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Hughie Lee-Smith papers

Creator:
Lee-Smith, Hughie  Search this
Names:
Art Students League (New York, N.Y.) -- Faculty  Search this
Audubon Artists (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Ira Aldridge Society  Search this
National Academy of Design (U.S.)  Search this
Bearden, Romare, 1911-1988  Search this
Goreleigh, Rex, 1902-  Search this
Correspondent:
Carter, Clarence Holbrook, 1904-2000  Search this
Gammon, Reginald, 1921-2005  Search this
Hirsch, Joseph, 1910-1981  Search this
Wald, Carol  Search this
Wessel, Sophie  Search this
Woodruff, Hale, 1900-1980  Search this
Extent:
33.7 Linear feet
0.381 Gigabytes
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Gigabytes
Scrapbooks
Interviews
Photographs
Video recordings
Sound recordings
Drawings
Date:
circa 1890-2007
bulk 1931-1999
Summary:
The papers of painter and educator Hughie Lee-Smith measure 33.7 linear feet and 0.381 GB and date from circa 1890 to 2007, with the bulk of the material dating from 1931 to 1999. The collection documents Lee-Smith's career through biographical material, personal and professional correspondence, writings by Lee-Smith and others, personal business records, exhibition files, organization records, printed material, scrapbooks, photographs, a small amount of artwork, numerous interviews, and recordings for a documentary film on Lee-Smith. Also found are the papers of artist Rex Goreleigh, a friend of Lee-Smith.
Scope and Contents:
The papers of painter and educator Hughie Lee-Smith measure 33.7 linear feet and 0.381 GB and date from circa 1890 to 2007, with the bulk of the material dating from 1931 to 1999. The collection documents Lee-Smith's career through biographical material, personal and professional correspondence, writings by Lee-Smith and others, personal business records, exhibition files, organization records, printed material, scrapbooks, photographs, a small amount of artwork, numerous interviews, and recordings for a documentary film on Lee-Smith. Also found are the papers of artist Rex Goreleigh, a friend of Lee-Smith.

Biographical material includes records of Hughie Lee-Smith's schooling, military service, and awards, as well as resumes, bibliographies, and biographical summaries. Also found are family records, including the papers of his mother, Alice Carroll.

Lee-Smith's correspondence is with family, students, arts and cultural organizations, as well as schools, galleries, and museums, primarily regarding his participation in events and exhibitions. He also corresponded with fellow artists, such as Clarence Holbrook Carter, Reginald Gammon, Joseph Hirsch, Carol Wald, and Hale Woodruff, among many others. He maintained extensive correspondence with artist Sophie Wessel.

Lee-Smith's writings include artist statements and personal writings on his history and early influences, as well as many draft lectures and speeches, school writings, notes, and untitled writing fragments. Writings by others primarily include student essays and articles on the topic of Lee-Smith's work. Personal business records include scattered financial documents, including artwork sales records, and contracts and agreements with various art galleries and other organizations. Also found are files regarding his art commissions, gifts, professional activities, and records of his employment at the Art Students League. Exhibition files document select exhibitions in which Hughie Lee-Smith participated, primarily during the 1980s and 1990s. Organization records were maintained by Lee-Smith to document his participation in various groups, such as the National Academy of Design, Ira Aldridge Society, and Audubon Artists.

Printed material consists primarily of exhibition announcements and invitations for exhibitions of Lee-Smith's work, as well as news clippings, magazines, press releases, and publications from various art organizations and schools. One scrapbook contains exhibition announcements additional loose scrapbook pages document his early career. Photographs include many portraits of Hughie Lee-Smith, Lee-Smith in his studio, at events, and with friends and family. Additionally there are many photographs, slides, and transparencies of Lee-Smith's artwork. Also found are five photograph albums. A small amount of original artwork includes drawings by Lee-Smith and two sketchbooks belonging to his wife Patricia.

The collection includes numerous interviews of Hughie Lee-Smith, recorded on 37 sound cassettes, one sound tape reel, and four video cassettes. One audio interview is in digital format. Also found are planning documents, research material, and video footage for a documentary about the life and work of Hughie Lee-Smith, produced by New Deal Films, Inc, but never completed. Footage includes interviews with artists and art historians regarding Lee-Smith, gallery events, and images of his paintings.

The papers of artist Rex Goreleigh primarily documents his later life and includes a letters, biographical documents, printed material, estate records, and photographs and slides depicting Goreleigh, his studio, and artwork. Hughie Lee-Smith was close friends with Goreleigh and served as executor of his estate.

Also of note is a scrapbook put together for Goreleigh's 70th birthday in 1972. Of note is one scrapbook which contains photographs, notes, and artwork by fellow artists and students, including drawings by Romare Bearden and Hughie Lee-Smith.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged as 13 series.

Series 1: Biographical Material, circa 1890-2001 (1.7 linear feet; Box 1-2, 35, RD 38)

Series 2: Correspondence, 1931-2006 (6.1 linear feet; Box 2-8, 0.006 GB; ER01)

Series 3: Writings, circa 1934-1998 (0.8 linear feet; Box 8-9)

Series 4: Personal Business Records, 1934-2001 (1.6 linear feet; Box 9-11, 35)

Series 5: Exhibition Files, circa 1973-2001 (1.2 linear feet; Box 11-12)

Series 6: Organization Records, 1941-2005 (2.1 linear feet; Box 12-14)

Series 7: Printed Material, 1919, 1930-2007 (8.5 linear feet; Box 14-22, 34)

Series 8: Scrapbooks, circa 1938-1990s (0.2 linear feet; Box 22, 35)

Series 9: Photographs, circa 1890-2003 (4.4 linear feet; Box 22-26, 35, OV 37)

Series 10: Artwork, circa 1940s-1980s (0.2 linear feet; Box 26)

Series 11: Interviews, 1973-1998 (2.1 linear feet; Box 26-28, 0.375 GB; ER02)

Series 12: Documentary Film Materials, 1985-2004 (3.5 linear feet; Box 28-32)

Series 13: Rex Goreleigh Papers, 1935-1994 (0.9 linear feet; 32-33, 36)
Biographical / Historical:
Hughie Lee-Smith (1915-1999) was a painter and educator in Ohio, Michigan, and New York. Born in Eustis, Florida, he lived for a period of time with family in Atlanta before joining his mother in Cleveland, Ohio, in 1925. In 1934 he received a scholarship to attend the Art School of the Detroit Society of Arts and Crafts, and in 1935 returned to Cleveland to attend the Cleveland School of Art. While in school he began exhibiting his paintings and teaching part-time at Karamu House. From 1938 to 1940 Lee-Smith completed lithography commissions for the Ohio WPA. In 1941 he moved to Detroit, married his first wife Mabel Louise Everett, and worked at a Ford automobile factory. He was then drafted into the U.S. Navy as a mural artist. After the war he briefly returned to factory work before enrolling at Wayne State University, earning a degree in Art Education in 1953. From 1953 to 1965 he taught summer art classes at the Grosse-Point War Memorial in Detroit.

In 1957 Lee-Smith moved to the East Village in New York City, signed with the Janet Nassler Gallery (Petite Gallery), exhibited his work extensively, and joined several art organizations. He also taught art at schools in Princeton, New Jersey. In 1967 he became the second African-American member of the National Academy of Design. He was visiting instructor and artist-in-residence at several art programs, including Howard University, and taught at the Art Students League from 1972 to 1988. In 1978 he married his third wife, Patricia. The New Jersey State Museum organized an extensive retrospective of Lee-Smith's work in 1988 which travelled nationally. Despite ill-health in the mid-1990s, he continued to create new paintings and exhibit his work. In 1997 he moved with his wife to Albuquerque, New Mexico, where he lived until his death in 1999.
Related Materials:
Also found at the Archives of American Art is an oral history interview with Hughie Lee-Smith conducted by Carroll Greene in 1968.
Provenance:
A small amount of material was donated 1969-1981 by Hughie Lee-Smith. Additional papers were donated in 2011 by Patricia Lee-Smith, widow of Hughie Lee-Smith.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment. Use of archival audiovisual recordings with no duplicate access copy requires advance notice.
Rights:
The Hughie Lee-Smith papers are owned by the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Literary rights as possessed by the donor have been dedicated to public use for research, study, and scholarship. The collection is subject to all copyright laws. Authorization to publish requires written permission from Robert Panzer, VAGA.
Occupation:
Painters -- Michigan -- Detroit  Search this
Painters -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Painters -- Ohio -- Cleveland  Search this
Educators -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Educators -- Michigan -- Detroit  Search this
Topic:
Artists' studios -- Photographs  Search this
African American artists  Search this
Genre/Form:
Scrapbooks
Interviews
Photographs
Video recordings
Sound recordings
Drawings
Citation:
Hughie Lee-Smith papers, circa 1890-2007, bulk 1931-1999. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.leeshugh
See more items in:
Hughie Lee-Smith papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-leeshugh

Strong Women/Strong Nations 5: Panel 1, Trail Blazers

Creator:
National Museum of the American Indian  Search this
Type:
Youtube videos
Uploaded:
2016-03-25T16:26:44.000Z
Topic:
Native Americans;American Indians  Search this
Youtube Category:
Education  Search this
See more by:
SmithsonianNMAI
YouTube Channel:
SmithsonianNMAI
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt_DQo-lop0NJ4

Oral history interview with Siegfried G. Reinhardt, 1976 May 22-June 26

Interviewee:
Reinhardt, Siegfried Gerhard, 1925-1984  Search this
Interviewer:
Gaugert, Richard  Search this
Subject:
Frei, Emil, Jr.  Search this
Type:
Sound recordings
Interviews
Topic:
Designers  Search this
Decorative arts  Search this
Painters  Search this
Muralists  Search this
Glass painting and staining  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)12854
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)214256
AAA_collcode_reinha76
Theme:
Craft
Architecture & Design
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_oh_214256

Jacques Seligmann & Co. records, 1904-1978, bulk 1913-1974

Creator:
Jacques Seligmann & Co.  Search this
Subject:
Waegen, Rolf Hans  Search this
Glaenzer, Eugene  Search this
de Hauke, César  Search this
Seligmann, Jacques  Search this
Seligmann, René  Search this
Parker, Theresa D.  Search this
Mackay, Clarence Hungerford  Search this
Liechtenstein, House of  Search this
Schiff, Mortimer L.  Search this
Haardt, Georges  Search this
La Fresnaye, Roger de  Search this
Seligman, Germain  Search this
Arenberg  Search this
Seligmann, Arnold  Search this
Trevor, Clyfford  Search this
MM. Jacques Seligmann & fils  Search this
Eugene Glaenzer & Co  Search this
Gersel  Search this
Germain Seligmann & Co  Search this
De Hauke & Co., Inc  Search this
Topic:
Art  Search this
World War, 1939-1945  Search this
Art, European  Search this
Decorative arts  Search this
Art treasures in war  Search this
Art galleries, Commercial  Search this
Art, Renaissance  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)9936
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)212486
AAA_collcode_jacqself
Theme:
The Art Market
Art Gallery Records
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_212486
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  • View Jacques Seligmann & Co. records, 1904-1978, bulk 1913-1974 digital asset number 9
  • View Jacques Seligmann & Co. records, 1904-1978, bulk 1913-1974 digital asset number 10
Online Media:

Truman Capote's Shoe

Artist:
Andy Warhol, 6 Aug 1928 - 22 Feb 1987  Search this
Associated Person:
Truman Capote, 30 Sep 1924 - 26 Aug 1984  Search this
Medium:
Gold leaf and ink on paper
Dimensions:
Sight: 38.1 x 49.8cm (15 x 19 5/8")
Sheet: 40.6 x 52.1cm (16 x 20 1/2")
Frame: 50.2 x 61 x 2.5cm (19 3/4 x 24 x 1")
Type:
Collage
Date:
c. 1957
Topic:
Costume\Footwear\Shoes  Search this
Portrait  Search this
Credit Line:
Owner: Edward De Luca
Object number:
EXH.HS.181
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
Copyright:
© 2010 The Andy Warhol Foundation for the Visual Arts, Inc./ Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York
See more items in:
Catalog of American Portraits
Data Source:
Catalog of American Portraits
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sm419e98c88-62c9-42b3-8e8a-395e0cd0c8fb
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:npg_EXH.HS.181

Thomas Ash II

Artist:
Thomas Sully, 19 Jun 1783 - 5 Nov 1872  Search this
Sitter:
Thomas Ash II, 1785 - after 1824  Search this
Medium:
Oil on canvas
Dimensions:
Stretcher: 66.4 x 56.2cm (26 1/8 x 22 1/8")
Frame: 85.1 x 74.3 x 8.9cm (33 1/2 x 29 1/4 x 3 1/2")
Type:
Painting
Date:
1807
Topic:
Thomas Ash II: Male  Search this
Thomas Ash II: Crafts and Trades\Craftsman\Furniture maker\Cabinetmaker  Search this
Portrait  Search this
Credit Line:
National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution; partial gift of the Fund in Honor of Barbara Novak
Object number:
NPG.2008.4
Restrictions & Rights:
CC0
See more items in:
National Portrait Gallery Collection
Exhibition:
American Origins
On View:
NPG, East Gallery 142
Data Source:
National Portrait Gallery
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sm4b673a274-6f03-4aa7-a0e0-d17fad757ab6
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:npg_NPG.2008.4

