs Pach to sell the Cézanne. 2 pp., in French

From Maurice Brazil Prendergast, New York, N.Y., February 28, 1921: thanks Pach for introducing him and Charlie to Mr. and Mrs. Brummer; their work will be exhibited at Brummer's March 15-April 1; read Pach's article on Matisse; will try to see the exhibition. 3 pp

From Elie Faure, Paris, France, March 1, 1921: discusses changes to the title of his 4-volume -- History of Art -- ; volume 1 is being shipped to Pach soon; believes French academics slander France. 2 pp., in French

From Elie Faure, Paris, France, March 4, 1921: Is still trying to find a place for the Pachs to stay; his own apartment will not be available until August; discusses the title of his book and asks Pach to write the introduction; the article on Charlot was not published. 2 pp., in French

From Clara La Follette, -- Freeman -- , New York, N.Y., [postmarked] March 7, 1921: sends letter received by the -- Freeman -- that she thinks will amuse Pach. 1 p., + 2 pp. enclosure (letter rubber stamped February 23, 1921 [date of receipt?] to Mr. Huebsch From Alfred Stieglitz, New York, N.Y. [of an exhibition review by Pach published in the -- Freeman -- ]: "Mr. Pach undoubtedly did his best--but I fear that the real significance of the work was beyond him.--I regret it")

From Elie Faure, Paris, France, March 14, 1921: will send proofs of Napoleon; desires advice From Pach concerning whether it should be translated; thinks the subject will be of interest in America. 2 pp., in French

From Elie Faure, [place unknown], July 29, 1921: plans to meet Pach in Cahors; -- History of Art -- was chosen as one of the 10 best French books recommended to Americans by the Comité France-Amerique. 2 pp., in French

From Camille Redon, Paris, France, [postmarked] August 1, 1921: thanks Pach for translating an article about Redon; offers a Redon work to Mrs. Pach. 1 p., in French

From Elie Faure, Dordogne, France, August 15, 1921: 4 pp., in French

From Elie Faure, Paris, France, March 16, 1921: has sent Pach his article on Charlot, which will be published soon by -- L'Esprit Nouveau -- ; discusses his work, including an article on cinema and -- Napoleon -- ; inquires about payment and translation rights for articles appearing in the -- Freeman -- . 2 pp., in French

From Elie Faure, Paris, France, April 16, 1921: the translation of his Charlot article must mention it is excerpted from -- L'Esprit Nouveau -- ; the French are boycotting American films, especially Charlie Chaplin's; compliments Pach's translations; -- History of Art -- has been an unexpected success; Napoleon promises to do well and is being serialized in -- Grande Revue -- ; he and Pach will divide the profits; may have found a convenient place for the Pachs to stay. 2 pp., in French

From [Mme.] Duchamp-Villon, Paris, France, April 20, 1921: offers to help Pach find lodging when he visits; asks if Quinn has received the sculpture. 1 p., in French

From Elie Faure, Paris, France, June 29, 1921: unable to find a place for Pach to stay; -- History of Art -- is selling well; reprints and new volumes will require translation; asks if Pach could bring his daughter a statuette of Charlot to put on their car, as is now the fad. 2 pp., in French

From George Ferdinand Of, New York, N.Y., November 28, 1914: is anxious to see Pach and hear about his trip. Picture postcard ("Museé de Louvre.-- -- Les Baigneuses.-- -- Vernet.--LL").

From Jean Le Roy, Nièvre, France, [postmarked] December 29, 1914: wants Pach's opinion of his poems; is in the army; heard Pach is organizing an exhibition; asks for news of the Duchamp brothers. 4 pp., in French.

From Raymond Duchamp-Villon, Saint-Germain-en-Laye, France, January 19, 1915: advises patience until the world of art returns; a weak heart disqualified Marcel From military duty; congratulates Pach on the exhibition; is invited to San Francisco but doubts cubist works will be accepted; discusses prices of his medallions. 2 pp., in French.

From Camille Redon, Paris, France, [postmarked] August 1, 1921: thanks Pach for translating an article about Redon; offers a Redon work to Mrs. Pach. 1 p., in French

From Elie Faure, Dordogne, France, August 15, 1921: 4 pp., in French

From Clara La Follette, Freeman, New York, N.Y., August 16, 1921: opinions of French government; comments on Faure's article on the cinema; urges Pach to send the article he mentioned; is looking for a studio. 4 pp

From Henri Matisse, Nice, France, September 7, 1921: agrees to Pach's terms concerning the Redon paintings, but there is no one available who is capable of separating the torn papers of -- Radiant Flower -- ; after 3 weeks of laziness, he is painting again and it is like starting over at the beginning. 2 pp., in French

From [Mme.] Duchamp-Villon, Puteaux, France, September 18, 1921: [Illegible]. 2 pp., in French

From Elie Faure, Paris, France, September 29, 1921: 2 pp., in French

From Elie Faure, Paris, France, October 27, 1921: thanks Pach for checks received; discusses advantages and disadvantages of using a picture for promoting his works; his daughter is most disappointed that there are no more Charlot statuettes; asks Pach to sell lottery tickets for charity. 4 pp., in French

From Bernard Berenson, Florence, Italy, November 9, 1921: thanks Pach for catalog; photograph of "St. Francis at Brooklyn" reminds him of "the naive art of all the eccentric regions of Europe." 4 pp

From Jacques Villon, [place unknown], France, November 9, 1921: is glad to have met Mrs. Pach; Matisse engraving is not yet ready due to printing problems. 4 pp., in French

From Elie Faure, Paris, France, November 13, 1921: discusses the details of his contract with -- Harpers -- , which he considers unjust; his father-in-law died; reports on the sick painter friend for whom the benefit raffle was held. 6 pp., in French

From Elie Faure, Paris, France, November 28, 1921: if the misunderstanding concerning the -- Harpers -- contract is not corrected, it will be a disaster; their artist friend needs further surgery; hopes Pach can sell more tickets for the raffle, which will precede an exhibit in February or March; lists artists--among them Bonnard, Dufy, Matisse, Signac, and Braque--who have donated works for the raffle; regrets that his last book devoted so little space to Derain. 2 pp., in French

From Elie Faure, Paris, France, December 19, 1921: thanks Pach for help in clearing up a misunderstanding with his American publisher; discusses his 4-volume work, including opinions of the layouts and illustrations of each; Pach should decide whether to attribute a painting to de Pietro or Sassetta; plans to write about Derain; an exhibition, organized for an artist friend in need, includes a lottery with contributions From Matisse, Derain, and Picasso; will send Pach 250 lottery tickets; announces the upcoming marriage of François, a talented decorator, and asks if work could be found for him in New York or if his projects could be reproduced in an American publication. 4 pp., in French

From Elie Faure, [place unknown], December 23, 1921: received a letter From Briggs and praises the loyalty and honesty of American publishers; thanks Pach for perseverance in bringing to publication, in English translation, -- History of Art -- ; lottery tickets are being sent, many going to Mrs. Whitney; asks if Pach could help to interest American publisher Nelson in the collections of an expanding French publishing firm looking for capital; is sending -- Mediaeval Art -- and François' furnishing projects. 2 pp., in French

From Elie Faure, Paris, France, December 31, 1921: considers volume 1 "our" -- History of Art -- out of gratitude for Pach's excellent translation; discusses the illustrations and general appearance of the book; -- Mediaeval Art -- and lottery tickets will be sent soon; has 2 paintings he wants Pach to sell in the United States, a Venetian school Crucifixion and a version of Gros's -- Murat a la Bataille d'Aboukir -- ; describes the paintings, discusses prices and Pach's commission. 3 pp., in French

From Maurice Brazil Prendergast. New York, N.Y., January 26, 1922: Discusses quality of reproductions for Shadowland; wants to assist, should Pach decide to write an article; compliments Pach's writing. 3 pp

From Maurice Brazil Prendergast, New York, N.Y., February 2, 1922: is returning Pach's manuscript; agrees with him about Cézanne; "I was much influenced by Pissarro but with water colors it was nature pure and simple that influence [ sic] me"; is impressed with -- Shadowland -- . 3 pp

From Leigh Hunt, New York, N.Y., [postmarked] February 23, 1922: congratulates Pach and the museum. 1 p

From Elie Faure, Paris, France, March 21, 1922: is sending -- Renaissance Art -- , which completes the series; Pach should return the stubs of all sold lottery tickets; the Spanish artist for whom the lottery was organized is now recovering From surgery; complains of a dull artistic season, including a Salon des Indépendants devoid of interest; the best was a Matisse exhibit, along with Derain's and Picasso's latest work; increasingly poor leadership has him worried about the future of Europe; inquires about two articles he sent to the -- Freeman -- . 5 pp., in French

From Elie Faure, Paris, France, March 30, 1922: Americans have won 8 of the lottery prizes (most of them with Mrs. Whitney's tickets) consisting of 6 etchings and 2 paintings; what to do with the artworks is a problem in view of customs requirements. 2 pp., in French

From Camille Redon, Paris, France, April 7, 1922: mailed 2 etchings and 30 proofs made of each of Redon's copper engravings; the plates went to the Print Museum; thanks Pach for the beautiful etching and photographs he sent. 2 pp., in French

From Elie Faure, Paris, France, April 10, 1922: received the -- Freeman -- article; just completed a response to the review of his book, which he prefers to send to the -- Dial -- rather than the -- Freeman -- ; wrote a new introduction to Greek Art for future editions; hopes Pach has sold paintings; thinks one of the paintings could pass as a fake for customs purposes. 2 pp., in French

From Elie Faure, Paris. France, April 11, 1922: the attribution of his Baron Gros is certain, but its condition is not perfect; discusses articles being translated by Pach; discusses the French language in Canada; he and Pach agree on important points; Pach is unfair to Bonnard, who eventually will be regarded as a minor master; Derain is a great painter who overshadows Matisse. 2 pp., in French, labeled "second letter" (enclosed with letter of April 10, 1922)

From Elie Faure, Paris, France, May 6, 1922: received the checks; is returning a signed contract for -- Cinéplastique -- and inquires about American customs concerning royalty payments; will mail books to Pach and pictures to Harper's; the lottery prizes are being sent; the Corots and Courbet at Rosenberg Gallery particularly impressed him; family news; dispair over current politics. 2 pp., in French

From Pedro Henríquez Ureña, Universidad Nacional de Mexico, Mexico City, Mexico, May 31, 1922: discusses Pach's remuneration and class schedule for the summer session. 1 p

From Elie Faure, Paris, France, June 17, 1922: regrets not being able to meet Pach in Mexico and wishes Rivera had invited him, too; will try to delay French publication of his article so the -- Dial -- can print it first; another piece on the aesthetics of machinism has already been published in France; finished a long chapter of -- The Spirit of the Forms -- and wants Harper's to consider it completed; after going to Vichy for his health, he will take a vacation; wants to know all about Pach's archaeological discovery in Mexico. 2 pp., in French

From John Sloan, Santa Fe, N.M., [postmarked] August 4, 1922: has a car for summer travels; the Henris are there; has been painting. 2 pp., illustrated with drawing of a car on a winding mountain road ("Climbing the Bahada [no exaggeration!]")

From L.L. Kane, Long Lake, N.Y., August 12, 1922: wants to read Pach's article in the Freeman; admires his ability to present lectures in other languages; describes his Adirondack camp. 2 pp

From Henri Matisse, Nice, France, September 2, 1922: mailed copies of all the engravings he made during the summer; asks Pach's advice on lowering the price of Redon's pastels; he is now back at work in Nice after 2 months in Paris. 2 pp., in French

From Jacques Villon, Soissons, France, September 6, 1922: the estimate for publishing was higher than anticipated; asks Pach to intercede; inquires about Pach's trip to Mexico; news of various friends; discusses summer plans. 2 pp., in French

From Sybil Kent Kane, Long Lake, N.Y., September 7, 1922: thanks Pach for sending the picture of a jug; her book is about the life of Blessed Margaret Mary. 4 pp

From Suzanne La Follette, New York, N.Y., [postmarked] September 10, 1922: due to understaffing at the -- Freeman -- there was no art coverage during the summer; suggests Pach write a series of articles on Delacroix, Cézanne, Renoir, Redon, Van Gogh; opinions of Faure's second volume; news of Boardman Robinson; has changed her name back to Suzanne From Clara. 6 pp.

To Professor D. Ramon Mena From Walter Pach, Mexico City, Mexico, October 4, 1922: the mosaic mask discovered by Professor Aguierre and displayed in the National Museum is an object of great interest; it presents important problems to American antiquities experts and to those studying aesthetics; an important detail is the way in which material is handled; discusses fundamental difference in the work of the imitator and the mosaic mask; the technical question and expressive question are inseparable; appreciates the compliment of being asked his opinion. 3 pp., in Spanish

From Elie Faure, Paris, France, October 22, 1922: received payment for photographs and book royalties; discusses Rivera's talent, disagreeing with Pach's view of his originality; Rivera has remarried; shares Pach's admiration for Mexican art; now that his article has appeared in the -- Dial -- , he has nothing further to publish in America other than History of Art; since Pach is now devoting more time to painting and etching, he will need to find Faure a new translator; asks Pach if chapters From The Spirit of the Forms and essays on great literary figures could appear in American publications; discusses some of his theories of art and the structural aspect of his own writings. 6 pp., in French

From Jean Charlot, [place unknown], Mexico, November 5, 1922: Pach's article appeared in -- Mexico Moderno -- ; Orozco will be exhibiting watercolors; the fresco Accion del Artes is almost finished; is becoming interested in religious painting. 4 pp., in French

From Diego Rivera, [place unknown], Mexico, December 7, 1922: thanks Pach for his valuable friendship; the Mexican Independents, now formally organized, are invited to show with the Society of Independents in New York; Orozco, Charlot, Revueltas, Figueiros, Leal, Alba, Cahero, Bolanos, Ugarte, Cano, Nahui, Ate, Rivera, and children will represent Mexico; discusses space needs and suggests possible hanging arrangements; needs to find a way to pay for transportation; please convey their appreciation to the Society; Pach should tell Miss Porter that although there was a mix-up in communications, Rivera is still interested in the small exposition. 4 pp., in Spanish

From Jacques Villon, [place unknown], France, December 21, 1922: [Illegible]. 8 pp., in French

to Magda Pach From Gaby [Mme. Jacques Villon?], [place unknown], December 27, 1922: wishes the Pach family would visit them for several months; Villon is working hard, as always; except for a vacation in Brittany, they rarely go anywhere; engravings are time consuming but right now sell better than paintings; asks about Pach's stay in Mexico. 2 pp., in French

From Carlo Lemba, Florence, Italy., [?,?] 1923: thanks Pach for remembering him and for the very beautiful Rembrandt; requests a catalog or photograph. Picture postcard ("Firenze--Palazzo Vecchia--Il Cortile"), in Italian

From Elie Faure, Paris, France, January 21, 1923: thanks Pach for his translation; discusses modifications to be made in the first volume; details plans for future publications; lists illustrations for the last chapter of History of Art. 10 pp., in French

From José Vasconcelos, [place unknown], Mexico, February 23, 1923: received Pach's letter and sends appreciation for the international approach of his work. Telegram, in Spanish

From José Clemente Orozco, [place unknown], Mexico, February 27, 1923: introduces his friend, Mexican poet José Juan Tablada; friendship with Tablada would be a great satisfaction to Pach; Tablada could courier Mexican works From the Independents exhibition when he returns home; they learned much about contemporary art From Pach's lecture series; when he returns to Mexico, Pach can expect an affectionate welcome. 2 pp., in Spanish

From Elie Faure, Paris, France, March 4, 1923: at last, publication of -- Mediaeval Art -- has been announced; the definitive edition of his work is currently in progress; discusses new prefaces for all 5 volumes; rewrote the last chapter of volume 4, which does not mention Bonnard but expands discussion of Matisse, Picasso, and Derain, whom he considers the greatest contemporary painter. 2 pp., in French

From Secretario de Educacíon Publica, [place unknown], Mexico, March 14, 1923: José Vasconselos thanks Pach for his efforts on behalf of Mexican painters in this year's Independent Artists Salon. 1 p., in Spanish

From Jean Charlot, [place unknown], Mexico, [postmarked] March 31, 1923: was happy to receive Pach's illustrated article about Seurat; the enclosed flier rebuts another slanderous article about the exhibit; the catalog reproduction of the painting Pach started in Mexico was recognized by everyone; Diego called it more Mexican than their own contributions; Diego finished his first panel for the ministry frescoes; Diego's brother-in-law executed a successful encaustic mural in Guadalajara; Diego sends thanks to Pach, but cannot write because he works From 8:00 a.m. until 10:00 p.m.--without eating--which is hard on his aides who must do likewise. 2 pp., in French

From Elie Faure, Paris, France, April 24, 1923: an American definitive edition is under consideration; will send Pach copies of work by Spain's best artist since Goya; still thinks Derain is the best painter; Matisse's exhibition lacks humanity; discusses European political problems. 2 pp., in French

