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Around Town: To Achieve These Rights

Creator:
WETA-TV (Television station : Washington, D.C.)  Search this
Names:
Anacostia Community Museum  Search this
Anacostia Neighborhood Museum  Search this
Collection Creator:
Smithsonian Institution. Anacostia Community Museum  Search this
Extent:
1 video recording (VHS)
Culture:
African American  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Video recordings
Video recordings
Place:
Anacostia (Washington, D.C.)
Washington (D.C.)
United States
Date:
1992
Scope and Contents:
Around Town, which presented video segments of events happening around Washington, D.C. on public television station WETA, profiled the Anacostia Museum's exhibition 'To Achieve These Rights: The Struggle for Equality and Self-Determination in the District of Columbia, 1791-1978.' Other topics included in this episode: new feature film 'Daughters of the Dust,' new adaption of 'Frankenstein' by the Washington Shakespeare Company, and an international art exhibition and auction at the 'Very Special Arts' gallery. After brief clips or description of each topic, there was a short roundtable discussion.
News program with roundtable discussion. Related to exhibition 'To Achieve These Rights: The Struggle for Equality and Self-Determination in the District of Columbia, 1791-1978.' Dated 19920227.
Collection Restrictions:
Use of the materials requires an appointment. Please contact the archivist to make an appointment: ACMarchives@si.edu.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
African Americans  Search this
Slavery  Search this
Slave trade  Search this
Antislavery movements  Search this
Slaves -- Emancipation  Search this
Slavery -- Law and legislation  Search this
Civil rights  Search this
Home rule  Search this
Museum exhibits  Search this
Genre/Form:
Video recordings
Citation:
Around Town: To Achieve These Rights, Anacostia Community Museum Archives, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
ACMA.03-033, Item ACMA AV002641
See more items in:
To achieve these rights: the struggle for equality and self-determination in the District of Columbia, 1791–1978 exhibition records
Archival Repository:
Anacostia Community Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-acma-03-033-ref509

David J. Marcou photographs

Photographer:
Marcou, David Joseph, 1950-  Search this
Names:
La Crosse Symphony Orchestra  Search this
Miller, Bill, 1955-  Search this
Mills, Amy Riebs, 1955-  Search this
Wilkinson, Kristin  Search this
Yudkin, Joshua  Search this
Extent:
32 Photographs ((digital photographs))
Culture:
Ho-Chunk [Wisconsin]  Search this
Menominee (Menomini)  Search this
Stockbridge-Munsee  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Date:
2008
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of 32 digital photographs shot by David J. Marcou and depict The Last Stand symphony dress rehearsal on April 24, 2008 in La Crosse, Wisconsin. The photographs depict the La Crosse Symphony Orchestra; co-composers Bill Miller (Mohican/Stockbridge-Munsee), Joshua Yudkin, and Kristin Wilkinson; conductor Amy Mills; La Crosse Symphony Orchestra Director Connie Knutson and volunteer Mary Patros; and American Indian dancers and musicians including Lance Tallmadge (Ho-Chunk), Art Shegonee (Menominee), and the Battle Point Singers (Ho-Chunk).

Inspired by the 1876 Battle of Little Bighorn, The Last Stand symphony premiered on April 25, 2008 to a sold out audience.
Biographical / Historical:
David J. Marcou, a native of La Crosse, Wisconsin, graduated from Aquinas High School in 1968. He received a Bachelor of Arts degree in history from the University of Wisconsin-Madison in 1973 and another Bachelor of Journalism degree from the University of Missouri-Columbia in 1984. He also received a Master of Arts degree in American Studies from the University of Iowa-Iowa City in 1978. Marcou has worked as a writer, journalist, editor and photographer. He has taught courses on writing and photography at Western Wisconsin Technical College (now Western Technical College) in La Crosse.

Biographical note courtesy of the Smithsonian Libraries.
Provenance:
Donated by David J. Marcou in 2008.
Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Rights:
Single photocopies may be made for research purposes. Permission to publish or broadcast materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiarchives@si.edu.
Topic:
Symphony orchestras  Search this
Indians of North America -- Music  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Citation:
Identification of specific item; 2008; David J. Marcou photographs; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution, Gift of David J. Marcou. Photograph by David J. Marcou.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.107
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmai-ac-107
Online Media:

Beverly Hallam papers

Creator:
Hallam, Beverly, 1923-2013  Search this
Names:
Ogunquit Art Association (Ogunquit, Me.)  Search this
Sarton, May, 1912-  Search this
Smart, Mary, 1915-  Search this
Extent:
24.2 Linear feet
2.73 Gigabytes
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Gigabytes
Video recordings
Motion picture film
Interviews
Sound recordings
Sketchbooks
Date:
1899-2013
Summary:
The papers of painter, printmaker, photographer, and educator Beverly Hallam measure 24.2 linear feet and 2.73 Gigabytes, and date from 1899-2013. The collection includes biographical material, correspondence, personal business records, writings, journals, teaching materials, printed material, photographs, film, video, and sound recordings, guest books, and artwork.
Scope and Contents:
The papers of painter, printmaker, photographer, and educator Beverly Hallam measure 24.2 linear feet and 2.73 Gigabytes, and date from 1899-2013. The collection includes biographical material, correspondence, personal business records, writings, journals, teaching materials, printed material, photographs, film, video, and sound recordings, guest books, and artwork.

Biographical material includes family histories for both Hallam and Mary-Leigh Smart, as well as Hallam's family estate management, in addition to résumés and travel documents. Correspondence is both professional and personal, including extensive letters with the writer May Sarton. Personal business records include gallery and exhibition records, including some consignments, loans and price lists, as well as donation records. Writings include a master's thesis, artist statements, articles and lectures by Beverly Hallam, as well as student assignments and writings by others. Hallam's journals include travel and artwork journals, as well as heavily annotated and interleaved yearly planners. Teaching materials date back to Hallam's earliest lessons delivered while obtaining her bachelor's degree of education Massachusetts College of Art, and include her work at Lassell Junior College and her tenure teaching at Massachusetts College of Art.

The printed material series includes extensive clippings regarding Hallam's career as well as family history and the careers of notable friends and colleagues, in addition to those regarding regional artists and the art scene in Maine. Also included are invitations and catalogs for Beverly Hallam's exhibitions, and early research into polyvinyl acetate. Photographs include those of Beverly and her friends and family, as well as artwork and albums documenting installations for exhibitions throughout Hallam's career. Some albums more closely document the homes and estates of Surf Point belonging to Hallam and Smart, as well as Wild Knoll belonging to May Sarton. Also included are photographs Hallam created as illustrations for writing projects by Sarton.

The film, video, and audio recording series includes numerous home movies documenting Hallam's family life and her home at Surf Point, as well as some reels documenting her artwork and exhibitions and a few audio recordings most likely of artist talks. Guest books document attendance for select exhibitions in Hallam's career, as well as of her various homes. The artwork series is comprised of sketchbooks including those detailing Hallam's airbrush works, holiday cards drawn and designed by Hallam, and prints of later computer-generated works.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged in eleven series:

Series 1: Biographical Material, circa 1899-2012 (1.0 linear foot: Box 1; 0.349 GB: ER01)

Series 2: Correspondence, circa 1930s-2013 (4.3 linear feet: Boxes 2-6; 0.376 GB: ER02-ER11)

Series 3: Personal Business, circa 1952-2012, circa 1952-2012 (0.7 linear feet: Box 6; 0.066 GB: ER12-ER14, ER16)

Series 4: Writings, circa 1920s-2006 (1.4 linear feet: Boxes 7-8, 22; 0.001 GB: ER15)

Series 5: Journals, circa 1941-1999 (2.7 linear feet: Boxes 8-10)

Series 6: Teaching Material, circa 1944-1962 (0.7 linear feet: Box 11)

Series 7: Printed Material, circa 1920s-2010 (4.3 linear feet: Boxes 11-15, 22)

Series 8: Photographs, circa 1900-2013 (4.7 linear feet: Boxes 15-20; 1.95 GB: ER17-ER30)

Series 9: Film, Video, and Sound Recordings, circa 1970s-1990 (2.6 linear feet: Box 17, FC25-FC47)

Series 10: Guest Books, 1954-2004 (0.8 linear feet: Boxes 17, 21)

Series 11: Artwork, circa 1940s-2008 (1.0 linear foot (Boxes 21, 23-24)
Biographical / Historical:
Beverly Linney Hallam (1923-2013) was a painter, photographer, printmaker, and art educator in York, Maine. Hallam was born in Lynn, Massachusetts to parents Alice Linney Hallam and Edwin Hallam, who was an engineer. Beverly Hallam gravitated toward art making at a young age, and pursued a bachelor's degree in education from the Massachusetts College of Art. Shortly after graduation Hallam accepted a position at Lasell Junior College where she was Chairman of the Art Department until 1949. In 1948 she attended a summer study program at Cranbrook Academy of Art in Michigan. In 1953 she received her M.F.A. at Syracuse University where she wrote her thesis on the use of polyvinyl acetate as an artistic medium. For this and other early efforts she would be known as a pioneer for the medium of acrylic paint, which polyvinyl acetate would come to be known. From 1949-1962 Ms. Hallam was professor at the Massachusetts College of Art from 1949-1961 where she taught Painting, Drawing and Design, and Photography. She is particularly well known as a printmaker, and especially for her large-scale airbrush paintings of flowers.

Around the early 1960s with Hallam's departure from teaching, she relocated permanently to Ogunquit, Maine where she kept a studio and home known as Stonecrop, which is currently an art gallery by the same name. In 1971 Hallam and lifelong friend and companion Mary-Leigh Smart completed the construction of Surf Point, which served as both a home as well as a studio for Hallam. Surf Point was situated near the property known as Wild Knoll which was home to Hallam's close friend and correspondent, the poet and writer May Sarton, who lived there from 1974-1995. Sarton and Hallam Smart was a founder of The Barn Gallery, under the Ogunquit Art Association, for which both Hallam and Smart were board members. Smart also was also a collector and art consultant, passionate about Maine regional artists. In 1988 Mary-Leigh Smart established a Trust that would ensure their home and surrounding land would be turned into an artist residency upon their deaths, known as the Surf Point Foundation, modelled after the MacDowell Colony.
Related Materials:
The originals of some letters from May Sarton, 1954, and 1966-1994, included in this collection as photocopies, appear in the May Sarton papers held at New York Public Library's Archives and Manuscripts.
Provenance:
Material on reel 1428 was lent for microfilming in 1978. The majority of the collection was donated in 1992 and 1996 by Beverly Hallam, and in 2014 by the Beverly Hallam estate via executor Mary-Leigh Smart.
Restrictions:
This collection is open for research. Access to original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C. Research Center. Researchers interested in accessing born-digital records or audiovisual recordings in this collection must use access copies. Contact References Services for more information.
Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Occupation:
Educators -- Massachusetts -- Boston  Search this
Painters -- Maine -- York  Search this
Photographers -- Maine  Search this
Printmakers -- Maine  Search this
Topic:
Women artists  Search this
Acrylic painting  Search this
Airbrush art  Search this
Genre/Form:
Video recordings
Motion picture film
Interviews
Sound recordings
Sketchbooks
Citation:
Beverly Hallam Papers, 1899-2013. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.hallbeve
See more items in:
Beverly Hallam papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-hallbeve

Florida Art Teacher's Association Summary Talk Notes

Collection Creator:
Conant, Howard Somers, 1921-2011  Search this
Container:
Box 1, Folder 22
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1958 October 25
Collection Restrictions:
This collection is open for research. Access to original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C. Research Center. Researchers interested in accessing audiovisual recordings in this collection must use access copies. Contact References Services for more information.
Collection Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Collection Citation:
Howard Somers Conant papers, 1944-1987. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Howard Somers Conant papers
Howard Somers Conant papers / Series 2: Writings
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aaa-conahowa-ref24

Betty J. Meggers and Clifford Evans Papers

Creator:
Meggers, Betty Jane  Search this
Evans, Clifford, 1920-1981  Search this
Extent:
129 Linear feet
Culture:
American Indian -- South America  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Field notes
Place:
Venezuela -- archeology
Peru -- Archeology
Date:
1893-2012
Summary:
The Betty J. Meggers and Clifford Evans Papers document their research and professional activities from 1946-2012 and primarily deal with their archaeological and anthropological research in South America. Their work at the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History and their frequent collaboration with other researchers and professional organizations is also represented. In addition, this collection contains detailed records on South American research conducted by the Smithsonian Institution from the 1950s through the 2010s. The collection consists of research and project files, raw data and analysis, graphs and illustrations, photographs, correspondence, maps and charts, and administrative files.
Scope and Contents:
The Betty J. Meggers and Clifford Evans papers document their research and professional activities from 1946-2012 and primarily deal with their archaeological and anthropological research in South America. There is also significant material detailing research conducted in South America by the National Museum of Natural History (particularly the Department of Anthropology). Material documenting their publication and collaboration efforts with researchers and other colleagues is represented as well. There is also limited material related to Meggers and Evans time in graduate school at Columbia University and their brief careers before starting at the Smithsonian Institution in the early 1950s. The collection consists of research and project files, raw data and analysis, graphs and illustrations, photographs, correspondence, maps and charts, and administrative files.
Arrangement:
This collection is arranged in 12 series: Series 1. Personal, 1893-2012, undated; Series 2. Writings, 1944-2011, undated; Series 3. Research, 1930-2011, undated; Series 4. Correspondence, 1922-2012; Series 5. Conferences and Seminars, 1949-2010, undated; Series 6. Museum and Institute Subject Files, 1973-2011, undated; Series 7. Smithsonian Institution Amazon Ecosystem Program, 1962-2008, undated. Series 8. National Program of Archeological Research in Brazil, 1961-1989, undated; Series 9. Paleoindian Research: Paleoclimatology and Paleofauna Programs, 1960-1992, undated; Series 10. Latin American Archaeology Fund, 1971-1991, undated; Series 11. Photographs, 1937-2008, undated; Series 12. Maps and Charts, 1957- circa 2009, undated.
Biographical / Historical:
Clifford Evans Chronology

1920 -- Born in Dallas, Texas.

1941 -- Bachelors degree in anthropology from the University of Southern California.

1946 -- Married Betty Meggers.

1948-1949 -- Field research: Lower Amazon archaelogical expedition to Marajo, Mexiana, Caviana, and Territory of Ampa, Brazil. With Betty Meggers.

1950 -- Ph.D., Columbia University.

1950-1951 -- Instructor, Anthropology, University of Virginia.

1951-1962 -- Associate Curator, Smithsonian Department of Anthropology.

1952-1953 -- Field research: Archaelogical and ethnographic investigations in British Guiana. With Betty Meggers.

1954 -- Field research: Archaelogical survey and excavations on coastal Ecuador. With Betty Meggers and Emilio Estrada.

1956 -- Field research: Archaelogical survey and excavations along the Rio Napo, Eastern Ecuador. With Betty Meggers.