Lucille Ball

Artist:
Philippe Halsman, 1906 - 1979  Search this
Sitter:
Lucille Ball, 6 Aug 1911 - 26 Apr 1989  Search this
Medium:
Gelatin silver print on paper
Dimensions:
Image: 34.7 x 27cm (13 11/16 x 10 5/8")
Sheet: 34.7 x 27cm (13 11/16 x 10 5/8")
Mat: 71.1 x 55.9cm (28 x 22")
Type:
Photograph
Date:
1950
Topic:
Costume\Jewelry  Search this
Costume\Jewelry\Necklace  Search this
Costume\Jewelry\Earring  Search this
Interior\Studio\Photography  Search this
Lucille Ball: Female  Search this
Lucille Ball: Performing Arts\Performer\Actor\Movie  Search this
Lucille Ball: Performing Arts\Performer\Comedian  Search this
Lucille Ball: Performing Arts\Performer\Actor\Television  Search this
Lucille Ball: Performing Arts\Producer\Television  Search this
Lucille Ball: Presidential Medal of Freedom  Search this
Lucille Ball: Business and Finance\Businessperson\Television industry leader  Search this
Portrait  Search this
Credit Line:
National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution
Object number:
NPG.2004.39
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
Copyright:
© Philippe Halsman Archive Images of Lucille Ball are used with the permission of Desilu, too, LLC. Licensing by Unforgettable Licensing, a division of Unforgettable Enterprises, Inc.
See more items in:
National Portrait Gallery Collection
Data Source:
National Portrait Gallery
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sm4866cb83f-fdf0-41d9-99b1-744bb954457b
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:npg_NPG.2004.39

Jessye Norman

Artist:
Irving Penn, 16 Jun 1917 - 7 Oct 2009  Search this
Sitter:
Jessye Norman, 15 Sep 1945 -30 Sep 2019  Search this
Medium:
Platinum-palladium print
Dimensions:
Image: 49.2 × 48.2 cm (19 3/8 × 19")
Sheet/Mount: 63.5 × 56 cm (25 × 22 1/16")
Mat: 91.5 × 66.1 cm (36 × 26")
Type:
Photograph
Place:
United States\New York\Kings\New York
Date:
May 20, 1983 (printed 1985)
Topic:
Interior  Search this
Jessye Norman: Female  Search this
Jessye Norman: Performing Arts\Performer\Musician\Singer\Opera  Search this
Jessye Norman: Performing Arts\Performer\Musician\Singer\Soprano  Search this
Portrait  Search this
Credit Line:
National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution; gift of Irving Penn
Object number:
NPG.88.70.39
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
Copyright:
© 1983 The Conde Nast Publications Inc.
See more items in:
National Portrait Gallery Collection
Data Source:
National Portrait Gallery
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sm40923f6b1-af1f-416e-b5bc-7eaf24f964a7
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:npg_NPG.88.70.39

Radio Talent

Artist:
Miguel Covarrubias, 22 Nov 1904 - 4 Feb 1957  Search this
Copy after:
Fortune, founded 1930  Search this
Sitter:
Fred Allen, 31 May 1894 - 17 Mar 1956  Search this
Gracie Allen, 1906 - 1964  Search this
Don Ameche, 31 May 1908 - 6 Dec 1993  Search this
Kenny Baker, 1912 - 1985  Search this
Phil Baker, 1898 - 1963  Search this
Jack Benny, 14 Feb 1894 - 26 Dec 1974  Search this
Edgar Bergen, 16 Feb 1903 - 30 Sep 1978  Search this
Edward Bowes, 14 Jun 1874 - 14 Jun 1946  Search this
Fanny Brice, 29 Oct 1891 - 29 May 1951  Search this
Bob Burns, 1890 - 1956  Search this
George Burns, 20 Jan 1896 - 9 Mar 1996  Search this
Charles Butterworth, 1896 - 1946  Search this
Cab Calloway, 25 Dec 1907 - 18 Nov 1994  Search this
Eddie Cantor, Sept 1892 - 10 Oct 1964  Search this
Boake Carter, 1898 - 1944  Search this
Bing Crosby, 3 May 1903 - 14 Oct 1977  Search this
Milton J. Cross, 1897 - 1975  Search this
Jessica Dragonette, 1910? - 1980  Search this
Deanna Durbin, 4 Dec 1921 - Apr 2013  Search this
Nelson Eddy, 29 Jun 1901 - 6 Mar 1967  Search this
Jimmy Fidler, 24 Aug 1900 - 9 Aug 1988  Search this
William Claude Fields, 29 Jan 1880 - 25 Dec 1946  Search this
Benny Goodman, 30 May 1909 - 13 Jun 1986  Search this
Edwin C. Hill, 1884 - 1957  Search this
Ted Husing, 1901 - 1962  Search this
Al Jolson, 26 May 1886 - 23 Oct 1950  Search this
Hugh Samuel Johnson, 5 Aug 1882 - 15 Apr 1942  Search this
Andre Kostelanetz, 1901 - 1980  Search this
Frances Newbern Langford, 6 Apr 1913 - 11 Jul 2005  Search this
Beatrice Lillie, 29 May 1894 - 20 Jan 1989  Search this
Mary Livingston, 20th Century  Search this
Guy Lombardo, 1902 - 1977  Search this
Lily Pons, 12 Apr 1898 - 13 Feb 1976  Search this
Jeannette MacDonald, 1901 - 1965  Search this
Graham Mcnamee, 1888 - 1942  Search this
Jack Oakie, 1903 - 1978  Search this
Walter O'Keefe, 1900 - 1983  Search this
Al Pearce, 1899 - 1961  Search this
Joe Penner, 1904 - 1941  Search this
Dick Powell, 1904 - 1963  Search this
Tyrone Power, 5 May 1914 - 15 Nov 1958  Search this
Martha Raye, 27 Aug 1916 - 19 Aug 1994  Search this
Robert L. Ripley, 1893 - 1949  Search this
Edward G. Robinson, 12 Dec 1893 - 26 Jan 1973  Search this
Franklin Delano Roosevelt, 30 Jan 1882 - 12 Apr 1945  Search this
Lancelot Patrick Ross, 1906 - 1988  Search this
Kate Smith, 1 May 1907 - 17 Jun 1986  Search this
Leopold Stokowski, 18 Apr 1882 - 13 Sep 1977  Search this
Robert Taylor, 1911 - 1969  Search this
John Charles Thomas, 1891 - 1960  Search this
Lowell Jackson Thomas, 6 Apr 1892 - Aug 1981  Search this
Lawrence Mervil Tibbett, 16 Nov 1896 - 15 Jul 1960  Search this
Arturo Toscanini, 25 Mar 1867 - 16 Jan 1957  Search this
Rudy Vallee, 28 Jul 1901 - 3 Jul 1986  Search this
Alfred Wallenstein, 1898 - ?  Search this
Paul Whiteman, 28 Mar 1891 - 29 Dec 1967  Search this
Don Wilson, 1900 - 1982  Search this
Walter Winchell, 7 Apr 1897 - 20 Feb 1972  Search this
Alexander Humphreys Woollcott, 19 Jan 1887 - 23 Jan 1943  Search this
Ed Wynn, 9 Nov 1886 - 19 Jun 1966  Search this
James Edward Jordan, 16 Nov 1896 - 1 Apr 1988  Search this
Marian Jordan, 1898 - 1961  Search this
Freeman Fisher Gosden, 5 May 1899 - 10 Dec 1982  Search this
Charles Corell, 1890 - 1986  Search this
Medium:
Watercolor on illustration board
Dimensions:
Image: 37.5 × 59.5 cm (14 3/4 × 23 7/16")
Sheet: 40 × 61.5 cm (15 3/4 × 24 3/16")
Mat (Verified): 56 × 80.1 cm (22 1/16 × 31 9/16")
Type:
Drawing
Date:
1938
Topic:
Nature & Environment\Clouds  Search this
Equipment\Smoking Implements\Cigar  Search this
Exterior\Sky  Search this
Equipment\Sound Devices\Microphone  Search this
Costume\Headgear\Hat\Top hat  Search this
Costume\Dress Accessory\Eyeglasses\Monocle  Search this
Costume\Headgear\Helmet\Fire hat  Search this
Symbols & Motifs\Hourglass  Search this
Jack Benny: Male  Search this
Jack Benny: Performing Arts\Performer\Comedian  Search this
Eddie Cantor: Male  Search this
Eddie Cantor: Performing Arts\Performer\Actor  Search this
Eddie Cantor: Performing Arts\Performer\Comedian  Search this
Eddie Cantor: Literature\Writer\Screenwriter  Search this
Eddie Cantor: Oscar  Search this
Lawrence Mervil Tibbett: Male  Search this
Lawrence Mervil Tibbett: Performing Arts\Performer\Actor\Theater  Search this
Lawrence Mervil Tibbett: Performing Arts\Performer\Musician\Singer\Opera  Search this
Lawrence Mervil Tibbett: Performing Arts\Performer\Musician\Singer\Baritone  Search this
Alexander Humphreys Woollcott: Male  Search this
Alexander Humphreys Woollcott: Literature\Writer  Search this
Alexander Humphreys Woollcott: Communications\Journalist  Search this
Alexander Humphreys Woollcott: Performing Arts\Performer\Entertainer\Radio  Search this
Alexander Humphreys Woollcott: Literature\Writer\Essayist  Search this
Alexander Humphreys Woollcott: Humanities and Social Sciences\Critic\Theater  Search this
Alexander Humphreys Woollcott: Humanities and Social Sciences\Critic\Cultural  Search this
Rudy Vallee: Male  Search this
Rudy Vallee: Performing Arts\Performer\Actor  Search this
Rudy Vallee: Performing Arts\Performer\Musician\Singer  Search this
Rudy Vallee: Performing Arts\Performer\Musician\Horn\Saxophonist  Search this
Bing Crosby: Male  Search this
Bing Crosby: Performing Arts\Performer\Musician\Songwriter  Search this
Bing Crosby: Performing Arts\Performer\Actor\Movie  Search this
Bing Crosby: Performing Arts\Performer\Musician\Singer\Popular  Search this
Bing Crosby: Sports and Recreation\Athlete\Golf  Search this
Paul Whiteman: Male  Search this
Paul Whiteman: Performing Arts\Performer\Musician\Conductor  Search this
Paul Whiteman: Performing Arts\Performer\Showman  Search this
Paul Whiteman: Performing Arts\Performer\Musician\Jazz  Search this
Jeannette MacDonald: Female  Search this
Jeannette MacDonald: Performing Arts\Performer\Musician\Singer  Search this
Jeannette MacDonald: Performing Arts\Performer\Actor\Movie  Search this
Benny Goodman: Male  Search this
Benny Goodman: Performing Arts\Performer\Musician\Composer  Search this
Benny Goodman: Performing Arts\Performer\Actor\Theater  Search this
Benny Goodman: Performing Arts\Performer\Actor\Movie  Search this
Benny Goodman: Performing Arts\Performer\Musician\Jazz  Search this
Benny Goodman: Performing Arts\Performer\Musician\Clarinet  Search this
Benny Goodman: Performing Arts\Performer\Musician\Bandmaster  Search this
Walter Winchell: Male  Search this
Walter Winchell: Communications\Journalist  Search this
Walter Winchell: Communications\Journalist\Columnist  Search this
Walter Winchell: Performing Arts\Performer\Television Personality  Search this
Walter Winchell: Communications\Broadcast Journalist\Radio  Search this
Kate Smith: Female  Search this
Kate Smith: Performing Arts\Performer\Musician\Singer  Search this
Kate Smith: Performing Arts\Performer\Vaudeville  Search this
Kate Smith: Performing Arts\Performer\Actor\Television  Search this
Kate Smith: Presidential Medal of Freedom  Search this
Tyrone Power: Male  Search this
Tyrone Power: Performing Arts\Performer\Actor\Theater  Search this
Tyrone Power: Performing Arts\Performer\Actor\Movie  Search this
Tyrone Power: Military\Marine Corps\Officer\Pilot  Search this
Don Ameche: Male  Search this
Don Ameche: Performing Arts\Performer\Actor  Search this
Don Ameche: Oscar  Search this
Kenny Baker: Male  Search this
Kenny Baker: Performing Arts\Performer\Musician\Singer  Search this
Phil Baker: Male  Search this
Edward Bowes: Male  Search this
Edward Bowes: Business and Finance\Businessperson\Executive  Search this
Edward Bowes: Performing Arts\Performer\Entertainer\Radio  Search this
Edward Bowes: Performing Arts\Theater Manager  Search this
Fanny Brice: Female  Search this
Fanny Brice: Performing Arts\Performer\Actor\Theater  Search this
Fanny Brice: Performing Arts\Performer\Musician\Singer  Search this
Fanny Brice: Performing Arts\Performer\Actor\Movie  Search this
Fanny Brice: Performing Arts\Performer\Comedian  Search this
Bob Burns: Male  Search this
Charles Butterworth: Male  Search this
Cab Calloway: Male  Search this
Cab Calloway: Literature\Writer  Search this
Cab Calloway: Performing Arts\Performer\Musician  Search this
Cab Calloway: Performing Arts\Performer\Musician\Songwriter  Search this
Cab Calloway: Performing Arts\Performer\Dancer  Search this
Cab Calloway: Performing Arts\Performer\Musician\Singer\Jazz  Search this
Boake Carter: Undetermined  Search this
Milton J. Cross: Male  Search this
Milton J. Cross: Performing Arts\Performer\Musician\Singer\Tenor  Search this
Milton J. Cross: Performing Arts\Performer\Entertainer\Radio\Announcer  Search this
Jessica Dragonette: Female  Search this
Deanna Durbin: Female  Search this
Deanna Durbin: Performing Arts\Performer\Actor\Movie  Search this
Deanna Durbin: Performing Arts\Performer\Entertainer\Radio  Search this
Deanna Durbin: Performing Arts\Performer\Musician\Singer\Soprano  Search this
Nelson Eddy: Male  Search this
Nelson Eddy: Performing Arts\Performer\Musician\Singer  Search this
Nelson Eddy: Performing Arts\Performer\Actor\Movie  Search this
Jimmy Fidler: Male  Search this
Jimmy Fidler: Communications\Journalist\Columnist  Search this
Jimmy Fidler: Performing Arts\Performer\Television Personality  Search this
Jimmy Fidler: Performing Arts\Performer\Entertainer\Radio  Search this
Edwin C. Hill: Male  Search this
Ted Husing: Male  Search this
Frances Newbern Langford: Female  Search this
Frances Newbern Langford: Performing Arts\Performer\Actor  Search this
Frances Newbern Langford: Performing Arts\Performer\Musician\Singer  Search this
Frances Newbern Langford: Performing Arts\Performer\Entertainer\Radio  Search this
Beatrice Lillie: Female  Search this
Beatrice Lillie: Performing Arts\Performer\Actor\Theater  Search this
Beatrice Lillie: Performing Arts\Performer\Actor\Movie  Search this
Beatrice Lillie: Performing Arts\Performer\Comedian  Search this
Beatrice Lillie: Performing Arts\Performer\Entertainer\Radio  Search this
Beatrice Lillie: Performing Arts\Performer\Vaudeville  Search this
Mary Livingston: Female  Search this
Guy Lombardo: Male  Search this
Graham Mcnamee: Male  Search this
Jack Oakie: Male  Search this
Jack Oakie: Performing Arts\Performer\Actor  Search this
Walter O'Keefe: Male  Search this
Al Pearce: Male  Search this
Joe Penner: Male  Search this
Dick Powell: Male  Search this
Martha Raye: Female  Search this
Martha Raye: Performing Arts\Performer\Actor\Theater  Search this
Martha Raye: Performing Arts\Performer\Musician\Singer  Search this
Martha Raye: Performing Arts\Performer\Actor\Movie  Search this
Martha Raye: Performing Arts\Performer\Comedian  Search this
Martha Raye: Performing Arts\Performer\Entertainer  Search this
Martha Raye: Oscar  Search this
Martha Raye: Presidential Medal of Freedom  Search this
Robert L. Ripley: Male  Search this
Edward G. Robinson: Male  Search this
Edward G. Robinson: Performing Arts\Performer\Actor\Movie  Search this
Edward G. Robinson: Oscar  Search this
Lancelot Patrick Ross: Male  Search this
Lancelot Patrick Ross: Performing Arts\Performer\Musician\Songwriter  Search this
Lancelot Patrick Ross: Performing Arts\Performer\Musician\Singer  Search this
Lancelot Patrick Ross: Performing Arts\Performer\Vaudeville  Search this
Lancelot Patrick Ross: Performing Arts\Performer\Musician\Pianist  Search this
Lancelot Patrick Ross: Military\Army\Officer\Major  Search this
Robert Taylor: Male  Search this
Robert Taylor: Performing Arts\Performer\Actor  Search this
John Charles Thomas: Male  Search this
Lowell Jackson Thomas: Male  Search this
Lowell Jackson Thomas: Literature\Writer\Novelist  Search this
Lowell Jackson Thomas: Performing Arts\Performer\Television Personality  Search this
Lowell Jackson Thomas: Sports and Recreation\Traveler  Search this
Lowell Jackson Thomas: Communications\Broadcast Journalist  Search this
Lowell Jackson Thomas: Presidential Medal of Freedom  Search this
Alfred Wallenstein: Male  Search this
Don Wilson: Male  Search this
James Edward Jordan: Male  Search this
James Edward Jordan: Performing Arts\Performer\Entertainer\Radio  Search this
Marian Jordan: Female  Search this
Marian Jordan: Performing Arts\Performer\Entertainer\Radio  Search this
Freeman Fisher Gosden: Male  Search this
Freeman Fisher Gosden: Performing Arts\Performer\Comedian  Search this
Freeman Fisher Gosden: Performing Arts\Performer\Entertainer\Radio  Search this
Charles Corell: Male  Search this
Arturo Toscanini: Male  Search this
Arturo Toscanini: Performing Arts\Performer\Musician\Conductor  Search this
Edgar Bergen: Male  Search this
Edgar Bergen: Performing Arts\Performer\Actor\Theater  Search this
Edgar Bergen: Performing Arts\Performer\Actor\Movie  Search this
Edgar Bergen: Literature\Writer\Screenwriter  Search this
Edgar Bergen: Performing Arts\Performer\Actor\Television  Search this
Edgar Bergen: Performing Arts\Performer\Entertainer\Ventriloquist  Search this
Edgar Bergen: Oscar  Search this
Lily Pons: Female  Search this
Lily Pons: Performing Arts\Performer\Musician\Singer\Opera  Search this
Gracie Allen: Female  Search this
Gracie Allen: Performing Arts\Performer\Comedian  Search this
Gracie Allen: Performing Arts\Performer\Actor\Television  Search this
George Burns: Male  Search this
George Burns: Performing Arts\Performer\Actor\Movie  Search this
George Burns: Performing Arts\Performer\Comedian  Search this
George Burns: Performing Arts\Performer\Vaudeville  Search this
George Burns: Performing Arts\Performer\Actor\Television  Search this
George Burns: Oscar  Search this
Ed Wynn: Male  Search this
Ed Wynn: Performing Arts\Performer\Actor\Theater  Search this
Ed Wynn: Performing Arts\Performer\Actor\Movie  Search this
Ed Wynn: Performing Arts\Performer\Comedian  Search this
Ed Wynn: Performing Arts\Performer\Television Personality  Search this
Ed Wynn: Performing Arts\Performer\Entertainer\Radio  Search this
Hugh Samuel Johnson: Male  Search this
Hugh Samuel Johnson: Politics and Government\Public Official  Search this
Hugh Samuel Johnson: Military\Army\Officer\General  Search this
Franklin Delano Roosevelt: Male  Search this
Franklin Delano Roosevelt: Law and Law Enforcement\Lawyer  Search this
Franklin Delano Roosevelt: Politics and Government\Governor\New York  Search this
Franklin Delano Roosevelt: Politics and Government\President of US  Search this
Franklin Delano Roosevelt: Politics and Government\State Senator\New York  Search this
Franklin Delano Roosevelt: Politics and Government\Vice-Presidential Candidate  Search this
Andre Kostelanetz: Male  Search this
Leopold Stokowski: Male  Search this
Leopold Stokowski: Performing Arts\Performer\Musician\Composer  Search this
Leopold Stokowski: Performing Arts\Performer\Musician\Conductor  Search this
Fred Allen: Male  Search this
Fred Allen: Performing Arts\Performer\Comedian  Search this
Fred Allen: Communications\Journalist\Humorist  Search this
Al Jolson: Male  Search this
Al Jolson: Performing Arts\Performer\Actor\Theater  Search this
Al Jolson: Performing Arts\Performer\Musician\Singer  Search this
Al Jolson: Performing Arts\Performer\Actor\Movie  Search this
William Claude Fields: Male  Search this
William Claude Fields: Performing Arts\Performer\Actor\Theater  Search this
William Claude Fields: Performing Arts\Performer\Actor\Movie  Search this
William Claude Fields: Performing Arts\Performer\Comedian  Search this
William Claude Fields: Performing Arts\Performer\Entertainer\Radio  Search this
Portrait  Search this
Credit Line:
National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution
Object number:
NPG.86.34
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
Copyright:
© Time Inc.
See more items in:
National Portrait Gallery Collection
Data Source:
National Portrait Gallery
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sm4478b6d4e-aab3-4d78-aa21-a0fc23cfa6e3
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:npg_NPG.86.34

