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MS 4558 Alice Cunningham Fletcher and Francis La Flesche papers

Creator:
La Flesche, Francis, 1857-1932  Search this
Fletcher, Alice C. (Alice Cunningham), 1838-1923  Search this
Correspondent:
La Flesche family  Search this
Aldrich, Charles F.  Search this
Alexander, Hartley B.  Search this
Allen, James T.  Search this
Andrews, Gleorge L.  Search this
Armstrong, S.C.  Search this
Ashley, Robert H.  Search this
Atkins, John D.C.  Search this
Boas, Franz, 1858-1942  Search this
Bowditch, Charles P. (Charles Pickering), 1842-1921  Search this
Brinton, Daniel G. (Daniel Garrison), 1837-1899  Search this
Brown, George LeRoy  Search this
Burlin, Natalie Curtis, 1875-1921  Search this
Cadman, Charles Wakefield, 1881-1946  Search this
Copley, John T.  Search this
Dall, William Healey, 1845-1927  Search this
Dawes, E.S.  Search this
Densmore, Frances, 1867-1957  Search this
Dixon, Roland Burrage, 1875-1934  Search this
Dorsey, James Owen, 1848-1895  Search this
Dunbar, John Brown, 1841-1914  Search this
Ellinwood, F.F.  Search this
Farabee, William Curtis, 1865-1925  Search this
Farley, Caryl E.  Search this
Farley, Rosalie La Flesche  Search this
Farwell, Arthur  Search this
Fellowes, R.S.  Search this
Fewkes, Jesse Walter, 1850-1930  Search this
Fillmore, John Comfort, 1843-1898  Search this
Fillmore, L.H.  Search this
Fillmore, Thomas Hill  Search this
Freire-Marreco, Barbara W. (Barbara Whitchurch), 1879-1967  Search this
Gay, E. Jane  Search this
Griffith, Elmer C.  Search this
Guthrie, William Norman  Search this
Hale, Horatio, 1817-1896  Search this
Hall, C.C.  Search this
Hall, Charles Lemon, 1847-1940  Search this
Hearst, Phoebe Apperson, 1842-1919  Search this
Heth, H.  Search this
Hewett, Edgar L. (Edgar Lee), 1865-1946  Search this
Hewitt, J. N. B. (John Napoleon Brinton), 1859-1937  Search this
Hodge, Frederick Webb, 1864-1956  Search this
Holmes, William Henry, 1846-1933  Search this
Hough, Walter, 1859-1935  Search this
Jackson, Sheldon  Search this
Johnston, Catherine M.  Search this
Kincaid, William  Search this
La Flesche, Joseph  Search this
Lummis, Charles Fletcher, 1859-1928  Search this
MacCurdy, George Grant, 1863-1947  Search this
Mason, Otis T., 1838-1908  Search this
Matthews, Washington, 1843-1905  Search this
McBeth, Kate C., 1832-1915  Search this
McBeth, Sue L., -1893  Search this
McCown, S.M.  Search this
McGee, W J, 1853-1912  Search this
McGuire, Joseph D. (Joseph Deakins), 1842-1916  Search this
Mead, Frances K.  Search this
Merriam, C. Hart (Clinton Hart), 1855-1942  Search this
Merrick, Fannie  Search this
Merrick, Jessie  Search this
Moon, Karl  Search this
Moore, Homer  Search this
Morgan, Caroline S.  Search this
Morgan, John T.  Search this
Murie, James R.  Search this
Myers, John L.  Search this
Nuttal, Maria Magdalena  Search this
Pepper, George H. (George Hubbard), 1873-1924  Search this
Petter, W.H.  Search this
Pettigrew, Frederick W., 1850-1901  Search this
Picotte, Susan La Flesche  Search this
Pratt, Richard Henry, 1840-1924  Search this
Price, Hiram  Search this
Proctor, Edna Dean, 1829-1923  Search this
Putnam, F. W. (Frederic Ward), 1839-1915  Search this
Quinn, Daniel  Search this
Robertson, Alice M.  Search this
Rogers, Emily F.  Search this
Sanborn, F. B. (Franklin Benjamin), 1831-1917  Search this
Seymour, Thomas Day  Search this
Spofford, Ainsworth Rand, 1825-1908  Search this
St. Cyr, Julia  Search this
Starr, Frederick  Search this
Stuart, James  Search this
Talbot, Emily  Search this
Teller, W.J.  Search this
Thaw, William  Search this
Tozzer, Alfred M. (Alfred Marston), 1877-1954  Search this
Wallaschek, Richard  Search this
Westcott, Edith  Search this
Wilkinson, G.W.  Search this
Wilkinson, Hattie M.  Search this
Willoughby, Charles Clark  Search this
Names:
Carr, Lucien, 1829-1915  Search this
Radin, Paul, 1883-1959  Search this
Extent:
19 Linear feet (50 boxes)
Culture:
Arapaho Indians  Search this
Dakota Indians  Search this
Zuni Indians  Search this
Ponca Indians  Search this
Quechua  Search this
Quapaw Indians  Search this
Winnebago Indians  Search this
Mexicans  Search this
Wichita Indians  Search this
Zapotec  Search this
Creek Indians  Search this
Apache Indians  Search this
Cherokee, Eastern  Search this
Hopi  Search this
Indians of North America -- California  Search this
Hitchiti  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Plains  Search this
Indians of North America -- Southeast  Search this
Indians of North America -- Northeast  Search this
Cheyenne Indians  Search this
Caddo Indians  Search this
Cherokee Indians  Search this
Biloxi Indians  Search this
Omaha  Search this
Omaha Indians  Search this
Osage Indians  Search this
Oto Indians  Search this
Indians of North America -- Southwest, New  Search this
Juaneño Indians  Search this
Pawnee Indians  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Place:
Alaska
Date:
1873-1939
Summary:
These papers reflect the professional lives of Alice Cunningham Fletcher (1838-1923), an ethnologist with the Peabody Museum of Harvard and collaborator with the Bureau of American Ethnology, and Francis La Flesche (1856-1923), an anthropologist with the Bureau of American Ethnology. Due to the close professional and personal relationship of Fletcher and La Flesche, their papers have been arranged jointly. The papers cover the period from 1874 to 1939. Included in the collection is correspondence, personal diaries, lectures, field notes and other ethnographic papers, drafts, musical transcriptions, publications by various authors, maps and photographs.
Scope and Contents:
These papers reflect the professional lives of Alice Cunningham Fletcher (1838-1923), an ethnologist with the Peabody Museum of Harvard University and collaborator with the Bureau of American Ethnology, and Francis La Flesche (1856-1923), an anthropologist with the Bureau of American Ethnology. Due to the close professional and personal relationship of Fletcher and La Flesche, their papers have been arranged jointly. The papers cover the period from 1874 to 1939. Included in the collection is correspondence, personal diaries, lectures, field notes and other ethnographic papers, drafts, musical transcriptions, publications by various authors, maps and photographs.