1957 -- Field research: Archaelogical survey and excavations on coastal Ecuador. With Betty Meggers and Emilio Estrada.

1958 -- Field research: Archaelogical survey and excavations on coastal Ecuador. With Betty Meggers and Emilio Estrada.

1961 -- Field research: Archaelogical survey and excavations on coastal Ecuador. With Betty Meggers and Emilio Estrada.

1962-1964 -- Curator of the Division of Archaeology.

1963 -- Field research: Archeological investigations of megalithic structures on Nan Madol, Ponape, Caroline Islands. With Betty Meggers.

1964-1970, 1975-1981 -- Supervising Curator of the Department of Anthropological Research.

1965-1970 -- Co-principal investigator with Betty Meggers of PRONAPA.

1966 -- Field research: Archeological survey on Dominica. With Clifford Evans.

1968-1975 -- Co-principal investigator with Betty Meggers of the Proyecto Andino de Estudios Arqueologicos.

1970-1975 -- Chairman of the Department of Anthropology.

1971 -- Creates the Latin American Archaeology Fund with Betty Meggers.

1972 -- Creates the Paleo-Indian, Paleoecology, and Paleoenvironmental Research Program.

1974 -- Creates the Amazon Ecosystems Research Program.

1975-1980 -- Co-principal investigator with Betty Meggers of PRONAPABA.

1976 -- Field research: Paleoindian and Archaic sites and museum collections in Peru, Chile, Argentina, Uruguay, and Brazil. With Betty Meggers and Dennis Stanford.

1981 -- Dies in Washington, D.C.

Betty Meggers Chronology

1921 -- Born December 5 in Washington, D.C.

1943 -- A.B. in anthropology, University of Pennsylvania

1944 -- M.A., University of Michigan

1948-1949 -- Field research: Lower Amazon archaelogical expedition to Marajo, Mexiana, Caviana, and Territory of Ampa, Brazil. With Clifford Evans.

1950-1951 -- Instructor, Anthropology, American University

1952 -- Ph.D., Columbia University

1952-1953 -- Field research: Archaelogical and ethnographic investigations in British Guiana. With Clifford Evans.

1954 -- Field research: Archaelogical survey and excavations on coastal Ecuador. With Clifford Evans and Emilio Estrada.

1954-2012 -- Research Associate, Department of Anthropology, national Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution

1956 -- Field research: Archaelogical survey and excavations along the Rio Napo, Eastern Ecuador. With Clifford Evans.

1957 -- Field research: Archaelogical survey and excavations on coastal Ecuador. With Clifford Evans and Emilio Estrada.

1958 -- Field research: Archaelogical survey and excavations on coastal Ecuador. With Clifford Evans and Emilio Estrada.

1961 -- Field research: Archaelogical survey and excavations on coastal Ecuador. With Clifford Evans and Emilio Estrada.

1963 -- Field research: Archeological investigations of megalithic structures on Nan Madol, Ponape, Caroline Islands. With Clifford Evans.

1965-1970 -- Co-principal investigator with Clifford Evans of PRONAPA.

1966 -- Field research: Archeological survey on Dominica. With Clifford Evans.

1968-1975 -- Co-principal investigator with Clifford Evans of the Proyecto Andino de Estudios Arqueologicos.

1975-1980 -- Co-principal investigator with Clifford Evans of PRONAPABA.

1976 -- Field research: Paleoindian and Archaic sites and museum collections in Peru, Chile, Argentina, Uruguay, and Brazil. With Clifford Evans and Dennis Stanford.

1976-1996 -- Committee for Research and Exploration, National Geographic Society

1982-1985 -- Consultant, Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi, Belem, Brazil

2012 -- Dies in Washington, D.C.

Betty J. Meggers and Clifford Evans were anthropologists specializing in the archeology of lowland South America. Their combined careers at the Smithsonian Department of Anthropology totaled over 100 years. Evans was born in 1920 in Texas. He received his bachelor's degree in anthropology and archaeology from the University of Southern California in 1941. Following his service as a bombardier during World War II, he enrolled in the anthropology doctoral program at Columbia University where he met Meggers, a fellow student in the department. Meggers was born in 1921 in Washington, D.C., and was the daughter of well-known archaeologist William Frederick Meggers. She graduated from the University of Pennsylvania with a bachelors degree in anthropology in 1943 and from the University of Michigan with a masters in anthropology in 1944 before being admitted to Columbia.

Meggers and Evans did their dissertation research together in South America— Meggers worked on the island of Marajo at the mouth of the Amazon River while Evans did archaeological research in the Amapa territory of Brazil. The two were married on September 13, 1946.

After Evans received his Ph.D. in 1950, he was hired by the Smithsonian Institution as an associate curator in the Department of Anthropology in 1951. After graduating in 1952, Meggers worked as an anthropology instructor at American University for one year before being hired as a research associate in the Smithsonian Department of Anthropology in 1954.

Evans was named Curator of the Division of Archaeology in 1962, and Supervising Curator of the newly created Office of Anthropological Research in 1964. Under his leadership, standardized operating procedures were created that centralized accessioning, cataloging, storing, and lending of objects. This freed curators from many complicated and routine activities. In 1970, Evans was appointed the Chairman of Anthropology for a five year term, where he initiated many large-scale research programs with Meggers that continued to operate many years after his chairmanship ended.

The first program that Evans and Meggers created was the "Paleo-Indian, Paleoecology, and Paleoenvironmental Research Program" in 1972, which was designed to study prehistoric peoples in the Western Hemisphere. The second program, implemented in 1974 was the "Amazon Ecosystems Research Program," which organized Brazilian scientists and Smithsonian staff members interested in environmental studies of the Amazon region.

Meggers and Evans conducted much of their field work together, which resulted in hundreds of articles, essays, presentations, and books. The majority of their work was done in the Amazon and Andean regions of South America, particularly Brazil, Ecuador, Venezuela, and Ecuador. Aside from these publications, they were also able to collect many archaeological specimens that are still part of the Smithsonian's holdings.

The conclusions that Meggers and Evans drew from their research and field work, while ground-breaking, were often controversial. In the early 1960s local businessman and amateur archaeologist Emilio Estrada excavated pottery from the Valdivia area in Ecuador and shared his results with Meggers and Evans. After finding significant similarities between Valdivian artifacts and those from Japan's ancient Jomon culture, they theorized that there was transpacific contact between Japan and South America around the beginning of the third millennium B.C. Their theory remains controversial.

Meggers and Evans also argued that despite the rich forests of the Amazon region, the river basin's thin, poor soil could not hold enough nutrients to sustain intensive agriculture. As a result, they argued, large and complex societies could not have existed in the Amazon River basin as other archaeologists and anthropologists have suggested.

After finishing his tenure as chairman of the Department of Anthropology, Clifford Evans died in 1981 of a heart attack at the age of 60. Following his death, Meggers continued in her position as research associate in the Department of Anthropology for another 30 years. Though she did not conduct additional fieldwork after her husband's death, Meggers wrote prolifically and was heavily involved in analyzing field work data and collaborating with colleagues working throughout South America. She made it possible for many researchers to study and conduct research at the National Museum of Natural History, and presented in many conferences and seminars locally and internationally. In addition, Meggers advocated on the behalf of colleagues to the National Geographic Society and other organizations to procure funding for archaeological and anthropological expeditions all over the world. Betty Meggers died in 2012 at the age of 90.
Related Materials:
There are about 25 slide cases, each containing about 200 to 300 kodachrome slides, that are currently stored at the Department of Anthropology at the National Museum of Natural History. These were created in the late 1940s and early 1950s and contain images of field work and other trips to South American locations such as Peru, British Guiana, the Peru Highlands, Ecuador, Brazil, Chile, Hondouras, Venezuela, Ecuador, and Mexico. Contact repository for more information.
Separated Materials:
2 rolls of 16mm film, 22 audio cassettes, and 1 VHS of South and Central American research were transferred to the Human Studies Film Archives in 2015.
Provenance:
The papers were donated to the National Anthropological Archives by the estate of Betty J. Meggers in 2013.
Restrictions:
The Betty J. Meggers and Clifford Evans papers are open for research. Personal correspondence, however, is RESTRICTED until 2026.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Paleoindian  Search this
Archaeology  Search this
Archeology -- Meso-America  Search this
Archaeology -- Ponape, Nan Matol  Search this
Archeology -- British Guiana  Search this
Archaeology -- Ecuador  Search this
Amazonia  Search this
Indians of South America -- Brazil  Search this
Paleo-Indians -- North America  Search this
Names, place -- geographic -- South America  Search this
Genre/Form:
Field notes
Citation:
Betty J. Meggers and Clifford Evans Papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.2013-01
See more items in:
Betty J. Meggers and Clifford Evans Papers
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-2013-01

MS 4515-a Reginald Noel Atkinson report, photographs, and map relating to Okanagan artifacts

Creator:
Atkinson, Reginald Noel, 1897-  Search this
Extent:
20 Pages
14 gelatin silver prints
1 Map (hand-drawn )
Culture:
Okanagan Indians  Search this
Indians of North America -- Plateau  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Pages
Gelatin silver prints
Maps
Place:
Washington -- Antiquities
British Columbia -- Antiquities
Date:
1943
Scope and Contents:
Copy of "The Artifacts of the Okanagan Indians in British Columbia and Washington State," paper presented by Reginald Noel Atkinson of Penticton, British Columbia, before the Okanagan Society for the Revival of Indian Arts and Crafts meeting, held on January 18, 1943 in Oliver, British Columbia. Also includes transcript of discussions of the paper, photographs of artifacts, and a map of the area.
Biographical / Historical:
In 1954, Reginald Noel Atkinson founded and curated the Penticton Museum. A long-time Penticton resident and veteran of World War I, Atkinson collected military and American Indian artifacts, firearms, and antiques. The R.N. Atkinson Temporary Gallery was named in his honor after his death in 1973.
Local Numbers:
NAA MS 4515-a
Topic:
Salish  Search this
Citation:
Manuscript 4515-a, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.MS4515A
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-ms4515a

Francis P. Conant Papers

Creator:
Conant, Francis  Search this
Names:
Hunter College. Department of Anthropology  Search this
Goldschmidt, Walter, 1913-2010  Search this
Naguib, Mohammed, 1901-  Search this
Extent:
20 Linear feet ((43 boxes) plus 25 digital storage media and 5 map folders )
Culture:
Southern Bauchi languages  Search this
Suk (African people)  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Field recordings
Maps
Field notes
Manuscripts
Electronic records
Correspondence
Sound recordings
Photographs
Place:
Africa, French-speaking West
Sahara
Egypt
Ethiopia
Uganda
West Pokot District (Kenya)
Bauchi Province (Nigeria)
Belgian Congo
Finland
Morocco
Sudan
Date:
1946-2011
bulk 1953-2008
Summary:
The papers of Francis P. Conant document his anthropological work and, to a lesser extent, his previous career as a journalist and photographer. Francis Paine Conant was a cultural anthropologist who pioneered the use of satellite data in anthropology. He conducted fieldwork in Nigeria and Kenya, and his research interests spanned cultural ecology, AIDS, malaria, and sex and gender studies. He was also Professor Emeritus of Anthropology at Hunter College, where he taught from 1962 to 1995.
Scope and Contents:
The papers of Francis P. Conant document his anthropological work and, to a lesser extent, his previous career as a journalist and photographer. The bulk of the collection consists of his field work in Africa, specifically his doctoral research among the Barawa in Nigeria during the 1950s; his work among the Pokot in Kenya for Walter Goldschimdt's Culture and Ecology in East Africa Project during the 1960s; and his later research among the Pokot during the 1970s incorporating remote sensing tools. These materials include his dissertation, field notes, kinship charts, maps, correspondence, photographs, and sound recordings. The collection also contains photographs, correspondence, and writings relating to the Bernheim-Conant expedition through Africa. Among the photos are Polaroids of Mohammad Naguib, first president of Egypt. Also present in the collection are his published and unpublished academic writings, his writings and correspondence as a news correspondent in Finland, and files from courses that he taught. In addition, the collection contains some of Conant's digital files, which have not yet been examined. Overall there is little correspondence in the collection, aside from some letters scattered throughout the collection relating to his research and writings (both as an academic and a journalist).
Arrangement:
Collection is organized into 9 series: 1) Nigeria, 1956-1960, undated; 2) Kenya, 1961-1974, undated; 3) Remote Sensing, 1967, 1971, 1976-1984, 1991-1992, 2002; 4) Bernheim-Conant Expedition, 1953-1956; 5) Writings, 1960-1966, 1974-1995, 2000-2006, undated; 6) University Files, 1956-1957, 1961, 1970, 1972, 1982-1995, undated; 7) Biographical Files and Letters, circa 1940, CIRCA 1946-1947, 1951, 1955, 1979, 1989-1991, 1996-2000, 2007-2011, undated; 8) Sound Recordings, 1956-1965, 1971, 1977-1978, undated; 9) Digital Files
Biographical / Historical:
Francis Paine Conant was a cultural anthropologist who pioneered the use of satellite data in anthropology. He conducted fieldwork in Nigeria and Kenya, and his research interests spanned cultural ecology, AIDS, malaria, and sex and gender studies. He was also Professor Emeritus of Anthropology at Hunter College, where he taught from 1962 to 1995.

Conant was born on February 27, 1926 in New York City. After graduating from Phillips Exeter Academy, he deferred college to enlist in the U.S. Army in 1944. He served as a field artillery observer for the 294th Field Artillery Battalion and helped liberate two concentration camps during World War II. After he was honorably discharged in 1946, he attended Cornell University, where he obtained his B.A. in 1950. While at Cornell, a Finnish student invited Conant to Finland to help relocate families, farms, and livestock further from the Russian border, a protective measure against another Russian invasion. Conant accepted his invitation and took time off from his academic studies to spend several months in Finland in 1947, as well as a summer in 1949.

After graduating from Cornell, Conant attended University of Iowa's graduate writing program for a short time. Dissatisfied with the program, he worked briefly for the Carnegie Endowment, during which time he occasionally served as a personal driver for Alger Hiss. In 1951, he returned to Finland to pursue a career in journalism. He worked for United Press International until 1953.

From December 5, 1953 to May 26, 1954, Conant traveled throughout Africa as part of the Bernheim-Conant Expedition for the American Museum of Natural History (AMNH). The expedition was led by Claude Bernheim, the father of his first wife, Miriam. They traveled 16,000 miles through Northern Central and Eastern Africa, collecting film footage and material culture for the museum. Conant served as the writer and photographer for the expedition, publishing illustrated articles in the New York Times and Natural History Magazine.

He later returned to Africa as a doctoral student at Columbia University, where he earned his PhD in Anthropology in 1960. After studying the Hausa language at the International African Institute in London, he traveled to Nigeria as a Fellow of the Ford Foundation to carry out his fieldwork in Dass Independent District, Bauchi Province. Working among the Barawa that live in the mountains of Dass, he focused on their religion and its impact on the technology, social and political organization, and structure of their society. His dissertation was titled "Dodo of Dass: A Study of a Pagan Religion of Northern Nigeria." During his fieldwork, he also collected data on rock gongs, which were first identified and written about by Bernard Fagg in 1955.