Richard Nixon

Artist:
Norman Rockwell, 3 Feb 1894 - 8 Nov 1978  Search this
Sitter:
Richard Milhous Nixon, 9 Jan 1913 - 22 Apr 1994  Search this
Medium:
Oil on canvas
Dimensions:
Stretcher: 46.4 × 66.7cm (18 1/4 × 26 1/4")
Frame (Verified): 52.4 x 72.4 x 5.7cm (20 5/8 x 28 1/2 x 2 1/4")
Type:
Painting
Date:
1968
Topic:
Home Furnishings\Furniture\Seating\Chair  Search this
Costume\Dress Accessory\Tie\Necktie  Search this
Costume\Jewelry\Watch\Wrist watch  Search this
Richard Milhous Nixon: Male  Search this
Richard Milhous Nixon: Law and Law Enforcement\Lawyer  Search this
Richard Milhous Nixon: Literature\Writer  Search this
Richard Milhous Nixon: Politics and Government\Vice-President of US  Search this
Richard Milhous Nixon: Military\Navy\Officer  Search this
Richard Milhous Nixon: Politics and Government\President of US  Search this
Richard Milhous Nixon: Politics and Government\US Senator\California  Search this
Richard Milhous Nixon: Politics and Government\US Congressman\California  Search this
Portrait  Search this
Credit Line:
National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution; donated to the people of the United States of America by the Richard Nixon Foundation
Object number:
NPG.72.2
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
See more items in:
National Portrait Gallery Collection
Exhibition:
America's Presidents (Reinstallation September 2017)
On View:
NPG, West Gallery 210
Data Source:
National Portrait Gallery
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sm4c938bc74-3bf5-4759-9900-51bc34d4d2d6
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:npg_NPG.72.2

Horatio Gates

Artist:
James Peale, 1749 - 24 May 1831  Search this
Copy after:
Charles Willson Peale, 15 Apr 1741 - 22 Feb 1827  Search this
Sitter:
Horatio Gates, 1728 - 10 Apr 1806  Search this
Medium:
Oil on canvas
Dimensions:
Stretcher: 58.4 x 48.3 x 2.5cm (23 x 19 x 1")
Frame: 77.5 x 67.3 x 5.1cm (30 1/2 x 26 1/2 x 2")
Type:
Painting
Date:
c. 1782
Topic:
Costume\Dress Accessory\Epaulet  Search this
Horatio Gates: Male  Search this
Horatio Gates: Politics and Government\State Legislator\New York  Search this
Horatio Gates: Military\Army\Officer\Revolution  Search this
Horatio Gates: Congressional Gold Medal  Search this
Portrait  Search this
Credit Line:
National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution; partial gift of Mr. Lawrence A. Fleischman
Object number:
NPG.69.50
Restrictions & Rights:
CC0
See more items in:
National Portrait Gallery Collection
Exhibition:
American Origins
On View:
NPG, East Gallery 144
Data Source:
National Portrait Gallery
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sm42d6a14da-d717-4aee-9c95-9a1f50306203
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:npg_NPG.69.50

Thomas Jefferson

Artist:
Charles Bird King, 26 Sep 1785 - 18 Mar 1862  Search this
Copy after:
Gilbert Stuart, 3 Dec 1755 - 9 Jul 1828  Search this
Sitter:
Thomas Jefferson, 13 Apr 1743 - 4 Jul 1826  Search this
Medium:
Oil on wood panel
Dimensions:
Frame (Verified): 72.4 x 65.4 x 8.6cm (28 1/2 x 25 3/4 x 3 3/8")
Stretcher: 57.2 × 48.3cm (22 1/2 × 19")
Type:
Painting
Place:
United States\District of Columbia\Washington
Date:
1836
Topic:
Thomas Jefferson: Male  Search this
Thomas Jefferson: Law and Law Enforcement\Lawyer  Search this
Thomas Jefferson: Politics and Government\Congressman\Continental  Search this
Thomas Jefferson: Politics and Government\Statesman\Colonial Statesman\Signer of Declaration  Search this
Thomas Jefferson: Politics and Government\Vice-President of US  Search this
Thomas Jefferson: Natural Resources\Agriculturist\Farmer  Search this
Thomas Jefferson: Visual Arts\Architect  Search this
Thomas Jefferson: Politics and Government\President of US  Search this
Thomas Jefferson: Politics and Government\Cabinet Member\Secretary of State  Search this
Thomas Jefferson: Politics and Government\Diplomat\Minister  Search this
Thomas Jefferson: Science and Technology\Inventor  Search this
Thomas Jefferson: Politics and Government\US Congressman\Virginia  Search this
Thomas Jefferson: Politics and Government\Governor\Virginia  Search this
Thomas Jefferson: Education\Founder\University  Search this
Portrait  Search this
Credit Line:
National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution
Object number:
NPG.92.110
Restrictions & Rights:
CC0
See more items in:
National Portrait Gallery Collection
Exhibition:
America's Presidents (Reinstallation September 2017)
On View:
NPG, South Gallery 240
Data Source:
National Portrait Gallery
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sm4b06e3418-017d-48db-b764-7aa959ff06ed
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:npg_NPG.92.110

Scurlock Studio Records

Creator:
Custom Craft  Search this
Scurlock Studio (Washington, D.C.)  Search this
Scurlock, George H. (Hardison), 1919-2005  Search this
Scurlock, Addison N., 1883-1964  Search this
Scurlock, Robert S. (Saunders), 1917-1994  Search this
Names:
Howard University -- 20th century  Search this
DuBois, W.E.B. (William Edward Burghardt), 1868-1963  Search this
Washington, Booker T., 1856-1915  Search this
Extent:
200 Cubic feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Dye transfer process
Studio portraits
Matrices, color separation
Photographs
Color separation negatives
Place:
Washington (D.C.) -- Small business -- 20th century
Shaw (Washington, D.C.)
Washington (D.C.) -- African Americans
Date:
1888-1996
Summary:
The collection includes approximately 250,000 photonegatives, photoprints, color transparencies from the photographic business founded by Addison Scurlock in Washington, D.C. Collection also includes business records and ephemera.
Scope and Contents:
Photographs includes portraits of famous African-American luminaries such as Booker T. Washington, W.E.B. DuBois, and many other artists, intellectuals, educators, entertainers, etc., as well as documentation of Washington, D.C., including both the African-American community and national political life, and important photographs of Howard University; also commercial photography, including color materials.