The papers have been divided into three general categories: the papers of Alice Cunningham Fletcher, the papers of Francis La Flesche, and the ethnographic research of Fletcher and La Flesche. The first two categories represent personal and professional materials of Fletcher and La Flesche. The third section holds the majority of the ethnographic material in the collection.

Of primary concern are Fletcher and La Flesche's ethnological investigations conducted among the Plains Indians, particularly the Omaha and Osage. Fletcher's Pawnee field research and her allotment work for the Bureau of Indian Affairs among the Omaha, Nez Perce, and Winnebago are represented in the collection. A substantial portion of the ethnographic material reflects Fletcher and La Flesche's studies of Native American music. Much of the correspondence in the papers of Fletcher and La Flesche is rich with information about the situation of Omaha peoples in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.

Also included in the collection are documents related to Fletcher's work with the Archaeological Institute of America and the School for American Archaeology. Additionally, substantial amounts of Fletcher's early anthropological and historical research are found among her correspondence, lectures, anthropological notes, and early field diaries. La Flesche's literary efforts are also generously represented.
Arrangement:
The collection is divided into the following 3 series: 1) Alice Cunningham Fletcher papers, 1873-1925; 2) Francis La Flesche papers, 1881-1930; 3) Papers relating to the anthropological research of Alice Fletcher and Francis La Flesche, 1877-1939.

Series 1: Alice Cunningham Fletcher papers is divided into the following 10 subseries: 1.1) Incoming correspondence, 1874-1923 (bulk 1882-1923); 1.2) Outgoing correspondence, 1873-1921; 1.3) Correspondence on specific subjects, 1881-1925; 1.4) Correspondence between Fletcher and La Flesche, 1895-1922; 1.5) Publications, 1882-1920; 1.6) Organizational records, 1904-1921; 1.7) General anthropological notes, undated; 1.8) Lectures, circa 1878-1910; 1.9) Diaries, 1881-1922; 1.10) Biography and memorabilia, 1878-1925.