In 1961 to 1962, Conant was a research associate for Walter Goldschmidt's Culture and Ecology in East Africa Project. The purpose of the project was to conduct a controlled comparison of four different East African societies and the farmers and pastoralists within each tribe. Conant was assigned to conduct ethnographic research among the Pokot in West Pokot District in Kenya. This research would form the basis of his remote sensing work in the same area more than a decade later. Conant was first introduced to remote sensing data in 1974 when his colleague Priscilla Reining showed him Landsat imagery of one his former fieldwork sites. He was inspired by the potential applications of satellite data to study cultural and ecological relationships. In 1975, he and Reining organized a workshop on "Satellite Potentials for Anthropological Studies of Subsistence Activities and Population Change." He incorporated remote sensing tools in his 1977 to 1980 study of the changing cultivation patterns and management of livestock in West Pokot District. His research combined traditional fieldwork (which included data he had collected in the 1960s), LANDSAT data, and geospatial data collected from the ground.

Later in his career, Conant's research interests expanded to include the spread of diseases, specifically AIDS and malaria. He, along with Priscilla Reining, John Bongaarts, and Peter Way found that uncircumcised men were 86% more likely to contract HIV than circumcised men. Their findings were published in their paper "The Relationship Between Male Circumcision and HIV Infection in African Populations" (1989). His research on malaria focused on the spread of the disease during African prehistory.

Conant taught briefly at Columbia University and was an Assistant Professor at University of Massachusetts, at Amherst in 1960-1961. Most of his academic career was spent at Hunter College, where he served as Chair of the Anthropology Department several times. He also founded and headed the college's Research Institute in Aruba.

Conant was a Fulbright Senior Research Fellow at Oxford University's Pitts Rivers Museum in 1968-1969. He was also a fellow of the American Anthropological Association, the American Association for the Advancement of Science, the International African Institute, the New York Academy of Sciences, and the Royal Anthropological Institute. In addition, he was actively involved with the Human Ecology: An Interdisciplinary Journal.

Conant died at the age of 84 on January 29, 2011.

Sources Consulted

Bates, Daniel G. 2011. Francis P. Conant: A Tribute to a Friend of Human Ecology. Human Ecology 39(2): 115.

Bates, Daniel and Oliver Conant. Francis P. Conant. Anthropology News. 52(5): 25.

Conant, Veronika. Email message to Lorain Wang, October 22, 2013.

[Curriculum Vitae], Series 7. Biographical Files and Letters, Francis Conant Papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution

Francis P. Conant. http://www.hunter.cuny.edu/anthropology/faculty-staff/in-remembrance/francis-p.-conant [accessed August 23, 2013].

1926 -- Born February 27 in New York City, New York

1944-1946 -- Enlists in Army and serves in World War II as a flash ranger in 294th Field Artillery Battalion

1950 -- Earns B.A. from Cornell University in English and Russian, minor in Engineering

1953-1954 -- AMNH Bernheim-Conant Expedition to northern Africa

1957 -- Conducts language studies at the International African Institute

1957-1959 -- Conducts fieldwork in northern Nigeria

1960 -- Earns PhD in Cultural Anthropology from Columbia University

1960-1961 -- Assistant Professor, Anthropology, University of Massachusetts at Amherst

1961-1962 -- Research Associate for Culture and Ecology in East Africa Project directed by Walter Goldschimdt

1962 -- Joins faculty at Hunter College

1968-1969 -- Fulbright Senior Research Fellow, Oxford University, Pitt-Rivers Museum

1977-1980 -- Sets up remote sensing monitoring area in West Pokot district in Kenya. Studies changing cultivation patterns and management of livestock

1995 -- Retires from Hunter College; Emeritus Professor

2011 -- Dies on January 29 at the age of 84
Related Materials:
For additional materials at the National Anthropological Archives relating to Francis Conant, see the papers of Priscilla Reining and John Lawrence Angel. His film collection is at the Human Studies Film Archives.

Artifacts and film collected during the Bernheim-Conant Expedition, his doctoral research in Nigeria, and his fieldwork in Kenya during the 1960s and 70s are at the American Museum of Natural History. He also deposited collections at the Pitts River Museum at the University of Oxford.
Provenance:
These papers were donated to the National Anthropological Archives by Francis Conant's widow Veronika Conant in 2012.
Restrictions:
The Francis P. Conant Papers are open for research. Access to the Francis P. Conant Papers requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Remote sensing  Search this
Journalism  Search this
Musical instruments -- Nigeria  Search this
Language and languages -- Documentation  Search this
Subsistence farming -- Kenya  Search this
Subsistence herding -- Kenya  Search this
Human ecology  Search this
Landsat satellites  Search this
Genre/Form:
Field recordings
Maps
Field notes
Manuscripts
Electronic records
Correspondence
Sound recordings
Photographs
Citation:
Francis P. Conant Papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.2012-13
See more items in:
Francis P. Conant Papers
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-2012-13
Online Media:

Donald J. Ortner Papers

Creator:
Ortner, Donald J.  Search this
Names:
Paleopathology Association  Search this
Smithsonian Institution Department of Anthroplogy  Search this
University of Bradford  Search this
Frohlich, Bruno, 1945-  Search this
Putschar, Walter G. J., 1904-1987  Search this
Extent:
44.37 Linear feet (96 boxes, 3 map-folders)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Maps
Photographs
Slides (photographs)
Negatives (photographic)
Manuscripts
Sound recordings
Correspondence
Place:
Virginia
England
Jordan
Peru
Date:
1963-2013
Summary:
The Donald J. Ortner Papers, dated 1963 to 2013, document his research and professional activities while working in the Division of Physical Anthropology in the Department of Anthropology at the Smithsonian Institution National Museum of Natural History. They primarily deal with his contributions to the field of paleopathology and his work with specimens from Bab edh-Dhra, Jordan and Chichester, England. The bulk of this collection consists of correspondence, files related to Ortner's publications, specimen observations and analysis, and photographs.
Scope and Contents:
The Donald J. Ortner Papers primarily document his projects, research, and correspondence working as a biological anthropologist in the Division of Physical Anthropology of the Department of Anthropology from 1963 until his death in 2012. The bulk of the projects represented relate to his work in paleopathology, such as the Near Eastern skeletal biology program in Jordan and the medieval skeletal disease project in England. The collection consists of notes, research materials, correspondence, data and data analysis, transcripts of specimen observations, maps, blueprints, artwork, negatives, slides, photographs, CD-Roms, floppy discs, and sound cassettes.
Arrangement:
This collection is arranged in 8 series: Series 1. Correspondence, 1966-2012; Series 2. Subject files, 1965-2013, undated; Series 3. Near Eastern Skeletal Biology Program, 1977-2010, undated; Series 4. Medieval Skeletal Disease Project, 1988-2006, undated; Series 5. Other publications, projects, and research, 1963-2011, undated; Series 6. Professional activities, 1971-2007, undated; Series 7. Biographical and office files, 1963-2011, undated; Series 8. Artwork, 1978, undated
Biographical Note:
Donald J. Ortner was a biological anthropologist in the Department of Anthropology at the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History (NMNH). By the time of his death, Ortner had served in many positions at the Museum, including Acting Director (1994-1996). His areas of expertise included human paleopathology, human health in medieval England, bioarcheology of the ancient Near East, and the history and evoluton of human infectious diseases. Ortner was a founding member of the Paleopathology Association.

Ortner was born in 1938 in Stoneham, Massachusetts and arrived at the NMNH in 1963, working primarily with J. Lawrence Angel who had recently started as Curator in the Division of Physical Anthropology. While working at the Museum, Ortner completed his Master's in Anthropology in 1967 and received his Ph.D. from the University of Kansas in 1970. His doctoral dissertation was on The Effects of Aging and Disease on the Micromorphology of Human Compact Bone.

Ortner worked with Walter G. J. Putschar, a pathologist based at Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston, on a series of short-courses (1971-1974) on paleopathology at the Smithsonian. During the summer of 1974, Putschar and Ortner traveled to Europe (London, Edinburgh, Zurich, Strasbourg, Vienna, Prague) studying and photographing examples of skeletal pathology in museums and other repositories. The result of this research was the book Identification of Pathological Conditions in Human Skeletal Remains published in 1981, with later editions in 1985 and 2003.

In 1977, Ortner joined the Expedition to the Dead Sea Plain directed by archaeologists Walter E. Rast and R. Thomas Schaub, focusing on the site of Bab edh-Dhra. Ortner studied the tombs and skeletons for data indicating cultural and biological changes, especially urbanization and connection to the development of other "Western civilizations." Ortner participated in two more field seasons in Bab edh-Dhra in 1979 and 1981. From his research at Bab-edh-Dhra, Ortner published many scholarly articles and recreated two tombs for the Hall of Western Civilization at NMNH.

In 1988, Ortner began his collaboration with the University of Bradford in Bradford, England, teaching short-courses on paleopathology. While a Visiting Professor at the University, he also participated in a project on human health and disease in Medieval England. The project focused on leprosy and syphilis in skeletons from St. James Hospital's leprosarium cemetery in Chichester, Wharram Perry, and Magistrates' Court in Kingston-upon-Hull. He received an Honorary Doctorate of Science from the University in 1995.

Donald J. Ortner died on April 29th, 2012 in Maryland.

Sources consulted:

Ubelaker, D. H. "Obituary: Donald J. Ortner (1938–2012)." American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 149 (2012): 155–156.

Arnoldi, Mary Jo and Ann Kaupp. "Donald J. Ortner, Sr. (1939-2012)." Anthropolog: Newsletter of the Department of Anthropology, Spring 2012: 1-3.

Chronology

1938 -- Born on August 23 in Stoneham, Massachusetts.

1960 -- Received B.A. in Zoology from Columbia Union College in Takoma Park, Maryland.

1963 -- Began working at the Smithsonian Institution.

1967 -- Received M.A. in Anthropology from Syracuse University.

1969 -- Promoted to Assistant Curator.

1970 -- Received Ph.D. from the University of Kansas.

1971 -- Promoted to Associate Curator.

1971-1975 -- Taught part-time at the University of Maryland.

1974 -- Spent summer with Dr. Walter G. J. Putschar studying pathological specimens in Europe.

1976 -- Promoted to Curator in the Anthropology Department, National Museum of Natural History.

1977 -- First field season at Bab edh-Dhra cemetery site in Jordan.

1979 -- Second field season at Bab edh-Dhra cemetery site in Jordan.

1981 -- Third field season at Bab edh-Dhra cemetery site in Jordan.

1988 -- Began association with the University of Bradford in Bradford, England.

1988-1992 -- Chairman of the Department of Anthropology, National Museum of Natural History.

1994-1996 -- Acting Director of the National Museum of Natural History.

1995 -- Awarded an Honorary Doctorate of Science degree from the University of Bradford.

1999-2001 -- President of the Paleopathology Association.

2005 -- Received Eve Cockburn Award from the Paleopathology Association in recognition of his contributions in the field of paleopathology.

2012 -- Died on April 29 in Maryland.
Related Materials:
The following photo lots depicting Donald J. Ortner can be found at the NAA:

Photo Lot 7D: Photograph of attendees after American Anthropological Association annual meeting, 1965

Photo Lot 7A: Portraits made at the annual meeting of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists, 1970

Photo Lot 77-45: Photograph of Smithsonian Institution physical anthropologists, circa 1977

Photo Lot 4822: Division of Physical Anthropology collection of photographs of physical anthropologists, undated

Sound recordings of Donald J. Ortner at the NAA:

John Lawrence Angel Papers, Sound Recordings, "How Humans Adapt: A Biocultural Odyssey," November 9, 1981

Other collections at the NAA in which Donald J. Ortner is a correspondent or creator of material:

Records of the Department of Anthropology, 1877-1980

Department of Anthropology Annual Reports, 1920-1983

John Lawrence Angel Papers, 1930s-1980s

Three films that document Ortner's work in Bab edh-Dhra are located in the Human Studies Film Archives (HSFA):

Film number 2000.9.1, The Bones of Bab edh-Dhra, ca. 1970s

Film number 2000.9.3, Bab edh-Dhra Film Project, 1970-1980

Film number 2014.3, City of the Dead, 1978

The Smithsonian Institution Archives holds the original City of the Dead in Accession 05-282, Office of Telecommunications, Productions.
Provenance:
These papers were transferred to the NAA from the Department of Anthropology in 2014.
Restrictions:
The Donald J. Ortner Papers are open for research.

Access to the Donald J. Ortner Papers requires an appointment.

Requests to view forensic files are subject to review by the NAA. Forensic files can only be viewed in the National Anthropological Archives reading room. No copies are permitted unless permission is granted by the agency the report was written for.

Electronic records are unavailable for research. Please contact the reference archivist for additional information.

Use of audiovisual recordings with no duplicate access copy requires advance notice.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Anthropologists -- United States  Search this
Archaeology  Search this
Human remains (Archaeology)  Search this
Excavations (Archaeology) -- Middle East  Search this
Scurvy  Search this
Leprosy -- Research  Search this
Physical anthropology  Search this
Bāb edh-Dhrā Site (Jordan)  Search this
Excavations (Archaeology) -- England  Search this
Forensic anthropology  Search this
Paleopathology  Search this
Bronze age  Search this
Chichester (England)  Search this
Diseases  Search this
Genre/Form:
Maps
Photographs
Slides (photographs)
Negatives (photographic)
Manuscripts
Sound recordings
Correspondence
Citation:
Donald J. Ortner Papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NAA.2014-07
See more items in:
Donald J. Ortner Papers
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-2014-07

Saul Nesbitt Papers

Collector:
Cooper-Hewitt Design Archives  Search this
Cooper-Hewitt Design Archives  Search this
Creator:
Nesbitt, Saul, 1920-1993.  Search this
Names:
Archway Cookies, Inc.  Search this
Borden's Farm Products Co. of Illinois  Search this
Campbell Soup Company  Search this
Cooper-Hewitt Design Archive  Search this
Eastman Kodak Company  Search this
Florists' Telegraph Delivery Association  Search this
Franco American Food Co.  Search this
Lever Brothers and Unilever, ltd.  Search this
National Distillers and Chemical Corporation  Search this
Nesbitt Associates, Ltd.  Search this
P. Ballantine & Sons  Search this
Philip Morris Incorporated  Search this
Revlon, Inc.  Search this
Schick (Firm)  Search this
Scott Paper Company  Search this
Seagram Company  Search this
Extent:
3.5 Cubic feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Slides
Sketches
Transparencies
Press releases
Correspondence
Photographs
Media lists
Blueprints
Drawings
Clippings
Client lists
Date:
1951-1984
Scope and Contents:
Background and biographical information consists of Nesbitt's resume, an artist/designer statement, list of clients and accomplishments of Nesbitt Associates, Ltd., press releases, articles, and photographs of the designer.,The materials in this collection document Nesbitt's work from 1951 through 1984.
The records of the office of public relations cover the years 1955-1963 and include press releases and clippings describing some Nesbitt's products, his theories on consumer motivation, and the results of his surveys, as well as correspondence with members of the press. General office correspondence is boxed separately.
Color slides, color and black & white transparencies, and black & white photographs of most of Nesbitt's designs for packaging from 1951-1981 are included. Oversized materials include books jackets and booklets designed by Nesbitt, as well as some renderings for packaging designs done in color.
Three samples of fitted presentation boxes designed by Nesbitt are included, as well as a prototype for a design award for Parsons School of Design in New York, and two "Multiplication" cubes commissioned by the Museum of Modern Art in New York.
Arrangement:
This collection has been reboxed in archivally-sound containers, but the materials have only been partially processed and arranged. Record groups include: 1) Backgound and Biographical Information; 2) Records of the Public Relations Office, 1955-1963; 3) Correspondence; 4) Slides, Transparencies, and Photographs; 5) Oversized Materials; and 6) Samples.
Biographical / Historical:
Packaging, industrial, and graphic designer. Born in New York City, August 10, 1920. Nesbitt was a student of sculptor Chaim Gross and studied art at many New York institutions including: Art Students League; New York University; Columbia University; Pratt Institute of Art; and the New School.