From Elie Faure, Paris, France, May 10, 1923: is now writing a book about the mechanism regulating the life cycles of societies; did not see all the exhibits because he is now drawn more to social psychology, which helps him understand painting; life takes precedence over painting; his article was misunderstood in America and France by supporters and opponents alike; painting, no longer the dominant art form as it was in the previous century, is being overtaken by cinema; assures Pach of his friendship and trust; understands that his ideas provoke resistance even among the best of friends. 6 pp., in French

From Suzanne La Follette, New York, N.Y., [postmarked] June 23, 1923: thanks Pach for article; sends proofs of first article; was advised not to go to Germany; will visit England, France, and Italy. 4 pp

From J. Van Gogh Bonger, Amsterdam, the Netherlands, June 27, 1923: read that the Pachs were cited as among the best of the Independents; the pictures are back, and she is glad they were exhibited in the United States; is anxious to publish Van Gogh's letters in English; opinions of Meier-Graefe's book; opinions of recent articles in the -- Times -- and the -- Freeman -- ; "What I never forgive Meyer-Greafe [ sic] is his suggestion that Theo, after his marriage could not provide for Vincent any longer"; is sending a Van Gogh drawing to Pach in appreciation for his help. 3 pp

From Diego Rivera, [place unknown], Mexico, July 3, 1923: introduces Covarrubias; on behalf of the group, thanks Pach and the Independents in New York; Pach's Mexican street scene showed intimate and strong character; hopes for even better representation next year; describes current projects of several Mexican artists; Covarrubias has photographs of murals in progress. 2 pp., in Spanish

From Lewis Mumford, Brooklyn, N.Y., July 5, 1923: congratulates Pach on Modern Art; "it is far and away the best piece of criticism we've had in America, to my knowledge." 1 p

From Alfred Stieglitz, Lake George, N.Y., July 21, 1923: he and O'Keeffe are enjoying Pach's translation of Faure; Stieglitz has read it in the original; O'Keeffe doesn't know French. 1 p

From Elie Faure, [place unknown], October 8, 1923: if Harper's cannot locate the photograph Faure sent of a Picasso painting, Pach should select a substitute; requests assistance in coilecting a fee owed by a publisher; complains about the usual reluctance of museums to accept paintings; suggests that Boston or the Barnes Foundation might be interested in the Gros, Delacroix, and Venetian school paintings he wants to sell; -- History of Art -- will be translated into Spanish and possibly German; hopes for more contacts with the United States. 2 pp., in French

From J. Van Gogh Bonger, Amsterdam, the Netherlands, October 18, 1923: could not find anyone to deliver the drawing to Pach, so she mailed it; is working on an exhibition to be held in London; Zigrosser visited. 1 p., negative photostat

From Elie Faure, Paris, France, December 1, 1923: has mailed the photographs Pach requested; believes he has told Pach of all the proposals received From America and still awaits answers relating to some; Waldo Frank visited; found Miss La Follette most congenial; the package of photographs also contains a small drawing as a memento of their collaboration. 2 pp., in French

From Ariella Brunelleschi, Florence, Italy, [postmarked] December 12, 1923: her entire family sends thanks; best wishes for a good trip. Picture postcard ("Firenze--Galleria Uffizi La Nativita de Gesu dett.--Van Der Goes Ugo"), in Italian

From Jacques Villon, [place unknown], December 25, 1923: is delighted to learn that Pach has resumed painting and wants to see a photograph of his portrait of Magda; the common desire to travel west is a distraction, as is his penchant for making etchings rather than painting; has problems with his engraving of a Cézanne and will do a Laurencin next; complains of difficulties painting; is mailing the edited first proofs of the book on Raymond; Yvonne is gone; he missed seeing Miss La Follette; Rosenberg is in New York; paintings are hard to sell; New Year's greetings to the Pach family. Postscript From Gaby expresses her own best wishes and those of Marcel; she hopes to see them in Puteaux the following year. 5 pp., in French

From Elie Faure, [place unknown], January 24, 1924: approves of the way in which Pach used his Renoir to illustrate an article; still trying to sell the Gros painting abroad; the Venetian painting was shipped today, and he awaits Pach's impression of it; Faure is convinced the landscape, most likely of Toledo, and at least one figure were painted by El Greco in his youth; awaits photographs of Pach's paintings and etchings; is delighted to learn of Pach's lecture series in Kansas, which includes one on Faure's fourth volume. 2 pp., in French

From Elie Faure, [place unknown], January 31, 1924: praises solidity, intelligent composition, and exceptional synthetic quality of Pach's portrait of his son; the portrait of Pach's wife is less successful; praises the harmony in Pach's mythological painting but its composition is less than perfect; Pach shows great progress; is sending a photograph of a first-class Corot that is for sale; discusses the price and how they would share the profit. 2 pp., in French

From Bernard Berenson, Florence, Italy, February 6, 1924: read Pach's article in -- Harper's -- "with interest, with zest and with envy." 4 pp

From Jacques Villon, Paris, France, March 2, 1924: received photographs of Pach's paintings; praises the balance and harmony in Magda's portrait, but expresses reservations concerning the portrait of Raymond; unable to send photographs of his own work because he was too busy finishing the Cézanne engraving that will be exhibited at Bernheim's to raise funds for a monument to Cézanne; has mixed feelings about the direction of his own painting and leans more toward nature; a proof of Pach's foreword is ready; the book on Raymond will be out soon; some of Raymond's letters were edited so as not to appear to be soliciting sympathy. 6 pp., in French

From Elie Faure, [place unknown], March 10, 1924: has just received notification that volume 4 was published and will convey his opinion after seeing it; thanks Pach for intelligent publicity; discusses corrections to be made in the next edition; asks Pach to persuade the publisher to make an American edition that conforms to the French one; the Corot was sold; everyone seems to be buying and selling paintings; Faure sold From his own collection pieces he no longer likes in order to buy a house; he buys what he can at low cost, notably Corot and Courbet landscapes and a drawing by Cézanne; Pach should try to influence the gallery to sell Faure's painting quickly because the money is needed for home repairs; wrote an article on contemporary art trends for the Dial. 2 pp., in French

From Elie Faure, [place unknown], March 11, 1924: the news contained in Pach's cable frees him From current financial worries; he is sending the painting immediately and warns Pach about mislabeling on the back of the picture; insists that Pach take a substantial commission; though it makes him sad to part with the painting, he now can provide a secure future for his family. 2 pp., in French

From Suzanne La Follette, Plymouth, England, March 11, 1924: the voyage has been "rough and dull." 2 pp

From Elie Faure, [place unknown], March 19, 1924: received the fourth volume in translation and finds the illustrations much better than those in the first 3 volumes; expresses gratitute to Pach; is sending a gift of a Rodin etching; just saw Derain and is certain the artist is evolving, despite his somewhat disoriented state; Matisse's last exhibit was disappointing and lacked human qualities. 2 pp., in French

From Arthur Burdett Frost, Pasadena, Calif., March 30, 1924: thanks Pach for his exhibition idea; cannot participate because he has no suitable work available; "I used to be very careless about my original drawings"; Jack moved to California for health reasons; Jack paints desert landscapes that sell well. 4 pp

From Elie Faure, Paris, France, April 1, 1924: the Gros painting has been in transit for 3 weeks; deplores the exchange rate and discusses Pach's commission; is pleased that Pach will be the translator for -- The Gods -- and hopes he will do -- The Spirit of the Forms -- , even though this work will take him away From painting; wants to see Pach's pamphlet on Seurat, whom he likes more and more; Faure has added to his collection paintings by Corot, Courbet, Delacroix, Bonnington, and others he discovered in the attic of a secondhand shop; Miss La Follette visited; asks Pach to inquire about the fate of his Shakespeare essay. 4 pp., in French

From Jacques Villon, [place unknown], France, April 6, 1924: agrees wholeheartedly to the proposed exchange; thanks Pach for a check; wants him to accept, as a gift, any Villon painting still in Pach's hands; will follow Pach's instructions concerning the book; is painting but cannot find himself in that medium; his next engraving will be a Rousseau. 2 pp., in French

From E.H. Anderson, Director, New York Public Library, New York, N.Y., April 9, 1924: acknowledges gift of etchings. 1 p

From Elie Faure, Paris, France, May 2, 1924: sends a check for Pach's commission on the sale of the Murat painting; is glad Pach liked his gift of a Rodin etching; discusses changes to volume 3 and wonders why a particular reproduction was omitted From the American edition; -- The Spirit of the Forms -- is still under revision, and he has been busy writing -- Cervantes -- ; like Pach, he admires Matisse's lithographs but feels uneasy about the virtuoso element apparent in his annual painting exhibits; Despiau's portraits are more and more admirable; met Braque, whose work now interests him more; since Braque has renounced cubism, only Picasso remains; Picasso's last noncubist exhibit was curious and somewhat disturbing. 2 pp., in French

From Leigh Mitchell Hodges, Doylestown, Pa., May 4, 1924: sends sonnet inspired by a Pach etching. 1 p. + enclosure ("Sonnet--To Walter Pach's etching of Miss M-----")

From Julius Meier-Graefe, Berlin, Germany, July 22, 1924: Pach is the first American to attempt and succeed at serious examination of art From Corot to the present; is sending a copy of volume 3 of -- Modern Art -- , which discusses some of the same issues addressed in Pach's book; believes cubism, expressionism, and impressionism to be manifestations of decadence; in his book, Pach failed to cite German contributions. 3 pp., in German

From Elie Faure, Dordogne, France, July 31, 1924: hopes to see Pach in Dordogne during August; the article on illustrious men he has known will need to be twice as long, so Pach should make arrangements; discusses a remarkable book about sport by his Frenchified Brazilian friend Braga and suggests a translation would be of interest to Americans; Braga wrote the most intelligent articles ever published about Faure in French and plans a history of world literature that would mirror -- History of Art -- . 2 pp., in French

From Elie Faure, Dordogne, France, August 2, 1924: Pach should tell Wells that Faure accepts the 5,000-word limitation; the article consists of a series of portraits of famous men and concludes with a sincere tribute to America. 1 p., in French

From Julius Meier-Graefe, Schlaghtensee, Germany, [postmarked] August 5, 1924: advises Pach not to judge the paintings of [von Marees?] on the basis of his early Dresden period, but look at the Munich work. Postal card, in German

From Bernard Berenson, Florence, Italy, August 11, 1924: read -- Masters of Modern Art -- ; "I wish I could give you the support you ask for. And I have found yr. book informing, stimulating, provoking and sincere. But I cannot even begin to see what you do in cubism"; advises Pach to choose writing over painting, as it is impossible to do both. 8 pp

From Elie Faure, Dordogne, France, August 24, 1924: regrets that Pach did not visit him; plans to go to Italy in September but hopes to see Pach in Paris afterward; hesitates to accept a long lecture tour in America. 2 pp., in French

From James Oppenheim, New York, N.Y., August 24, 1924: Gertrude is seriously ill; Oppenheim's son has faith in his work; Oppenheim's book was reviewed; is delighted with the book on Matisse. 2 pp

From Bernard Berenson, Florence, Italy, September 13, 1924: expresses his opinion of modern art and artists; "I did not mean what the Ku-Kluxers or Coolidgeites mean when they speak of the latest phenomena in painting as Bolshevik. But in a prophetic, devastatingly deep way that's what they are. And they may serve a kindred purpose, namely to bury the dead form. But they are undertakers, grave-diggers, and at best manure makers only. Artists they are not and Picasso not at all;" Pach "overestimates" Delacroix's ability as an artist. 4 pp

From John Gould Fletcher, London, England, October 7, 1924: thanks Pach for the book on Duchamp-Villon; compliments the "excellent" introduction; agrees that "Duchamp-Villon was the true descendant of the stonecutters of Chartres"; Faure's -- History of Art -- is "remarkable"; he is trying to publish a rebuttal to the concluding chapter; the -- Freeman -- failed. 3 pp

From Luz Pérez, [place unknown], Mexico, October 24, 1924: the book Pach sent is enchanting; congratulations on the success of the exhibition; best wishes for future success. 2 pp., in Spanish

From Arthur Burdett Frost, Pasadena, Calif., October 26, 1924: thanks for the brushes, which he will share with Jack; requests recommendations for directing Jack's art reading; Frost now reads mainly on palentology and natural history; if his eyesight permitted, he would paint his concept of earliest man; recalls a terrible summer spent in Rhode Island; contrasts California with the East; recalls the Dresden Gallery; Butler's stay in New York was a "dreadful experience." 5 pp

From Jacques Villon, Paris, France, October 27, 1924: just received Pach's book on painting and thinks his ideas about evolution of painting are admirable; has not yet seen the Salon d'Automne; sales were good, and even those opposed to abstract painting smiled. 3 pp., in French

From Elie Faure, Paris, France, November 1, 1924: has shipped a magnificent painting; is surprised that it is possible to sell paintings in America since the Paris art market is at a standstill; the last good show was the Renoir exhibit at Rosenberg's; books are not selling, and he could not find a publisher for his latest work; publishing houses are closing; prewar politicians and prewar methods are responsible for the disaster; the general economy and his personal situation are grim; melancholy family news. 4 pp., in French

From Henri Matisse, Nice, France, November 18 and December 5, 1924: his son, Pierre, is moving to New York; Pierre wants to work at a gallery specializing in modern art; he and the Steins agree this is a good plan; asks Pach to advise and assist Pierre, and he will request the same of Brummer; Michael Stein suggests Pach meet Pierre at the ship. 4 pp., in French

From Elie Faure, Paris, France, December 1, 1924: is housebound after a small accident, and catching up with work; both the -- Dial -- and -- Harper's -- sent checks; comments on current exhibitions and sales; Pach is his closest American friend; wants to establish closer ties in the United States; France now depends upon American patronage; Mrs. Dillard is sending a Corot to Pach; she might be helpful to Brummer; sometimes she has Renoirs and Derains at reasonable prices. 2 pp., in French

From Xavier Martinez, Piedmont, Calif., December 3, 1924: compliments -- Masters of Modern Art -- and Pach's translation of Faure; disagrees with Faure's chapters on Greece and Mexico; Pach understands the art of Mexico; encloses 2 drawings of Indian madonnas. 1 p., partly in Spanish

From Lewis Mumford, Brooklyn, N.Y., December 15, 1924: thanks Pach for grasping the essence of his book; agrees with Duchamp-Villon's views on architecture. 2 pp

From Elie Faure, [place unknown], January 9, 1925: commiserates with Pach over his rejection by -- Harper's -- ; comments on subjects that appeal to editors of popular magazines; Pach should continue trying to sell the Corot; the owner also has paintings by Renoir and Derain and a Seurat drawing; inquires about the status of translations now at -- Harper's -- ; comments on the superiority of American cinema. 3 pp., in French

From Pedro Henríquez Ureña, La Plata, Argentina, January 13, 1925: hopes Pach will be interested in the work of his friend, Emilio Pettoniti, an advanced Argentine painter; asks where Pettoniti might exhibit in New York. 2 pp., in Spanish

From Diego Rivera, [place unknown], Mexico, January 13, 1925: requests photographs of the work Pach accomplished in France; wants news of Elie Faure; mentions several commissions he is now working on; comments on Charlot; has waited more than a year for word from Aleman; is considering going abroad when through with the Chapingo chapel. 3 pp., in Spanish

to Elie Faure From William H. Briggs, [place unknown], March 3, 1925: not financially feasible to bring out the definitive edition of -- History of Art -- for at least 3 years; wants -- The Spirit of the Forms -- to be volume 5; agrees to publish an English edition of -- The Spirit of the Forms -- and -- The Dance on Fire and Water -- ; -- The Constructors -- , -- The Holy Face -- , and future books are not to be offered to other publishers. 3 pp

From Diego Rivera, [place unknown], Mexico, March 13, 1925: would send photographs of his work but in Mexico it takes too long to get prints; Pach's book fully deserves Faure's praise; Rivera finds Pach's paintings appealing; is grateful for the high esteem with which Pach wrote of his work; work on Chapingo chapel continues; despite serious financial problems, Charlot is constantly progressing; asks Pach's opinions and advice about a Spanish edition of his book; Ravenna Mosaic requested a sample piece of -- The Antilles -- . 7 pp., in Spanish

From Elie Faure, Paris, France, March 28, 1925: is hurt not to have heard From Pach; Mr. Briggs wrote about translation and publication plans; wants Pach to translate -- The Spirit of the Forms -- ; thanks for getting his autobiography published in the -- Dial -- ; his friend, Mrs. Fougeirol, and daughter, will call on Pach; hopes Pach and Brummer can assist Mrs. Dillard with the sale of her Corot; the Gaugnat sale is unaffordable; Mrs. Dillard also has Renoirs to sell. 2 pp., in French

From Elie Faure, [place unknown], March 29, 1925: is happy that Briggs wants to do the album and will talk to Crès about sales; thanks to Madame B. for the Corot; his version of Delacroix's journal will be published; compliments Pach's painting; asks Pach to speak to Harper's about not using the number of his last volume of -- History of Art -- so the public will buy it without having the earlier volumes. 4 pp., in French