Series 2: Francis La Flesche papers is divided into the following 6 subseries: 2.11) General correspondence, 1890-1929; 2.12) Correspondence on specific subjects, 1881-1930; 2.13) Publications, 1900-1927; 2.14) Literary efforts, undated; 2.15) Personal diaries, 1883-1924; 2.16) Biography and memorabilia, 1886-1930.

Series 3: Papers relating to the anthropological research of Alice Fletcher and Francis La Flesche is divided into the following 12 subseries: 3.17) Alaska, 1886-1887; 3.18) Earth lodges, 1882, 1898-1899; 3.19) Music, 1888-1918; 3.20) Nez Perce, 1889-1909; 3.21) Omaha, 1882-1922; 3.22) Osage, 1896-1939; 3.23) Pawnee, 1897-1910; 3.24) Pipes, undated; 3.25) Sioux, 1877-1896; 3.26) Other tribes, 1882-1922; 3.27) Publications collected, 1884-1905, undated; 3.28) Photographs, undated.
Biographical / Historical:
Alice Cunningham Fletcher (1838-1923) was an ethnologist with the Peabody Museum of Harvard and collaborator with the Bureau of American Ethnology. Francis La Flesche (1856-1923) was an anthropologist with the Bureau of American Ethnology.

Chronology of the Life of Alice Cunningham Fletcher

1838 March 15 -- Born in Havana, Cuba

1873-1876 -- Secretary, American Association for Advancement of Women

1879 -- Informal student of anthropology, Peabody Museum, Harvard University

1881 -- Field trip to Omaha and Rosebud Agencies

1882 -- Assistant in ethnology, Peabody Museum, Harvard University

1882 -- Helped secure land in severalty to Omaha Indians

1882-1883 -- Begins collaboration with Francis La Flesche on the Peabody Museum's collection of Omaha and Sioux artifacts

1883-1884 -- Special Agent, Bureau of Indian Affairs, Omaha Agency

1886 -- Bureau of Education investigation of Alaskan native education

1887-1888 -- Special Disbursing Agent, Bureau of Indian Affairs, Winnebago Agency

1889-1892 -- Special Agent for allotment, Bureau of Indian Affairs, Nez Perce Agency

1890-1899 -- President, Women's Anthropological Society of America

1891-1923 -- Mary Copley Thaw Fellow, Peabody Museum, Harvard University

1892-1893 -- Department of Interior consultant, World's Columbian Exposition

1896 -- Vice-President, Section H, American Association for the Advancement of Science

1897 -- Collaborator, Bureau of American Ethnology

1899-1916 -- Editorial board, American Anthropologist

1900 -- Published Indian Story and Song from North America

1901-1902 -- Advisory committee, Anthropology Department, University of California at Berkeley

1903 -- President, Anthropological Society of Washington

1904 -- Published The Hako: A Pawnee Ceremony with James Murie

1904 -- Member, ethnology section, Louisiana Purchase Exposition

1905 -- President, American Folk-lore Society

1908-1913 -- Chair, Managing Committee of School of American Archaeology

1911 -- Honorary Vice-President, Section H, British Association for Advancement of Science

1911 -- Published The Omaha Tribe with Francis La Flesche

1913 -- Chair Emeritus, Managing Committee of School of American Archaeology

1915 -- Published Indian Games and Dances with Native Songs Arranged from American Indian Ceremonials and Sports

1923 April 6 -- Died in Washington, D.C.

Chronology of the Life of Francis La Flesche

1857 December 25 -- Born on Omaha Reservation near Macy, Nebraska

1879 -- Lecture tour, Ponca chief Standing Bear

1881 -- Interpreter, Senate Committee on Indian Affairs

1881-1910 -- Clerk, Bureau of Indian Affairs

1891 -- Informally adopted as Fletcher's son

1892 -- LL.B., National University Law School

1893 -- LL.M., National University Law School

1900 -- Published The Middle Five: Indian Boys at School

1906-1908 -- Marriage to Rosa Bourassa

1910-1929 -- Ethnologist, Bureau of American Ethnology

1911 -- Published The Omaha Tribe with Alice Fletcher

1921 -- Published The Osage Tribe, Part One

1922 -- Member, National Academy of Sciences

1922-1923 -- President, Anthropological Society of Washington

1925 -- Published The Osage Tribe, Part Two

1926 -- Honorary Doctor of Letters, University of Nebraska

1928 -- Published The Osage Tribe, Part Three

1932 -- Published Dictionary of the Osage Language

1932 September 5 -- Died in Thurston County, Nebraska

1939 -- Posthumous publication of War Ceremony and Peace Ceremony of the Osage Indians
Related Materials:
Additional material related to the professional work of Fletcher and La Flesche in the National Anthropological Archives may be found among the correspondence of the Bureau of American Ethnology (BAE) and the records of the Anthropological Society of Washington.