Color separation materials include sets of black-and-white color-separation negatives, sets of matrices for the Kodak Dye Transfer process (full-color Dye Transfer prints are storied in a different series).

Business records:,The photography studio records and Custom Craft records are in separate subseries, reflecting the fact that they were operated as separate businesses.

The collection includes all forms of photographs produced by the studio, such as prints in black-and-white and color, black-and-white and color negatives, color transparencies, black-and-white dye-transfer matrices, slides, etc.; as well as business documents, studio session ledgers, appointment books, business and personal correspondence, tax documents, and books, catalogs, and other publications. This material documents not only the photographic output of the business, both commercial and artistic, as well as the personal and business side of the enterprise.

Some photographs in the collection were not created by the Scurlocks. Some black-and-white and color prints seem to derive from assignments in the Capitol School of Photography, and are therefore student work. Also Custom Craft, the professional color processing service provided by the studio, made prints for other photographers, and samples for printing reference, as well as studio decor, have been retained in the collection. Custom Craft worked for such diverse photographers as artist Robert Epstein and well-known Washington photographer Fred Maroon, for example.

The collection numbers several hundred thousand photographic negatives, prints, and transparencies made by the Scurlocks and other staff photographers of the studio in its various Washington locations. The negatives are estimated at approximately 160,000-200,000 in number, and the prints of all sizes and types at nearly 57,000. The vast majority of the photographs are portraits of individuals, family groups, and organizations, as the primary business of the studio was portrait photography. They date primarily from the 1940s to 1990s. There are also a number of images, made for commercial clients, of building interiors and exteriors, and food. A small group of photojournalistic documentation also exists. The subjects also include architectural and industrial views, scenes in and around Washington, including children and street laborers, political events, social events, and 35mm slides of President Kennedy's funeral, 1964. There are also more personal artistic images, including still lifes with plants and flowers, and a few nudes; Robert's wartime service is also documented by his photographs, including European landscape photographs.

In addition to images taken by the Scurlock studio photographers, there are some prints, especially color, of images by other photographers who were clients, such as Fred Maroon, a prominent Washington photojournalist, and Robert Epstein, a teacher at the Corcoran School of Art. A print of one of Maroon's pictures had been displayed in the studio reception room at the time the studio was closed.

A large group of manuscript items, business documents, ephemera, and office and studio supplies constitutes a separate series from the photographs. An important adjunct to the photographs, a set of ledgers recording and identifying portrait sittings, highlights this group.

Nearly all of the photographs and documents stored in the studio and auxiliary storage locations were accepted for acquisition in order to form a complete history of this family business's production and operations over the better part of a century, whereas a selection of photographic apparatus and studio equipment was acquired by the Photographic History Collection: these items have been inventoried and catalogued separately.

Studio Portraits

The majority of the surviving photographic negatives and proof prints were made in connection with the studio's portrait work for a wide variety of clients. These portraits include images of famous people, such as political figures, entertainers, and noteworthy persons in a variety of fields, including scientists, writers, intellectuals, and academics. The majority of the figures depicted among both the famous and the not so famous are black. The greatest number of studio portraits, most of which are identified and dated, depict a general clientele who visited the studio for portrait sittings. Although the individual images in this vast quantity have limited research value in the usual sense, the aggregate represents a chronology spanning almost ninety years, which may be useful for demographic and genealogical information and as visual evidence of changing styles in clothing, hair, and accessories. It constitutes a panorama of a significant percentage of Washingtonians of the period, especially the black community.

Portraits of famous personages include George Washington Carver, Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., Duke Ellington, Marian Anderson, Archbishop Desmond Tutu, Sammy Davis, Jr., Sugar Ray Leonard, Muhammad Ali, Mayor Walter Washington, and Presidents Kennedy, Johnson, Nixon, Ford, Reagan, Bush, and Clinton, Mayor Marion Barry, D.C. Council members, statesmen such as Ralph Bunche, and many other noteworthy figures. Of particular interest is a signed group portrait of the U.S. Supreme Court with Chief Justice Berger presiding. There are also large- format portraits of Justice Thurgood Marshall and J. Edgar Hoover.

Group portraits include both formal sittings and the informal documentation of banquets, convocations, and similar events. This material includes groups at Howard University; Dunbar High School; the Post Office Clerks' Banquet; the Bishops' Meeting of the A.M.E. Church; a Y.M.C.A. camp, ca. 1947 1949; the 23rd annual conference of the N.A.A.C.P., 1932, etc.

Howard University

Several thousand black and white negatives and prints, 1930s-1960s, depict the people, facilities, and events of Howard University, with which the Scurlocks had a long business relationship. There are various portraits, including Howard University Medical School, represented by 850 negatives and 100 prints. A group of law school and medical school images numbers some 800 negatives and 200 prints. In addition, there are class portraits, as well as images of famous guests speaking at Howard convocations, such as President Herbert Hoover.

Wedding Photography

An important aspect of any portrait studio's output is wedding photography, and the Scurlock studio was no exception. Bridal portraits, group pictures of wedding parties, and the complete documentation of weddings, in both black and white and color, constitute a significant part of the collection. African-American weddings predominate and provide important insights into this aspect of the society.

Exhibitions

The studio's work was shown in special public exhibitions over the years, and several of these are included in toto. The most important was an extensive retrospective display of 121 prints of Addison's work, both vintage and posthumous, prepared by Robert for the Corcoran Gallery of Art in 1976. Others include: (1) a set of 32 black and white images made by Robert at the Ramitelli Air Base, Italy, while he was a major in the U.S. Air Force during World War II; (2) a group of portraits from a Black History Month exhibit at Woodward and Lothrop; and (3) a set of sixteen vintage and modern prints which Robert displayed in an interview on the "Today" television show in the 1980s.

Commercial Work

This category includes architectural and industrial photography for commercial clients, food and still life photographs, etc. Much of this material is comparatively recent and was made in large format color, and includes transparencies and enlargements. It is possible that some of the prints represent Custom Craft work for other photographers rather than the camera work of Robert and George Scurlock. Thus far, prints by artist Robert Epstein have been identified as extra prints of his work from orders which he placed with the firm. At least one image by Fred Maroon has been identified.

A group of color prints constitutes copies of artworks, primarily in the National Portrait Gallery, for which the Scurlocks worked. Prints in 8" x 10", 11" x 14", 16" x 20" and 20" x 24" sizes are included, and undoubtedly negatives and transparencies corresponding to these subjects will be found.

Photojournalism

In addition to the formal studio portraits and pictures documenting formal events, the Scurlocks took candid photographs of the everyday life of their city, as well as extraordinary events of local and national significance, ranging from occasions such as John F. Kennedy's funeral and the 1968 riots to political rallies and demonstrations.

Capitol School of Photography

The collection includes a variety of materials, such as books and ephemera, which document the activities of the Capitol School of Photography, a sideline of the Scurlock business. Some of the photographs apparently represent student work. The most famous student of the school was Jacqueline Bouvier (later Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis), although no documentation of her association with the school has been located thus far. There are 45 photographs, ca. 1950s, showing the photography lab, men retouching prints, students with cameras, etc.

Personal Photographs

A few photographs of the Scurlock family are included in the collection in various forms and formats, including enlarged portraits of Addison and Robert. A self portrait of Addison and Mamie Scurlock is included in the Corcoran Gallery of Art exhibition series. Other photographs which represent personal artistic expression, such as a few nude studies and floral and plant still lifes, are included.

Series 6 includes: subseries 1 transparencies, subseries 2 slides, and subseries 3 other formats, which is rolled film of black and white and color negatives, and transparencies.
Series 1: Black and White Photographs:
Dates -- 1888-1993

Extent -- 105 boxes

Contents -- Series 1: Black and White Photographs: The materials are almost entirely black and white photographs, but in the subseries of clients, there may also be job envelopes, order materials, and other photographic material types that were included in the overall order. The series is arranged into two subseries, clients and subjects, and both are arranged alphabetically. The subseries clients documents the orders made by clients of the Scurlock Studio and individuals who were or could be identified but may or may not have actually placed an order at the Studio. The majority of the photographs in the clients subseries are formal portrait sittings but there are photographs of events, organizations, and businesses. The subseries subjects are photographs that were grouped into categories because no known client or individual in the image could be identified. The subjects cover a broad array of subjects but the majority of the subjects include unidentified people in formal portrait sittings and groups. In addition, not all photographs in this series were taken by the Scurlock Studio; there are photos by Abdon Daoud Ackad and other studios or photographers that were sent in to make copies. 1.1: Clients Black and white photographs1.2: Subjects Black and white photographs
Series 2: Color Photographs:
Dates -- 1930-1995

Extent -- 113 boxes

Contents -- Series 2: Color Photographs: The series color photographs consists of color photographs and hand-colored photographs, but there are also order envelopes and materials, and other photographic material types that were part of the order. The subseries are arranged as clients, subjects, weddings, and hand-colored photographs. Clients are arranged alphabetically by last name or the first word of an organization's name. Not all individuals, organizations, or businesses necessarily represent a client of the Scurlock Studio; if an individual or organization could be identified, the photograph was placed under the identified person or organization even if ther were not a known client of the Studio. The majority of the photographs are individual portrait sittings but also included are family portraits, businesses, organizations, and informal images. The subjects are arranged alphabetically, and document images of non-humans and humans that could not be connected to a known client. Weddings and hand-colored are arranged in alphabetical order with clients preceeding subjects. The were a large subject of the overall collection and the majority of weddings are color photographs but also included in the subseries are black and white and hand-colored photographs of weddings. The hand-colored photographs largely reflect the same subject matter of the subseries clients and subjects. In addition, not all photographs in this subseries were taken by the Scurlock Studio; there are photos by Abdon Daoud Ackad and other studios or photographers that were sent in to make copies. 2.1: Clients Color photographs2.2: Subjects Color photographs2.3: Weddings2.4: Hand-colored photographs
Series 3: Framed Prints:
Dates -- circa 1979

Extent -- 3 boxes

Contents -- Series 3: Framed Prints: The series framed prints includes three framed color photographs. The framed prints are arranged by the size, from smallest to largest, of the frame. The photographs are of two important political figures: Washington, D. C., Mayor Marion Barry and Senator Edward Brooke.
Series 4: Black-and-White Silver Gelatin Negatives:
Dates -- 1900-1994

Extent -- 320 boxes

Contents -- Series 4: Black-and-White Silver Gelatin Negatives: The material type of the series is black and white silver gelatin negatives. The negatives are arranged into twelve subseries. The materials document the clients and individuals whose photographs were taken by the Scurlock Studio and a wide variety of subject matters. The subjects represented are individual portrait sittings, organizations, events, businesses, commercial ventures of the Studio, and Washington, D. C. 4.1: Black and white negatives 4.2: Black and white negatives in freezers arranged by job number 4.3: Black and white negatives in freezer storage arranged by client 4.4: Black and white negatives in freezer storage arranged by subject 4.5: Black and white negatives in cold storage arranged by job number 4.6: Black and white negatives in cold storage arranged by client 4.7: Negatives in cold storage arranged by client with index cards 4.8: Negatives in cold storage arranged by subject 4.9: Black and white negatives for publication 4.10: Glass Plate Negatives 4.11: Customcraft Negatives 4.12: Banquet Negatives
Series 5: Color Negatives:
Dates -- 1964-1994

Extent -- 72 boxes

Contents -- Series 5: Color Negatives: The series color negatives primarily of color negatives but it also includes order envelopes and materials. The series is arranged into two subseries: clients and subjects. The subseries clients is arranged by job number, and the materials document the orders placed by clients of the Scurlock Studio and identified persons and organizations. The negatives depict individual portrait sittings, groups, and informal poses. The subseries subjects is arranged in alphabetical order, and the materials document negatives that could not be connected to a client of the studio. The negatives represent subjects such as art, buildings, commercial ventures of the Scurlock Studio, and unidentified people. 5.1: Color negatives arranged by client5.2: Color negatives arranged by subject
Series 6: Color Transparencies, Slides, and Other Formats:
Dates -- 1922-1994