From Elie Faure, Paris, France, May 9, 1925: tells of his voyage to Marrakech; saw Fletcher; Pach will receive the Gaugnat sale catalog; Madame Gaugnat died 6 months after her husband, leaving their son harassed by dealers; a small Renoir may be available; asks Pach to intervene on his behalf with Harper's regarding income tax withholding; discusses Delacroix and impressionist exhibits; discusses the realism of Delacroix's Moroccan paintings. 6 pp., in French

From Elie Faure, [place unknown], May 17, 1925: condolences on the death of Pach's father; is surprised by what Pach told him of the Corot; discusses a French landscape exhibit at the Petit Palais containing too many paintings; Corot reigns. 2 pp., in French

From Elie Faure, Paris, France, May 18, 1925: received the album dedicated to Seurat; -- La Baignade -- and -- La Grande Jatte -- are masterpieces for the very reasons Pach cited: organization, articulation, and mass; comments on works by Matisse, Braque, Géricault, and others recently exhibited in Paris; purchased works by Corot, Delacroix, Courbet, Cézanne, and Renoir at reasonable prices; perhaps Pach could sell a large painting for Pequin; asks if -- Living Age -- will publish his essay on Shakespeare; volume 4 of -- History of Art -- will be out soon; mentions several of his articles accepted for publication; thanks Pach for his excellent translation; now realizes he was unjust to Redon and has made changes in the later edition. 4 pp., in French

From Elie Faure, [place unknown], May 20, 1925: invites Pach to visit him in Dordogne during the summer; describes a Corot that should go to an American museum. 2 pp., in French

From Elie Faure, [place unknown], May 30, 1925: gives instructions for translation revisions; bought 2 magnificent Derains; suggests that consignments be sent to Mrs. Payne Whitney; -- History of Art -- received mixed reviews. 2 pp., in French

From Elie Faure, [place unknown], June 5, 1925: galleys are still incomplete as there are problems with illustrations and captions; his Baron Gros painting is at the French exhibit in Prague; will send a photograph later; asks Pach to help sell the Gros picture and a Daumier. 3 pp., in French

From Elie Faure, Paris, France, July 11, 1925: complains about American and French taxes on royalties; price and quality didn't always coincide at the Gaugnat sale; Mrs. Fougeirol bought one of the best works, and another is being given to the Louvre by young Gaugnat; discusses prices at other recent sales; Matisse shares his opinion of the Gaugnat sale; the Decorative Arts Exhibition was the worst art event he ever saw; an impressive 19th-century French painting show at Bernheim's new galleries included Corot, Delacroix, and Cézanne; those who don't appreciate Delacroix are missing joy; asks Pach's opinion of a plan for a monthly publication about the arts in Paris; next year he will write a history of France. 4 pp., in French

From E.D. Smyth, Tangier, Morocco, July 29, 1925: Helen died last October; Mme. Le Roy died 2 years ago; "London is becoming alive to Cézanne"; saw a Cézanne show at Brown's Gallery. 5 pp

From Elie Faure, [place unknown], August 11, 1925: asks if volume 3 has been published; thinks volume 4 is his best; hopes that the new prefaces added to each volume will make Pach like the whole work better; Rosenberg met with Mrs. Whitney; discusses the quality of reproductions in his book on Derain; describes John Lane's indirect attack on his chapter about English art; was not charmed by Blake; Constable is the only English painter he likes; look for his Shakespeare article in the -- Dial -- . 6 pp., in French

From Elie Faure, Paris, France, September 7, 1925: bought a house at Dordogne; volume 4 is still incomplete; lists photographs he will send soon; this may be a good time to sell his 2 paintings; discusses the sales commission; mentions favorable points of the Gros painting; the other painting may be harder to sell; is considering selling a Daumier and a Delacroix to help pay for his new house. 4 pp., in French

From Elie Faure, [place unknown], September 9, 1925: promises to send the photographs for his book; even the best translation cannot be completely faithful to the original; discusses specific changes to be made; discusses a chapter on Europe being added to volume 4. 6 pp., in French

From Elie Faure, [place unknown], September 21, 1925: is sending 5 photographs; 1 is for -- Harper's -- to include in volume 4, and the remainder are of works he hopes can be sold in the United States; needs money for his new house. 2 pp., in French

From Elie Faure, [place unknown], September 26, 1925: is still waiting for a contract with Criterion; the painting consigned to Ehrich has not sold; maybe Pach could sell it or suggest another dealer; Pach should send instructions to Ehrich; -- Harper's -- will publish -- The Spirit of the Forms -- as volume 5; wants Pach to be the translator but will understand if he declines. 4 pp., in French

From F.P. Keppel, New York, N.Y., October 21, 1925: has received Pach's letter with proofs and suggestions. 1 p

From Elie Faure, [place unknown], October 22, 1925: has received volume 3 and congratulated Mr. Briggs; still thinks the plates should have been produced in France; bills for photographs remain unpaid; thanks Pach for his energy and perseverance; Spanish and German editions are planned; Knopf will publish an English edition of Napoleon; came close to selling the Daumier; comments on the condition of Marat by Gros; inquires about Pach's painting and the possibility of an exhibition in Paris. 4 pp., in French

From Jean Charlot, [place unknown], October 27, 1925: his present work is totally different From the 12 paintings being sent; Pach is one of the few friends abroad who might be interested; Pach should keep one for himself and try to sell the rest; is sending 4 photographs of recent work; he and Diego want to see reproductions of Pach's latest paintings; inventory of works being sent; had problems with his exhibition in Los Angeles. 4 pp., in French

From Elie Faure, Paris, France, November 21, 1925: there will be a delay in sending photographs; thanks Pach for introducing Miss La Follette; -- Harper's -- paid more than expected; Briggs reproached him for choosing Knopf to publish Napoleon. 2 pp., in French

From Elie Faure, Paris, France, November 27, 1925: thanks Pach for introducing Speyer; congratulates Pach on his new job; likes Pach's engravings; wants Pach to translate The Spirit of the Forms; is sending another manuscript for which he hopes Pach can help find a publisher; he owns the picture incorrectly captioned in his last book and it is for sale. 4 pp., in French

From Susan Macdowell Eakins, Philadelphia, Pa., January 7, 1926: she has written about her husband; is happy to be of service to Pach; can furnish more information. 1 p. + 3 pp. enclosure, (manuscripts by Susan M. Eakins of biographical notes on Thomas Eakins, including excerpts From letters to his father written while studying in France; list of paintings completed between 1870 and 1876; teaching methods; notes From Charles Bregler's transcript of Eakins's comments to students)

From Elie Faure, Paris, France, January 19, 1926: Mrs. Dillard sold his English painting to Mr. Speyer; introductions made by Pach facilitated the transaction; no one is to know Faure was the owner; since he cannot pay the duty if the piece at Ehrich is returned to France, Pach should keep it or put it in storage until later; asks if the Metropolitan might be interested in Mrs. Dillard's large Corot; content with Montaigne; still reworking -- The Spirit of the Forms; -- Soutine has become more important; believes Derain shows progress; Matisse's astonishing virtuosity continues to increase; saw admirable work by Picasso; Braque is a beautiful but monotonous painter; considers Charlie Chaplin the great man of America. 4 pp., in French

From Harold O. Voorhis, Secretary, New York University, New York, N.Y., February 23, 1926: confirms Pach's appointment as assistant professor of fine arts. 1 p

From Harold O. Voorhis, Secretary, New York University, New York, N.Y., March 5, 1926: received Pach's acceptance of faculty appointment. 1 p

From Elie Faure, Paris, France, March 24, 1926: has seen Pach's friends; is looking forward to Pach's visit in the summer; he and his wife are caring for an African-Arab baby; The Spirit of the Forms is almost finished; gives instructions about selling the unfortunate Spanish painting; is sending a drawing as a gift; Mrs. Dillard needs a list of dealers and their specialties. 2 pp., in French

From Elie Faure, Paris, France, April 22, 1926: is pleased to learn the Delacroix drawing was well received; believes Delacroix is becoming greater by the day; is not eager for further lecture tours; his latest book was ignored; foreigners understand him better than the French; regrets that Pach will not be able to visit him in Dordogne; discusses price of the crucifixion painting. 2 pp., in French

From Bernard Berenson, Florence, Italy, June 8, 1926: goals for studying art of the past are aesthetic or humanistic; it is a "triumph" that Pach's "anti-Rotarian protest" was published in -- Harper's -- Magazine; "glad to hear yr. painting is taking on, altho' I deplore yr. giving to it the time you should dedicate to writing"; urges him to write about the Gardner collection. 12 pp

From Elie Faure, Paris, France, June 9, 1926: hopes the Pachs will visit him in Paris before the end of July or in Dordogne later; their arrival is late for the painting season, but Tuileries Salon will be open; sold the Daumier in Germany; the profit paid for some home repairs and 2 small Renoir canvases; has a beautiful Cézanne drawing. 2 pp., in French

From Elie Faure, Dordogne, France, August 10, 1926: the entire family is at Dordogne and sorry Pach cannot join them; discusses exchange rate; Briggs trusts Pach to translate -- The Spirit of the Forms -- , which will be volume 5 of -- History of Art -- ; asks Pach to consider undertaking the job. 2 pp., in French

From Bernard Berenson, Florence, Italy, August 19, 1926: wishes there had been an opportunity for them to visit and have a serious talk during Pach's recent lecture tour; "I fear you will never take the place yr. gifts as a writer could lead you to if you cannot detach yr. self fr. painting itself. It is a pity. For critics are ever so much rarer." 4 pp

From Diego Rivera, [place unknown], Mexico, October 4, 1926: the package Lupe sent to the Pachs was lost when the boat capsized; wants copies of the magazine -- L'Amour de l'Art -- ; Derain's work is better; shares Pach's opinion of Picasso; wants to see Matisse's work; Faure will try to include more Rivera reproductions in the new edition; asks Pach to check on the status of Rudolf Tesch's project for Carnegie Corp.; requests the Charlot exhibition catalog. 4 pp., in Spanish

To Mrs. Pach From Lupe de Rivera, [place unknown], October 6, 1926: thanks for the baby sweater; her daughter, Guadalupe, called Pico, was tiny and ill at birth but now thrives. 2 pp., in Spanish

From Elie Faure, Paris, France, October 25, 1926: agrees that Mr. Brandt's Cézanne and Renoir are copies; comments on -- The Studio of Ingres -- ; discusses illustrations for -- The Spirit of the Forms -- ; compliments Pach's article on Mexican art; is going to Mexico for a vacation and needs advice on a budget; asks if Pach could sell a large horse painting by Gros in the United States. 6 pp., in French

From Elie Faure, [place unknown], November 3, 1926: Mrs. Dillard has a Fragonard worthy of a museum or a fine collection; asks about hotel rates in New York City. 2 pp., in French

From Elie Faure, Paris, France, November 12, 1926: is grateful that Pach will be translating -- The Spirit of the Forms; -- Pach should persuade Mr. Briggs to expedite the publisher's contract; saw Seurat's exhibition of more than 200 luminous drawings and a Bonnard show of rich and subtle still-lifes; 2 paintings by Matisse were highlights in an otherwise indifferent Salon d'Automne; Miss La Follette and her brother visited; the Baron Gros painting, which Mme. Dillard will handle, is a masterwork that the Metropolitan Museum [of Art] could be proud of; still believes in Soutine; would like to meet Barnes though a ruse might be needed. 4 pp., in French

From Suzanne La Follette, Choisy, France, November 19, 1926: visited Elie Faure and hopes to see him again; a review of her book will appear in -- Saturday Review -- . 6 pp

From Pedro Henriquez Ureña, Miramar, Argentina, January [?], 1927: Valovaciones cannot pay for contributions or translations; Pach should publish a translation of his book in the magazine so that Argentines will be familiar with him and his ideas. 2 pp

From Suzanne La Follette, [place unknown], January 9, 1927: the publisher is not promoting her book well; thinks Lewis Mumford is "gifted." 3 pp

From Suzanne La Follette, Paris, France, January 13, 1927: asks about resorts on the Mediterranean; Chester wrote enthusiastically of his travels in Italy. 3 pp

From Elie Faure, Paris, France, February 22, 1927: has had no reply From Mexico; "Art and Morals," which appeared in the Dial, should be retranslated; -- History of Art -- is being translated into Czech and possibly Japanese; artistic life in Paris is boring; Matisse is definitely the most tolerated; Soutine is not doing much; Pach should try to sell the Gros painting for Mrs. Dillard. 2 pp., in French

From Elie Faure, Paris, France, March 8, 1927: a safe-deposit box was transferred, with difficulty, from Pach's name to his; saw a beautiful Renoir exhibition; prices are high and only Delacroix and Corot are affordable now; Derain should protect himself From dealers. 2 pp., in French

From Elie Faure, Paris, France, March 29, 1927: Mr. Briggs received proofs of Pach's translation; discovered Siluster letters and will soon meet his aged widow and daughter, who may have more documents; no longer thinks of Mexico; is probably going to Egypt; they are unlikely to see one another this year; is disturbed that Pach failed to sell the Gros; museums prefer average paintings to fine sketches; suggests other places Pach might try to sell the painting; describes his newly acquired Theodore Rousseau landscape; reports on the Renoir exhibition at Bernheim's; painters in Paris seem more and more influenced by Renoir and less and less interested in Cézanne; Delacroix rises as Ingres falls. 4 pp., in French

From Bernard Berenson, Fabriano, Italy, May 10, 1927: review of his book missed its "contribution... to a criticism that is based on a question of design"; invites Pach to consider this issue in a review. 4 pp

From Elie Faure, [place unknown], June 8, 1927: Delacroix is becoming popular; at the sale of the Bureau collection ordinary Daumier watercolors brought high prices and wonderful Corot drawings sold cheaply; is unhappy with the captions for the plates in his last edition; witnessed Lindbergh's landing. 4 pp., in French

From Marcel Duchamp, Paris, France, June 24, 1927: announces his recent marriage; describes a Redon watercolor that Pach might sell to the Bings; Mrs. Bing expressed interest in the Brancusi bust now stored at Brummer, King, and Parker. 2 pp., in French

From Elie Faure, Paris, France, July 6, 1927: received the Delacroix book; he shares Pach's devotion to Delacroix, who is becoming fashionable in France; he may eventually acquire some Delacroix watercolors; a superb Géricault is on view at the Victor Hugo Museum; museums hang paintings poorly; Degas and Manet are idolized, while Cézanne and Renoir are just tolerated. 2 pp., in French

From Bernard Berenson, Stockholm, Sweden, July 25, 1927: Pach's review showed "intelligent and friendly comprehension"; "my Three Essays is an ironied and veiled attempt to demonstrate that there is a big part of the job that any well trained mediocrity can achieve"; "great artists like Antonello are not prophets but fulfillers of prophecy." 2 pp

From Elie Faure, Paris, France, October 3, 1927: spent his vacation traveling in Provence; has abandoned a project that attracted amateur attention; intends to study Chagall; -- History of Art -- will be translated into Japanese. 2 pp., in French

From Bernard Berenson, London, England, October 7, 1927: -- Harper's -- will ask Pach to write about the Gardner collection; urges him to accept the offer. 4 pp

From Elie Faure, [place unknown], December 19, 1927: Gagnon has reappeared; Faure purchased a Barye painting at a junk shop; agrees to write a preface to Pach's book. 4 pp., in French

From Leo Stein, Paris, France, February 7, 1928: Read Pach's review of his book in the -- Architectural Record -- ; "when you realize your incompetence for a job because of ignorance you had better keep out, because that very ignorance will prevent you From realizing how big a fool you are making of yourself." 1 p

From Elie Faure, [place unknown],1 April 22, 1928: Had a heart attack; is now working on a book about folk psychology; will lecture in Germany; museums prefer a perfect modern canvas to a masterpiece with slight damage; asks if Pach has tried to find a buyer for Christ; though his books sell, Faure has not prospered; describes several paintings in his collection; he may inherit Mme. Thelaphite's paintings; Mrs. Dillard has a Ribera for sale. 4 pp., in French

From [ signature illegible (Canaan L. Morris?)], Hartford, Conn., May 4, 1928: compliments Pach's lecture of the previous evening; critiques its structure. 2 pp

From Harold O. Voorhis, Secretary, New York University, New York, N.Y., June 15, 1928: confirms Pach's appointment as assistant professor of fine arts. 1 p

From Elie Faure, Dordogne, France, August 11, 1928: is glad to be away From Paris; is very happy about the French translation of Ananias [large portions illegible]. 2 pp

From Jose Clemente Orozco, New York, N.Y., September 1, 1928: -- Form -- magazine deserves attention; offers to write to the editor on Pach's behalf; as Pach suggested, he met with Kraushaar, who didn't seem to like the revolutionary drawings but showed interest in the Art Center Exhibit paintings; speculates that Kraushaar found the Mexican pieces too strange; asks Pach to arrange another meeting; recommends García Maroto's article in -- Contemporaries -- about Rivera and his disgusting commercialism. 4 pp., in Spanish