Sound recordings made by Fletcher and La Flesche can be found at the Library of Congress. The National Archives Records Administration hold the Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA), including those relating to allotments in severalty for the Nez Perce by Alice Fletcher. The Nebraska Historical Society has diaries, letters and clippings regarding the La Flesche family, including correspondence of Francis La Flesche and Fletcher. The Radcliffe College Archives holds a manuscript account of Alice Fletcher's four summers with the Nez Perce (1889-1892). Correspondence between Fletcher and F. W. Putnam is also located at the Peabody Museum Archives of Harvard University.
Separated Materials:
Ethnographic photographs from the collection have been catalogued by tribe in Photo Lot 24.

Glass plate negatives from the collection have been catalogued by tribe in the BAE glass negatives collection (Negative Numbers 4439-4515).
Provenance:
The papers of Alice Cunningham Fletcher and Francis La Flesche have been received from an undocumented number of sources. Portions of Fletcher's ethnographic papers were donated to the archives by Mrs. G. David Pearlman in memory of her husband in 1959.
Restrictions:
The Alice Cunningham Fletcher and Francis La Flesche papers are open for research.

Access to the Alice Cunningham Fletcher and Francis La Flesche papers requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Pipes -- American Indian  Search this
Earth houses  Search this
Music -- American Indian  Search this
Citation:
Manuscript 4558 Alice Cunningham Fletcher and Francis La Flesche papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.MS4558
See more items in:
MS 4558 Alice Cunningham Fletcher and Francis La Flesche papers
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-ms4558
Online Media:

Western Union Telegraph Company Records

Creator:
United Telegraph Workers.  Search this
Western Union Telegraph Company  Search this
Extent:
452 Cubic feet (871 boxes and 23 map folders)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Patents
Scrapbooks
Contracts
Drawings
Articles
Administrative records
Clippings
Books
Photographs
Newsletters
Photograph albums
Specifications
Technical documents
Date:
circa 1820-1995
Summary:
The collection documents in photographs, scrapbooks, notebooks, correspondence, stock ledgers, annual reports, and financial records, the evolution of the telegraph, the development of the Western Union Telegraph Company, and the beginning of the communications revolution. The collection materials describe both the history of the company and of the telegraph industry in general, particularly its importance to the development of the technology in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. The collection is useful for researchers interested in the development of technology, economic history, and the impact of technology on American social and cultural life.
Scope and Contents:
The collection is divided into twenty-six (26) series and consists of approximately 400 cubic feet. The collection documents in photographs, scrapbooks, notebooks, correspondence, stock ledgers, annual reports, and financial records, the evolution of the telegraph, the development of the Western Union Telegraph Company, and the beginning of the communications revolution. The collection materials describe both the history of the company and of the telegraph industry in general, particularly its importance to the development of the technology in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. The collection is useful for researchers interested in the development of technology, economic history, and the impact of technology on American social and cultural life.
Arrangement:
The collection is divided into twenty-six series.