He served in the U.S. Army from 1942 to 1945 where he worked as a cartographer and as the head of the visual aid section in a military intelligence training center. In 1945, he joined the staff of Harper's Bazaar magazine where he was an illustrator assisting art director Alexey Brodovich. In 1946, Nesbitt was hired by the industrial design studio of Raymond Loewy as a handletterer and packaging designer.

He worked with Lippincott Industrial Design from 1948 to 1951. Nesbitt opened his own design studio, Nesbitt Associates, Ltd. in 1951. The firm specialized in package design, trademarks, and corporate identities. Some of his most recognizable designs were for the label for Campbell's Soup and the Florists' Telegraph Delivery (F.T.D.) Winged Mercury 'Interflora' figure, still used today. Nesbitt's other clients included: Franco American; Revlon; Ballantine Beer; Borden; Champion spark plugs; Kodak; Philip Morris cigarettes; Schick razors; and Archway cookies. In addition, Nesbitt developed the "Karry Kit" for Ballantine Beer which came to be widely used and known as the six pack.

Nesbitt was known for his revealing studies and surveys of the buying needs and preferences of the "average American housewife" and consumers in general. His opinions on what he referred to as "underpackaging" were widely publicized in professional magazines and journals. In 1984, Nesbitt retired from the design field and went to California to resume his career as a sculptor until his death in 1993.
Provenance:
Collection donated by the designer's wife, Mrs. Saul Nesbitt, in 1994.
Restrictions:
Collection open for research on site by appointment. Unprotected photographs must be handled with gloves.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Occupation:
Industrial designers  Search this
Packaging designers  Search this
Graphic designers  Search this
Topic:
Consumers -- Research  Search this
Consumers' preferences -- United States  Search this
Housewives as consumers  Search this
Labels -- Design  Search this
Corporate image -- Design  Search this
Logos (Symbols) -- Design  Search this
Graphic arts -- United States  Search this
Design, Industrial -- United States  Search this
Packaging -- Design  Search this
Genre/Form:
Slides
Sketches
Transparencies
Press releases
Correspondence
Photographs -- 20th century
Media lists
Blueprints
Drawings
Clippings
Client lists
Citation:
Saul Nesbitt Papers, 1951-1984, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1275
See more items in:
Saul Nesbitt Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1275

Aleš Hrdlička papers

Creator:
Hrdlička, Aleš, 1869-1943  Search this
Correspondent:
American Association of Physical Anthropologists  Search this
Names:
American Journal of Physical Anthropology  Search this
Army Medical Museum (U.S.)  Search this
Hyde Exploring Expedition (1902-1903)  Search this
Institute of Population  Search this
International Congress of Americanists  Search this
Panama-California Exposition (1915 : San Diego, Calif.)  Search this
Smithsonian Institution. Department of Anthropology. Division of Physical Anthropology  Search this
Extent:
206.71 Linear feet (294 boxes, 138 folders, 9 rolled items, and 4 folios)
Culture:
Indians of North America  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Place:
Saint Lawrence Island (Alaska) -- Archaeology
Australia
Alaska -- Archaeology
Mexico -- Anthropology
Florida -- Archaeology
Egypt -- Archaeology
Czechoslovakia
Peru -- Physical anthropology
Kodiak Island (Alaska)
Date:
1875-1966
bulk 1903-1943
Summary:
The papers of Aleš Hrdlička, curator in the Division of Physical Anthropology, Department of Anthropology, United States National Museum of the Smithsonian Institution, offer considerable insight into the development of physical anthropology in the first half of this century. The papers include honors bestowed on Hrdlička, autobiographical notes, correspondence with many of the leading anthropologists of the day, anthropometric and osteometric measurements and observations (forming most of the collection), extensive photographs of Hrdlička's field work, manuscripts, research materials, and "My Journeys" (essentially a diary Hrdlička kept of his field work). In addition, there is material of a personal nature. The papers date from 1875 to 1966, but the bulk of the materials date from 1903 to 1943, the time of Hrdlička's career at the USNM.
Scope and Contents:
This collection is comprised of both professional and personal materials. The professional material includes honors bestowed on Hrdlička, autobiographical notes, correspondence with many of the leading anthropologists of the day, anthropometric and osteometric measurements and observations (forming most of the collection), extensive photographs of Hrdlička's field work, manuscripts, research materials, and "My Journeys" (essentially a diary Hrdlička kept of his field work). The personal material primarily consists of correspondence with his first wife (Marie Dieudonnée Strickler) and other family members, but there are also financial records. The papers date from 1875 to 1966, but the bulk of the materials date from 1903 to 1943, the time of Hrdlička's career at the United States National Museum of the Smithsonian Institution. Hrdlička investigated all major questions confronting physical anthropologists of his day (the fossil record of early humans, the arrival of humans in the Americas, human variation, and evolution) and made valuable contributions in all these areas. Hrdlička's interests in the establishment of physical anthropology as a distinct and important field, the welfare of the Czech people, early hominids, and variation within the human species are all documented in the collection as are the services he performed for various United States government agencies. He pursued field studies in many different parts of the world, but there are relatively few field notes as such among his papers. There is instead the edited journal "My Journeys," photographs, and physical anthropological forms. There is also relatively little material on his administrative involvement in the USNM. There is no material from Hrdlička's time at the Pathological Institution of the New York State Hospitals; after he resigned, fire destroyed the anthropological records Hrdlička collected as a member of the staff. There are materials in the collection which contradict, or at least complicate, many long-held criticisms of Hrdlička, particularly claims that he was racist and opposed feminist ideas. The collection contains materials of interest to genetic research, including anthropometric measurements, hair clippings and fingerprints.

There are a few items in the collection which are dated earlier than the collection's date span. These are publication dates, and the folders containing the items have been dated accordingly, but they have not affected the dates of the series or collection. There are also a few items which are dated after Hrdlička's death. These dates reflect the fact that the collection was added to by the Department of Physical Anthropology after Hrdlička's death and have been taken into account when formulating dates for the series and collection.

Please note that the language and terminology used in this collection reflects the context and culture of the time of its creation. As an historical document, its contents may be at odds with contemporary views and terminology. The information within this collection does not reflect the views of the Smithsonian Institution, but is available in its original form to facilitate research.
Arrangement:
This collection is arranged in 37 series:

(1) Miscellaneous Personal Papers, 1875-1940

(2) Early Personal Correspondence, 1883-1919

(3) Correspondence, 1885-1953

(4) News Clippings and Printed Matter, 1893-1953

(5) Financial Papers, 1910-1943

(6) Journeys to the Southwestern United States and Mexican Indians, 1898-1919

(7) Journeys to the Dakota, Chippewa, Kickapoo, and Shawnee, 1916-1917

(8) Florida Survey, 1918, 1918-1927

(9) Alaska Archeological Expeditions, 1912-1938 (bulk 1926-1938)

(10) Panama-California Exposition Expeditions, 1912-1914

(11) Journey to Egypt, Europe, and Russia, 1908-1909

(12) Journey to South America, 1910, 1910-1912

(13) Journey to the Far East, 1920, 1900-1930

(14) Journey to Australia, Java, India, South Africa, and Europe, 1924-1925

(15) Anthropometric Measurements of Indians Taken at the United States National Museum, 1904-1905, most undated

(16) Bone Studies, 1893-1929, most undated

(17) Old Americans, 1914-1930

(18) Children Who Run on All Fours, 1928-1936

(19) Early Man Studies, 1906-1930

(20) European Ethnic History, 1908-1938

(21) Miscellaneous Research Notes, 1887-1930

(22) Manuscripts of Writings, 1901-1944, most undated

(23) Writings by Other Authors, 1877-1942

(24) Anthropometry, undated

(25) "From My Journeys", 1898-1938

(26) -- American Journal of Physical Anthropology -- , 1918-1931

(27) American Association of Physical Anthropologists, 1924-1931

(28) International Congress of Americanists, 1900-1928

(29) Institute of Population, 1942

(30) Department of Anthropology, 1914-1943

(31) Lecture Notes, 1920-1932

(32) Maps and Charts, 1900-1932

(33) Miscellany, 1895-1954

(34) Index Cards, 1899-1948

(35) Bibliographic Index, undated

(36) Physical Anthropology Folios, undated

(37) Photographs, 1887-1944
Biographical Note:
Aleš Hrdlička was born in Bohemia in 1869 and came to America when he was thirteen. As a young man, he was trained in medicine at New York's Eclectic Medical College and the New York Homeopathic Medical College, receiving degrees from each. His first professional work was as a private practitioner, but he gave that up in 1894 when he joined the staff of the New York State Hospital for the Insane at Middletown. There, in addition to other duties, he began studies of the physical characteristics of inmates. This set in motion developments that would eventually lead him to become one of the world's most prominent anthropologists who has sometimes been referred to as "the founder of physical anthropology in America."

In 1896, in preparation for a research appointment with the Department of Anthropology in the Pathological Institute of the New York State Hospitals, Hrdlička went to Paris and studied with Leon Manouvrier. After his return to America, he worked for a short period with the Pathological Institute and came into contact with G.S. Huntington of the College of Physicians and Surgeons in New York. Hrdlička arranged and studied Huntington's large collection of skeletal material, thus gaining knowledge of a well-documented collection representing largely normal persons of European ancestry. He came to the attention of Frederic Ward Putnam, of the American Museum of Natural History, who arranged for his first anthropological field studies.

It was thus that Hrdlička became a member of the Hyde Expeditions to the American Southwest and northern Mexico. In 1898, he traveled to Mexico with Carl Lumholtz to study the Tarahumaras, Huichols, and neighboring tribes. In subsequent years, he returned to Mexico and the Southwest alone and studied physical characteristics and medical conditions of several American Indian tribes. With this experience and examinations of the Trenton and Lansing skeletal material for Putnam, Hrdlička came fully into the world of anthropology. In 1903, he was appointed head of the newly formed Division of Physical Anthropology in the United States National Museum.

While in his position at the Smithsonian, Hrdlička returned to the Southwest for studies of Pima and Apache children in 1905 and, in the following year, traveled to Florida to examine allegedly ancient remains of man. In 1908, he worked among a number of Indian tribes, including the Menominee, Oglala Dakota, Quinailt, Hupa, and Mohave, in a study of tuberculosis among them. In 1909, he traveled to Egypt with an expedition of the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York in order to study living Egyptians and to examine remains of Egypt's past population. The following year took him to Argentina, Peru, and Mexico. In the first of these, he again examined allegedly ancient remains of man. In Peru, he made a large collection of skeletal material near Trujillo, at Pachamac, and in the Chicama Valley.

From 1912-1914, Hrdlicka undertook a physical anthropological exhibit for the Panama-California Exposition in San Diego and, for this, traveled to eastern Siberia, Mongolia, Peru, and Florida. He also examined fossil remains of man in Europe and directed field work of other anthropologists in South and East Africa, St. Lawrence Island in Alaska, the Philippines, eastern Siberia, and the Ukraine. In 1915, for the Department of Justice, he assessed the racial makeup of Chippewas on the Leech Lake and White Earth reservations in Minnesota and also studied Dakota Indians. In 1917, his field work was directed toward white American families with longtime residence in the United States. In 1918, he carried out a survey of ancient sites in eastern Florida for the Bureau of American Ethnology. In 1920, he traveled to Hawaii, Japan, Korea, and Manchuria in connection with an appointment to lecture at the Peking Union Medical College. As director of the American School for Prehistoric Studies in France, he again studied fossil remains of man in Europe in 1922 and 1923. In 1925, he carried out work in India, Ceylon, Java, Australia, South Africa, and Europe. In 1927, he was again in Europe to deliver the Huxley Memorial Lecture before the Royal Anthropological Society in Great Britain. Between 1929 and 1938, he traveled frequently to Alaska to carry on an anthropological survey. In 1939, he traveled to Russia and Siberia.

Beginning with much of the skeletal collection of the Army Medical Museum, which had been transferred to the Smithsonian in 1898 before he was appointed there, Hrdlička amassed a bone collection that included, among many other specimens, the Huntington collection, casts of fossil remains of man, and a large and diverse North American collection. He also gathered a large collection of human brains. Over three hundred publications resulted from his study of this material, his field work, and his study of specimens in other museums. In addition, he was involved in many other activities. For United States government agencies, he provided services ranging from examinations of human remains for law enforcement officials to providing information and opinions concerning national origins and traits that were needed to interpret laws and form foreign policy. During World War II, he also advised government officials on policies to be pursued with certain national groups following the war.

In 1918, Hrdlička founded the American Journal of Physical Anthropology and remained its editor until 1942. In 1928, he was the major force behind the organization of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists and served as its president from 1928 to 1932. He was also president of the Anthropological Society of Washington in 1907, the American Anthroplogical Association from 1925 to 1927, and the Washington Academy of Sciences from 1928 to 1929. He was chairman of Section H of the American Association for the Advancement of Science in 1918 and secretary of the Committee on Anthropology of the National Research Council in 1917. In addition, Hrdlička was a member of the American Philosophical Society and the National Academy of Sciences. He represented the Smithsonian at several international gatherings of scholars, including meetings of the International Congress of Americanists.