From José Clemente Orozco, New York, N.Y., September 6, 1928: He and Mr. Owens will visit; the "animator" wants to deceive people of Pach's intelligence; the "animator's" treachery to art is disguised as a personal matter; García Maroto was deceived by the "animator"; lists founders of the Union of Painters and Sculptors who contributed ideas and skills while the "animator" contributed disloyalty; the "animator" claimed credit for a fresco technique developed by Siqueiros and Guerro; the "animator" killed Mexican mural painting and now interferes in all mural painting in Mexico; Maroto says the "animator" is stymied. 10 pp., in Spanish

From José Clemente Orozco, New York, N.Y., September 12, 1928: sends addresses of Jean Charlot and Gabriel Fernandez Ledema; Owens missed the train but hopes to meet Pach soon. 1 p., in Spanish

From Elie Faure, Paris, France, September 22, 1928: received Ananias, but cannot read it without a translator [large portions illegible]. 2 pp., in French

From Susan Macdowell Eakins, Philadelphia, Pa., October 10, 1928: received his letter and book; "whether it is the desire to purchase or not, I am always pleased to show my husband's pictures"; wishes to keep the Rush pictures and studies in Philadelphia. 3 pp

From Arthur B. Springarn, New York, N.Y., November 1, 1928: thanks Pach for dedicating the book to him; best wishes for the volume's success. 1 p

From Eleanor S. Brooks, Westport, Conn., November 14, 1928: five hundred dollars is a satisfactory amount for the manuscript. 1 p

From José Clemente Orozco, New York, N.Y., November 16, 1928: the publisher sent a copy of Pach's wonderful book and requested his opinion; his response expressed enthusiasm and admiration. 2 pp., in Spanish, + 1 p. enclosure (copy of letter, November 14, 1928, to Ruth Raphael, Harper & Bros., From José Clemente Orozco, New York, N.Y.: endorsement of -- Ananias, or The False Artist -- by Walter Pach)

From Lee Simonson, Editor, Creative Art, New York, N.Y., December 18, 1928: thanks Pach for making changes to his Rivera article; his review of Pach's book is "extremely hard-hitting"; offers opportunity for rebuttal in the next issue; "let us keep the thing above personalities"; Alfred Stieglitz and Leo Stein support Simonson's views. 2 pp

From Van Wyck Brooks, Westport, Conn., January 8, 1929: will send chapters for revision; payment can be handled however Pach prefers. 2 pp

From Elie Faure, Paris, France, January 11, 1929: has not finished reading Pach's book because he is unusually busy; his wife is ill; had to put aside projects to complete a book on the Italian Renaissance; with the exception of Sargent, "official" American painters are not known in France; impressionism and its aftermath have not produced any positive result; would like to see Pach's paintings, not just photographs of them; compliments Pach's etchings; a new edition of his work is in preparation; there may be a Serb translation. 4 pp., in French

From Eleanor S. Brooks, Westport, Conn., January 15, 1929: requests a month's extension for their translation work. 2 pp

From Van Wyck Brooks, Westport, Conn., February 14, 1929: chapter I and the introduction are being sent today. 1 p

From Eleanor S. Brooks, Westport, Conn., March 18, 1929: describes working methods; explains problems in translating Faure's writing. 2 pp

From Elie Faure, Paris, France, April 1, 1929: when Pach visits they will look at art and go to Dordogne; discussed Pach's book with his publisher; recommends not using American examples other than Sargent and possibly Alexander and Frieseke in the French edition; will find an apartment for Pach; Miss Mary Morris has not yet called on him; requests books on the psychology of Americans. 2 pp., in French

From Eleanor S. Brooks, Westport, Conn., May 12, 1929: translation work proceeds slowly; Van Wyck is in the hospital; she doesn't want it publicized. 2 pp

From Eleanor S. Brooks, Westport, Conn., May 26, 1929: Van Wyck's health has not improved. 2 pp

From Eleanor S. Brooks, Westport, Conn., July 10, 1929: thanks Pach for his patience; Van Wyck is now in a private sanitarium; she continues to work on the translation. 1 p

From Eleanor S. Brooks, Westport Conn., August 28, 1929: is sending next chapter soon; Van Wyck's condition has not changed. 1 p

From Elie Faure, Dordogne, France, August 28, 1929: his short review of Pach's book has been accepted for publication in the Dial. 2 pp., in French

From Eleanor S. Brooks, [place unknown], August 30, 1929: another chapter is ready. 1 p

From Elie Faure, Dordogne, France, September 13, 1929: went to Basque country with Soutine; had a good rest and thought about the psychology book he is writing; -- The Italian Renaissance -- appears to be a success; is anxious to see Pach's painting and hear about his time in Paris; hopes to interest Pach in Soutine; when working, Soutine hides like a dog gnawing a bone. 2 pp., in French

From Lewis Mumford, Long Island City, N.Y., October 23, 1929: recounts summer travels; is starting a book about the arts in America since 1870; asks for news of Van Wyck Brooks's condition and how Eleanor is coping; he worries about Eleanor's reaction to the proposal that he edit the Emerson book. 2 pp

From Harold M. Tovell, Toronto, Canada, October 25, 1929: "I do think that as a result of patience and education plus your lectures here, that the tide is turning in favor of our Toronto friends"; inquires about Marcel Duchamp; "the house here would be rather bare if it weren't for the Duchamp family. I hope you will tell him how greatly we prize their works." 4 pp

From Jacques Villon, Neuilly-sur-Seine, France, November 23, 1929: Verne wrote on behalf of the Committee of the National Museums accepting Raymond's sculptures; sends text of the Committee's flattering letter; thanks Pach for his continued support of Raymond. 4 pp., in French

From Childe Hassam, New York, N.Y., November 30, 1929: n -- Art in America -- , Pach confuses Horatio and Henry Oliver; Marie Sterner "has gotten together some of the worst things I have ever seen"; "verily art in America is run by old women! but most of them wear trousers." 2 pp

From Leo Stein, Paris, France, December 1, 1929: wants Pach to know the facts regarding his alleged endorsement of Clivette; "I supposed that Hellman was a gentleman and did not suspect a plant." 1 p

From Art Young, New York, N.Y., [postmarked] December 5, 1929: holiday greetings; news of James Opp [ sic], Springarn, Suzanne La Follette, and Glintenkamp; is working on a book and exhibition. 1 p. + 4 pp. enclosure (printed circular, undated, advertising books by Art Young, -- On My Way -- and -- Trees at Night -- , with excerpts from reviews and order form)

From Leo Stein, Paris, France 4218 265-267 [postmarked] January 8, 1930: "There is no artist that I value highly whom you do not also value but... you value many whom I don't"; diagram illustrates Stein's explanation of how their artistic tastes differ. 3 pp

From Elie Faure, Dordogne, France, March 12, 1930: Joubib's [?] awful reputation should be a comfort to Pach's friend who was so badly treated; plans to seek legal advice about suing De la Faille. 2 pp., in French

From Lewis Mumford, Long Island City, N.Y., March 12, 1930: is pleased with his lectures at Dartmouth College; his next book will be "a modern philosophy of life"; compliments Suzanne La Follette's book; he has an article in the first issue of the New Freeman; comments on policies and politics of the "Modern Museum." 4 pp

From Harold M. Tovell, [place unknown], May 16, 1930: "This is about the most perfect thing I have seen for a long time. A truly great work." Picture postcard ("Leonardo da Vinci Bronzlovas. Reiterfigur aus Bronze. Figure a cheval en bronze")

From Susan Macdowell Eakins, Philadelphia, Pa., July 10, 1930: received Pach's picture postcard of a Millet portrait; the "exhibition of Homer, Ryder, and Eakins at the Modern Museum seems to have pleased universally." 1 p

From Bernard Berenson, Florence, Italy, August 22, 1930: "I would rather not see the entire output of a master," even Delacroix; after finishing "the lists of Italian Painters" he will revise Drawings of Florentine Painters; then he plans a book on "The Decline and Revival of Form in the Figure Arts." 8 pp

From Susan Macdowell Eakins, Philadelphia, Pa., September 25, 1930: continues to enjoy the postcards Pach sent, especially the Millet; has found the painting he wants; there will be an exhibition in New York City in December; her good friend Charles Bregler, a pupil of Eakins's, has restored several of the pictures. 2 pp

From Al [Bing?], New York, N.Y., October 19, 1930: "Museum accepts pictures." Telegram

From Susan Macdowell Eakins, Philadelphia, Pa., October 21, 1930: received Barye copy and photos of Millet picture; details of upcoming Eakins show in New York City are uncertain; Charles Bregler has discovered retouching on some pictures; they will be cleaned before the exhibition; some may be placed behind glass to prevent future overpainting done in "ignorance"; enclosed sketch describes a study Eakins did while a student in Paris; wonders where other pieces from that period are, since he did many and returned with few. 2 pp

From Bryson Burroughs, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, N.Y., October 23, 1930: through oversight, Pach's watercolors were not presented at the October meeting; "I forsee no trouble in their reception. The modern style has not the bitter enemies it used to have." 1 p

From Ida E. Guggenheimer, New York, N.Y., November 9, 1930: saw a good exhibition of modern French art at Harriman Gallery and a "gem" at Knoedler; is enthusiastic about Villon's colors; subsequent visits to Brummer's confirmed that her collection is superior; Mr. Kraushaar likes Pach's work and promised to see more; "you are right when you say I cannot expect to compete with the hawks of picture dealers"; comments on Ananias; economic conditions depress Mr. Guggenheimer and may prevent them From traveling. 3 pp

From B. Stein, New York, N.Y., November 17, 1930: thanks Pach for his book; saw Villon's "smashing" show; Gretchen purchased The (Rose) Haulers; financial conditions in the United States are "depressing"; is sorry Pach is "impatient" with writing, as he is gifted; is glad Pach is enjoying painting in Paris; describes ideas about modern furniture, which she wants to buy. 5 pp

From Ida E. Guggenheimer, New York, N.Y., December 1, 1930: "sympathetic" to Pach's "natural gratification at the Metropolitan's action;" Kraushaar will look at Pach's work in her apartment; mentions art seen at Reinhardt's and Brummer's galleries; received a letter From Villon. 2 pp

From Susan Macdowell Eakins, Philadelphia, Pa., December 12, 1930: Miss Pendleton took the painting Pach wants and will arrange delivery to him; Miss Pendleton would be a good subject to paint; holiday greetings. 1 p

From Ida E. Guggenheimer, New York, N.Y., December 17, 1930: saw Pach's drawings at Kraushaar's; saw work by Houdon at Anderson Galleries; Pach would enjoy Proust's remarks on music and art. 2 pp

From Allen Tucker, New York, N.Y., January 2, 1931: opinions of Corot-Daumier show at the Modern; Tucker had an exhibition. 4 pp

From Leo Stein, Paris, France, [postmarked] January 19, 1931: discusses "analytic" and "non analytic" approaches to a "nonverifiable subject"; "don't regard this letter as an argument. I never argue about art, but simply attempt to explain an attitude." 5 pp

From Susan Macdowell Eakins, Philadelphia, Pa., January 25, 1931: thanks Pach for bringing Eakins's work to the attention of the Louvre; Charles Linford is a possible choice; "I would prefer to present a picture, rather than sell, so we will not worry about prices"; Riccardo Bertelli's new gallery on 56th is exhibiting Thomas Eakins and Samuel Murray; there is an Eakins show at Babcock Galleries; the national economic situation is too bad to expect painting sales; articles on Eakins mistakenly "report that the little seated figure of Thomas Eakins was his favorite attitude while painting"; pictures shown at Babcock were cleaned by Charles Bregler; glazing was recommended for protection From air pollution; Pach's choice of frame for his Eakins painting is "fine." 4 pp

From Susan Macdowell Eakins, Philadelphia, Pa., February 19, 1931: sends photographs of paintings available for presentation to the Louvre; her choice of the Hamilton portrait is supported by Samuel Murray, Mr. Cranmer, and David Wilson Jordan; the Barker and Wallace portraits are possibilities; her sister-in-law offers the portrait of Susan Eakins' father; sends photographs of Thomas Eakins dating From student days in Paris; she has not seen the Eakins exhibition in New York. 2 pp

From Susan Macdowell Eakins, Philadelphia, Pa., February 21, 1931: Bertelli sold John McClure Hamilton, not understanding that it might go to the Louvre; the Barker and Wallace portraits will not be sold. 1 p

From Morris Kantor, New York, N.Y., March 16, 1931: is busy making frames; saw Pach's exhibition at Kraushaar's; "Paris did you a lot of good because your work has changed.... It has more freedom and a better painting quality"; sympathizes with "Baylie's" misfortune; Kraushaar will give "Baylie" a show; Sloan arranged for him to teach at the League. 3 pp

From Bryson Burroughs, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, N.Y., March 17, 1931: "The Museum is much beholden to you however the David matter turns out"; the decision reached at yesterday's meeting will be announced after the painting is unpacked; compliments Pach's show at Kraushaar's; comments on the installation and specific pieces; "as to the Eakins matter I should be honored to cooperate." 2 pp

From A.S. Baylinson, New York, N.Y., March 19, 1931: complimentary comments on Pach's show at Kraushaar's; is moving to a new, fireproof studio at 54 West 74th Street; "I will have the group work there with me evenings as before, and before long we shall forget the fire"; will teach at the Art Students League in the coming year. 2 pp

From Childe Hassam, New York, N.Y., March 27, 1931: Pach's exhibition, which Hassam viewed twice, includes "the best things I have seen of yours"; spoke with John Sloan and Miss Kraushaar at the gallery; describes his etching of Helen Wells and promises to send a photograph of it. 2 pp

From Bryson Burroughs, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, N.Y., March 28, 1931: the painting arrived and is "even grander than I had imagined.... It will be one of the masterpieces here"; has been in contact with Mrs. Eakins; thanks Pach for his "beneficent labors." 3 pp

From Susan Macdowell Eakins, Philadelphia, Pa., March 28, 1931: Burroughs and Brummer were consulted in the search for photographs of Eakins paintings; lists sizes of paintings under consideration; J. Carroll Beckwith might interest the Louvre. 2 pp

From Bryson Burroughs, New York, N.Y., March 31, 1931: "David Bought Hooray." Telegram + 1 p. enclosure (April 1, 1931 From Morgan & Cie., Paris, France: debit notice for collect telegram received From New York the previous day)

From Bryson Burroughs, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, N.Y., April 14, 1931: Museum is pleased with the David painting; thanks Pach for his role in the transaction; "waiting for the Eakins matter to crystallize"; wants the Pennsylvania Museum to offer Clara or The Bohemian; the Louvre should have an example of Eakins' "very best"; will propose the idea to Kimball. 2 pp

From Arthur B. Springarn, New York, N.Y., April 21, 1931: is "profoundly impressed" by Pach's exhibition; his work shows a new "lack of inhibition"; "I resent the conspiracy of silence of the critics tho' I suppose that is the price you pay for being the author of Ananias"; gives recommendations for Raymond's schooling. 6 pp

From Bryson Burroughs, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, N.Y., May 3, 1931: "The Penn. Mus. Eakins project takes shape gradually"; Clara may be "suitable"; the "exchange" proposed is complicated and requires "committee actions"; maybe they could give Clara to the Louvre; Kimball will "come round." 3 pp

From Bryson Burroughs, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, N.Y., May 11, 1931: sends copy of a letter From Fiske Kimball and a reproduction of Clara; upon seeing the painting again "my previous judgement was amply confirmed." 1 p. + 1 p. enclosure (May 8, 1931, to Bryson Burroughs From Fiske Kimball, Director, Pennsylvania Museum of Art, Philadelphia, Pa.: "I shall recommend to my Board that a gift be made to the Louvre"; instructs Burroughs to ask Guiffrey whether the Louvre will accept Clara; discusses framing and Eakins's ideas on the subject)

From Jean Guiffrey, Louvre Museum, Paris, France, June 2, 1931: thanks for the Eakins painting; when informed of the gift, his colleagues will be grateful. 1 p., in French

From Abby Greene (Aldrich) Rockefeller, Pocantico Hills, N.Y., June 10, 1931: purchased Pach's painting of anemone; thanks for "the trouble you have taken about the Géricault drawing." 3 pp

From Henri Verne, Director, Louvre Museum, Paris, France, June 18, 1931: thanks Pach for his role as intermediary in the Louvre's acquisition of a Thomas Eakins painting. 1 p., in French

From Bryson Burroughs, [place illegible], France, June 24, 1931: Is arriving in Paris in July; wants to see David-Weill collection; "it is a great comfort the way the Eakins matter turned out and I am really glad to be out of its final arrangement"; is going to Milan to see the -- Très Belles Heures -- . 2 pp

From Susan Macdowell Eakins, Philadelphia, Pa., June 27, 1931: Is pleased with the choice of painting for the Louvre; thanks Pach for his efforts. 2 pp

From Bryson Burroughs, aboard SS De Grasse, July 19, 1931: Guiffrey "is delighted about the Eakins and well appreciative of your efforts in regard to it"; Metropolitan Museum of Art may participate in the French exhibition in London next year; "a new era of liberalism and cooperation is about due with the passing of so many ancient trustees"; describes the excellent condition of the -- Très Belles Heures -- . 3 pp