Extent -- 40 boxes

Contents -- Series 6: Color Transparencies, Slides, and Other Formats: The series color transparencies, slides, and other formats consists of black and white and color transparencies, color slides, film, proofs, and order materials. The materials are arranged into four subseries: transparencies, slides, film, and proofs. The subseries are arranged by clients, in alphabetical order by last name, and then subjects, in alphabetical order. The materials document the orders placed at the Scurlock Studio by clients and identified individuals and organizations, and materials that could not be identified and are categorized by subjects. The subjects represented in the materials are primarily individual, family, and group portraits, and events and places. Cut but unmounted slides were typically placed in the subseries transparencies but a small number of cut but unmounted slides are included in the slides. The subseries proofs only contains a form of proof used by the Scurlock Studio that has a fugitive image, and other types of proofs printed on low quality paper or are water-marked and have a lasting image were included in the series Black and White Photographs and Color Photographs if the proof was either black and white or color. 6.1: Transparencies6.2: Slides6.3: Film6.4: Proofs
Series 7: Black-and-White Color Separation Negatives and Matrices:
Dates -- 1955-1957

Extent -- 7 boxes

Contents -- Series 7: Black-and-White Color Separation Negatives and Matrices: The materials in the series are black-and-white color separation negatives and a booklet about how to process black-and-white color separation negatives. The materials are arranged into three subseries: clients, subjects, and the booklet. The materials document orders placed at the Scurlock Studio by clients and individuals and organizations that could be identified but not connected to a specific order. The materials also document negatives categorized by subjects because there was no known client or identifiable individual or organization. The subjects represented are individual portrait sittings and groups, and unidentified people. 7.1: Clients Black-and-White Color Separation Negatives 7.2: Subjects Black-and-White Color Separation Negatives Booklet
Series 8: Scurlock Studio Business Records:
Dates -- 1907-1996

Extent -- 66 boxes

Contents -- Series 8: Scurlock Studio Business Records: The series Scurlock Studio Business Records contains paperwork pertaining to the administration of the business, the financial documentation of the business, the reocrds of sales, the advertising signs and promotions of hte business, the files kept on employees, and other materials kept at the Scurlock Studio. The series is arranged into six subseries: administrative file, financial, sales, advertising and marketing, employee and personnel, and office files. Each subseries is arranged differently according to the types of materials predominantly found in the subseries or in chronological order. The subjects represented in the series are mostly related to the financial records of the Scurlock Studio kept and the invoices of sales records. A wide variety of other subjects relating to the the business records of the Scurlock Studio can also be found including: session registers, construction plans, advertisements for specific holidays, and product information sent to the Studio. Some materials found in this series may be marked Scurlock Studio and Custom Craft, the color division of the Scurlock Studio, and were placed with this series because the Scurlock Studio was the primary business. Other materials with an unclear origin of either the Scurlock Studio or Custom Craft were placed in this series. 8.1: Administrative Files8.2: Financial8.3: Sales8.4: Advertising and Marketing8.5: Employee and Personnel8.6: Office Files
Series 9: Custom Craft Business Records:
Dates -- 1951-1994

Extent -- 57 boxes

Contents -- Series 9: Custom Craft Business Records: The series Custom Craft Business Records consists of paper documents relating to the administrative, financial, sales records, employee and personnel, and other files about the affairs of the Custom Craft business's day-to-day operations. The materials are arranged into five subseries: administrative, financial, sales, employee and personnel, and office files. The materials within a subseries are ordered by types of documents that consisted of a large number of materials listed first and materials with few documents following the grouped materials in chronological order. The materials document the day-to-day business of Custom Craft. The subjects represented are documents relating to the administration of the business, journals kept to document finances, the order invoices, the files kept about employees, product information, and materials accumulated in the office. Some documents may list both the Scurlock Studio and Custom Craft and were kept with the business records of Custom Craft if the materials appeared to fit the activities, color photography, of that business. Other documents relating to the business affairs of Custom Craft may be in the series Scurlock Studio Business Records because these documents did not clearly indicate which business the documents belonged to; in these cases, the materials were put in the series Scurlock Studio Business Records because the business was the primary business of the Scurlocks. There business records seem to indicate that there was not always a clear differentiation between the two businesses. 9.1: Administrative9.2: Financial9.3: Sales9.4: Employee and Personnel9.5: Office files
Series 10: Capitol School of Photography:
Dates -- 1948-1954

Extent -- 4 boxes

Contents -- Series 10: Capitol School of Photography: The series Capitol School of Photography consists of paper documents, photographs, and transparencies. The materials are arranged in chronological order and document the administration of the Capitol School of Photography and the students. The subjects represented are administrative documents, student files, photographs by students, photographs of students and the space used for the School, and transparencies of the same subjects.
Series 11: Washington Stock:
Dates -- 1981-1994

Extent -- 2 boxes

Contents -- Series 11: Washington Stock: The series Washington Stock consists of order materials, orders, and published materials. The materials are arranged chronologically and document the orders placed for Washington Stock and how the materials were used and published. The subjects represented are orders, standard forms used by Washington Stock, and published materials.
Series 12: Background Materials and Publications:
Dates -- 1902-1995

Extent -- 18 boxes

Contents -- Series 12: Background Materials and Publications: The series Background Materials and Publications is composed of paper documents, published materials, and materials from exhibitions. The materials are arranged into four subseries: historical and background information, Scurlock images, reference materials, and exhibition materials. The materials document the Scurlocks, published Scurlock images, published materials lacking Scurlock images, exhibitions of Scurlock images, and other exhibitions of related material. The subjects represented are largely materials related to the Scurlocks' photography and personal interests. Images were placed in the subseries Scurlock images if the photograph was credited to the Scurlocks or was a photograph known to have been taken by the Scurlocks; it is possible that uncredited and less well known images taken by the Scurlocks are present in the subseries reference materials. 12.1: Historical and Background Information12.2: Scurlock Images12.3: Reference Materials12.4: Exhibition Materials
Arrangement:
The collection is divided into 12 series.

This collection was processed with numerous changes in arrangement and numbering of boxes. Original box numbers have been retained in this finding aid for cross-reference purposes and to assist anyone with a record of photographs according to the original box numbers.
Biographical / Historical:
The Scurlock photographic studio was a fixture in the Shaw area of Washington, D.C. from 1911 to 1994, and encompassed two generations of photographers, Addison N. Scurlock (1883-1964) and his sons George H. (1920- 2005) and Robert S. (1916-1994).

The turn of the twentieth century saw a mass exodus of African Americans from the South to northern cities in search of better employment opportunities and fairer racial treatment. Although many considered Washington to be the northern-most southern city, it still offered opportunities for African Americans leaving seasonal agricultural work and racial oppression in the South. In Washington, African Americans found stable employment with the U.S. government. In addition, Howard University offered African Americans teaching opportunities, college education, and professional training as doctors, dentists, nurses, lawyers, and ministers. By 1900 a substantial African-American middle class existed in Washington. Despite the fact that Washington was a historically and legally segregated city (and would remain so into the 1960s), this middle class population continued to grow and prosper.

After graduation from high school, Addison Scurlock moved from Fayetteville, North Carolina, to Washington, D.C., with his family in 1900. With a keen interest in photography, he sought out an apprenticeship at the white-owned Moses Rice Studio on Pennsylvania Avenue. The Rice brothers (Amos and Moses) had been in Washington working as photographers since the 1860s and had one of the more prominent and better studios in the city. There Addison learned portrait and general photography. In 1904, he left Rice and began his photographic career at his parents' home. By 1911, when he opened the Scurlock Studio, he had already captured the likeness of Booker T. Washington (1910; see Appendix B), most likely his most well-known portrait. Scurlock quickly identified his market: a self-sufficient African-American community which included students, graduates, and educators affiliated with Howard University; poets; writers; intellectuals; musicians and entertainers; politicians; socialites; fraternal and religious organizations and their leaders. The Scurlock Studio, located at 900 U Street, N.W., became a fixture in the midst of the thriving African-American business community. As with his white counterparts on Pennsylvania Avenue and F Street, N.W., Addison Scurlock inspired passers-by with window displays of his photographs of national leaders and local personalities.

During the 1930s, Addison Scurlock's two sons Robert and George apprenticed in the studio. In addition to portrait and general photography, the sons learned the techniques of retouching negatives and photographic prints, hand-coloring, hand-tinting, and mat decoration. George concentrated on the commercial side of the business while Robert concentrated on the portrait side. The Scurlocks' work changed with the times. From the early 1900s until Addison's death in 1964, the Scurlock Studio was the official photographer of Howard University. In the 1930s the studio began a press service and prepared newsreels on African American current events for the Lichtman Theater chain, which offered some of the few non-segregated venues in the city. Their press service supplied the African-American press with newsworthy photographs of current events, personalities, and social, political, and religious life. Clients included the Norfolk Journal and Guide, Amsterdam News, Pittsburgh Courier, Cleveland Call and Post and the Washington Tribune and Afro-American. George and Robert ran the Capitol School of Photography from 1948 to 1952. Included among their students were African-American veterans under the G.I. Bill, Ellsworth Davis, who later worked as a Washington Post photographer and Bernie Boston of the Los Angeles Times. Perhaps their best-known student was the young Jacqueline Bouvier.

In 1952 Robert opened Washington's first custom color lab. Capitalizing on his knowledge of color processing, Robert was asked to take color portraits of both noted and ordinary individuals. In addition, the studio offered color views of important Washington landmarks and monuments. By the 1960s, Robert added magazine photography to his list of talents, publishing images in Life, Look, and Ebony. Robert continued photographing Washingtonians at his studio until his death in 1994.

According to George Scurlock, the Scurlock studio never had substantial competition in the African American community. Some Washington residents remember it differently, however. Dr. Theodore Hudson, a retired Howard University professor, recalled two other black photographers: Sam Courtney and a man named Sorrell. He said Courtney photographed events in the African American community...?

The collection represents the most comprehensive record of any long-lived, let alone African-American, photography studio, in a public institution. Other twentieth century studio collections exist, such as Robinson Studio, Grand Rapids; Hughes Company, Baltimore, Md. Among African American studio collections in public institutions are James Van Der Zee (New York City, 1912-80s), P.H. Polk (Tuskegee), and the Hooks Brothers (Memphis, Tenn., 1910-1975). The Scurlock Collection covers a greater time period and provides greater depth of coverage of African-American events and personages.

A number of articles have been written about the Scurlock family. Jane Freundel Levey, editor of Washington History magazine, believes that the family went beyond the artful use of light, shadow, and composition. She wrote, "Perhaps the most distinctive hallmark of the Scurlock photograph is the dignity, the uplifting quality of the demeanor of every person captured by photographs who clearly saw each subject as above the ordinary."

Constance McLaughlin Green, one of the leading historians of Washington, D.C., talks about African-American Washington as "the Secret City," a separate world with institutions of its own that remained virtually unknown to the white majority. Addison Scurlock and his sons captured that world on film and in doing so, documented that world in the course of running his business and perfecting his art. Steven C. Newsome, director of the Maryland Commission on Afro-American History and Culture stated that The Scurlocks' photograph "Gave us connections. They tell stories. They let us remember."

The collection includes photographs of the nationally famous Booker T. Washington, W.E.B. DuBois, Paul Laurence Dunbar, Mary McLeod Bethune, Mary Church Terrell, Marian Anderson; the locally or regionally important: P.B.S. Pinchback, Judge Miflin Gibbs, Col. Jim Lewis, Ernest Just, Anna J. Cooper; and actors, artists, vaudevillians, and musicians such as Fredi Washington, Madame Lilian Evanti, Oakley & Oakley, and Duke Ellington.

Sources

George Scurlock. Interview conducted by David Haberstich and intern Lora Koehler at Mr. Scurlock's apartment, Aug. 2003.

Theodore Hudson, conversation with David Haberstich in the Archives Center, 2 February 2004.

Jane Freundel Levey, "The Scurlock Studio," Washington History, 1989, p. 44.

Robert S. Scurlock, "An Appreciation of Addison N. Scurlock's Photographic Achievements," The Historic Photographs of Addison N. Scurlock. Washington, D.C.: The Charles Sumner School Museum and Archives, 1986 (exhibition catalog).
Materials at Other Organizations:
The Historical Society of Washington, D.C. holds Scurlock-related materials.
Materials in the National Museum of American History:
Cameras and other photographic apparatus, studio furniture, and miscellaneous ephemera from the Scurlock studio are in the History of Photography Collection. An adding machine from the studio is in the Museum's mathematics collection. See accessions 1997.0293 and 2010.0157.
Provenance:
The Museum purchased the Scurlock Studio Records from the Estate of Robert S. Scurlock, through Judge Marjorie Lawson in 1997. During the period of negotiation between the museum and Robert Scurlock's heirs, his widow Vivian and brother George, the collection was on loan to the Museum and was housed primarily in a closed exhibition area on the second floor. Staff of the Archives Center took physical possession of the collection long before the transfer to the Museum was final. The studio records and photographs were housed principally in the 18th Street studio and in two rental storage facilities. The primary move of the collection to the Museum occurred in September 1995. An additional pickup occurred on February 12, 1996 (on tags). There was probably one additional pickup from the studio by David Haberstich and Caleb Fey on an unrecorded date.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.