Chronology

1869 March 29 -- Alois Ferdinand Hrdlička (Aleš Hrdlička) born in Humpolec, Bohemia

1882 September -- Emigrated to New York City

1888 -- While stricken with typhoid, met M. Rosenbleuth, a physician who arranged for Hrdlička to enroll at the Eclectic Medical College of New York City

1892 -- Enrolled in the New York Homeopathic Medical College and Hospital Published first article, "Scheme of Examination (Medical)," Publications of the Eclectic Medical College Graduated first in his class from the Eclectic Medical College

1894 -- Graduated first from his class from the Homeopathic Medical College Became research intern at the State Homeopathic Hospital for the Insane in Middletown, New York, where he began his studies in physical anthropology Passed state board examination (allopathic)

1895 -- Joined staff of the Pathological Institute of the New York State Hospitals as associate in anthropology

1896 -- Studied anthropology under Leon Manouvrier in Paris

1896 August 6 -- Married Marie Stickler (Dieudonnée)

1898 March-July(?) -- Accompanied Carl Lumholtz on his expedition to northern Mexico, sponsored by the American Museum of Natural History (AMNH), and visited the Tarahumara, Huichol, and Tepecan Indians

1899 Spring -- Resigned from the Pathological Institute to take charge of physical and medical anthropological research on the Hyde Expeditions of the AMNH to the southwestern United States

1899 August -- Hyde expedition for the AMNH to Chaco Canyon, New Mexico, to excavate the site of Pueblo Bonito and to conduct somatological surveys among the Indians; visited Grand Gulch caves in southern Utah; included visits to the Navahos and southern Utes

1900 -- Hyde expedition for the AMNH to New Mexico, Arizona, and southern Colorado to conduct somatological surveys among the Indians; included visits to the Apaches, Yumas, and Pueblo Indians

1902 January-September -- Hyde expeditions for AMNH to southwestern Arizona, New Mexico, and northern Mexico to conduct somatological surveys; included visits to the Tepecanos, Papagos, Opatas, Pimas, Yaquis, Mayos, Huichols, Otomis, Tepehuanes, Maricopas, Yumas, Yavapais, Paiutes, Walapais, and Havasupais

1902 October-December -- Hyde expedition for the AMNH to Mexico for Hrdlička to complete his somatological investigations; included visits to the Tepehuanes, Coras, Huichols, "Nahuas," "Aztecs," and Tarascans

1903 May 1 -- Became assistant curator in charge of the new Division of Physical Anthropology, Department of Anthropology, at the United States National Museum, Smithsonian Institution

1905 -- Expedition under the auspices of the Bureau of American Ethnology to Arizona and New Mexico to complete the observations on the tribes of this region; Hrdlička especially studied Apache and Pima Indian children

1906 February -- Expedition to western Florida to investigate remains of alleged ancient man

1907 -- President of the Anthropological Society of Washington

1908 -- Expedition to Indian schools and reservations in Wisconsin, Washington, California, Arizona, and South Dakota to study tuberculosis for a report to the International Congress of Tuberculosis

1908 December - 1909 May -- Traveled to Egypt, Greece, Turkey, Hungary, Bohemia, Russia, Poland, and Germany to examine human skeletal remains from an excavation in Egypt by the Metropolitan Museum of Art and to study peoples of the Near East

1910 March 28 -- Promoted to curator in the Division of Physical Anthropology

1910 April-September -- Attended the 17th International Congress of Americanists in Buenos Aires and Mexico City Traveled to Argentina, Brazil, Peru, Mexico, and Panama

1912 -- Planned and directed seven expeditions for the physical anthropology exhibit at the Panama-California Exposition held at San Diego in 1915; expeditions included Hrdlička to Siberia and Mongolia and later to Peru; Riley D. Moore to St. Lawrence Island, Alaska; Philip Newton to the Philippine Islands; Vojtech Suk to Africa; Stanislaw Poniatowski to eastern Siberia; Kazimir Stolyhwo to the Birusa caves in Siberia and to the Ukraine; and Jindřich Matiegka to Bohemia

1912 May-Summer -- Traveled to London to attend 18th International Congress of Americanists Traveled to Siberia and Mongolia for the Panama-California Exposition

1912 September -- Traveled to Geneva for the 14th International Congress of Prehistoric Anthropology and Archaeology

1913 January-April -- Expedition to Peru as part the effort for the Panama-California Exposition

1914 November 18 - 1915 January 18 -- Attended Panama-California Exposition

1915 May -- Research for the Department of Justice at the White Earth and Leech Lake reservations in Minnesota to determine non-Indian mixture among Chippewas

1915 December -- Served as General Secretary for the 19th International Congress of Americanists held in Washington

1916 Fall -- Traveled to Florida to examine remains of supposed ancient man

1917 March-July -- Served as Secretary on the Committee on Anthropology of the National Research Council

1917 Summer -- "Old American" research at Yale University, Harvard University, and the University of Virginia and in Tennessee

1917 August -- Sponsored by the American Association for the Advancement of Science, traveled to Oklahoma to visit the Shawnee Agency in eastern Oklahoma and the Kickapoo Indians in McCloud to search for adequate samples of pure blood Indians

1918 -- Elected to the American Philosophical Society Served as Chairman of Section H of the American Association for the Advancement of Science Founded the American Journal of Physical Anthropology and became its long-time editor Surveyed prehistoric sites on the southwest coast of Florida

1918 October 8 -- Death of his wife Marie

1920 -- Anthropometry published by the Wistar Institute Elected an honorary fellow of the Royal Anthropological Society of Great Britain

1920 Summer -- Married Mina (Vilemina) Mansfield

1920 January-May -- Visited Japan, Korea, Manchuria, northern China, Mongolia, and Hawaii Lectured at Peking Union Medical College in China

1920 Fall -- Visited Minnesota Chippewa (at the White Earth Reservation?) to help the Department of Justice setter the question of mixed and pure bloods among the Chippewa

1921 -- Elected to the National Academy of Sciences

1922 -- Visited Spain, France, Germany, Moravia, and England Awarded honorary Sc.D. degree from the University of Prague Chairman of the American delegation to the 20th International Congress of Americanists in Rio de Janiero

1923 -- Served three and one-half months as Director of the American School in France for Prehistoric Studies Visited England, Holland, Belgium, France, Germany, Bohemia, Austria, Croatia, and Italy

1925 -- The Old Americans published by Williams and Wilkins Co.

1925 March-October -- Traveled to Australia, Java, India, South Africa, and Europe on a trip sponsored by the Buffalo [New York] Society of Natural Science to obtain cranial measurements of Australian aborigines and Tasmanians, to investigate the Rhodesian Man site in South Africa, to survey the field of early man, and to collect data to support his hypothesis about the peopling of the Earth

1925-1926 -- President of the American Anthropological Association

1926 -- Awarded honorary Sc.D. degree from University of Brno and D.Nat.Sc. degree from Brunn University

1926 May-September -- First fieldwork in Alaska: reconnaissance down the Yukon River to its mouth, around the Bering Sea and through the Bering Strait along the Alaskan coast to Point Barrow

1927 -- Received Huxley Memorial Medal and gave Huxley Lecture on "the Neanderthal Phase of Man" before the Royal Anthropological Society of Great Britain

1928 -- Helped found the American Association of Physical Anthropologists (AAPA)

1928-1929 -- President of the Washington Academy of Sciences

1928-1932 -- Served as first president of the AAPA

1929 -- Fieldwork in Alaska: surveyed the Yukon River from Tanana to its mouth, to St. Lawrence and the Diomede Islands, to Cape Prince of Wales, up to Point Barrow and back to Unalaska Awarded honorary Sc.D. degree from Charles University, Prague

1930 -- Published The Skeletal Remains of Early Man, Vol. 83 Smithsonian Miscellaneous collections Published "Anthropological Survey in Alaska," Forty-sixth Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology, pp. 21-374

1930 Summer -- Fieldwork in Alaska: surveyed the Kuskokwim River from Bethel down river to Apogak and up river to Stony River

1931 -- Children Who Run on All Fours published by McGraw-Hill Book Co.

1931 Summer -- Fieldwork in Alaska: excavated at Our (Jones) point site, trial excavations at Chief's Point and other sites, and a survey of Kodiak Island

1932 -- Kober Foundation lecturer of Georgetown University

1932 Summer -- Fieldwork in Alaska: excavated at Our (Jones) Point site, trial excavations at Chief's Point and other sites, and a survey of Kodiak Island

1934 Summer -- Fieldwork in Alaska: excavated at Our (Jones) Point site and surveyed Cooks Inlet sites and the mainland opposite the Our Point site

1935 Summer -- Fieldwork in Alaska: excavated at Our (Jones) Point site

1936 Summer -- Fieldwork in Alaska: excavated at Our (Jones) Point site and surveyed the Dutch Harbor caves, some of the Aleutian Islands, and the mummy cave on Kagamil Island

1937 Summer -- Fieldwork in Alaska: surveyed the Aleutian Islands and Commander Islands

1938 Summer -- Fieldwork in Alaska: surveyed the Aleutian Islands, Dutch Harbor caves, and Commander Islands

1939 April 4 -- Testimonial dinner given by the American Association of Physical Anthropologists in honor of his 70th birthday

1939 April-June -- Recuperated in London hospital after suffering a coronary occlusion

1942 March 31 -- Retired from curatorship at United States National Museum, becoming an associate in anthropology

1942 December -- Resigned as editor of the American Journal of Physical Anthropology

1943 -- Alaska Diary published by Cattell Press

1943 September 5 -- Died of heart attack

1944 -- Anthropology of Kodiak Island published by Wistar Institute

1945 -- The Aleutian and Commander Islands and Their Inhabitants published by Wistar Institute

1969 -- Tenth Anthropological Congress of the Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences dedicated to Hrdlička in the 100th anniversary year of his birth

Selected Bibliography

1908 -- Hrdlička, Aleš. Physiological and Medical Observations Among the Indians of Southwestern United States and Northern Mexico. Bulletin 34, Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1908.

1912 -- Hrdlička, Aleš. Early Man in South America. Bulletin 52, Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1912.

1919 -- Hrdlička, Aleš. Physical Anthropology: Its Scope and Aims. Philadelphia: The Wistar Institute of Anatomy and Biology, 1919.

1920 -- Hrdlička, Aleš. Anthropometry. Philadelphia: The Wistar Institute of Anatomy and Biology, 1920.

1925 -- Hrdlička, Aleš. The Old Americans. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins Co., 1925.

1930 -- Hrdlička, Aleš. The Skeletal Remains of Early Man. Vol. 83, Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections. City of Washington: The Smithsonian Institution, 1930. Hrdlička, Aleš. Anthropological Survey in Alaska. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1930.

1931 -- Hrdlička, Aleš. Children Who Run on All Fours, and Other Animal-like Behaviors in the Human Child. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., 1931.

1943 -- Hrdlička, Aleš. Alaska Diary, 1926-1931. Lancaster, PA: The Jacques Cattell Press, 1943.

1944 -- Hrdlička, Aleš. Anthropology of Kodiak Island. Philadelphia: The Wistar Institute of Anatomy and Biology, 1944.

1945 -- Hrdlička, Aleš. The Aleutian and Commander Islands and Their Inhabitants. Philadelphia: The Wistar Institute of Anatomy and Biology, 1945.
Related Materials:
Additional material in the National Anthropological Archives relating to Aleš Hrdlička can be found in the papers of William Louis Abbott, Henry Bascom Collins, Herbert William Krieger, and Frank Spencer; records of the American Anthropological Association, Bureau of American Ethnology, Department of Anthropology of the United States National Museum (National Museum of Natural History), Science Service, Anthropological Society of Washington, and the United States Army Medical Museum (anatomical section, records relating to specimens transferred to the Smithsonian Institution); and glass negatives of Indians collected by the Bureau of American Ethnology, Smithsonian Institution illustrations.

Additional related photographs can be found in Photo Lot 8, Division of Physical Anthropology collection; Photo Lot 9, Photographs of Indians for the Panama-California Exposition, San Diego; Photo Lot 24, Bureau of American Ethnology, United States National Museum photographs of American Indians; Photo Lot 70, Department of Anthropology portrait file; Photo Lot 78, Miscellaneous negatives; Photo Lot 97, Division of Ethnology collection ("USNM" Collection); Photo Lot 73-26B, Aleš Hrdlička photographs relating to the Panama-California Exhibition; Photo Lot 73-26G, Miscellany; Photo Lot 77-48, Group portraits of International Congress; Photo Lot 79-38, Division of World Archeology collection; Photo Lot 83-41, Division of Physical Anthropology collection of photographs of human bones; and Photo Lot 92-46, Anthropology lantern slides.

Related films can be found in the Human Studies Film Archive under the accession numbers HSFA 1982.2.1, 1982.2.2, 1986.12.1, and 2015.13.1.

Hrdlička's extensive collection of reprints is maintained in the Division of Physical Anthropology.

Frank Spencer's doctoral dissertation "Aleš Hrdlička, M.D., 1869-1943: A Chronicle of the Life and Work of an American Physical Anthropologist" (1979) is the only book length biography of Hrdlička. The Frank Spencer papers, 1836-1999, are available at the NAA and contain original correspondence between Hrdlička and his first wife, Marie Strickler; his childhood report card from 1869; copies of family photos obtained from Lucy Miller, Hrdlička's niece; and an audio recording of Hrdlička speaking at Wistar Institute.

Further material may be found in the Smithsonian Institution Archives.
Provenance:
Hrdlička bequeathed his papers to the Smithsonian Institution. The Division of Physical Anthropology maintained them until they were deposited in the National Anthropological Archives in the 1960s. Some papers have come into the collection since then, most recently in 2018. These new accretions came to the collection through Donald Ortner, David Hunt, T. Dale Stewart, the Department of Anthropology, and the University of Alaska.
Restrictions:
The Aleš Hrdlička papers are open for research.

Access to the Aleš Hrdlička papers requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Human evolution  Search this
Physical anthropology  Search this
Children -- Physical anthropology  Search this
anthropometry  Search this
Ethnology  Search this
Fossil hominids  Search this
Citation:
Aleš Hrdlička papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.1974-31
See more items in:
Aleš Hrdlička papers
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-1974-31
Online Media:

Joseph A. Imhof photograph collection

Creator:
Imhof, Joseph, 1871-1955  Search this
Photographer:
Rinehart, F. A. (Frank A.)  Search this
Goff, O. S. (Orlando Scott), 1843-1917  Search this
Extent:
89 glass plate negatives
127 Photographic prints
116 copy negatives
Culture:
Acoma Pueblo  Search this
Isleta Pueblo  Search this
K'apovi (Santa Clara Pueblo)  Search this
Taos Pueblo  Search this
Apsáalooke (Crow/Absaroke)  Search this
Kwakwaka'wakw (Kwakiutl)  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Glass plate negatives
Photographic prints
Copy negatives
Place:
New Mexico
Montana
Vancouver Island (B.C.)
Date:
circa 1894-1964
Summary:
This collection includes glass plate negatives, copy negatives and photographic prints taken and collected by Joseph Imhof, a lithographer and painter known for documenting Pueblo culture in New Mexico. These include images shot by Imhof in Acoma, Isleta, Santa Clara (K'apovi) and Taos Pueblos; glass plate negatives (copies) of Frank Rinehart portraits; original glass plate negatives made by Orlando Scott Goff among the Apsáalooke (Crow/Absaroke) in Montana circa 1894; photographic prints of Imhof artworks; and photographs of Joseph and Sarah Imhof and their home in Taos, New Mexico.
Scope and Contents:
Series 1: Glass plate negatives contains 89 glass plate negatives donated by Joseph Imhof to the Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation in 1930. This includes—copies of Frank Rinehart portraits; Joseph Imhof photographs made in Acoma Pueblo and Isleta Pueblo in 1912; Orlando Scott Goff Apsáalooke (Crow/Absaroke) photographs from Montana; and Kwakwaka'wakw (Kwakiutl) photographs from Vancouver Island, British Columbia (photographer unknown). The majority of the Rinehart glass plate negatives include two portraits side by side on one 8x10 plate, though copy negatives were made of the individual portraits. The copy negatives were created by the Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation (NMAI's predecessor museum) during a photo conservation project in the 1960s.