From Caroline Pratt, Chilmark, Mass., August 14, 1931: Discusses Raymond's academic progress and challenges; gives recommendations for the future. 5 pp

From Elie Faure, Peking, China, October 7, 1931: Received a warm welcome in the United States; the end of his trip and the end of his life are darkened by catastrophe. Picture postcard ("Great Wall of China"), in French

From Beatrice [?], New York, N.Y., October 10, 1931: " Simone is ours." Telegram

From Elie Faure, Angkor, Cambodia, November 14, 1931: Expresses love for America and Americans; thinks the hope of the world is in the United States and also between the Urals and Vistula. Picture postcard ("Ruines D'Angkor"), in French

From Ida E. Guggenheimer, New York, N.Y., November 15, 1931: Etta Cone bought a Pach painting and is "enthusiastic" about Duchamp-Villon; "saw the Mouillots at Brummer's and I must confess to being very disappointed"; she "positively rejoice[s]" in her own piece by Duchamp-Villon; many praise Pach's work in her collection; art prices are down; news of various friends, especially musicians. 4 pp

From Jean Crotti, Paris, France, November 18, 1931: "I have always declined to write prefaces for contemporaries (the cases of Villon and Duchamp-Villon being exceptions which I intend shall remain exceptions); it is a job for a professional critic, and not for a man who is himself engaged in painting." 2 pp

From Bryson Burroughs, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, N.Y., November 24, 1931: Gift of 2 etchings by Pach was received by the Museum. 2 pp

From Elie Faure, Colombo, Ceylon, November 25, 1931: Everyone says his wife and daughter were courageous and that helps him tolerate the loneliness; is anxious to see the Corot book, especially the reproductions; will continue writing for -- Petit Parisien -- ; now believes one must write for the masses. 2 pp., in French

From Henri Verne, Director, Louvre Museum, Paris, France, December 22, 1931: Thanks Pach for his gift of an engraving of New York. 1 p., in French

From Al Bing, New York, N.Y., December 23, 1931: Socrates by David and the Havemeyer collection are now hanging at the Metropolitan; Whitney Museum, Frick Gallery, and the Modern Gallery will all be open when Pach returns; Coffin, "a man of great ability and sterling character," has been elected Museum president; is interested in the Bonaparte exhibition; asks Pach to help sell his Renoir. 12 pp

From Bryson Burroughs, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, N.Y., January 9, 1932: Trustees will want more information about the Géricault picture; they trust printed sources over his opinions; is hopeful that Coffin can make "improvements"; though Pach is "eminently suited for Museum work," this is a poor time to enter the field. 2 pp

From Albert Morance, La Chef des Services Commerciause et Techniques, Louvre Museum, Paris, France, January 11, 1932: Is returning to Pach the contract concerning his engraving. 1 p. + 2 pp. printed form (Louvre Print Department acquisition form for The Telephone and Telegraph Building, New York, and rules for transfer of works to the Print Department), in French

From Leo Stein, Paris, France, [postmarked] January 12, 1932: Discusses "two questions that always arise in respect to art... (1) What qualities does one note in a work of art. (2) What value has that which one sees." 6 pp

From Allen Tucker, New York, N.Y., January 18, 1932: Pach's stay in Morocco seems to have been beneficial; 1931 was a difficult year; hopeful for the future; "the Whitney has shaken the whole thing up and American shows past and present and I daresay future are everywhere"; "Rivera having a grand time in a pas de deux with Mrs. Rockefeller at the Museum of 'Foreign' Art." 3 pp

From Henri Verne, Director, Louvre Museum, Paris, France, January 26, 1932: Thanks Pach for his role in the Louvre's acquisition of the Eakins painting; it arrived in good shape and was readily accepted; is still considering the Barye castings. 1 p., in French

From Leo Hartman, Harper's Magazine, New York, N.Y., February 1, 1932: The artists mentioned in Pach's article are too obscure for Harper's readers. 1 p

From Al Bing, New York, N.Y., February 7, 1932: Thanks Pach for helping him find a potential buyer for his Renoir; discusses the Furdson and Havemeyer collections at the Metropolitan; family news; is anxious for Pach's return. 7 pp

From Van Wyck Brooks, Westport, Conn., February 8, 1932: "The Depression is not to be underestimated" and could change the social order; discusses colleges for Raymond; Life of Emerson and a volume of his essays reprinted From the Freeman will be out soon; the Prendergasts live nearby; "Charlie P. is surely a true primitive old master to whom only Vasari could do justice in the way of antecedents"; "I kept thinking as I read your book, what new books must logically follow From your mind"; suggests Pach write histories of art criticism and American art. 10 pp

From Henri Verne, Director, Louvre Museum, Paris, France, March 5, 1932: Because Barye's -- Apollon -- is a fragile plaster, the curator cannot risk making castings. 1 p., in French

From Childe Hassam, New York, N.Y., March 8, 1932: Has a print of Helen Wells for Pach; the Metropolitan Museum filmed him at work and play in East Hampton last summer; the Boston Museum commissioned a similar film of Benson. 3 pp

From Ida E. Guggenheimer, New York, N.Y., March 25, 1932: Sent another payment for City of Mexico to Pach's bank; several people have shown interest in Simone; she and the Steins purchased work From Baylinson's Kraushaar show. 3 pp

From Bryson Burroughs, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, N.Y., March 26, 1932: The Géricault is a "grand picture, but don't pin any faith on the taste of trustees"; Pach would find it frustrating to work within the museum's structure; is anxious to correspond or converse about Hubert and Jan Van Eyck. 2 pp

From Allen Tucker, New York, N.Y., April 10, 1932: Congratulates Pach on his show and catalog; compliments the Morse exhibition at the Metropolitan; "the Whitney gallery has shaken up the attention of people to the present Americans." 2 pp

From D.T. Sieveking, Director, Antikensammlungen, Munich, Germany, April 27, 1932: Returns the completed questionnaire. 1 p. + 1 p. enclosure (questionnaire about Greek figure known as -- Naked Girl with Cap -- ), in German

From John Sloan, New York, N.Y., April 30, 1932: Recounts the politics of the League's presidential election that he lost; Schnakenberg will be an "inactive president"; when the Board turned down Geo. Grosz, Sloan resigned; Jonas Lie threatened to resign if Pach lectures there; Sloan will teach at Archipenko's school next season; Dolly is a manager for the touring Exhibition of Indian Tribal Arts; Baylinson supported Sloan in the "fight"; financial details of the Sixteenth Annual Independent Exhibition. 2 pp

From Charles Bourgeat, Galerie Dru, Paris, France., May 7, 1932: Received payment for Pach's exhibition there; cannot locate the Sisley and Pissarro photographs Pach sent; their aim to show fine and beautiful painting was accomplished with Pach's exhibition; difficult times account for compliments and no sales. 2 pp., in French

From Ida E. Guggenheimer, New York, N.Y., May 10, 1932: Her opinion of photography remains "good, but not art, and deadly after a certain length of time." 1 p

From Ida E. Guggenheimer, New York, N.Y., May 22, 1932: Hopes Pach's article, "Owning Pictures," will be published; the museum's rehung galleries present interesting new comparisons; asks his opinion of the Art Students League controversy; saw Baylinson at the Independent show; purchased a Baylinson drawing From Kraushaar. 3 pp

From the -- Atlantic Monthly -- , Boston, Mass., May 31, 1932: Pach's article is of limited interest to Atlantic Monthly readers. 1 p

From M.L. Allen, -- Harper's -- Magazine, New York, N.Y., June 2, 1932: Pach's article, "American Art in the Louvre," is not appropriate for a general audience. 1 p

From Gino Severini, Fribourg, Switzerland, June 16, 1932: His schedule will not permit another meeting before Pach's departure; the art market will improve; is interested in the prospect of a show at Brummer's; "decoration work" for Weyhe may end in September; thanks Pach for his help. 2 pp., in French

From P. Dubaut, Paris, France, July 19, 1932: Thanks Pach for sending clippings; the gallery behaved professionally but was not overly kind; was generally pleased with the show; is happy to know Pach. 2 pp., in French

From Alfred Vance Churchill, Rockport, Mass., July 25, 1932: Pach was the first to write of the Smith College Museum as "one of the choicest and best directed collections of art in America"; has received many commendations and is putting together extracts "for certain personal uses"; requests additional thoughts From Pach on the collection. 3 pp

From Alfred Vance Churchill, Rockport, Mass., July 25, 1932: Is trying to arrange a lecture for Pach at Smith College and perhaps at Mount Holyoke College; Jere Abbott will succeed him as museum director; thinks his retirement was forced on the trustees by Paul J. Sachs. 4 pp

From Nadine and Ad. Wuester, Paris, France, January 5, 1933: Pach is missed as their circle of friends diminishes; painted at the Côte d'Azur last summer; shows of Renoir and Delacroix were exceptions in a dull art season; Aubrey's gallery is now a junk shop; mentions auctions of the Strauss and Pacquemont collections; Goetz's Delacroix still-life was reattributed to Andrieux; a sketch said to be by Géricault appeared at the Hôtel Drouot; cheap reproductions are being passed off as Géricault watercolors. 5 pp., in German

From Elie Faure, Paris, France., January 7, 1933: France is declining; sends family news; Paul Morand gave his book a favorable review; inquires whether Pach has found work; there are fewer exhibits in Paris; good paintings are now seen only at the big sales such as Strauss. 2 pp., in French

From Marjorie Carpenter, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada, January 9, 1933: Confirms lecture date at McMaster University. Telegram

From Gertrude Wolf, Executive Secretary, New York University, New York, N.Y., January 9, 1933: Requests syllabus for last 2 lectures of Pach's course and the examination questions. 1 p

From Susan Macdowell Eakins, Philadelphia, Pa., [postmarked] January 19, 1933: Informs Pach of prices of two Eakins portraits; many Eakins paintings were damaged by restorers; others are in "splendid condition" due to the efforts of Charles Bregler; comments on Mrs. Whitney's plans to aid painters. 1 p

From William Reinhold Valentiner, Director, Detroit Institute of Arts, Detroit, Mich., February 9, 1933: Thanks the Pachs for a warm welcome; enjoyed seeing Pach's paintings and his personal collection; the picture signed Hogarth is not by the master; the signature on the Géricault drawing appears genuine. 2 pp., in German

From Elie Faure, Paris, France, June 20, 1933: Has been ill for 2 months; the French economy is poor, resulting in greatly reduced incomes; Rivera has been forbidden to make public speeches; a Chassériau exhibit is open; Joubin, who organized the current Renoir show, knows nothing about painting and villifies artists while they are alive but sanctifies them after they are dead; among the beautiful paintings in the exhibit is a portrait of Sisley and his wife. 6 pp., in French

From Elie Faure, Paris, France, September 23, 1933: Madame Siluster died; she had 4 Delacroix drawings of which Faure kept 2, gave 1 to François, and sent to Pach a portrait sketch of Madame Guizot; Pach should tell Rivera that Faure is upset that he did not translate Mon Périple; is enthusiastic about Rivera's paintings and frescoes and considers him a great illustrator; the chapter Faure sent was ignored, which is a disappointment as he hoped to interest an American editor; is depressed over the rejection of his collected essays; the Renoir exhibition is a disgrace to the memory of the artist, who is misunderstood and detested by the organizers of the show. 4 pp., in French. to Herbert Eustis Winlock From Walter Pach, New York, N.Y. 4218 481-483 November 12, 1933: Refers to previous discussion of the "Indian collection"; suggests a "single gallery of Indian art including Mexican, and adding, if desired, the other peoples whose work has a sufficient art value"; use art rather than anthropology as the criterion; "my idea is that the museum should accept the collection Mr. Sloan intends to offer as a gift From his association, or accept part of it as the nucleus of a gallery of the art of the so-called barbarous peoples." 3 pp

From Elie Faure, Paris, France, December 9, 1933: A Courbet, which Faure believes is his most beautiful, is for sale; indicates price, size, and citation of a reproduction; inquires about the financial crisis in the United States; comments on economic problems, political events, and inertia of the French people; is writing a preface for Rosenberg's Renoir exhibit; asks about Pach's painting and printmaking; requests news of Rivera about whom he wrote an article; Harper's sent money and will reprint The Spirit of the Forms. 4 pp., in French

From Ida E. Guggenheimer, New York, N.Y., December 10, 1933: Saw the Cézanne exhibition twice; "as for Dr. Valentiner, of course I am all with Rivera.... No good can come out of anything as bad as the Hitler program." 2 pp

From Clifton A. Wheeler, Indianapolis, Ind., February 2, 1934: Discusses fellow board members of the Indianapolis Art Association and acquisitions; "modernization" was the response to declining school enrollment; 9 instructors, including Wheeler, were fired; describes life on the top of La Conte Mountain, Tenn., where he painted the previous fall; has mural and portrait commissions, "so long as I can make a living I don't care if I don't teach." 8 pp

From E.D. Smyth, Tangier, Morocco, September 19, 1934: Thanks Pach for sending a painting of Helen; is staying in Helen's house; Gertrude Stein's book about Alice Toklas is "an overwhelmingly cheeky work" that failed to mention Pach; news of mutual friends; reminiscences of visits with the Pachs; James McBey, a Scottish painter and etcher, has settled nearby. 3 pp

From Marcel Duchamp, Paris, France, October 17, 1934: Feels animosity toward Barr, whom he calls narrow-minded; will handle in his own way any resulting confrontation or unpleasantness; told Arensberg, owner of -- Un Descendant -- , not to lend to Barr; asks Pach to find an excuse for refusing Barr; Barr shall reap what he has sown; American collectors are now speculators; sends order forms for his new book. 5 pp., in French

From Elie Faure, Paris, France, December 4, 1934: The owners of the Courbet are impatient; asks if it has arrived in New York; suggests that a collector, Barnes, or the Metropolitan Museum of Art may be interested; his book is being ignored in France; if Pach has money, now is a good time to buy art; tells of works that are selling at reduced prices. 2 pp., in French

From Simonne Maubert, Paris, France, December 22, 1934: Miss Stein wrote with good news of Pach; posed for Miss Stein during the autumn and hopes for similar work next year. 2 pp. + picture postcard ("Palais de Fontainebleau, La Cour Ovale et le Baptistère"), in French

From A. Frohberg and Johanna, Dresden, Germany, December 31, 1934: Thanks Pach for letter and for holiday greetings; the news of Pach's selection for an important commission brings them great joy; news of a family friend who has made progress and overcome obstacles. 2 pp., in German

From Karl Lilienfield, New York, N.Y., May 13, 1935: Confirms the commission Pach will receive if he sells paintings for Alexander M. Bing. 1 p., in German

From Henri Focillon, New Haven, Conn., May 21, 1935: Thanks Pach for sending the fine article he wrote on -- La Patelliere -- , which he saw in Bucharest; when visiting the Politzers, he failed to recognize Pach's name, thus missing the opportunity to express his admiration and respect. 2 pp., in French

From Father [Frohberg] and Johanna, Dresden, Germany, July 2, 1935: Birthday greetings. Picture postcard ("Herzlichen Gluckwunsch zum Geburtstage"), in German

From Bernard Berenson, Florence, Italy, September 13, 1935: Opposes exhibitions such as the current one at the Petit Palais; is revising his work on drawings of Florentine painters; "foulness piled over Michelangelo by a lot of German animals, the worst of whom is a biped named Panofsky." 12 pp

From Elie Faure, Paris, France, September 24, 1935: Asks about Pach's frescoes and requests photographs; discusses the dire economy and his own financial situation; believes the movement born of cubism is dead in France and explores this idea more fully in a preface he wrote for Brummer's upcoming Lipchitz exhibition; discusses an exhibition of Italian art and the poorly received article he wrote about it for L'Humanité; visited London, which seemed more alive than Paris; objects to glass on paintings at the National and the Wallace; has not heard From Rivera, possibly because Faure's article was not flattering enough. 4 pp., in French

From Clifton A. Wheeler, Indianapolis, Ind., October 20, 1935: Pach should notify the director of the John Herron Art Institute of his schedule and lecture fees; is teaching at a high school; the art school is now "purely Yale, Beaux Arts competition, and American Academy in Rome." 2 pp

From Edna Strasser, Amsterdam, the Netherlands, October 26, 1935: Called on friends of Pach, the Brinkman family of Haarlem; saw the portrait Pach painted of their brother in 1906. 3 pp

From Arthur Strasser, Seville, Spain, November 18, 1935: Recounts visit with Brinkmans in Haarlem; is impressed by the Prado, Rubens, and El Greco; at Pach's suggestion, they have attended several performances of gypsy music and dancing. 4 pp

From Elie Faure, [place unknown], November 29, 1935: Is enchanted by and praises the most successful part of Pach's triptych; discusses the economy and prospects for work in France; continues to be pessimistic about painting in France; architecture is what is needed now and cinema may become more important than painting; mentions a Flemish exhibition; congratulates Pach on his portrait of a young man, possibly Raymond; the critics who denounced what Faure wrote on the agony of painting now admit he was right. 4 pp., in French