Series 8: Business Records, Subseries 8.1: Studio Session Registers are restricted. Digital copies available for research. See repository for details.

Gloves must be worn when handling unprotected photographs and negatives. Special arrangements required to view negatives due to cold storage. Using negatives requires a three hour waiting period. Contact the Archives Center at 202-633-3270.
Rights:
When the Museum purchased the collection from the Estate of Robert S. Scurlock, it obtained all rights, including copyright. The earliest photographs in the collection are in the public domain because their term of copyright has expired. The Archives Center will control copyright and the use of the collection for reproduction purposes, which will be handled in accordance with its standard reproduction policy guidelines. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Portraits -- 20th century  Search this
Politicians -- 20th century  Search this
Segregation  Search this
Commercial photography -- 20th century -- Washington (D.C)  Search this
Photography -- 20th century -- Washington (D.C.)  Search this
African Americans -- History -- 20th century  Search this
African American entertainers -- 20th century  Search this
African American photographers  Search this
Genre/Form:
Dye transfer process
Studio portraits
Matrices, color separation
Photographs -- 20th century
Color separation negatives
Citation:
Scurlock Studio Records, Archives Center, National Museum of American History. Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0618
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0618
Online Media:

Aleš Hrdlička papers

Creator:
Hrdlička, Aleš, 1869-1943  Search this
Correspondent:
American Association of Physical Anthropologists  Search this
Names:
American Journal of Physical Anthropology  Search this
Army Medical Museum (U.S.)  Search this
Hyde Exploring Expedition (1902-1903)  Search this
Institute of Population  Search this
International Congress of Americanists  Search this
Panama-California Exposition (1915 : San Diego, Calif.)  Search this
Smithsonian Institution. Department of Anthropology. Division of Physical Anthropology  Search this
Extent:
206.71 Linear feet (294 boxes, 138 folders, 9 rolled items, and 4 folios)
Culture:
Indians of North America  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Place:
Saint Lawrence Island (Alaska) -- Archaeology
Australia
Alaska -- Archaeology
Mexico -- Anthropology
Florida -- Archaeology
Egypt -- Archaeology
Czechoslovakia
Peru -- Physical anthropology
Kodiak Island (Alaska)
Date:
1875-1966
bulk 1903-1943
Summary:
The papers of Aleš Hrdlička, curator in the Division of Physical Anthropology, Department of Anthropology, United States National Museum of the Smithsonian Institution, offer considerable insight into the development of physical anthropology in the first half of this century. The papers include honors bestowed on Hrdlička, autobiographical notes, correspondence with many of the leading anthropologists of the day, anthropometric and osteometric measurements and observations (forming most of the collection), extensive photographs of Hrdlička's field work, manuscripts, research materials, and "My Journeys" (essentially a diary Hrdlička kept of his field work). In addition, there is material of a personal nature. The papers date from 1875 to 1966, but the bulk of the materials date from 1903 to 1943, the time of Hrdlička's career at the USNM.
Scope and Contents:
This collection is comprised of both professional and personal materials. The professional material includes honors bestowed on Hrdlička, autobiographical notes, correspondence with many of the leading anthropologists of the day, anthropometric and osteometric measurements and observations (forming most of the collection), extensive photographs of Hrdlička's field work, manuscripts, research materials, and "My Journeys" (essentially a diary Hrdlička kept of his field work). The personal material primarily consists of correspondence with his first wife (Marie Dieudonnée Strickler) and other family members, but there are also financial records. The papers date from 1875 to 1966, but the bulk of the materials date from 1903 to 1943, the time of Hrdlička's career at the United States National Museum of the Smithsonian Institution. Hrdlička investigated all major questions confronting physical anthropologists of his day (the fossil record of early humans, the arrival of humans in the Americas, human variation, and evolution) and made valuable contributions in all these areas. Hrdlička's interests in the establishment of physical anthropology as a distinct and important field, the welfare of the Czech people, early hominids, and variation within the human species are all documented in the collection as are the services he performed for various United States government agencies. He pursued field studies in many different parts of the world, but there are relatively few field notes as such among his papers. There is instead the edited journal "My Journeys," photographs, and physical anthropological forms. There is also relatively little material on his administrative involvement in the USNM. There is no material from Hrdlička's time at the Pathological Institution of the New York State Hospitals; after he resigned, fire destroyed the anthropological records Hrdlička collected as a member of the staff. There are materials in the collection which contradict, or at least complicate, many long-held criticisms of Hrdlička, particularly claims that he was racist and opposed feminist ideas. The collection contains materials of interest to genetic research, including anthropometric measurements, hair clippings and fingerprints.

There are a few items in the collection which are dated earlier than the collection's date span. These are publication dates, and the folders containing the items have been dated accordingly, but they have not affected the dates of the series or collection. There are also a few items which are dated after Hrdlička's death. These dates reflect the fact that the collection was added to by the Department of Physical Anthropology after Hrdlička's death and have been taken into account when formulating dates for the series and collection.

Please note that the language and terminology used in this collection reflects the context and culture of the time of its creation. As an historical document, its contents may be at odds with contemporary views and terminology. The information within this collection does not reflect the views of the Smithsonian Institution, but is available in its original form to facilitate research.
Arrangement:
This collection is arranged in 37 series:

(1) Miscellaneous Personal Papers, 1875-1940

(2) Early Personal Correspondence, 1883-1919

(3) Correspondence, 1885-1953

(4) News Clippings and Printed Matter, 1893-1953

(5) Financial Papers, 1910-1943

(6) Journeys to the Southwestern United States and Mexican Indians, 1898-1919

(7) Journeys to the Dakota, Chippewa, Kickapoo, and Shawnee, 1916-1917

(8) Florida Survey, 1918, 1918-1927

(9) Alaska Archeological Expeditions, 1912-1938 (bulk 1926-1938)

(10) Panama-California Exposition Expeditions, 1912-1914

(11) Journey to Egypt, Europe, and Russia, 1908-1909

(12) Journey to South America, 1910, 1910-1912

(13) Journey to the Far East, 1920, 1900-1930

(14) Journey to Australia, Java, India, South Africa, and Europe, 1924-1925

(15) Anthropometric Measurements of Indians Taken at the United States National Museum, 1904-1905, most undated

(16) Bone Studies, 1893-1929, most undated

(17) Old Americans, 1914-1930

(18) Children Who Run on All Fours, 1928-1936

(19) Early Man Studies, 1906-1930

(20) European Ethnic History, 1908-1938

(21) Miscellaneous Research Notes, 1887-1930

(22) Manuscripts of Writings, 1901-1944, most undated

(23) Writings by Other Authors, 1877-1942

(24) Anthropometry, undated

(25) "From My Journeys", 1898-1938

(26) -- American Journal of Physical Anthropology -- , 1918-1931

(27) American Association of Physical Anthropologists, 1924-1931

(28) International Congress of Americanists, 1900-1928

(29) Institute of Population, 1942

(30) Department of Anthropology, 1914-1943

(31) Lecture Notes, 1920-1932

(32) Maps and Charts, 1900-1932

(33) Miscellany, 1895-1954

(34) Index Cards, 1899-1948

(35) Bibliographic Index, undated

(36) Physical Anthropology Folios, undated

(37) Photographs, 1887-1944
Biographical Note:
Aleš Hrdlička was born in Bohemia in 1869 and came to America when he was thirteen. As a young man, he was trained in medicine at New York's Eclectic Medical College and the New York Homeopathic Medical College, receiving degrees from each. His first professional work was as a private practitioner, but he gave that up in 1894 when he joined the staff of the New York State Hospital for the Insane at Middletown. There, in addition to other duties, he began studies of the physical characteristics of inmates. This set in motion developments that would eventually lead him to become one of the world's most prominent anthropologists who has sometimes been referred to as "the founder of physical anthropology in America."

In 1896, in preparation for a research appointment with the Department of Anthropology in the Pathological Institute of the New York State Hospitals, Hrdlička went to Paris and studied with Leon Manouvrier. After his return to America, he worked for a short period with the Pathological Institute and came into contact with G.S. Huntington of the College of Physicians and Surgeons in New York. Hrdlička arranged and studied Huntington's large collection of skeletal material, thus gaining knowledge of a well-documented collection representing largely normal persons of European ancestry. He came to the attention of Frederic Ward Putnam, of the American Museum of Natural History, who arranged for his first anthropological field studies.

It was thus that Hrdlička became a member of the Hyde Expeditions to the American Southwest and northern Mexico. In 1898, he traveled to Mexico with Carl Lumholtz to study the Tarahumaras, Huichols, and neighboring tribes. In subsequent years, he returned to Mexico and the Southwest alone and studied physical characteristics and medical conditions of several American Indian tribes. With this experience and examinations of the Trenton and Lansing skeletal material for Putnam, Hrdlička came fully into the world of anthropology. In 1903, he was appointed head of the newly formed Division of Physical Anthropology in the United States National Museum.

While in his position at the Smithsonian, Hrdlička returned to the Southwest for studies of Pima and Apache children in 1905 and, in the following year, traveled to Florida to examine allegedly ancient remains of man. In 1908, he worked among a number of Indian tribes, including the Menominee, Oglala Dakota, Quinailt, Hupa, and Mohave, in a study of tuberculosis among them. In 1909, he traveled to Egypt with an expedition of the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York in order to study living Egyptians and to examine remains of Egypt's past population. The following year took him to Argentina, Peru, and Mexico. In the first of these, he again examined allegedly ancient remains of man. In Peru, he made a large collection of skeletal material near Trujillo, at Pachamac, and in the Chicama Valley.

From 1912-1914, Hrdlicka undertook a physical anthropological exhibit for the Panama-California Exposition in San Diego and, for this, traveled to eastern Siberia, Mongolia, Peru, and Florida. He also examined fossil remains of man in Europe and directed field work of other anthropologists in South and East Africa, St. Lawrence Island in Alaska, the Philippines, eastern Siberia, and the Ukraine. In 1915, for the Department of Justice, he assessed the racial makeup of Chippewas on the Leech Lake and White Earth reservations in Minnesota and also studied Dakota Indians. In 1917, his field work was directed toward white American families with longtime residence in the United States. In 1918, he carried out a survey of ancient sites in eastern Florida for the Bureau of American Ethnology. In 1920, he traveled to Hawaii, Japan, Korea, and Manchuria in connection with an appointment to lecture at the Peking Union Medical College. As director of the American School for Prehistoric Studies in France, he again studied fossil remains of man in Europe in 1922 and 1923. In 1925, he carried out work in India, Ceylon, Java, Australia, South Africa, and Europe. In 1927, he was again in Europe to deliver the Huxley Memorial Lecture before the Royal Anthropological Society in Great Britain. Between 1929 and 1938, he traveled frequently to Alaska to carry on an anthropological survey. In 1939, he traveled to Russia and Siberia.

Beginning with much of the skeletal collection of the Army Medical Museum, which had been transferred to the Smithsonian in 1898 before he was appointed there, Hrdlička amassed a bone collection that included, among many other specimens, the Huntington collection, casts of fossil remains of man, and a large and diverse North American collection. He also gathered a large collection of human brains. Over three hundred publications resulted from his study of this material, his field work, and his study of specimens in other museums. In addition, he was involved in many other activities. For United States government agencies, he provided services ranging from examinations of human remains for law enforcement officials to providing information and opinions concerning national origins and traits that were needed to interpret laws and form foreign policy. During World War II, he also advised government officials on policies to be pursued with certain national groups following the war.

In 1918, Hrdlička founded the American Journal of Physical Anthropology and remained its editor until 1942. In 1928, he was the major force behind the organization of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists and served as its president from 1928 to 1932. He was also president of the Anthropological Society of Washington in 1907, the American Anthroplogical Association from 1925 to 1927, and the Washington Academy of Sciences from 1928 to 1929. He was chairman of Section H of the American Association for the Advancement of Science in 1918 and secretary of the Committee on Anthropology of the National Research Council in 1917. In addition, Hrdlička was a member of the American Philosophical Society and the National Academy of Sciences. He represented the Smithsonian at several international gatherings of scholars, including meetings of the International Congress of Americanists.