Series 2: Photographic Prints includes 89 cataloged and 38 uncatalogued photographic prints from 1900-1964. This includes Joseph Imhof photographs made in K'apovi (Santa Clara) Pueblo; images of Imhof's drawings, sketches and paintings; photographs in Taos of the Imhof home and studio; and portraits of Sarah and Joseph Imhof.

The negatives have catalog numbers N19283-N19371. The prints have catalog numbers P19480-P19484, P19532-P19591.
Arrangement:
Arranged in two series by photographic type. Series 1: Glass plate Negatives, circa 1894, 1898, 1912, undated and Series 2: Photographic Prints, 1900-1964. Within the series they are arranged by catalog number with the uncatalogued prints at the end of Series 2.
Biographical / Historical:
Joseph Adam Imhof was born in Brooklyn, New York in 1871. After teaching himself lithography, Imhof was hired by Currier and Ives and eventually earned enough money from this job to buy a bookstore. In 1891 he eventually quit his job and sold the bookstore to pursue a formal art education in Europe which led to four years in Paris, Brussels, Antwerp and Munich where he apprenticed with several artists.

During this time, Imhof met Buffalo Bill Cody and was invited to join him in Antwerp to sketch and paint members of his "Wild West Show". Returning to New York, Imhof rented a studio and began to study the Iroquois Indians in New York and Canada. He spent the next ten years painting and improving his lithography, photography and color printing innovations - which financed his early painting career. He also freelanced for Allen and Ginter, painting his Indian Head Series for insertion on cards in boxes of cigarettes.

In 1897 Joseph married Sarah "Sallie" Ann Elizabeth Russell. In 1905 they visited the Southwest for the first time to record the ceremonies of the Pueblo Indians. Joseph built a studio in Albuquerque in 1906, and the Imhofs spent the next few years traveling around the region, though they eventually returned to New York. In 1929, Joseph and Sarah moved to New Mexico permanently and built their new home and studio in Taos Pueblo. There, he would have Native Puebloan models to live in his home for a time before he painted them. He also collected many artifacts and had the first lithography press in Taos. His series of paintings called Kivas and Corn, which he gifted to the University of New Mexico, was his last and most famous work. The Koshare Indian Museum also houses one of the largest collections of his paintings. Joseph Imhof died in 1955 leaving the remainder of his collection in the care of his wife and daughter.

Bibliography: The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Artists of the American West, by Peggy and Harold Samuels; Joseph Imhof: Artist of the Pueblos, by Nancy Hopkins Reily and Lucille Enix, Koshare Indian Museum.
Related Materials:
A large collection of Joseph Imhof artwork and photographs can be found at the Maxwell Museum of Anthropology at the University of New Mexico.

The NMAI has a collection of Joseph Imhof artwork and lithographs donated by his wife Sarah in the 1960s.

For a bibliography on Joseph Imhof written by his wife, Sarah Imhof, see Box 255, Folder 7 in the Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation records (NMAI.AC.001).
Separated Materials:
The uncataloged photographic prints in Series 2 were originally housed with documents in Box 255, Folder 7 in the Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation records (NMAI.AC.001). They have been moved to be with the rest of the Joseph Imhof photographic collection.
Provenance:
The glass plate negatives were a Gift of Joseph Imhof in 1930. It is still unclear how/when the photographic prints were acquired by the museum, but they were likely donated by Sarah Imhof along with a collection of Imhof artwork in the 1960s.
Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archives Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archives Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiphotos@si.edu. For personal or classroom use, users are invited to download, print, photocopy, and distribute the images that are available online without prior written permission, provided that the files are not modified in any way, the Smithsonian Institution copyright notice (where applicable) is included, and the source of the image is identified as the National Museum of the American Indian. For more information please see the Smithsonian's Terms of Use and NMAI Archive Center's Digital Image request website.
Topic:
Artists -- New Mexico -- Taos  Search this
Genre/Form:
Glass plate negatives
Photographic prints
Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Joseph A. Imhof photograph collection, image #, NMAI.AC.142; National Museum of the American Indian Archives Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.142
See more items in:
Joseph A. Imhof photograph collection
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmai-ac-142

Henry and Margaret Drewal photographs

Creator:
Drewal, Henry John  Search this
Drewal, Margaret Thompson  Search this
Extent:
10,000 Slides (color)
10,617 copy slides
Container:
Item 10000
Volume 1
Volume 2
Volume 3
Volume 4
Volume 5
Volume 6
Volume 7
Volume 8
Volume 9
Volume 10
Volume 11
Volume 12
Volume 13
Volume 14
Volume 15
Volume 16
Volume 17
Culture:
Ewe (African people)  Search this
Yoruba (African people)  Search this
Igbo (African people)  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Slides
Copy slides
Color slides
Place:
Togo
Africa
Nigeria
Ghana
Sierra Leone
Date:
1970-1989
Summary:
Both Henry John Drewal and Margaret Drewal traveled to Nigeria, Ghana and Togo (West Africa) for extended periods from 1967-1986. During their trips to Nigeria they conducted research into the ritual performance, masking traditions, and traditional sacred rites of the Yoruba people as well as Mami Wata devotes of Togo, Ghana, and Nigeria. They are the co-authors of Gelede: Art and Female Power among the Yoruba (1993).Both Henry John Drewal and Margaret Drewal traveled to Nigeria, Ghana and Togo (West Africa) for extended periods from 1967-1986. During their trips to Nigeria they conducted research into the ritual performance, masking traditions, and traditional sacred rites of the Yoruba people as well as Mami Wata devotes of Togo, Ghana, and Nigeria. They are the co-authors of Gelede: Art and Female Power among the Yoruba (1993).

Photographs taken by Henry John and Margaret Thompson Drewal during the 1970s and 1980s of Yoruba and Ewe art and culture.
Scope and Contents:
The Drewal collection is a photographic documentation of several trips made to the West African countries of Ghana, Nigeria, and Togo to conduct field research. This collection, which consists of over 10,000 color slides (35mm), represents a major portion of the photographs taken by the Drewals during their visits to West Africa from 1967-1986 to conduct field work.

There are several subjects present in this collection. The most prominent being the Egúngún and Gelede rituals and festivals of the Yoruba people of Nigeria. Other subjects found in the collection are Ifá initiation, Òrìsà and Mami Wata festivals, Òrìsà shrines, sacred arts, beading techniques, and traditional and modern architecture. There is a large selection of images specifically of shrines and festivals for Òrìsà such as Sango, Ògún, Agemo, Eyinle and others. Details of implements like the ose Sango, opa Osanyin, and opa Osun can also be seen in the collection.

The Drewals also photographed and documented Yoruba sacred art (i.e. shrine objects; masks) in a number of international museums in Africa, Europe and the United States. Their collection contains images of Yoruba art in the British Museum, London; Nigeria National Museum, Lagos; National Museum of African Art, Washington, D.C.; Everton Museum, New York; and Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago. For a complete listing of slides depicting museum collections see pages 28-33. These images are restricted and can not be reproduced without permission of the copyright holder.
Organization of the Finding Aid:
Drewal, Margaret Thompson. "Symbols of Possession: A Study of Movement and Regalia in an Anago-Yoruba Ceremony." -- Dance Research Journal -- 7, no. 2 (1975).

Drewal, Margaret Thompson and Henry John Drewal. "Gelede: Dance of the Western Yoruba," -- African Arts -- 8, no. 2 (Winter 1975).

Drewal, Henry John. "Efe: Voiced Power and Pagenatry." -- African Arts -- 7, no. 1 (Autumn 1973).

Drewal, Margaret Thompson and Henry John Drewal. "More Powerful than Each Other: An Egbado Classification of Egungun." -- African Arts -- 11, no. 3 (April 1978).

Drewal, Margaret Thompson. "Projections from the Top in Yoruba Art." -- African Arts -- 11, no. 1 (October 1977).

Drewal, Henry John. "Gelede Masquerade: Imagery and Motif." -- African Arts -- 7, no. 4 (Summer 1974).

Drewal, Henry John. "Pageantry and Power in Yoruba Costuming." Justine M. Cordwell and Ronald M. Schwarz, ed. -- The Fabrics of Culture -- . Hauge: Mouton, 1979.

Drewal, Margaret Thompson. "Art and Trance Among Yoruba Sango Devotees." -- African Arts -- 20, no. 1 (November 1986).

Drewal, Henry John. "Flaming Crowns, Cooling Waters: Masquerades of the Ijebu Yoruba" -- African Arts -- 20, no. 1 (November 1986).

Drewal, Henry John. "Mermaids, Mirrors, and Snake Charmers: Igbo Mami Wata Shrines" -- African Arts -- 21, no. 2 (February 1988).

Drewal, Henry John. "Performing the Other: Mami Wata Worship in Africa" -- TDR -- 32, no. 2 (Summer 1988).

Drewal, Henry John. "Beauty and Being: Aesthetics and Ontology in Yoruba Body Art." Arnold Rubin, ed. -- Marks of Civilization: Artistic Transformation of the Human Body -- . Los Angeles, CA, 1988.

Drewal, Henry John, John Pemberton III, Rowland Abiodun. -- Yoruba: Nine Centuries of African Art and Thought -- . NY: Center for African Art in Association with H.N. Abrams, 1989.

Homberger, Lorenz ed. -- Yoruba Art and Aesthetics -- . Zurich: Museum Rietberg; New York: Center for African Art, 1991.

Drewal, Margaret Thompson. -- Yoruba Ritual: Performers, Play, Agency -- . Bloomington and Indianapolis, IN: Indiana University Press, 1992.

Drewal, Henry John and Margaret Thompson Drewal. -- Gelede: Art and Female Power among the Yoruba -- . Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1993.

Abiodun, Rowland, Henry J. Drewal, and John Pemberton III, editors. -- The Yoruba Artist: New Theoretical Perspectives on African Arts -- . Washington DC: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1994.

Drewal, Henry John. "Yoruba Beadwork Beauty Brightness." -- Faces -- 12, no. 1 (September 1995).

This finding aid was organized according to the inherent value of the Drewal collection to art historians, ethnographers, anthropologists, and cultural historians. It has been kept simple but made as detailed as possible while still providing the researcher with references to the images and other valuable research information. The finding aid has been organized into three principal sections:

A. Bibliography of Drewal publications with image numbers; B. Primary keyword subjects: Field images; C. Primary keyword subjects: Art images; and D. Restricted images: B/W copy slides and non-Drewal color slides

A. Bibliography of Drewal publications: The first section contains a bibliography of primary Drewal publications and lists the image numbers for reproductions that appear in either black-and-white or color. These publications are listed chronologically with a corresponding list of image numbers. For the researcher's convenience, all images from the Drewal collection that have been published are listed in a separate column beside the publication in which the picture appears. Due to space restrictions, only the last five digits of the accession numbers are listed in the Image # column.

**Please note that some of the color slides in the collection have been reproduced as black-and-white images in several Drewal publications. A separate column in the bibliographic section indicates whether the image was reproduced in black-and-white or color in the publication. The Elisofon Archives does not currently possess any of the Drewal's black-and-white negatives. For additional information on these images, please contact Drs. Henry John Drewal and Margaret Thompson Drewal.

Example:

Publication Title Image # Gelede: Art and Female Power among the Yoruba, 1993

To further assist researchers, two additional columns have been created to indicate if the image is published in color or black/white.

Example: Publication Title Image # Color Gelede: Art and Female Power among the Yoruba, 1993 • 00000 

B & C. Primary keyword: Field and Art images The second section contains a complete list of images available in the collection, subdivided by field and art images. Field images refer to cultural or natural landscapes shot in Africa and Art images refer to images of objects in museums (or photographed in the field as an object by itself). These images have been categorized by primary keywords (i.e. artisan; leadership; masquerade) and subdivided into subcategories or type within these general keyword subjects (i.e. carvers; chiefs; Egungun).

Example:

Primary Keyword Subcategory Image # Architecture • Modern • 00000

D. Restricted images: The final section lists restricted images in the collection: b/w copy slides from publications and color slides not produced by the Drewals. These images are for study purposes only and not for reproduction.
Arrangement note:
The slides were sent to the Elisofon Archives in several batches. They were arranged according to the Drewals' own system of classification and field notes (see below). This arrangement is roughly by subject and further subdivided by subcategory or type. Slides of museum objects are grouped with field images of similar subject matter. For instance, museum object related to Sango worship can be found with the field images of Sango devotees and shrines.

The Drewals donated copies of their field notes (Red and Blue Books) which correspond to most of the slides found in the collection. The Red and Blue books are arranged in reverse chronological order starting with Blue Book 1977-78.1. Reference numbers to these books appear on the upper left hand corner of the slide (e.g. 78.34.6; 28-11). The majority of the field notes give the date and place where the photos were taken as well as a brief descriptive of the subject of the image related to the note. In some cases, the Òrìsà of a particular town was recorded in addition to how many Òrìsà are worshipped. The Drewals attended several private ceremonies and there are some descriptions of their experiences, however, in most cases not in extensive detail.

There is an additional notebook containing more field notes for years prior to 1975. This notebook has information about the images of museum objects and is a collection of Xeroxed copies of notes on index cards. There are no dates on the copies, but there are reference numbers as with the Red and Blue Books.

Images indexed by negative number.
Biographical / Historical:
Art historian Henry John Drewal received his BA from Hamilton College and two Masters' degrees and a PhD from Columbia University (1973). In between college and graduate school, Drewal served in the Peace Corps, where he taught French and English, organized arts camps in Nigeria, and apprenticed himself to a Yoruba sculptor.

He taught at Cleveland State University (Chair of the Art Department), and was a Visiting Professor at UC-Santa Barbara and SUNY-Purchase. Since 1991 he has been the Evjue-Bascom Professor of Art History and Afro-American Studies at UW-Madison. He has published several books, edited volumes, exhibition catalogues, and many articles and produced a number of films documenting African and African Diaspora arts, and lectured widely on these topics. He has received several NEH and NEA grants, three Fulbright Research Awards (Brazil, Benin, Morocco), a Metropolitan Museum of Art Fellowship, and a Guggenheim Fellowship.