From A. Frohberg and Johanna, Dresden, Germany, March 2, 1936: Belated birthday greetings; tell Magda everything has been done for Zittau [?]. Picture postcard (untitled), in German

From Gerda Stein, New York, N.Y., March 10, 1936: Thanks Pach for his friendship; "accept this simple expression of my appreciation for what you have given me and the earnest hope that it will bring you an answer to some of the problems that perplex you." 4 pp

From Ida E. Guggenheimer, Ontario, Canada, August 4, 1936: Read his review in the -- Nation -- and wants to see the exhibition; the watercolor of Magda acquired by the Brooklyn Museum is one of Pach's best. 1 p

From Charles Bourgeat, Paris, France, August 21, 1936: The Seligmanns request a meeting about the Ingres paintings Bourgeat and Pach discussed earlier; sends 2 color reproductions of Cézanne paintings that Cézanne's son wants to sell; discusses prices and commissions; saw the Cézanne works now in the Orangerie; asks if Etta Cone might be interested; missed Bing's visit to Paris. 4 pp., in French

From Bernard Berenson, Grusbach, Czechoslovakia, August 26, 1936: "You are one of the last surviving acquaintances who, in the study of art, have not gone over to irrelevant promiscuity"; discusses attribution of Goldman's Madonna; has begun writing "The Decline and Recovery of Form"; spent 6 weeks in Yugoslavia studying Roman remains and Byzantine frescoes. 4 pp

From Bernard Berenson, Florence, Italy, November 30, 1936: Read his article in the -- Virginia Quarterly -- ; he liked the photograph of Pach's fresco more than the article; tell Van Wyck Brooks he is welcome to visit when next in Florence; spent 5 weeks in Paris. 4 pp

From Elie Faure, Paris, France, December 28, 1936: Eight months ago Lizou married a man who died of cancer a few days later; his books are not selling well; History of Art is unavailable and financing cannot be found for a new edition; saw an exhibit of Bonnard and Vuillard; considers mural work the only important current painting; recounts a visit to Spain; Rivera was wounded in Mexico; Rivera's recent silence may be the result of Faure's article. 4 pp., in French

From Herbert Eustis Winlock, Director, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, N.Y., February 13, 1937: Winthrop will not loan his collection. 1 p

From Allen Tucker, Castine, Maine, May 30, 1937: "I wonder if Museums and concerts haven't stopped rather than helped our creative efforts"; is glad to be back in America; wrote to Moe; "the foundation likes to bet on the unknown instead of helping anyone who has shown they HAVE ability and have done the work"; congratulates Pach on continuing to paint despite other responsibilities; sorry to hear Sloan is unwell. 1 p

From Ernestine Ludolf, Florence, Italy, June 22, 1937: Pach is "a good and faithful friend"; his kind words about Egisto are like "a flower of remembrance on his grave"; wants to give him a small painting by Egisto, showing a corner of the Montmartre studio where he and Pach first met. 6 pp

From Ida E. Guggenheimer, Paris, France, September 13, 1937: Attended a conference in Paris; visited the Fountain of the Innocents; made a thorough tour of the exhibition with Villon. 3 pp

From Marcel Duchamp, Paris, France, September 28, 1937: Would like to see his painting -- Sad Young Man on a Train -- join related paintings in California and believes Arensberg would agree; requests a photograph of the painting to reproduce in an album he is compiling. 2 pp., in French

From Allen Tucker, New York, N.Y., November 1, 1937: Thanks Pach for the Delacroix book; congratulations on "another great contribution to civilization"; completed a "pretty good summer's work" before his illness. 2 pp

From Van Wyck Brooks, Westport, Conn., November 18, 1937: Thanks Pach for the book on Delacroix; the introduction is "wholly satisfying." 2 pp

From Van Wyck Brooks, New York, N.Y., November 23, 1937: Reads some of Delacroix each day; "I'm beginning to understand your feeling about him." Picture postcard ("Self Portrait by Francesco Goya. Frontispiece to Los Caprichos. Madrid, circa 1803")

From L. (Mme. Elie) Faure, Paris, France, November 30, 1937: Thanks Pach for writing to her; wants to carry out her husband's wishes to make his work publicly accessible; sends a list of Faure's unpublished articles; discusses financial matters relating to the Harper's contract. 4 pp., in French

From Royal Cortissoz, New York, N.Y., January 2, 1938: Thanks Pach for his book on Delacroix, "the work of an artist and man of letters." 3 pp

From Van Wyck Brooks, Westport, Conn., November 2, 1938: "I'm glad to stand by that statement." Picture postcard ("Mountain landscape. Chinese, Ming Period, 15th century, after a design attributed to Ma Yiian (flourished 1190-1221)")

From Henry Watson Kent, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, N.Y., November 3, 1938: Thanks Pach for the "kind letter about the Morgan exhibition." 1 p. (frame 589) and envelope

From Henry Watson Kent, New York, N.Y., November 8, 1938: Thanks Pach for the inscribed copy of his book; is proud to be associated with the book and to have Pach say kind things about him. 1 p

From Van Wyck Brooks, Westport, Conn., November 9 and 11, 1938: Read -- Queer Thing, Painting -- ; "I had better begin now by telling my few objections, in order to hand you later my full bouquet"; "you exaggerate the Villon connection"; "you exaggerate the ignorance of Italian art on the part of our forbears"; "you praise some collectors too highly," especially Morgan and John Quinn; "your memory of Yeats is suspect"; Pach has created a "permanent record and source-book" full of "wisdom." 14 pp

From Van Wyck Brooks, Westport, Conn., November 15, 1938: Grants permission to quote From his previous letter; Pach's book is "tremendously important." 2 pp

From Kenneth Hayes Miller, New York, N.Y., November 15, 1938: Congratulations on -- Queer Thing, Painting -- ; the book has "permanent value." 1 p

From Louis Lombard, [place unknown], France, November 23, 1938: Thanks Pach for his letters; describes the horrors of life as a soldier; he reads Whitman to maintain good spirits. 4 pp., in French

From Henry Watson Kent, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, N.Y., December 9, 1938: Advises Pach to distribute new cards to schools. 1 p. + 1 p. enclosure (suggested text for announcement of Pach's availability as a lecturer)

From W.S. Rusk, Wells College, Aurora-on-Cayuga, N.Y., December 21, 1938: "Thank you for the conference the other day in which we discussed the artist and the art critic." 1 p

From G. Masolle, Evian, France, December 31, 1938: Thanks Pach for the extract From his book, which she translated immediately; it showed perfect understanding of Jean's character; -- The Prisoners of the World -- is impossible to find; Jean Cocteau has not published Jean's first essays or poems. 2 pp., in French

From Ernestine Ludolf, Florence, Italy, February 20, 1939: Is "grateful" for the "lovely tribute" to her brother, Egisto Fabbri, that appeared in Queer Thing, Painting; she and her brother were students of J. Alden Weir; Pissarro advised them to study the Old Masters; details of the sale of 12 Cézanne paintings From Egisto's collection; sending a privately printed memoir of her brother; invites Pach to call on her and various relatives when he is in Florence. 4 pp

From Simonne Maubert, Paris, France, April 5, 1939: Thanks Pach for sending his book; she was happy to recognize herself in one of the chapters; her English is improving and one day she may be able to read the entire book. 4 pp., in French.

To Magdalene Pach From Van Wyck Brooks, Westport, Conn., July 8, 1939: Is looking forward to the Pachs' visit. 2 pp

From Van Wyck Brooks, Westport, Conn., December 29, 1939: The book is a "glorious achievement... by far your best book"; it "brought back all my gratitude to you for all that you have taught me about art." 4 pp

From Daniel Gregory Mason, New York, N.Y., March 15, 1940: Thanks Pach for the "great pleasure and stimulus" of Ingres; "one grows to feel something of the affection, respect, and admiration for Ingres that you show the way to." 1 p

From Don F. Dickson, Director, Dickson Mound Museum, Lewistown, Ill., March 28, 1940: Sends photographs of pipes that Pach found interesting. 1 p. + enclosures (4 photographs of ceremonial pipes: "Front view of a human effigy tobacco pipe From the Great Temple Mound in Oklahoma, Ceremonial type"; "Front view. Ceremonial type"; "Side view. Ceremonial type"; and "Back view of human effigy tobacco pipe From the Great Temple Mound in Oklahoma, Ceremonial type")

From Bernard Berenson, Florence, Italy, March 30, 1940: Was interested in the Ohio mound builders in his youth; "my writing days are over I fear, for one thing I feel afraid I have nothing to say that would not sound commonplace"; "too much absorbed" in what is going on in this part of the world." 8 pp

From Ernestine Ludolf, Florence, Italy, April 18, 1940: Ingres is "splendid"; sympathizes with the "difficulties" Pach encountered when organizing the World's Fair art exhibition. 6 pp

From Van Wyck Brooks, Boothbay Harbor, Maine, September 2, 1940: Pach has found "the only paragraph in the whole book (which after a dozen rewritings) left me unsatisfied." Postal card

From G. Masolle, Evian, France, October 14, 1940: Is happy that Jean's memoirs are in Pach's hands; awaits English victory; the French are suffering, but she is confident the country will survive. 2 pp., in French

From Van Wyck Brooks, Westport, Conn., April 9, 1941: "We missed you at the John Sloan dinner"; he won't write any more about expatriates. 3 pp

From Alfred Vance Churchill, Northampton, Mass., April 21, 1941: Congratulations on Ingres; recalls Pach's help in acquiring important paintings for the Smith College Museum of Art. 3 pp

From Art Young, New York, N.Y., May 9, 1941: Congratulations on -- Masterpieces of Art -- . 1 p., illustrated with drawing of a stooped man walking with a cane

From Hugo Robus, New York, N.Y., June 13, 1941: Was pleased by Pach's letter praising his marble at the Museum of Modern Art; Alfred Barr was "delighted" by Pach's comments; there is also a Robus bronze at the Museum of Modern Art; "I never dated my work and so the actual year of production is a pretty hazy matter." 2 pp

From Ruth A. Wilmot, Oak Bluffs, Mass., [postmarked] August 2, 1941: She and Donald are enjoying their vacation. Picture postcard ("Yacht Club and Harbor, Edgartown, Mass.")

From Kenneth Hayes Miller, New York, N.Y., August 7, 1941: Comments on paintings From the Louvre shown at the M[etropolitan] M[useum of Art]; he doesn't enjoy the country as Pach seems to. 2 pp

From Bernard Berenson, Florence, Italy, August 30, 1941: "I believe the entire Mississippi basin to its utmost reaches was flooded with Aztec influences"; requests photograph of a piece Pach mentioned seeing in Columbus, Ohio; "French art will rise again"; recalls his first acquaintance with Poussin's work. 2 pp

From Van Wyck Brooks, Westport, Conn., September 4, 1941: "I am reacting against this whole conception of 'mankind' as 'rabble' "; his new book will expound on this. 2 pp

From Charles Cunningham, Assistant Curator of Paintings, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, Mass., September 11, 1941: Requests additional information about Pach's Delacroix painting; shares information on works in the collection of George Reinhardt, Winterthur, and the Metropolitan. 2 pp

From Charles Cunningham, Assistant Curator of Paintings, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, Mass., October 15, 1941: Sends summary of information compiled when cataloging the Museum's version of Delacroix's -- Christ on the Sea of Genesareth -- . 1 p. + 4 pp. enclosure (notes on 6 versions of the painting)

From William Mills Ivins, New York, N.Y., [postmarked] January 27, 1942: Thanks for his "warm approval of the Bulletin article." 1 p

From Van Wyck Brooks, Norwalk, Conn., [postmarked] February 3, 1942: Thanks for sending the brochure about Quidor. Picture postcard ("The Dance of Death. The Ploughman Woodcut by Hans Holbein the Younger. German, 1497-1543")

From Van Wyck Brooks, Westport, Conn., [postmarked] February 19, 1942: Thanks for the Quidor catalog; saw the show yesterday; "he's really a discovery." Picture postcard ("Saint George and the Dragon. Woodcut by Lucas Cranach the Elder. German, 1472-1553")

From Van Wyck Brooks, Westport, Conn., [postmarked] February 27, 1942: "What you say about the book makes me regret all the more that it has to be postponed." Picture postcard ("Rembrandt, Dutch, 1606-1669. Portrait of the Artist"), with annotation by Pach: "Book on American Art proposed to the American Philosophical Society."

From Fred M. Stein and Arthur Strasser, New York, N.Y., March 21, 1942: In "recognition of what you have meant to the [Schilling] Fund... [we] take great pleasure in sending you the enclosed." 2 pp

From M.M. Pochapin, Music Appreciation Record Corporation, New York, N.Y., May 6, 1942: Please sign and return a copy of the agreement. 1 p. + 1 p. enclosure (May 6, 1942, From M.M. Pochapin, New York, N.Y. Pach has been selected a Judge for the "Art Appreciation Movement. In this capacity you are to pass on the true value of paintings submitted.").

to Magdalene Pach From M.M. Pochapin, Managing Director, Art Appreciation Movement, New York, N.Y., May 13, 1942: Requests that she read the organization's pamphlet about the Art Appreciation Movement and complete the "lengthy Qualification Form"; "great artists will make their paintings available at these small Public Service prices." 2 pp

From M.I. Block, Art Appreciation Movement, New York, N.Y., May 27, 1942: Receipt for 5 oil paintings consigned. 1 p

From Reginald Poland, Director, Fine Arts Gallery, San Diego, Calif., 5 June 25, 1942: "We realize increasingly that, in the Caravaggio, we have a magnificent work of art"; "we have just acquired a glorious Titian Madonna, painted about 1514-- very strongly Giorgionesque." 1 p

From Van Wyck Brooks, Westport, Conn., [postmarked] July 8, 1942: "What happens to them [artists] when they are 'above' politics? Don't they in the end lead themselves to the politics that destroy them?" Postal card + clipping ("Guest Artists," Time)

From Van Wyck Brooks, Westport, Conn., July 15, 1942: "I won't agree with you about artists and politics"; "a certain breadth of interests and sympathy does not drain one's energy." 2 pp

From Raymond B. Humphrey, Brown, Crosby & Co., Inc., New York, N.Y., July 17, 1942: Discusses insurance and storage arrangements for Pach's property while he is in Mexico. 2 pp

From Jean Lipman, Editor, -- Art in America -- , Cannondale, Conn., July 17, 1942: Agrees to publish his article on Ingres. 1 p

From Raymond B. Humphrey, Brown, Crosby & Co., Inc., New York, N.Y., July 20, 1942: Sends "lost policy releases" and policy numbers. 1 p

From Jean Lipman, Editor, -- Art in America -- , Cannondale, Conn., August 4, 1942: Pach's article on Ingres will appear in the October issue. 1 p

From Gilbert R. Gabriel, Schneider-Gabriel Galleries, Inc., New York, N.Y., August 10, 1942: "Your article on the Ingres is a masterpiece"; discusses the price of a painting of Trinity Church. 2 pp. + enclosures (12 business cards and 4 handwriten notes containing names, addresses, and telephone numbers of Mexican acquaintances)

From Jean Lipman, Editor, -- Art in America -- , Cannondale, Conn., August 19, 1942: Pach's piece on Ingres will be the lead article; accepts his proposal for an article on the "Mexican primitive Bustos." 1 p

From Raymond B. Humphrey, Brown, Crosby & Co., Inc., New York, N.Y., September 3, 1942: Discusses overpayment of insurance premium. 1 p. + 4 enclosures (3 invoices and inventory of artwork in storage). [postmarked September 3, 1942] From John Strasser, New York, N.Y. 4218 703-705 September 4, 1942: Discusses "early Hispano-Mexican" Madonna; "Rosenberg has an attractive show." 3 pp

From John Sloan, Santa Fe, N.Mex., September 8, 1942: Is home From the hospital; his exhibition was in Chicago, Denver, and Santa Fe, and will go to Albuquerque next and then Fort Worth; received "enthusiastic notices"; sold 2 pieces. 2 pp

From Jacob M. Heimann, Beverly Hills, Calif., September 14, 1942: "I greatly appreciate the idea of making an exhibition in Mexico"; inquires about lighting and dimensions of the galleries; "the lack of interest and the ignorance as far as art is concerned here, is unbelievable." 1 p. + 1 p. enclosure (lists of numbers)

From Lasar Kipnis, New York, N.Y., September 18, 1942: "Considering risk expenses at present offer seven and half percent for next three years." 1 p

From Lasar Kipnis, New York, N.Y., September 21, 1942: Expenses will be high; recommends he establish a relationship with Mizracchi [ sic] before arriving in New York; show him some "really valuable" paintings as well as "less expensive works on the sale of which we may really count"; suggests a selection of "object d'art" From A la Vieille Russie; November is the best time for an exhibition in Mexico. 3 pp

From John Strasser, New York, N.Y., September 25, 1942: Pyramid of the Sun, as it appears in the photograph, is "dazzling"; discusses his search for a job. 2 pp