Chronology

1869 March 29 -- Alois Ferdinand Hrdlička (Aleš Hrdlička) born in Humpolec, Bohemia

1882 September -- Emigrated to New York City

1888 -- While stricken with typhoid, met M. Rosenbleuth, a physician who arranged for Hrdlička to enroll at the Eclectic Medical College of New York City

1892 -- Enrolled in the New York Homeopathic Medical College and Hospital Published first article, "Scheme of Examination (Medical)," Publications of the Eclectic Medical College Graduated first in his class from the Eclectic Medical College

1894 -- Graduated first from his class from the Homeopathic Medical College Became research intern at the State Homeopathic Hospital for the Insane in Middletown, New York, where he began his studies in physical anthropology Passed state board examination (allopathic)

1895 -- Joined staff of the Pathological Institute of the New York State Hospitals as associate in anthropology

1896 -- Studied anthropology under Leon Manouvrier in Paris

1896 August 6 -- Married Marie Stickler (Dieudonnée)

1898 March-July(?) -- Accompanied Carl Lumholtz on his expedition to northern Mexico, sponsored by the American Museum of Natural History (AMNH), and visited the Tarahumara, Huichol, and Tepecan Indians

1899 Spring -- Resigned from the Pathological Institute to take charge of physical and medical anthropological research on the Hyde Expeditions of the AMNH to the southwestern United States

1899 August -- Hyde expedition for the AMNH to Chaco Canyon, New Mexico, to excavate the site of Pueblo Bonito and to conduct somatological surveys among the Indians; visited Grand Gulch caves in southern Utah; included visits to the Navahos and southern Utes

1900 -- Hyde expedition for the AMNH to New Mexico, Arizona, and southern Colorado to conduct somatological surveys among the Indians; included visits to the Apaches, Yumas, and Pueblo Indians

1902 January-September -- Hyde expeditions for AMNH to southwestern Arizona, New Mexico, and northern Mexico to conduct somatological surveys; included visits to the Tepecanos, Papagos, Opatas, Pimas, Yaquis, Mayos, Huichols, Otomis, Tepehuanes, Maricopas, Yumas, Yavapais, Paiutes, Walapais, and Havasupais

1902 October-December -- Hyde expedition for the AMNH to Mexico for Hrdlička to complete his somatological investigations; included visits to the Tepehuanes, Coras, Huichols, "Nahuas," "Aztecs," and Tarascans

1903 May 1 -- Became assistant curator in charge of the new Division of Physical Anthropology, Department of Anthropology, at the United States National Museum, Smithsonian Institution

1905 -- Expedition under the auspices of the Bureau of American Ethnology to Arizona and New Mexico to complete the observations on the tribes of this region; Hrdlička especially studied Apache and Pima Indian children

1906 February -- Expedition to western Florida to investigate remains of alleged ancient man

1907 -- President of the Anthropological Society of Washington

1908 -- Expedition to Indian schools and reservations in Wisconsin, Washington, California, Arizona, and South Dakota to study tuberculosis for a report to the International Congress of Tuberculosis

1908 December - 1909 May -- Traveled to Egypt, Greece, Turkey, Hungary, Bohemia, Russia, Poland, and Germany to examine human skeletal remains from an excavation in Egypt by the Metropolitan Museum of Art and to study peoples of the Near East

1910 March 28 -- Promoted to curator in the Division of Physical Anthropology

1910 April-September -- Attended the 17th International Congress of Americanists in Buenos Aires and Mexico City Traveled to Argentina, Brazil, Peru, Mexico, and Panama

1912 -- Planned and directed seven expeditions for the physical anthropology exhibit at the Panama-California Exposition held at San Diego in 1915; expeditions included Hrdlička to Siberia and Mongolia and later to Peru; Riley D. Moore to St. Lawrence Island, Alaska; Philip Newton to the Philippine Islands; Vojtech Suk to Africa; Stanislaw Poniatowski to eastern Siberia; Kazimir Stolyhwo to the Birusa caves in Siberia and to the Ukraine; and Jindřich Matiegka to Bohemia

1912 May-Summer -- Traveled to London to attend 18th International Congress of Americanists Traveled to Siberia and Mongolia for the Panama-California Exposition

1912 September -- Traveled to Geneva for the 14th International Congress of Prehistoric Anthropology and Archaeology

1913 January-April -- Expedition to Peru as part the effort for the Panama-California Exposition

1914 November 18 - 1915 January 18 -- Attended Panama-California Exposition

1915 May -- Research for the Department of Justice at the White Earth and Leech Lake reservations in Minnesota to determine non-Indian mixture among Chippewas

1915 December -- Served as General Secretary for the 19th International Congress of Americanists held in Washington

1916 Fall -- Traveled to Florida to examine remains of supposed ancient man

1917 March-July -- Served as Secretary on the Committee on Anthropology of the National Research Council

1917 Summer -- "Old American" research at Yale University, Harvard University, and the University of Virginia and in Tennessee

1917 August -- Sponsored by the American Association for the Advancement of Science, traveled to Oklahoma to visit the Shawnee Agency in eastern Oklahoma and the Kickapoo Indians in McCloud to search for adequate samples of pure blood Indians

1918 -- Elected to the American Philosophical Society Served as Chairman of Section H of the American Association for the Advancement of Science Founded the American Journal of Physical Anthropology and became its long-time editor Surveyed prehistoric sites on the southwest coast of Florida

1918 October 8 -- Death of his wife Marie

1920 -- Anthropometry published by the Wistar Institute Elected an honorary fellow of the Royal Anthropological Society of Great Britain

1920 Summer -- Married Mina (Vilemina) Mansfield

1920 January-May -- Visited Japan, Korea, Manchuria, northern China, Mongolia, and Hawaii Lectured at Peking Union Medical College in China

1920 Fall -- Visited Minnesota Chippewa (at the White Earth Reservation?) to help the Department of Justice setter the question of mixed and pure bloods among the Chippewa

1921 -- Elected to the National Academy of Sciences

1922 -- Visited Spain, France, Germany, Moravia, and England Awarded honorary Sc.D. degree from the University of Prague Chairman of the American delegation to the 20th International Congress of Americanists in Rio de Janiero

1923 -- Served three and one-half months as Director of the American School in France for Prehistoric Studies Visited England, Holland, Belgium, France, Germany, Bohemia, Austria, Croatia, and Italy

1925 -- The Old Americans published by Williams and Wilkins Co.

1925 March-October -- Traveled to Australia, Java, India, South Africa, and Europe on a trip sponsored by the Buffalo [New York] Society of Natural Science to obtain cranial measurements of Australian aborigines and Tasmanians, to investigate the Rhodesian Man site in South Africa, to survey the field of early man, and to collect data to support his hypothesis about the peopling of the Earth

1925-1926 -- President of the American Anthropological Association

1926 -- Awarded honorary Sc.D. degree from University of Brno and D.Nat.Sc. degree from Brunn University

1926 May-September -- First fieldwork in Alaska: reconnaissance down the Yukon River to its mouth, around the Bering Sea and through the Bering Strait along the Alaskan coast to Point Barrow

1927 -- Received Huxley Memorial Medal and gave Huxley Lecture on "the Neanderthal Phase of Man" before the Royal Anthropological Society of Great Britain

1928 -- Helped found the American Association of Physical Anthropologists (AAPA)

1928-1929 -- President of the Washington Academy of Sciences

1928-1932 -- Served as first president of the AAPA

1929 -- Fieldwork in Alaska: surveyed the Yukon River from Tanana to its mouth, to St. Lawrence and the Diomede Islands, to Cape Prince of Wales, up to Point Barrow and back to Unalaska Awarded honorary Sc.D. degree from Charles University, Prague

1930 -- Published The Skeletal Remains of Early Man, Vol. 83 Smithsonian Miscellaneous collections Published "Anthropological Survey in Alaska," Forty-sixth Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology, pp. 21-374

1930 Summer -- Fieldwork in Alaska: surveyed the Kuskokwim River from Bethel down river to Apogak and up river to Stony River

1931 -- Children Who Run on All Fours published by McGraw-Hill Book Co.

1931 Summer -- Fieldwork in Alaska: excavated at Our (Jones) point site, trial excavations at Chief's Point and other sites, and a survey of Kodiak Island

1932 -- Kober Foundation lecturer of Georgetown University

1932 Summer -- Fieldwork in Alaska: excavated at Our (Jones) Point site, trial excavations at Chief's Point and other sites, and a survey of Kodiak Island

1934 Summer -- Fieldwork in Alaska: excavated at Our (Jones) Point site and surveyed Cooks Inlet sites and the mainland opposite the Our Point site

1935 Summer -- Fieldwork in Alaska: excavated at Our (Jones) Point site

1936 Summer -- Fieldwork in Alaska: excavated at Our (Jones) Point site and surveyed the Dutch Harbor caves, some of the Aleutian Islands, and the mummy cave on Kagamil Island

1937 Summer -- Fieldwork in Alaska: surveyed the Aleutian Islands and Commander Islands

1938 Summer -- Fieldwork in Alaska: surveyed the Aleutian Islands, Dutch Harbor caves, and Commander Islands

1939 April 4 -- Testimonial dinner given by the American Association of Physical Anthropologists in honor of his 70th birthday

1939 April-June -- Recuperated in London hospital after suffering a coronary occlusion

1942 March 31 -- Retired from curatorship at United States National Museum, becoming an associate in anthropology

1942 December -- Resigned as editor of the American Journal of Physical Anthropology

1943 -- Alaska Diary published by Cattell Press

1943 September 5 -- Died of heart attack

1944 -- Anthropology of Kodiak Island published by Wistar Institute

1945 -- The Aleutian and Commander Islands and Their Inhabitants published by Wistar Institute

1969 -- Tenth Anthropological Congress of the Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences dedicated to Hrdlička in the 100th anniversary year of his birth

Selected Bibliography

1908 -- Hrdlička, Aleš. Physiological and Medical Observations Among the Indians of Southwestern United States and Northern Mexico. Bulletin 34, Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1908.

1912 -- Hrdlička, Aleš. Early Man in South America. Bulletin 52, Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1912.

1919 -- Hrdlička, Aleš. Physical Anthropology: Its Scope and Aims. Philadelphia: The Wistar Institute of Anatomy and Biology, 1919.

1920 -- Hrdlička, Aleš. Anthropometry. Philadelphia: The Wistar Institute of Anatomy and Biology, 1920.

1925 -- Hrdlička, Aleš. The Old Americans. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins Co., 1925.

1930 -- Hrdlička, Aleš. The Skeletal Remains of Early Man. Vol. 83, Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections. City of Washington: The Smithsonian Institution, 1930. Hrdlička, Aleš. Anthropological Survey in Alaska. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1930.

1931 -- Hrdlička, Aleš. Children Who Run on All Fours, and Other Animal-like Behaviors in the Human Child. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., 1931.

1943 -- Hrdlička, Aleš. Alaska Diary, 1926-1931. Lancaster, PA: The Jacques Cattell Press, 1943.

1944 -- Hrdlička, Aleš. Anthropology of Kodiak Island. Philadelphia: The Wistar Institute of Anatomy and Biology, 1944.

1945 -- Hrdlička, Aleš. The Aleutian and Commander Islands and Their Inhabitants. Philadelphia: The Wistar Institute of Anatomy and Biology, 1945.
Related Materials:
Additional material in the National Anthropological Archives relating to Aleš Hrdlička can be found in the papers of William Louis Abbott, Henry Bascom Collins, Herbert William Krieger, and Frank Spencer; records of the American Anthropological Association, Bureau of American Ethnology, Department of Anthropology of the United States National Museum (National Museum of Natural History), Science Service, Anthropological Society of Washington, and the United States Army Medical Museum (anatomical section, records relating to specimens transferred to the Smithsonian Institution); and glass negatives of Indians collected by the Bureau of American Ethnology, Smithsonian Institution illustrations.

Additional related photographs can be found in Photo Lot 8, Division of Physical Anthropology collection; Photo Lot 9, Photographs of Indians for the Panama-California Exposition, San Diego; Photo Lot 24, Bureau of American Ethnology, United States National Museum photographs of American Indians; Photo Lot 70, Department of Anthropology portrait file; Photo Lot 78, Miscellaneous negatives; Photo Lot 97, Division of Ethnology collection ("USNM" Collection); Photo Lot 73-26B, Aleš Hrdlička photographs relating to the Panama-California Exhibition; Photo Lot 73-26G, Miscellany; Photo Lot 77-48, Group portraits of International Congress; Photo Lot 79-38, Division of World Archeology collection; Photo Lot 83-41, Division of Physical Anthropology collection of photographs of human bones; and Photo Lot 92-46, Anthropology lantern slides.

Related films can be found in the Human Studies Film Archive under the accession numbers HSFA 1982.2.1, 1982.2.2, 1986.12.1, and 2015.13.1.

Hrdlička's extensive collection of reprints is maintained in the Division of Physical Anthropology.

Frank Spencer's doctoral dissertation "Aleš Hrdlička, M.D., 1869-1943: A Chronicle of the Life and Work of an American Physical Anthropologist" (1979) is the only book length biography of Hrdlička. The Frank Spencer papers, 1836-1999, are available at the NAA and contain original correspondence between Hrdlička and his first wife, Marie Strickler; his childhood report card from 1869; copies of family photos obtained from Lucy Miller, Hrdlička's niece; and an audio recording of Hrdlička speaking at Wistar Institute.

Further material may be found in the Smithsonian Institution Archives.
Provenance:
Hrdlička bequeathed his papers to the Smithsonian Institution. The Division of Physical Anthropology maintained them until they were deposited in the National Anthropological Archives in the 1960s. Some papers have come into the collection since then, most recently in 2018. These new accretions came to the collection through Donald Ortner, David Hunt, T. Dale Stewart, the Department of Anthropology, and the University of Alaska.
Restrictions:
The Aleš Hrdlička papers are open for research.