Dr. Margaret Thompson Drewal is an ethnographer, performance theorist, and dance historian. She has conducted extensive research on Yoruba and Afro-Brazilian ritual dance with a special interest in the poetics and politics of performance discourse. She is the author of Performers, Play, and Agency: Yoruba Ritual Process (1989). She has also authored numerous articles that have appeared in such journals as TDR: A Journal of Performance Studies, African Arts, and The Journal Ritual Studies. She is also a trained dancer and choreographer. At present, Dr. Drewal is the Chair of the Department of Performance Studies at North Western University.

There are also video productions by Henry John Drewal and Margaret Thompson Drewal available in the Warren M. Robbins Library. The videos available are "Ẹfẹ/Gẹlẹdẹ Ceremonies among the Western Yoruba," by Henry John Drewal; "Yoruba Performance," by Henry John Drewal; and "Yoruba Ritual: A Companion Video," by Margaret Thompson Drewal.
Cultural Information and Background:
The information found here goes slightly beyond the notes of the Red/Blue Books and index card that accompany the images. Because the Drewal Collection primarily centers on the Yoruba and Mami Wata spiritual traditions and material cultures, the focus of images are of specific implements of the deities and priests, such as staffs, pots, stools, thrones, statues, and bells. Also included in the collection are images of divination, sacrifice, and other important rituals, festivals and ceremonies. What is given here is pertinent background information on the cosmology of the Yoruba and Mami Wata spiritual traditions as it relates to the iconographical focus of the slides.

In Yoruba cosmology, there is a supreme being commonly referred to as Ọlọdumare. Ọlọdumare is essentially understood as being genderless or androgynous. There are no shrines or spiritual implements dedicated to Ọlọdumare. The Yoruba believe that Ọlọdumare is too vast and its power too strong to be channeled into one building or space. Everything is a part of or expresses an aspect of Ọlọdumare. Through the appeasement of the Òrìsà Ọlọdumare is served. The Òrìsà are the emissaries of Ọlọdumare sent to the world to assist their devotees in every day life. There are hundreds of Òrìsà within the Yoruba pantheon. Deities such as Ọbatala, Ifá, Èshù, Ọshún, Shango, Ọsanyin, Yemọja and Oya are worshipped throughout Yorubaland; there are also deities that are specific to particular locations and are not as popular as the aforementioned eight.

Implements of the priests are classified as sacred art. These spiritual tools are not only instruments of the priests, but ultimately, they are tools for the Òrìsà. It is important to understand that the shrines are not the Òrìsà. This very prominent misconception has plagued traditional practitioners both in and out of Yorubaland for centuries. The emphasis of reverence is placed on the spirit associated with the materials used to construct a shrine or ceremonial item and not the item itself. The shrine and other sacred tools serve as vortices to channel the ashe or power of the Òrìsà into the physical world.

Ifá is a term that has been used to refer to the Yoruba traditional spiritual system. However, Ifá also refers to the Òrìsà of divination, Ọrunmila, as well as the system of divination used by the priests of Ọrunmila. Ifá's role as a diviner is so important in Yoruba cosmology that he is referred to as Ẹlẹri ipin, ibikéjì Ọlọdumare (witness to all destinies, second only to Ọlọdumare). The Drewals were allowed to follow the process of three initiations and other sacred rituals performed by priests. Certain rituals cannot be witnessed by non-initiates; however the Drewals were able to photograph many of the sacred rites of the initiation process. The roles of the Ifá priest vary. Divining is a very important role of the Ifá priest, and the tools used to divine are also sacred. There is a section of the collection dedicated to images of divination tools and the Ifá shrine.

Èshù is another one of the most important deities within Yoruba cosmology. Èshù is the keeper of ashe and the inspector of all sacrifices. His image is carved into the top of the Ifá divination tray (ọpọn Ifá) because he is a witness to all actions, thoughts, and events. According to Yoruba cosmology, he is an unbiased observer who will convey only the truth of any subject. Both Ifá and Èshù assist devotees in overcoming unsavory circumstances and bad luck, according to the Yoruba. There are many roads (aspects) of Èshù, each performing a specific duty in a devotee's life. Shigidi is one of the more powerful aspects of Èshù. One can see the noticeable differences between the Shigidi and the yangi (laterite or sculpted clay used to create an Èshù shrine).

The implements that are found on traditional Òrìsà shrines are based on Yoruba mythology. For instance, the odo Shango, ritual mortar, is found on almost all shrines dedicated to this particular Òrìsà. The legend goes that he used an inverted mortar to kill a leopard that was terrorizing the people of Enpe. The odo Shango is sometimes used to support the container that holds the "thunderstones" (lightning struck stones) of Shango's shrine. The inverted mortar is also used as a stool for priests or initiates to sit. Shango's priests usually keep their hair braided, even if the priest is male. Equestrian figures are utilized in both Shango and Oya sacred art. Oya is the only female deity in the Yoruba pantheon that has ever been depicted riding a horse. Yoruba mythology states that Oya is a warrior goddess who accompanies her husband, Shango into battle and fights by his side. Together the husband and wife team is associated with thunderstorms. Oya is mythically related to the winds that precede the thunder and lightning that are both said to be associated with Shango.

There are several types of staffs or dance wands seen in the Drewal collection. In the case of dance wands, they are often times utilized during spirit possession. In some instances, the shrine of the Òrìsà is only the staff of that particular deity. Such is the case with the ọpa Osun, a deity associated with Ifá and his devotees and the ọpa Òrìsà Oko, the deity of agriculture.

The Ogboni society (also known as Osugbo) possesses a mixture of spiritual and governmental power within the traditional Yoruba community. It was the foundation of order in traditional Yoruba society. The focus of worship and veneration amongst Ogboni members is Onilẹh, the Owner of the land or Earth. Sometimes one may hear the term Onileh, Owner of the house, instead. Both pronunciations can be used and carry significant meaning in either case. However, the consensus of scholarly research associates Ogboni with the Earth. In that case the term Onilẹh is more suitable.

Egúngún and Gelede festivals are of significant importance amongst the Yoruba. The Egúngún society is dedicated to the veneration and appeasement of honorable ancestors. This can take place in private or public. Families celebrate their deceased relatives' lives and accomplishments privately through sacrifice, prayer and celebration. In a public arena ancestors from the community are given recognition. The Yoruba have long believed that community solidarity and welfare begins with the family. In honoring one's personal ancestors as well as benevolent community ancestors, the family receives the blessings of those that reside in the spiritual realm—those who have become ara ọrun, or the people of heaven. Because the Yoruba believe in reincarnation, it is thought that the ancestors will one day return to the material world in a future lifetime. If proper rituals and prayers are performed, the spirits returning will have a better chance of being assets to society by hopefully making positive contributions to the elevation of the Yoruba people.

Gelede is always a public event. The time of year which the festival will take place is dependent on the locality in which the festival is being held. Gelede focuses mainly on the feminine and the role of women in society. Female deities such as Yemọja, Olókun, and Ilẹh are associated with Gelede. Another aspect of major importance to Gelede is the inclusion of Ìyánla, the Great Mother, which is a reference to Onilè. This reference is but one facet that connects Gelede to the Ogboni society. It is also during the Gelede festival that Awọn Ìyá Wa, Our Mothers or the Mothers, are petitioned and appeased so that they may not interfere with the positive efforts of the community.

Both the Egúngún and Gelede festivals help to ensure prosperity, abundance, and fertility of the people. It is through these festivals that indecent conduct is addressed in hopes of exorcising the root of such behavior. It is believed that bringing any disgraceful and inhumane acts to the forefront encourages individuals to act responsibly in all matters.

The final subject presented in the Drewal Collection is of the Mami Wata traditions in West Africa. Representations of Mami Wata often include foreign images, usually of Indian gods, to describe the attributes of Mami Wata as a deity. The term Mami Wata refers to a water spirit or a collective of water spirits. The names associated with the original African water spirit(s) have long been forgotten in some regions of West Africa where Mami Wata is worshipped. However, in other areas, the term Mami Wata is interchangeable with the indigenous name used to identify the water spirit(s). There are variations to the worship of Mami Wata throughout West Africa, yet similarities prevail. Togo is most popularly associated with the Mami Wata tradition. Most of the slides featuring Mami Wata devotees in the Drewal Collection were taken in Togo.
Related Materials:
Additional photographs by Henry John Drewal held at the EEPA are located within the collection: Henry John Drewal Collection, EEPA 2010-010.
Restrictions:
Use of original records requires an appointment. Contact Archives staff for more details.
Rights:
Permission to reproduce images from the Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives must be obtained in advance. Copyright held by John and Margaret Drewal. To publish images from this collection, permission must be given by Henry and Margaret Drewal. Contact Archives staff for further information. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Genre/Form:
Color slides
Citation:
Henry and Margaret Drewal Photographs, EEPA 1992-028, Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives, National Museum of African Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
EEPA.1992-028
See more items in:
Henry and Margaret Drewal photographs
Archival Repository:
Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives, National Museum of African Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-eepa-1992-028

Carol Laderman Papers

Creator:
Laderman, Carol  Search this
Extent:
6 Linear feet ((15 boxes and 1 manuscript envelope) and 154 cassette tapes)
Culture:
Malays (Asian people)  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Field notes
Sound recordings
Photographs
Place:
Kampong Merchang (Terengganu)
Malaysia
Date:
1970-2009
Summary:
Carol Laderman was a medical anthropologist best known for her research on Malay traditional medicine. Her work focused on beliefs and practices regarding childbirth and nutrition as well as shamanic healing practices in rural Malaysia. This collection consists of the professional papers of Carol Laderman, medical anthropologist and university professor. The bulk of the collection pertains to her research on childbirth, nutrition, and shamanic healing practices in rural Malaysia. These materials include field notes, surveys, transcripts of Main Peteri ceremonies, grant applications, photographs, and sound recordings. Of special interest are her photographs of midwives and shamans treating patients, including Main Peteri ceremonies, as well as traditional Malay weddings and festivals. Also noteworthy are her recordings of Main Peteri ceremonies and her interviews with midwives and shamans. The collection also contains her unpublished and published writings; her dissertation; a report on her undergraduate fieldwork with pregnant Puerto Rican teenagers; her lecture notes and files as a university professor; files documenting her involvement in professional associations; and correspondence with colleagues.
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of the professional papers of Carol Laderman, medical anthropologist and university professor. The bulk of the collection pertains to her research on childbirth, nutrition, and shamanic healing practices in rural Malaysia. These materials include field notes, surveys, transcripts of Main Peteri ceremonies, grant applications, photographs, and sound recordings. Of special interest are her photographs of midwives and shamans treating patients, including Main Peteri ceremonies, as well as traditional Malay weddings and festivals. Also noteworthy are her recordings of Main Peteri ceremonies and her interviews with midwives and shamans. The collection also contains her unpublished and published writings; her dissertation; a report on her undergraduate fieldwork with pregnant Puerto Rican teenagers; her lecture notes and files as a university professor; files documenting her involvement in professional associations; and correspondence with colleagues.
Arrangement:
This collection is organized in 8 series: Series 1. Research, 1972, 1975-1977, 1981, 1985, 1987, 2000-2003, undated; Series 2. Writings, 1970, 1975, 1978-2001, 2004, undated; Series 3. Student Files, 1972, 1975, 1979, undated; Series 4. Teacher Files, 1977, 1979-1982, 2001-2002, 2007, undated; Series 5. Correspondence, 1974-1981, 1985-2005, 2009, undated; Series 6. Professional Activities, circa 1981, 1989-1990, 1994, 2004, undated; Series 7. Photographs, circa 1975-1977, circa 1982, undated; Series 8. Sound Recordings, 1976-1977, 1982, 2003, undated.
Biographical/Historical note:
Carol Laderman was a medical anthropologist best known for her research on Malay traditional medicine. Her work focused on beliefs and practices regarding childbirth and nutrition as well as shamanic healing practices in rural Malaysia.

Laderman (née Cohen) was born on October 25, 1932 in Brooklyn, New York. When she was 6, her father changed their family's surname to Ciavati due to his difficulty as a Jew finding an engineering job. Laderman grew up with musical aspirations, intending to become a concert pianist. She attended the High School of Music and Art in Manhattan and majored in music at Brooklyn College. In 1953, she married Gabriel Laderman, a painter and later an art professor. She took a leave from college to follow her husband after he was drafted into the U.S. Army five months following their wedding. Her hiatus from college spanned fifteen years, during which time she had two sons (1958, 1965). She also worked as a legal secretary in Ithaca, New York, and as a social secretary and translator for an opera singer when she and her family lived in Italy.

After returning to New York City, she enrolled in evening classes at Hunter College. Although she planned to resume her studies in music, her academic focus changed after taking an anthropology course taught by medical anthropologist Rena Gropper. In 1972, she earned her B.A. in Anthropology, and with the assistance of a Danforth Foundation Fellowship, she attended graduate school at Columbia University, where she earned her Ph.D. in Anthropology in 1979.

As an undergraduate student, Laderman conducted fieldwork at Mt. Sinai Hospital in New York City (1972-1973), assisting in a project on pregnant teenagers and nutritional health. She was assigned to collect data on Puerto Rican adolescent mothers, which exposed her to humoral beliefs in food, medicine, and people. This experience would later inspire her to conduct her graduate fieldwork on nutrition and childbirth in Malaysia, where humoral beliefs were also held but not well-explored by researchers.

From 1975 to 1977, Laderman and her family lived in Merchang, in Trengganu (now Terengganu), Malaysia. Working under the auspices of the Malaysian Ministry of Health of the Institute for Medical Research, Laderman studied both traditional and hospital-based medicine. As part of her fieldwork, she received training from a hospital to collect blood samples to study the effects of birthing and dietary practices on women's health. She also apprenticed herself to a traditional midwife (bidan kampung), whom she assisted in a number of births. By comparing food ideologies and actual food intake of pregnant and postpartum women, Laderman was able to refute the prevailing view of scholars that malnutrition among rural Malays was largely due to dietary restrictions based on the humoral system. In her dissertation, "Conceptions and Preconceptions: Childbirth and Nutrition in Rural Malaysia," Laderman describes how Malay women adapt their diets to their needs and that their customs allow for interpretation and manipulation. In 1983, a revised version of her dissertation was published as Wives and Midwives: Childbirth and Nutrition in Rural Malaysia.