From Lasar Kipnis, New York, N.Y., September 29, 1942: Proposed exhibition may receive the cooperation of the president of Mexico and the king of Rumania; "we must and shall have a first class show"; mentions several works he intends to include. 1 p

From Jean Lipman, Editor, -- Art in America -- , Cannondale, Conn., October 5, 1942: The editor of Cuadernos must insert a notice stating the article was written for publication in Art in America and appears simultaneously in translation. 1 p

From M.M. Pochapin, President, Art Movement, Inc., New York, N.Y., October 8, 1942: Is deciding whether to continue the Art Movement; Marsh resigned; "my enthusiasm has never waned"; Sloan remains involved; plans to market paintings through department stores; work by Walter and Magda Pach is being shown in Philadelphia and Atlanta. 2 pp

From Diego Rivera, [place unknown], October 13, 1942: He and the editors extend thanks and enclose payment. 1 p., in Spanish

From Adrian Bourcart, [place unknown], Mexico, October 21, 1942: Had the pleasure of attending Pach's lectures on art; requests clarification of true art versus false art and live art versus dead art. 4 pp., in French

From Robert Lebel, New York, N.Y., October 22, 1942: Saw Misrachi; likes [filmed twice] Pach's idea for an exhibit in Mexico; Marcel Duchamp and André Breton organized a surrealist exhibition; Guggenheim was inaugurated with an ingenious exhibition; the Dutch show at Duveen's is successful; Rosenberg has a Léger show and is preparing a Cézanne exhibit; Rosenberg is interested in Marsden Hartley; Chagall, now an official member of the surrealist group, is exhibiting at Pierre Matisse; Goetz may exhibit Paul Klee. 1 p., in French

From Jean Lipman, Editor, -- Art in America -- , Cannondale, Conn., October 22, 1942: "I was delighted with your article on Bustos"; "unless the article appears in Art in America prior to publication elsewhere, we cannot print it." 2 pp

From John Strasser, New York, N.Y., November 13, 1942: Comments on Mexico painted by Velasco. 2 pp

From Marjorie D. Mathias, College Art Association of America, New York, N.Y., November 14, 1942: The State University at Bowling Green, Ohio, has inquired about engaging Pach for a lecture. 1 p

From Henry Allen Moe, Committee for Inter-American Artistic and Intellectual Relations, New York, N.Y., November 16, 1942: "We want our grantees to be able to do what they ought to do and live as they ought to live"; Pach should let them know his anticipated expenses and how much time he needs in Mexico. 1 p

From Carlos Merida, Denton, Tex., [postmarked] November 16, 1942: Air time was insufficient to broadcast Pach's full text: note inscribed on Section of Plastic Arts, Department of Fine Arts, Secretary of Public Education, "No. 202 Radio Bulletin for Saturday, November 21, 1942" (transcript of a feature story on José Hermenegildo Bustos abstracted From an article by Walter Pach). 4 pp., in Spanish

From Van Wyck Brooks, Westport, Conn., November 18, 1942: With the help of Eleanor and Kenyon, he has managed to read some of the Cuadernos Americanos Pach sent; "I like immensely its tone and elevated feeling"; "I envy your meetings with Diego Rivera, who has always seemed to me a very great painter"; is "shocked" that Lionello Venturi and William G. Constable don't share his opinion of Rivera; a "complicated family problem" keeps them From traveling; is working on -- The Age of Washington Irving -- . 4 pp

From Stephen Duggan, Director, Institute of International Education, New York, N.Y., November 30, 1942: Is glad that Pach's lectures were well received; hopes Pach can remain in Mexico. 1 p

From Alfonso Reyes, Colegio de Mexico, Mexico City, Mexico, December 3, 1942: He is honored by Van Wyck Brooks's words and wants to correspond with him. 1 p., in Spanish

From Stephen Duggan, Director, Institute of International Education, New York, N.Y., December 7, 1942: Is "delighted to learn that Pach will receive a grant through Mr. Moe and 'his Committee.' " 1 p

From Lasar Kipnis, New York, N.Y., December 8, 1942: "Just returned From Johns Hopkins Hospital." Telegram

From José Clemente Orozco, [place unknown], December 10, 1942: Modern art in Mexico faces a powerful reaction that aims to end 20 years of academic work; looks forward to visiting Pach soon. 1 p., in Spanish

From Henry Allen Moe, New York, N.Y., December 11, 1942: "Your letter received but no word From the university." Telegram

From A.S. Baylinson, New York, N.Y., December 18, 1942: He and Constant were rejected by the jury of the "so called Victory exhibition"; reports the death of Michael Rosenthal. 2 pp

From George Constant, New York, N.Y., December 20, 1942: Is glad that Pach, a "fine painter," now has time to paint; the Artists for Victory exhibition at the Metropolitan is "lousy." 2 pp

From Henry Allen Moe, Committee for Inter-American Artistic and Intellectual Relations, New York, N.Y., December 21, 1942: Confirms that Pach is to receive a grant; a final report is due upon return. 1 p. + 2 enclosures (1 sheet of figures titled "Mex--New York" and copy of 1 p. letter to Rodulfo Brito Foucher, Rector, National University of Mexico, From Henry Allen Moe, New York, N.Y., announcing grant to the University for Pach's lectures)

From Pedro Henríquez Ureña, Buenos Aires, Argentina 4218 764-765 December 22, 1942: Sent photographs of the work of Attilio Rossi; Argentine critic, Julio Rinaldini, will send books. 1 p

From Lasar Kipnis, New York, N.Y., December 29, 1942: Asks Pach to write an article on new acquisitions by Mr. Poland's Museum; wants Pach lecture in San Diego; when a new catalog of the permanent collection is published, "we are sure the work will be entrusted to you." 2 pp

From Jean Lipman, Editor, -- Art in America -- , Cannondale, Conn., December 29, 1942: Robert Montenegro's book impressed him; hopes Montenegro will write on Estrada for Art in America; requests Pach's help in arranging it. 1 p

From Harry Miller Lydenberg, [place unknown], Mexico, December 29, 1942: Discusses origin of the phrase "biblia a-biblia." 1 p

From Marcel Duchamp, New York, N.Y., January 3, 1943: Fearing visa problems, he has decided not to go to Mexico; made several "suitcases"; the opening at Peggy's gallery was a big success; plans a surrealist show with Schiaparelli and Breton; Reynolds, just arrived in Madrid, requested that Pach extend greetings to Frida and Diego. 2 pp., in French

From Arthur Strasser, New York, N.Y., January 7, 1943: Congratulations on receiving a grant; "it is not to the Schilling Fund but to you personally, Walter, that our gift to the Metropolitan was the beginning of the belated recognition of Flannagan's genius"; Fred Stein would appreciate suggestions for the Schilling Fund award. 2 pp

From John Rewald, Weyhe Gallery, New York, N.Y., January 13, 1943: Is glad Pach liked his article on Bonnard; will send Pach a copy of his new book on Seurat. 2 pp., with postscript From Laura Canade: New York Public Library has purchased Pach's Self-Portrait

From John Strasser, New York, N.Y., January 16, 1943: "People who might have enjoyed the 'Victory' show 25 or 30 years back now unanimously dislike that accumulation of junk"; "read of your and Rivera's project for spreading Flannagan's reputation." 3 pp

From Van Wyck Brooks, New York, N.Y., January 17, 1943: Saw Jacques Villon's "grand portrait" of Pach at the "Modern Museum." Picture postcard ("Illuminated initial From a South Italian ms. Valerius Maximus written about 1450")

From M.L. Stafford, American Consul, American Embassy, Mexico, January 22, 1943: Pach's registration of American citizenship was approved. 1 p

From Harry Miller Lydenberg, Biblioteca Benjamin Franklin, [place unknown], Mexico, January 23, 1943: Is sending a check in appreciation of the time and interest Pach contributed to their exhibition; wants to publish Pach's tribute to Bustos. 1 p

From Stephen Duggan, Director, Institute of International Education, New York, N.Y., February 3, 1943: Pach's observation about Mexican education interested him; he is "well informed concerning the anti-American attitude" in Mexico. 1 p

From Jean Lipman, Editor, -- Art in America -- , Cannondale, Conn., February 15, 1943: Thanks Pach for arranging to have Fernando Gambo write an article on Estrada; Pach's writings have stimulated interest in Mexican art; his review will not be published due to "paper restrictions." 1 p

From Van Wyck Brooks, New York, N.Y., March 9, 1943: Has "rediscovered" New York by living in the city temporarily; "I am especially happy to have got to know some of the new young writers"; wants more news of Diego Rivera. 3 pp

From Robert Lebel, New York, N.Y., March 15, 1943: Agrees with Pach that the Metropolitan's La Victoire exhibit resembles a Paris Salon of 30 years ago with the addition of a few abstract pieces; an exhibition commemorating the 30th anniversary of the Armory Show is possible; saw one of Pach's paintings at the Art Students League; Pierre Matisse exhibited his father's work; Matta and Miro made Pierre Matisse's last show, "Art and the War," interesting; the Mexican Room at the Museum of Natural History is being reorganized; recommends Charles Sterling's Gazette des Beaux-Arts article on French primitives; asks if Pach has seen VVV, the review headed by André Breton; no longer wishes to be involved in art sales. 2 pp., in French

From Georges Wildenstein, Director, Gazette des Beaux-Arts, [filmed twice] New York, N.Y., March 26, 1943: Wants to publish Pach's article; hopes he will agree to some minor changes. 1 p., in French

From Lyman Bryson, Conference on Science, Philosophy and Religion, New York, N.Y., March 26, 1943: Requests comments on a paper by Professor William Scott, Randolph-Macon Women's College. 1 p. + 2 pp. enclosure ("Conference on Science, Philosophy and Religion, Reply to Questionnaire of December 7, 1942 by Walter Pach")

From Paul J. Sachs, Fogg Art Museum, Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass., April 8, 1943: Grenville L. Winthrop collection has been bequeathed to the Fogg Museum; wartime conditions have caused universities to curtail their art departments; "it is extremely important that able and understanding North Americans, such as yourself... should be our cultural ambassadors in Latin America"; suggests summer programs in the United States where Pach might teach; tells Pach to add his name to the speakers list maintained by the Coordinator of Inter-American Affairs. 2 pp

From William N. Eisendrath Jr., Chairman, Exhibition Committee, Arts Club of Chicago, Chicago, Ill., April 26, 1943: Requests assistance in selecting works for a Rivera retrospective planned for February 1944. 1 p. + 1 p. enclosure (list of works by Rivera, "suggested by Mrs. Goodspeed, April 26, 1943," with notes by Walter Pach)

From Annette B. Cottrell, Director, Speakers Service Section, Coordinator of Inter-American Affairs, Washington, D.C., April 28, 1943: Thanks Pach for his "interest in inter-American affairs and desire to collaborate with the work of this office as a speaker." 1 p

From Robert Chester Smith, Director, Hispanic Foundation, Library of Congress, Washington, D.C., April 30, 1943: Considers Pach "an historic figure, one of the first to call attention to the development of Mexican art"; this is not the right time for Pach's proposed publications and translations. 1 p

From Harry Miller Lydenberg, [place unknown], Mexico, May 8, 1943: Pach's "review of the Low study on the place of the Museum in our world today" is "admirable"; politically or economically motivated explanations of art will "fail"; he is less "pessimistic" than Pach on the role of public funding; public libraries are a good example. 2 pp

From Annette B. Cottrell, Director, Speakers Service Section, Coordinater of Inter-American Affairs, Washington, D.C., May 25, 1943: Pach will be included among the organization's available speakers. 1 p

From Van Wyck Brooks, Westport, Conn., May 28, 1943: El Hijo Prodigo and Cuadernos are "typographically delightful"; wishes he knew Spanish; would like to be able to contribute articles to Mexican periodicals; John Sloan is reported to be "very frail." 4 pp

From William N. Eisendrath Jr., Chairman, Exhibition Committee, Arts Club of Chicago, Chicago, Ill., June 4, 1943: Need to figure costs for Rivera exhibition before continuing negotiations for loans; Pach must supply further information. 1 p. + 2 pp. enclosure ("List of Rivera Paintings," June 3, 1943)

From Elias Lieberman, Associate Superintendent, Board of Education of the City of New York, Brooklyn, N.Y., June 7, 1943: Pach will be granted a "substitute license" to teach Spanish in the New York public schools. 1 p

From Raymond B. Humphrey, Director, Brown, Crosby & Co., Inc., New York, N.Y., June 18, 1943: Instructions for renewing war damage and fire insurance policies. 1 p

From James A. Porter, Washington, D.C., June 19, 1943: Thanks Pach for the "remarkable" introduction and subtitle suggestions for his book. 1 p.

to Maurice Block, Curator, Henry E. Huntington Art Gallery, San Marino, Calif., From Marjorie S. (Mrs. A.R.) Waybur, Kingsley Art Club, Sacramento, Calif.,June 20, 1943: Inquires about Pach's availability to lecture. 2 pp

From Ignacio Marquina, National Institute of Archaeology and History, Mexico City, Mexico., June 26, 1943: Gives Pach permission to export the 5 archaeological objects specified on the list attached. 1 p. + 1 p. enclosure (copy of form completed by Pach), in Spanish

From Frederick Lewis Allen, -- Harper's -- Magazine, New York, N.Y., August 27, 1943: Rejects 2 articles, "The Negro's Place" and "Your Ancestors of the Soil." 2 pp

From John Sloan, Santa Fe, N.Mex., August 31, 1943: Is recovering From surgery; feeling better, but still unable to travel. 1 p

From Charles A. Thompson, Department of State, Washington, D.C., September 7, 1943: Dr. Moe will contact Pach about writing a book, in Spanish, about "art resources of the United States." 1 p

From Ernst E. Clad, New York, N.Y., September 9, 1943: Outlines Pach's finances; advises specific investments. 3 pp. + 1 p. enclosure (copy of September 9, 1943 letter From Walter Pach to H.C. Wainwright & Co. authorizing sale of stocks)

From Laurence Duggan, Adviser on Political Relations, Department of State, Washington, D.C., September 17, 1943: Cannot assist with funding or promise to purchase his book; Dr. Moe is attempting to finance the project; "I think the preparation of the book would be a far more useful contribution to inter-American understanding than your acting as an unofficial Mexican cultural representative in the United States." 1 p

From René d'Harnoncourt, United States Department of the Interior, Indian Arts and Crafts Board, Washington, D.C., September 29, 1943: Read "Ancestors of the Soil" and was "impressed by the strength and depth of its argument"; "widest dissemination of this theme could be one of the strongest factors in building up Inter-American relations." 1 p

From Charles A. Thompson, Department of State, Washington, D.C. October 4, 1943: Is returning "Ancestors of the Soil"; "Mr. d'Harnoncourt expresses great interest." 1 p

From Eugenio de Anzorena, Secretary, Mexican Embassy, Washington, D.C., October 7, 1943: Brought Pach's letter to the attention of the minister; returns the enclosures. 1 p. + enclosures (letter, June 9, 1943, to Ezequiel Padella, Secretary of Exterior Relations, From Iñes Amor, Francesco Orozco Muñoz, Eduardo Villaseñor, Diego Rivera, José Clemente Orozco, Alfonso Noriega Jr., and Octavio G. Barreda, Mexico: endorses Pach as a representative of Mexican culture, 5 pp., in Spanish; and letter, June 28, 1943, to Iñes Amor, Francesco Orozco Muñoz, Eduardo Villaseñor, Diego Rivera, José Clemente Orozco, Alfonso Noriega Jr., and Octavio G. Barreda, From Ezequiel Padella, Mexico: recommendation of Pach, 1 p., in Spanish)

To Springmeier Shipping Co from J.O. Ellis, New York, N.Y., October 14, 1943: Notification of claim for items missing From shipment of Pach's possessions. 2 pp

From Houston Peterson, Head, Division of Social Philosophy, Cooper Union, New York, N.Y., October 15, 1943: Pach is "definitely on our list of favored speakers" for the second semester. 1 p. + enclosure (brochure for "Cooper Union Forum, first half 1943-1944")

From John Sloan, Santa Fe, N.Mex., December 30, 1943: Went out to his old house, "Sinagua," which reminds him of Dolly; still recuperating From surgery; needs to clean up his Chelsea studio; it is unlikely he can get to New York; read Pach's article on the "Eight"; the name was invented by an Evening Sun writer; "the 'chosen' of Robert Henri we were, not at all a mutual admiration group as I recall the time." 3 pp

From Art Young, New York, N.Y., [postmarked] December 30, 1943: New Year's greetings. Picture postcard ("28th Issue--Art Young's Annual Hello")

From Donald Carlisle Greason, Deerfield, Mass., April 8, 1944: The enclosed letter was sent in a "weak moment"; "is it not time you took up the mightier sword again; or have your ideas changed?" 1 p. + 1 p. enclosure (letter, April 6, 1944, to Hugo Gellert and Gentlemen of the [Exhibition and Competition] Committee, Artists for Victory, Inc., From Donald Carlisle Greason, Deerfield, Mass.: declines invitation to participate in the Artists for Victory exhibition; "I shyly deplore this undignified business of artists thumbing rides of the troop trains, of Patriotism for Publicity--and prizes!"; "did not Pach write the obituary of this [prizes] in his Ananias?")