Access to the Aleš Hrdlička papers requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Human evolution  Search this
Physical anthropology  Search this
Children -- Physical anthropology  Search this
anthropometry  Search this
Ethnology  Search this
Fossil hominids  Search this
Citation:
Aleš Hrdlička papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.1974-31
See more items in:
Aleš Hrdlička papers
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-1974-31
Online Media:

Eliot Elisofon and cameraman George Bracher filming renowned woodcarver Lamidi Olonade Fakeye, Ibadan, Nigeria

Photographer:
Bracher, Maya  Search this
Collection Photographer:
Elisofon, Eliot  Search this
Extent:
1 negatives (photographic) (b&w, 35mm.)
Culture:
Yoruba (African people)  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Negatives (photographic)
Black-and-white negatives
Negatives
Place:
Africa
Nigeria
Date:
1971
Scope and Contents:
The photograph depicts Eliot Elisofon and cameraman George Bracher filming renowned woodcarver Lamidi Olonade Fakeye standing by Epa headdress he carved. The headdress images a celebration of Iyabeji ('Mother of Twins'). "Epa and Elefon festivals are held throughout northern and southern Ekiti towns. Both terms vary regionally but they always refer to the same festival phenomenon - the celebration of social roles upon which the life of a Yoruba town depends. While an Epa carving may be placed on a shrine throughout most of the year receiving annual offerings and prayers from the elders of the house in which he resides, only when it 'comes out' does it, from a Yoruba pont of view, become 'complete' as a work of art, achieving that for which it was created." [Drewal H. J., Pemberton J. III, Rowland Abiodun, 1989: Yoruba. Nine Centuries of African Art and Thought; The Carvers of the Northeast. Harry N. Abrams Inc.]. This photograph was taken by Maya Bracher when she traveled to Africa from October 26, 1970 to end of March 1971. She was on assignment for Eliot Elisofon when he wrote, produced, and directed a four-hour television series for Group W (Westinghouse Broadcasting Company) titled Black African Heritage (1973). The series was divided into four segments, lasting 50 minutes each: The Congo, The Bend of the Niger, The Slave Coast, and Africa's Gift.
Local Numbers:
EENG-IX-12, 22.
General:
Title source: Index card based on photographer's notes.
Local Note:
Typed index card reads, "Z 2 Yrb. Yoruba. Nigeria, Ibadan. Elisofon, cameraman Georges Bracher filming carver Lamidi Fakeye with an Epa mask. (coll. Univ. of Ibadan). Westinghouse film. 1/1971. EE. neg.no. IX-12, 22." The card was written in 1977-79 by Archives staff using source provided by photographer.
Collection Restrictions:
Use of original records requires an appointment. Contact Archives staff for more details.
Collection Rights:
Permission to reproduce images from the Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives must be obtained in advance. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Topic:
Portraits  Search this
Artists  Search this
Photographers  Search this
Wood-carving  Search this
Genre/Form:
Black-and-white negatives
Negatives
Collection Citation:
Eliot Elisofon Field Collection, EEPA 1973-001, Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives, National Museum of African Art, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
EEPA.1973-001, Item EEPA EENG 08421
See more items in:
Eliot Elisofon Field collection
Eliot Elisofon Field collection / Nigeria
Archival Repository:
Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives, National Museum of African Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-eepa-1973-001-ref35499

Woman preparing a meal, Chadawanka village, Niger

Photographer:
Elisofon, Eliot  Search this
Collection Photographer:
Elisofon, Eliot  Search this
Extent:
1 negatives (photographic) (b&w, 35mm.)
Culture:
Bororo (African people)  Search this
Wodaabe (African people)  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Negatives (photographic)
Black-and-white negatives
Negatives
Place:
Africa
Niger
Date:
1971
Scope and Contents:
In central Niger, between the great Sahara Desert and the Grasslands, lies an immense steppe in which the Wodaabe, commonly called Bororo, are virtually the only Fulbe group that has preserved the ancient nomadic tradition. Consumption of milk and millet varies, depending on the season. During the rainy season, milk is abundant and is the staple of the Woodabe diet. During the dry season, the lack of milk is made up for by millet dishes and sometimes by rice, wheat or sorghum cooked in water. [Beckwitch/Van Offelen, 1983: Nomads of Niger, Harry N. Abrams Inc.]. This photograph was taken when Eliot Elisofon was on assignment for Westinghouse Film and traveled to Africa from October 26, 1970 to end of March 1971.
Local Numbers:
EENG-VII-22, 27A.
General:
Title source: Index card based on photographer's notes.
Local Note:
Typed index card reads, "J 1 Brr. Bororo. Niger, Chadawanka village. Cooking millet. 1/1971. EE. neg.no. VII-22, 27A." The card was written in 1977-79 by Archives staff using source provided by photographer.
Collection Restrictions:
Use of original records requires an appointment. Contact Archives staff for more details.
Collection Rights:
Permission to reproduce images from the Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives must be obtained in advance. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Topic:
Households  Search this
Domestic scenes  Search this
Genre/Form:
Black-and-white negatives
Negatives
Collection Citation:
Eliot Elisofon Field Collection, EEPA 1973-001, Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives, National Museum of African Art, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
EEPA.1973-001, Item EEPA EENG 03482
See more items in:
Eliot Elisofon Field collection
Eliot Elisofon Field collection / Niger
Archival Repository:
Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives, National Museum of African Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-eepa-1973-001-ref30563

Domestic scenes in Woodabe woman's shelter and domain, Chadawanka village, Niger

Photographer:
Elisofon, Eliot  Search this
Collection Photographer:
Elisofon, Eliot  Search this
Extent:
1 negatives (photographic) (b&w, 35mm.)
Culture:
Bororo (African people)  Search this
Wodaabe (African people)  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Negatives (photographic)
Black-and-white negatives
Negatives
Place:
Africa
Niger
Date:
1971
Scope and Contents:
"In central Niger, between the great Sahara Desert and the Grasslands, lies an immense steppe in which the Wodaabe, commonly called Bororo, are virtually the only Fulbe group that has preserved the ancient nomadic tradition. The suudu is woodabe woman's shelter and domain. It contains everything she owns. her bed; a long, narrow wooden table. On the table are some fifty nested calabashes -five sets of ten. A top the pile of calabashes is a large decorative structure made up of the woman's kaakol and elletel. These possessions are never used but constitue a woman's source of personal pride and prestige. The Woodabe woman displays them only on the occasion of the rainy season ceremonies, notably during the worso." [Beckwith/Van Offelen, 1983: Nomads of Niger, Harry N. Abrams Inc.]. This photograph was taken when Eliot Elisofon was on assignment for Westinghouse Film and traveled to Africa from October 26, 1970 to end of March 1971.
Local Numbers:
EENG-VII-22, 23A.
General:
Title source: Index card based on photographer's notes.
Collection Restrictions:
Use of original records requires an appointment. Contact Archives staff for more details.
Collection Rights:
Permission to reproduce images from the Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives must be obtained in advance. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Topic:
Women  Search this
Domestic scenes  Search this
Households  Search this
Genre/Form:
Black-and-white negatives
Negatives
Collection Citation:
Eliot Elisofon Field Collection, EEPA 1973-001, Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives, National Museum of African Art, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
EEPA.1973-001, Item EEPA EENG 09913
See more items in:
Eliot Elisofon Field collection
Eliot Elisofon Field collection / Niger
Archival Repository:
Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives, National Museum of African Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-eepa-1973-001-ref36991

Domestic scenes in Woodabe woman's shelter and domain, Chadawanka village, Niger

Photographer:
Elisofon, Eliot  Search this
Collection Photographer:
Elisofon, Eliot  Search this
Extent:
1 negatives (photographic) (b&w, 35mm.)
Culture:
Bororo (African people)  Search this
Wodaabe (African people)  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Negatives (photographic)
Black-and-white negatives
Negatives
Place:
Africa
Niger
Date:
1971
Scope and Contents:
"In central Niger, between the great Sahara Desert and the Grasslands, lies an immense steppe in which the Wodaabe, commonly called Bororo, are virtually the only Fulbe group that has preserved the ancient nomadic tradition. The suudu is woodabe woman's shelter and domain. It contains everything she owns. her bed; a long, narrow wooden table. On the table are some fifty nested calabashes -five sets of ten. A top the pile of calabashes is a large decorative structure made up of the woman's kaakol and elletel. These possessions are never used but constitue a woman's source of personal pride and prestige. The Woodabe woman displays them only on the occasion of the rainy season ceremonies, notably during the worso." [Beckwith/Van Offelen, 1983: Nomads of Niger, Harry N. Abrams Inc.]. This photograph was taken when Eliot Elisofon was on assignment for Westinghouse Film and traveled to Africa from October 26, 1970 to end of March 1971.
Local Numbers:
EENG-VII-22, 24A.
General:
Title source: Index card based on photographer's notes.
Collection Restrictions:
Use of original records requires an appointment. Contact Archives staff for more details.
Collection Rights:
Permission to reproduce images from the Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives must be obtained in advance. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Topic:
Women  Search this
Domestic scenes  Search this
Households  Search this
Genre/Form:
Black-and-white negatives
Negatives
Collection Citation:
Eliot Elisofon Field Collection, EEPA 1973-001, Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives, National Museum of African Art, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
EEPA.1973-001, Item EEPA EENG 09914
See more items in:
Eliot Elisofon Field collection
Eliot Elisofon Field collection / Niger
Archival Repository:
Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives, National Museum of African Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-eepa-1973-001-ref36992

Zebu cattle and donkeys near Woodabe woman's shelter and domain, Chadawanka village, Niger

Photographer:
Elisofon, Eliot  Search this
Collection Photographer:
Elisofon, Eliot  Search this
Extent:
1 negatives (photographic) (b&w, 35mm.)
Culture:
Bororo (African people)  Search this
Wodaabe (African people)  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Negatives (photographic)
Black-and-white negatives
Negatives
Place:
Africa
Niger
Date:
1971
Scope and Contents:
"In central Niger, between the great Sahara Desert and the Grasslands, lies an immense steppe in which the Wodaabe, commonly called Bororo, are virtually the only Fulbe group that has preserved the ancient nomadic tradition. The suudu is woodabe woman's shelter and domain. It contains everything she owns. her bed; a long, narrow wooden table. On the table are some fifty nested calabashes -five sets of ten. A top the pile of calabashes is a large decorative structure made up of the woman's kaakol and elletel. These possessions are never used but constitue a woman's source of personal pride and prestige. The Woodabe woman displays them only on the occasion of the rainy season ceremonies, notably during the worso." [Beckwith/Van Offelen, 1983: Nomads of Niger, Harry N. Abrams Inc.]. This photograph was taken when Eliot Elisofon was on assignment for Westinghouse Film and traveled to Africa from October 26, 1970 to end of March 1971.
Local Numbers:
EENG-VII-22, 30A.
General:
Title source: Index card based on photographer's notes.
Collection Restrictions:
Use of original records requires an appointment. Contact Archives staff for more details.
Collection Rights:
Permission to reproduce images from the Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives must be obtained in advance. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Topic:
Animals -- Africa  Search this
Cattle -- Africa  Search this
Domestic scenes  Search this
Households  Search this
Genre/Form:
Black-and-white negatives
Negatives
Collection Citation:
Eliot Elisofon Field Collection, EEPA 1973-001, Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives, National Museum of African Art, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
EEPA.1973-001, Item EEPA EENG 09917
See more items in:
Eliot Elisofon Field collection
Eliot Elisofon Field collection / Niger
Archival Repository:
Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives, National Museum of African Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-eepa-1973-001-ref36995

Nufori acrobat-mask performs the final rituals of a Senufo funeral, Promafolo village, near Korhogo, Ivory Coast

Photographer:
Elisofon, Eliot  Search this
Collection Photographer:
Elisofon, Eliot  Search this
Extent:
1 Slide (col.)
Culture:
Senufo (African people)  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Slides
Color slides
Place:
Africa
Côte d'Ivoire
Date:
1971
Scope and Contents:
"On the last day of the ceremony, two Nufori acrobat-masks into the village square perform the final rituals of a Senufo funeral. Known as Panthers of the Poro, the maskers wear brown, spotted costumes made from mud-dyed ritual cloth, designed to terrify the women and children in the audience, who are mormally excluded from masked rituals. Despite their humorous antics, they are respected and even feared by the villagers, whom they are entitled to hit with a switch. The masks are accompanied by a Boloye band, who play unique one-stringed calabash harps called bolongo." [Beckwith C., Fisher A., 1999: African Ceremonies. Volume 2. Harry N. Abrams, Inc., Publishers]. This photograph was taken when Eliot Elisofon was on assignment for Westinghouse Film and traveled to Africa from October 26, 1970 to end of March 1971.
Local Numbers:
E 2 SNF 6.1 EE 71
General:
Title is provided by EEPA staff based on photographer's notes.
Local Note:
46
Frame value is 22.
Slide No. E 2 SNF 6.1 EE 71
Collection Restrictions:
Use of original records requires an appointment. Contact Archives staff for more details.
Collection Rights:
Permission to reproduce images from the Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives must be obtained in advance. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Topic:
Masquerades  Search this
Dance  Search this
Rites and ceremonies -- Africa  Search this
Musical instruments  Search this
Clothing and dress -- Africa  Search this
Cultural landscapes  Search this
Genre/Form:
Color slides
Collection Citation:
Eliot Elisofon Field Collection, EEPA 1973-001, Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives, National Museum of African Art, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
EEPA.1973-001, Item EEPA EECL 3875
See more items in:
Eliot Elisofon Field collection
Eliot Elisofon Field collection / Côte d'Ivoire
Archival Repository:
Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives, National Museum of African Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-eepa-1973-001-ref20303

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