While seeking to gain an understanding of traditional Malay medicine in its entirety, Laderman also became exposed to theatrical spirit séances known as Main Peteri (also Puteri or Teri). At that time Main Peteri was no longer performed in most Malaysian states but was still thriving in Trengganu and nearby Kelantan. Performed primarily as healing ceremonies by shamans (bomoh), Main Peteri was a last resort for the afflicted. These performances were characterized by entranced patients, spirit possessions, singing, music, dancing, and an audience. Laderman attended and participated in a number of these ceremonies and became a student and adopted daughter to a shaman. She recorded and transcribed several Main Peteri performances and received an NEH grant (1981-1985) to translate the texts. She also returned to Merchang in 1982 to conduct further research on traditional healing ceremonies. In her monograph Taming the Wind of Desire (1991), she discusses Main Peteri and its relationship to the Malay concept of Inner Winds (angin), which determine a person's personality, talents, and drives. In 1987 to 1990, she returned to her musical roots to collaborate with ethnomusicologist Marina Roseman to transcribe, analyze, and interpret the music of Main Peteri. Together, she and Roseman also edited The Performance of Healing (1996). In addition, Laderman became interested in the effects of urbanization and globalization on traditional Malay healing practices, a topic which she addressed in a collection of her writings, The Life and Death of Traditional Malay Medicine (in press).

Laderman was a professor at the Department of Anthropology at City University of New York City College (1990-2010). She was also an associate professor at Fordham University (1982-1990) and taught briefly at Hunter College (1978-1980), Brooklyn College (1979-1980), and Yale University (1980-1982).

She died on July 6, 2010 at the age of 77.

Sources Consulted

[Autobiographical statement], Series 2. Writings, Carol Laderman Papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution

1972. Carol Laderman, SGS Student, Wins Danforth Fellowship. SGS Newsletter 2(7): 1.

Laderman, Carol. 1983. Wives and Midwives: Childbirth and Nutrition in Rural Malaysia. Berkeley, California: University of California Press.

Laderman, Carol. 1991. Taming the Wind of Desire: Psychology, Medicine, and Aesthetics in Malay Shamanistic Performance. Berkeley, California: University of California Press.

Maizura, Intan. 2003, September 28. A bidan, a bomoh & a New Yorker. Nuance: 16-18.

Roseman, Marina, Laurel Kendall and Robert Knox Dentan. 2011. Obituaries: Carol Laderman (1932-2010). American Anthropologist 113(2): 375-377.

1932 -- Born October 25 in Brooklyn, New York

1953 -- Marries Gabriel Laderman and takes a leave from Brooklyn College

1972 -- Earns B.A. in Anthropology from Hunter College

1972-1973 -- Conducts research at Mt. Sinai Hospital on ethnic eating patterns, food beliefs, and anemia in adolescent Puerto Rican mothers

1975-1977 -- Conducts fieldwork in Merchang in Trengganu, Malaysia

1979 -- Earns Ph.D. in Anthropology from Columbia University

1982 -- Returns to Malaysia to conduct fieldwork on shamanism and trance healing

1982-1988 -- Assistant Professor, Department of Anthropology, Fordham University

1988-1990 -- Associate Professor, Department of Anthropology, Fordham University

1990-2010 -- Professor, Department of Anthropology, City University of New York City College

2010 -- Dies on July 6
Related Materials:
Two videotapes were received with the Carol Laderman papers and transferred to the Human Studies Film Archives.

Some of Laderman's original field recordings are at Columbia University's Center for Ethnomusicology. Copies of those recording are in this collection and are so noted.
Provenance:
These papers were donated to the National Anthropological Archives by Carol Laderman's sons, Raphael and Michael Laderman in 2012.
Restrictions:
The Carol Laderman Papers are open for research. Access to the Carol Laderman Papers requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use. Permission to use sound recordings of Main Peteri ceremonies transcribed and published in Taming the Wind of Desire must be obtained from Columbia University's Center for Ethnomusicology.
Topic:
Traditional medicine  Search this
Shamanism  Search this
Malay language  Search this
Language and languages -- Documentation  Search this
Medical anthropology  Search this
Malays (Asian people) -- Medicine  Search this
Seances  Search this
Pregnancy -- Nutritional aspects  Search this
Midwifery  Search this
Ethnology -- Malaysia  Search this
Genre/Form:
Field notes
Sound recordings
Photographs
Citation:
Carol Laderman Papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.2012-09
See more items in:
Carol Laderman Papers
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-2012-09
Online Media:

Associated Press press release, 5/22/70, announcing the opening of an exhibition at Museum of African Art

Collection Photographer:
Elisofon, Eliot  Search this
Container:
Box 6, Folder 17
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1970
Collection Restrictions:
Use of original records requires an appointment. Contact Archives staff for more details.
Collection Rights:
Permission to reproduce images from the Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives must be obtained in advance. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Collection Citation:
Eliot Elisofon Field Collection, EEPA 1973-001, Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives, National Museum of African Art, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Eliot Elisofon Field collection
Eliot Elisofon Field collection / Manuscript Materials / N-1: Museum of African Art—Correspondence
Archival Repository:
Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives, National Museum of African Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-eepa-1973-001-ref39526

Letter to a Mr. Blaustein, Columbia Pictures Corporation, Hollywood, from Julius Carlebach, Carlebach Gallery, New York, 2/5/58, regarding artifacts to be photographed (Eliot Elisofon possibly photographer), pages 1-5

Collection Photographer:
Elisofon, Eliot  Search this
Container:
Box 6, Folder 24
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1958
Collection Restrictions:
Use of original records requires an appointment. Contact Archives staff for more details.
Collection Rights:
Permission to reproduce images from the Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives must be obtained in advance. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Collection Citation:
Eliot Elisofon Field Collection, EEPA 1973-001, Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives, National Museum of African Art, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Eliot Elisofon Field collection
Eliot Elisofon Field collection / Manuscript Materials / N-8: Correspondence with Various Museums
Archival Repository:
Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives, National Museum of African Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-eepa-1973-001-ref39611

Letter to Eliot Elisofon from Shirley Tomkievicz, Associate Editor, Horizon, 5/8/68, requesting a print of a Dan-Ngere wooden dance mask; copy of print included, pages 1-2

Collection Photographer:
Elisofon, Eliot  Search this
Container:
Box 1, Folder 27
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1968
Collection Restrictions:
Use of original records requires an appointment. Contact Archives staff for more details.
Collection Rights:
Permission to reproduce images from the Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives must be obtained in advance. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Collection Citation:
Eliot Elisofon Field Collection, EEPA 1973-001, Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives, National Museum of African Art, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Eliot Elisofon Field collection
Eliot Elisofon Field collection / Manuscript Materials / D-22: Horizon Magazine
Archival Repository:
Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives, National Museum of African Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-eepa-1973-001-ref39155

Ward's Bohor Reedbuck, Serengeti National Park, Tanzania

Photographer:
Elisofon, Eliot  Search this
Collection Photographer:
Elisofon, Eliot  Search this
Extent:
1 Slide (col.)
Type:
Archival materials
Slides
Color slides
Place:
Africa
Tanzania
Date:
1966
Scope and Contents:
Marsh antelope are members of a group of deerlike African antelopes , usually found in reeds or tall grasses near water. The males of this group have horns that curve back, up, and forward; females are hornless. Most marsh antelopes travel in small herds. The reedbucks (genus Redunca ), whose different species are distributed over most of Africa, are small, generally solitary antelopes about 30 in. (76 cm) high; the smallest, the mountain reedbuck ( Redunca fulvorufula ), is found in the hills and mountains of E Africa. Marsh antelopes are classified in the phylum Chordata , subphylum Vertebrata, class Mammalia, order Artiodactyla, family Bovidae.[The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition | Date: 2008]. This photograph was taken when Eliot Elisofon was on assignment for American Broadcasting Company and traveled to Africa from June 1966 to early August 1966.
Local Numbers:
V 4 MAM 13.1 EE 66
General:
Title is provided by EEPA staff based on photographer's notes.
Local Note:
51
Frame value is 20.
Slide No. V 4 MAM 13.1 EE 66
Collection Restrictions:
Use of original records requires an appointment. Contact Archives staff for more details.
Collection Rights:
Permission to reproduce images from the Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives must be obtained in advance. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Topic:
Mammals  Search this
Animals -- Africa  Search this
Genre/Form:
Color slides
Collection Citation:
Eliot Elisofon Field Collection, EEPA 1973-001, Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives, National Museum of African Art, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
EEPA.1973-001, Item EEPA EECL 24323
See more items in:
Eliot Elisofon Field collection
Eliot Elisofon Field collection / Tanzania
Archival Repository:
Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives, National Museum of African Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-eepa-1973-001-ref16489

Ward's Bohor Reedbuck, Serengeti National Park, Tanzania

Photographer:
Elisofon, Eliot  Search this
Collection Photographer:
Elisofon, Eliot  Search this
Extent:
1 Slide (col.)
Type:
Archival materials
Slides
Color slides
Place:
Africa
Tanzania
Date:
1966
Scope and Contents:
Marsh antelope are members of a group of deerlike African antelopes , usually found in reeds or tall grasses near water. The males of this group have horns that curve back, up, and forward; females are hornless. Most marsh antelopes travel in small herds. The reedbucks (genus Redunca ), whose different species are distributed over most of Africa, are small, generally solitary antelopes about 30 in. (76 cm) high; the smallest, the mountain reedbuck ( Redunca fulvorufula ), is found in the hills and mountains of E Africa. Marsh antelopes are classified in the phylum Chordata , subphylum Vertebrata, class Mammalia, order Artiodactyla, family Bovidae.[The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition | Date: 2008]. This photograph was taken when Eliot Elisofon was on assignment for American Broadcasting Company and traveled to Africa from June 1966 to early August 1966.
Local Numbers:
V 4 MAM 13.2 EE 66
General:
Title is provided by EEPA staff based on photographer's notes.
Local Note:
51
Frame value is 22.
Slide No. V 4 MAM 13.2 EE 66
Collection Restrictions:
Use of original records requires an appointment. Contact Archives staff for more details.
Collection Rights:
Permission to reproduce images from the Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives must be obtained in advance. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Topic:
Mammals  Search this
Animals -- Africa  Search this
Genre/Form:
Color slides
Collection Citation:
Eliot Elisofon Field Collection, EEPA 1973-001, Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives, National Museum of African Art, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
EEPA.1973-001, Item EEPA EECL 24324
See more items in:
Eliot Elisofon Field collection
Eliot Elisofon Field collection / Tanzania
Archival Repository:
Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives, National Museum of African Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-eepa-1973-001-ref16490

Masked dancer during a Gelede performance, Meko, Nigeria

Photographer:
Elisofon, Eliot  Search this
Collection Photographer:
Elisofon, Eliot  Search this
Extent:
1 Slide (col.)
Culture:
Yoruba (African people)  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Slides
Color slides
Place:
Africa
Nigeria
Date:
1970
Scope and Contents:
"A typical Gelede performance has two phases, a night concert and an afternoon dance session. In the afternoon sessions, colorfully attired performers entertain the public with intricate dances. The headdresses are usually danced in pairs, jingling their metal anklets (aro) to rhyme with the drum beats. Although it performs in a variety of social and religious contexts, the ultimate goal of the Gelede performance is to promote peace and happiness on earth." [Lawal B., 2004: The World is Fragile... Life Should Not Be Lived with Force: a Yoruba Headdress (Igi Gelede Onijakadi), See the Music, Hear the Dance, Prestel]. "Gelede imagery evokes all aspects of Yoruba society. The masks refer to a wide variety of female and male roles and activities either in objects associated with such roles or in genre scenes depicting them. They also depict animals that serve as metaphors for human actions or as illustrations of popular proverbs and songs that accompany the mask's appearance." [Drewal H. J., Pemberton J., Rowland Abiodun, 1989: Yoruba. Nine Centuries of African Art and Thought, Harry N. Abrams Inc.]. This photograph was taken when Eliot Elisofon traveled to Africa from March 17, 1970 to July 17, 1970.
Local Numbers:
E 2 YRB 7.2 EE 70
General:
Title is provided by EEPA staff based on photographer's notes.
Local Note:
A18
Frame value is 22.
Slide No. E 2 YRB 7.2 EE 70
Collection Restrictions:
Use of original records requires an appointment. Contact Archives staff for more details.
Collection Rights:
Permission to reproduce images from the Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives must be obtained in advance. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Topic:
Animals in art  Search this
Animals in art -- Birds  Search this
Animals in art -- Leopards  Search this
Masquerades  Search this
Clothing and dress -- Africa  Search this
Masks  Search this
Genre/Form:
Color slides
Collection Citation:
Eliot Elisofon Field Collection, EEPA 1973-001, Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives, National Museum of African Art, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
EEPA.1973-001, Item EEPA EECL 3937
See more items in:
Eliot Elisofon Field collection
Eliot Elisofon Field collection / Nigeria
Archival Repository:
Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives, National Museum of African Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-eepa-1973-001-ref20372

Masked dancers during a Gelede performance, Meko, Nigeria

Photographer:
Elisofon, Eliot  Search this
Collection Photographer:
Elisofon, Eliot  Search this
Extent:
1 Slide (col.)
Culture:
Yoruba (African people)  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Slides
Color slides
Place:
Africa
Nigeria
Date:
1970
Scope and Contents:
"A typical Gelede performance has two phases, a night concert and an afternoon dance session. In the afternoon sessions, colorfully attired performers entertain the public with intricate dances. The headdresses are usually danced in pairs, jingling their metal anklets (aro) to rhyme with the drum beats. Although it performs in a variety of social and religious contexts, the ultimate goal of the Gelede performance is to promote peace and happiness on earth." [Lawal B., 2004: The World is Fragile... Life Should Not Be Lived with Force: a Yoruba Headdress (Igi Gelede Onijakadi), See the Music, Hear the Dance, Prestel]. "Gelede imagery evokes all aspects of Yoruba society. The masks refer to a wide variety of female and male roles and activities either in objects associated with such roles or in genre scenes depicting them. They also depict animals that serve as metaphors for human actions or as illustrations of popular proverbs and songs that accompany the mask's appearance." [Drewal H. J., Pemberton J., Rowland Abiodun, 1989: Yoruba. Nine Centuries of African Art and Thought, Harry N. Abrams Inc.]. This photograph was taken when Eliot Elisofon traveled to Africa from March 17, 1970 to July 17, 1970.
Local Numbers:
E 2 YRB 11.1 EE 70
General:
Title is provided by EEPA staff based on photographer's notes.
Local Note:
A18
Frame value is 22.
Slide No. E 2 YRB 11.1 EE 70
Collection Restrictions:
Use of original records requires an appointment. Contact Archives staff for more details.
Collection Rights:
Permission to reproduce images from the Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives must be obtained in advance. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Topic:
Animals in art  Search this
Animals in art -- Birds  Search this
Animals in art -- Leopards  Search this
Animals in art -- Snakes  Search this
Animals in art -- Rams  Search this
Masquerades  Search this
Clothing and dress -- Africa  Search this
Masks  Search this
Genre/Form:
Color slides
Collection Citation:
Eliot Elisofon Field Collection, EEPA 1973-001, Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives, National Museum of African Art, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
EEPA.1973-001, Item EEPA EECL 3942
See more items in:
Eliot Elisofon Field collection
Eliot Elisofon Field collection / Nigeria
Archival Repository:
Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives, National Museum of African Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-eepa-1973-001-ref20378

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