From Henry Watson Kent, New York, N.Y., November 30, 1944: Hopes his notes on Pach's manuscript will be of use and interest. 1 p. + 7 pp. enclosure (notes, comments, and suggestions relating to Pach's manuscript)

From Ernst E. Clad, New York, N.Y., December 11, 1944: Information about Pach's 1944 taxes. 1 p. + enclosures (completed "Form for Computing Capital Gains and Losses," 1 p., and printed instructions, 5 pp.)

From George Ferdinand Of, [place unknown] Read both of Pach's articles and is returning one; "you must take me to see that charming Miss Roger's paintings."

From George Ferdinand Of, [place unknown], December 28, 1944: Read both of Pach's articles and is returning one; "you must take me to see that charming Miss Roger's paintings." Picture postcard ("'Chapeau de Faille' by Rubens")

From Donald Carlisle Greason, Deerfield, Mass., February 9, 1945: "I thought my annual letter of 'regrets' to the 'Artists for Defeat' might amuse you"; quotes remarks by Sinclair Lewis made when declining the Pulitzer Prize. 1 p

From Rufus E. Clement, Atlanta University, Atlanta, Ga., April 11, 1945: Sends photographs taken at the "art show"; mentions recent reviews of their exhibition. 1 p. + 2 photographs (Pach viewing the exhibition, and Pach speaking in the gallery)

From Viking Press, New York, N.Y., April 30, 1945: Royalty statement for Masters of Modern Art. 1 p

From Harper & Brothers Publishers, New York, N.Y., June 30, 1945: Royalty statement for Ingres and -- Queer Thing, Painting -- . 1 p

From Jacques Lipchitz, Paris, France, July 31, 1945: [Illegible due to show-through]. 2 pp., in French

From Bernard Berenson, Florence, Italy, November 29, 1945: May continue work begun several years earlier on "Aesthetics and History"; working on "Decline and Recovery in the Figure Arts"; when in "hiding" he kept a diary, which he may publish. 2 pp

From Fred M. Stein and Arthur Strasser, Trustees of the Schilling Fund, New York, N.Y., February 8, 1946: Thank Pach for his work on behalf of the Schilling Fund; offer him a salary to continue as an adviser. 1 p., with annotation by Pach (on reverse), February 10, 1946, draft letter of acceptance, 1 p

From Van Wyck Brooks, Westport, Conn., June 23, 1946: Eleanor's leg had to be amputated; they will move to an apartment in New York in October. 2 pp

From Van Wyck Brooks, Westport, Conn., August 26, 1946: "Eleanor's condition has taken a serious turn for the worse, and I fear it is only a question now of a very few weeks." 1 p

From Jacques Lipchitz, Paris, France, November 19, 1946: New York trip was postponed; describes a wonderful exhibit at Delacroix's studio; occasionally sees Jacques Villon, who has a painting in the Salon d'Automne. 2 pp., in French

From Bernard Berenson, Florence, Italy, January 10, 1947: Pach's son and daughter-in-law visited him; publishers are not interested in his diary; Aesthetics and History will have to go to a university press. 2 pp

From Irma L. Richter, New York, N.Y., March 27, 1947: Is returning Pach's copy of ABC on Painting by Severini; "I wonder whether you have tried to follow his advice regarding technique." 1 p

From James Daugherty, Westport, Conn. [postmarked, March April 22, 1947]: Saw Pach's exhibition at Laurel Gallery; "your work has grown simpler and broader and more unified." 1 p

From Octavio G. Barreda, [place unknown], Mexico, October 9, 1947: Thought of Pach when visiting galleries in Italy and Paris; Paris, Rome, and Florence seem to have recovered From the war, but it wasn't the same without the old faces; in both art and literature it is the end of an era; young artists and writers do not know their message; family news; will visit New York and Havana. 4 pp., in Spanish

From Kurt Wolff, Pantheon Books, New York, N.Y., November 5, 1947: Asks Pach to accept all changes made by the editor. 1 p

From Kurt Wolff, Pantheon Books, New York, N.Y., December 4, 1947: Needs to clarify certain points; Pach must bear the cost of retyping. 1 p

From Kurt Wolff, Pantheon Books, New York, N.Y., January 29, 1948: The final pages of his manuscript must be condensed. 1 p.

To Kurt Wolff From Walter Pach, New York, N.Y., January 30, 1948: They never discussed, nor did he authorize, changes to the final pages of his book. 1 p

From Henry Watson Kent, New York, N.Y., February 21, 1948: Remarks on Pach's complimentary statement about him. 1 p

From Margarita Nelkin, Paris, France, September 1, 1948: Has heard From Pach through letters to Mlle. Burchardt; thanks Pach for supporting Spanish Republicans; is going to Rome for the Congres Interparlementaire and then to Brussels and Amsterdam to give a conference on Mexican art; in November she will leave for Mexico. 1 p., in French

From George Ferdinand Of, New York, N.Y., September 5, 1948: Thanks Pach for bringing pictures of his collection and explaining it personally; Pach has "persuaded" him to paint again. 3 pp

From Francis Hackett, Bethel, Conn., November 8, 1948: Pach is one of the "Old Guard"; his book, -- American Rainbow -- , will include "a lot in it about John Quinn"; his wife recently published a volume on Swedenborg. 2 pp

From Van Wyck Brooks, Cornwell, Conn., December 2, 1948: Thanks for the inscribed copy of his "enchanting" new book; glad Pach met Francis Hackett. 3 pp

From Pantheon Books, Inc., New York, N.Y., February 1, 1949: Royalty statement. 1 p

From Pantheon Books, Inc., New York, N.Y., July 1, 1949: Royalty statement. 1 p

From Pantheon Books, Inc., New York, N.Y., August 1, 1949: Royalty statement for The Art Museum in America. 1 p

From Anne Chase (Mrs. Arthur White) Sullivan, Glen Head, N.Y., November 3, 1949: Pach's lecture was "just right as a preliminary to the exhibition"; her father would have approved. 2 pp

From Mary Socard, Paris, France, December 13, 1949: Pach's young friend is making good progress learning French; discusses the student's appreciation of art and philosophy. 4 pp., in French

From Jimmy Stern, New York, N.Y., December 23, 1949: Even with "favorable 'press'," his book has not sold well; is "discouraged"; appreciated Pach's note. 1 p

From Pantheon Books, Inc., New York, N.Y., February 1, 1950: Royalty statement. 1 p

From François Puaux, Acting Consul General of France, New York, N.Y., March 7, 1950: Congratulates Pach on being awarded the cross of Chevalier of the Legion of Honor "for the services you have always rendered to the French cause." 1 p

to John Collier From Walter Pach, New York, N.Y., March 11, 1950: Hopes Professor Collier will want the thoughts expressed in Pach's manuscript "given to a wider audience." 1 p., annotated with reply, May 30, 1950: "This has been good reading for me!"

From Meyer Schapiro, Columbia University, New York, N.Y., [postmarked] March 27, 1950: "Comments on the first draft of W. P., Renoir." 3 pp

to Meyer Schapiro From Walter Pach, New York, N.Y., March 27, 1950: Responses to "Comments on the first draft of W.P., Renoir." 4 pp. draft + 4 pp. final copy

From Charles E. Slatkin, Art Book Guild of America, Inc., New York, N.Y., March 28, 1950: Invites Pach to become a member of the Art Book Guild's Advisory Board. 1 p

From Charles E. Slatkin, Art Book Guild of America, Inc., New York, N.Y., April 17, 1950: Acknowledges Pach's acceptance of appointment to the Advisory Board. 1 p

From Atlantic Monthly Company, Boston, Mass., April 20, 1950: "Assignment of Copyright" to Atlantic Monthly Corporation of Pach's article, "Art Must Be Modern." 1 p

From W.G. Constable, Department of Paintings, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, Mass., May 30, 1950: Thanks Pach for assistance in securing the Portrait of Madame Villchelis for the museum; agrees that attribution to Gros is most likely; reports the death of Ned Holmes. 2 pp

From Mary Socard, Paris, France, June 20, 1950: The young student has left; he would have benefited From a longer stay but at least had an introduction to European culture; sympathizes with Pach's disappointment over having his prologue replaced by an analysis of painting construction. 3 pp., in French

From Pantheon Books, Inc., New York, N.Y., August 1, 1950: Royalty statement for -- The Art Museum in America -- . 2 pp

From Nanny (Mrs. Sigmund) Pollitzer, New York, N.Y., November 8, 1950: Sorry to learn of Magda's illness. 2 pp

From Nanny (Mrs. Sigmund) Pollitzer, New York, N.Y., November 11, 1950: Extends her sympathy; will try to attend the service. 2 pp

From Eufrosia A.W. Tucker, New York, N.Y., November 11, 1950: Sympathy on the death of Mrs. Pach. 2 pp

From Sarah d'Harnoncourt, New York, N.Y., November 13, 1950: Sympathy on the death of Mrs. Pach. 1 p

From Edith R. Abbot, New York, N.Y., November 13, 1950: Sympathy on the death of Mrs. Pach. 2 pp

From Fanny and Ralph Ellison, New York, N.Y., November 14, 1950: Sympathy on the death of Mrs. Pach. 1 p

From Robert L. Duffus, Westport, Conn., November 15, 1950: Sympathy on the death of Mrs. Pach. 1 p

From Roland Balay, New York, N.Y., November 20, 1950: Offers condolences on the death of Mrs. Pach. 1 p., in French

From Bernard Berenson, Florence, Italy, September 23, 1951: Congratulates Pach on his recent marriage. 2 pp

From Mutual Benefit Health and Accident Association, New York, N.Y., [postmarked] November 23, 1951: "Official Receipt for Premium Due." Postal card

From [signature illegible], Athens, Greece, December 24, 1951: Carouzos will select photographs of the subjects that interest Pach; wants to see photographs of Pach's latest paintings. 4 pp

From Jacques Lipchitz, New York, N.Y., January 12, 1952: Pach is right that endings offer new beginnings; predicts that Pach will resume work soon. 1 p., in French

From Rufino Tamayo, [place unknown], Mexico, January 22, 1952: Appreciates Pach's stimulating critique; expects to spend the next year on a mural for the Palace of Fine Arts; congratulates Pach on his marriage. 2 pp., in Spanish

From Bernard Berenson, Ischia, Italy, May 29, 1952: "My indignation over distorted, abstract, non-representational art is that it can lead nowhere." 2 pp

From George Ferdinand Of, [place unknown], June 19, 1952: The Schilling Fund award is an "honor" he wishes to decline without offending anyone. Picture postcard ("Cézanne. 'Urtiel des Paris'")

From U.S. Treasury Department, Internal Revenue Service, New York, N.Y., August 8, 1952: "Adjustment of tax liability" and audit for calendar year 1950. 1 p. + enclosures (1 p. "Statement of Income Tax Due," and 4 pp. report)

From Bernard Berenson, [place illegible], September 23, 1952: Agrees with most of Pach's letter to the New York Times; "feeling for art is of the few and understanding for even fewer." 2 pp

From André Masson, Aix-en-Provence, France, May 2, 1953: Was considering canceling his New York exhibit before receiving Pach's encouraging and kind letter; hopes they will meet. 1 p., in French

From Bernard Berenson, Florence, Italy, March 17, 1954: Comments on Pach's "poem to Greek art"; is working on a new edition of Italian Paintings; sends an article he wrote on Picasso. 2 pp

From George Ferdinand Of, Rome, Italy. Is in Rome; heading for Naples, [undated (prior to April 18, 1954)]: Picture postcard ("Roma-Foro Romano, veduto del Campidoglio")

From George Ferdinand Of, Padua, Italy, April 18, 1954: Saw Giottos; visited Ravenna, Naples, and Pompeii. Picture postcard ("Padova-Monumento al Generale Gattamelata")

From Bernard Berenson, Florence, Italy, April 25, 1954: He still does not accept the Metropolitan Museum's Madonna as an Antonello; "I remain an optimist" that culture will once again become "genial, creative and human." 2 pp

From Hendrik Willem van Loon, Riverside, Conn., [1955]: He is much better; they have a house near the water where friends are welcome. 1 p., in Dutch

From Bernard Berenson, Florence, Italy, April 21, 1955: "I agree with all you write about the present state of art appreciation"; read the book about Sloan by Van Wyck Brooks; not impressed by Sloan's work; wonders how much Pach influenced Brooks. 2 pp

From William Mills Ivins, Woodbury, Conn., July 17, 1955: Was disappointed to have missed a visit by Pach and Brooks; is living a solitary and quiet life. 2 pp

From Jacques Lipchitz, Beach Haven, N.J., August 7, 1955: After reading Pach's article, he wants to read the book; he no longer appreciates Maillol's sculpture; discusses Renoir's strong judgments of other artists; although Epstein has reached a dead end in Paris, he is a good artist. 3 pp., in French

From Jacques Lipchitz, Beach Haven, N.J., August 15, 1955: Thanks Pach for sending Epstein's book; considers Epstein a good portrait painter but not such a good sculptor; discusses his theory that Jews need to assert their identity. 1 p., in French

From Alfred Russell, Paris, France, September 27, 1955: Thanks Pach for the award; the modern Italian painters he once admired no longer interest him; he finds the sculptors a "revelation"; his exhibition drew "brutal and barbaric insults"; Paris is "the pivot of the universe." 2 pp

From Hendrik Willem van Loon, Riverside, Conn., October 17, [1955?]: "My sincere congratulations upon having finished these miles of paint." 1 p., with illustrated envelope (sailboats) + illustrated card (landscape with windmills)

From Carl Sandburg, Flat Rock, N.C., March 27, 1956: "Values" Pach's letter and plans to affix it to his copy of Faure's History of Art. 1 p

From Germain Seligman, New York, N.Y., April 15, 1957: Ingres's -- Study for the Iliad -- is in the permanent collection of the Art Gallery of Toronto. 1 p. + enclosures (2 pp. description of -- Study for the Iliad -- [Apotheosis of Homer], photograph of -- Study for the Iliad -- , and 2 pp. [photocopies] From Exposition Ingres catalog, 1921)

From Martin Baldwin, Director, Art Gallery of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, April 16, 1957: The gallery is conducting further research on Study for the Iliad; will share information when it becomes available. 1 p

From Lewis Mumford, Paris, France, April 27, 1957: Has reviewed his correspondence since 1920; Pach's letters are "real treasures" to be saved for historians; being in Paris made him recall Pach's "friendliness and hospitality in 1932"; has rediscovered Ingres now that his taste is mature. 2 pp

From Van Wyck Brooks, Bridgewater, Conn., January 4, 1958: Will study Howells' letters at the Harvard library; recommends novels by Howells. 2 pp

From Hans Christian, Rome, Italy, April 7, 1958: Is visiting Raymond and Ruth in Rome. Picture postcard ("Roma--Arco di Constantino"), in German
Collection Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment.

Use of archival audiovisual recordings with no duplicate access copy requires advance notice.
Collection Rights:
The Walter Pach papers are owned by the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Literary rights as possessed by the donor have been dedicated to public use for research, study, and scholarship. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Collection Citation:
Walter Pach papers, 1857-1980. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.pachwalt2, Series 2
See more items in:
Walter Pach papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aaa-pachwalt2-ref33

Elevators

Collection Creator::
United States National Museum. Superintendent of Construction for the United States National Museum Building  Search this
Container:
Oversize
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Record Unit 81, United States National Museum. Superintendent of Construction for the United States National Museum Building, Records
See more items in:
Records
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-sia-faru0081-refidd1e4476

Why Do We Eat Popcorn at the Movies?

Creator:
Smithsonian Magazine  Search this
Type:
Blog posts
Smithsonian staff publications
Blog posts
Published Date:
Thu, 03 Oct 2013 12:39:00 +0000
Topic:
Search this
See more post:
Smithsonian Article Database
Data Source:
Smithsonian Magazine
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:posts_3147f468256d89abc72b51571a6a936b

[Trade catalogs from W. A. Whitney Mfg. Co.]

Variant company name:
Since 1907  Search this
Company Name:
W. A. Whitney Mfg. Co.  Search this
Related companies:
Esterline Corp.  Search this
Notes content:
metalworking machines: hand-operated punches and shears ; Hydramic hydraulically powered presses and shears ; Hydramic Duplicator ; Coper-Notcher-Bender press ; portable beam straightenor ; precision gaging presses
Includes:
Trade catalog, price lists and manual
Black and white images
Physical description:
22 pieces; 1 box
Language:
English
Type of material:
Trade catalogs
Trade literature
Place:
Rockford, Illinois, United States
Date:
1900s
Topic (Romaine term):
Machine tools and metalworking equipment  Search this
Topic:
Machine-tools  Search this
Metal-working machinery  Search this
Record ID:
SILNMAHTL_28253
Location:
Trade Literature at the American History Museum Library
Collection:
Smithsonian Libraries Trade Literature Collections
Data source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:SILNMAHTL_28253

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