Series 1: Historical and Background Information, 1851-1994

Series 2: Subsidiaries of Western Union, 1844-1986

Series 3: Executive Records, 1848-1987

Series 4: Presidential Letterbooks and Writings, 1865-1911

Series 5: Correspondence, 1837-1985

Series 6: Cyrus W. Field Papers, 1840-1892

Series 7: Secretary's Files, 1844-1987

Series 8: Financial Records, 1859-1995

Series 9: Legal Records, 1867-1968

Series 10: Railroad Records, 1854-1945

Series 11: Law Department Records, 1868-1979

Series 12: Patent Materials, 1840-1970

Series 13: Operating Records, 1868-1970s

Series 14: Westar VI-S, 1974, 1983-1986

Series 15: Engineering Department Records, 1874-1970

Series 16: Plant Department Records, 1867-1937, 1963

Series 17: Superintendent of Supplies Records, 1888-1948

Series 18: Employee/Personnel Records 1852-1985

Series 19: Public Relations Department Records, 1858-1980

Series 20: Western Union Museum, 1913-1971

Series 21: Maps, 1820-1964

Series 22: Telegrams, 1852-1960s

Series 23: Photographs, circa 1870-1980

Series 24: Scrapbooks, 1835-1956

Series 25: Notebooks, 1880-1942

Series 26: Audio Visual Materials, 1925-1994

Series 27: Materials for Interfile (Series 1; Series 3; Series 13; Series 15-23; Series 25-26)
Biographical / Historical:
In 1832 Samuel F. B. Morse, assisted by Alfred Vail, conceived of the idea for an electromechanical telegraph, which he called the "Recording Telegraph." This commercial application of electricity was made tangible by their construction of a crude working model in 1835-36. This instrument probably was never used outside of Professor Morse's rooms where it was, however, operated in a number of demonstrations. This original telegraph instrument was in the hands of the Western Union Telegraph Company and had been kept carefully over the years in a glass case. It was moved several times in New York as the Western Union headquarters building changed location over the years. The company presented it to the Smithsonian Institution in 1950.

The telegraph was further refined by Morse, Vail, and a colleague, Leonard Gale, into working mechanical form in 1837. In this year Morse filed a caveat for it at the U.S. Patent Office. Electricity, provided by Joseph Henry's 1836 "intensity batteries", was sent over a wire. The flow of electricity through the wire was interrupted for shorter or longer periods by holding down the key of the device. The resulting dots or dashes were recorded on a printer or could be interpreted orally. In 1838 Morse perfected his sending and receiving code and organized a corporation, making Vail and Gale his partners.

In 1843 Morse received funds from Congress to set-up a demonstration line between Washington and Baltimore. Unfortunately, Morse was not an astute businessman and had no practical plan for constructing a line. After an unsuccessful attempt at laying underground cables with Ezra Cornell, the inventor of a trench digger, Morse switched to the erection of telegraph poles and was more successful. On May 24, 1844, Morse, in the U.S. Supreme Court Chambers in Washington, sent by telegraph the oft-quoted message to his colleague Vail in Baltimore, "What hath God wrought!"

In 1845 Morse hired Andrew Jackson's former postmaster general, Amos Kendall, as his agent in locating potential buyers of the telegraph. Kendall realized the value of the device, and had little trouble convincing others of its potential for profit. By the spring he had attracted a small group of investors. They subscribed $15,000 and formed the Magnetic Telegraph Company. Many new telegraph companies were formed as Morse sold licenses wherever he could.

The first commercial telegraph line was completed between Washington, D.C., and New York City in the spring of 1846 by the Magnetic Telegraph Company. Shortly thereafter, F. O. J. Smith, one of the patent owners, built a line between New York City and Boston. Most of these early companies were licensed by owners of Samuel Morse patents. The Morse messages were sent and received in a code of dots and dashes.

At this time other telegraph systems based on rival technologies were being built. Some companies used the printing telegraph, a device invented by a Vermonter, Royal E. House, whose messages were printed on paper or tape in Roman letters. In 1848 a Scotch scientist, Alexander Bain, received his patents on a telegraph. These were but two of many competing and incompatible technologies that had developed. The result was confusion, inefficiency, and a rash of suits and counter suits.

By 1851 there were over fifty separate telegraph companies operating in the United States. This corporate cornucopia developed because the owners of the telegraph patents had been unsuccessful in convincing the United States and other governments of the invention's potential usefulness. In the private sector, the owners had difficulty convincing capitalists of the commercial value of the invention. This led to the owners' willingness to sell licenses to many purchasers who organized separate companies and then built independent telegraph lines in various sections of the country.

Hiram Sibley moved to Rochester, New York, in 1838 to pursue banking and real estate. Later he was elected sheriff of Monroe County. In Rochester he was introduced to Judge Samuel L. Selden who held the House Telegraph patent rights. In 1849 Selden and Sibley organized the New York State Printing Telegraph Company, but they found it hard to compete with the existing New York, Albany, and Buffalo Telegraph Company.

After this experience Selden suggested that instead of creating a new line, the two should try to acquire all the companies west of Buffalo and unite them into a single unified system. Selden secured an agency for the extension throughout the United States of the House system. In an effort to expand this line west, Judge Selden called on friends and the people in Rochester. This led, in April 1851, to the organization of a company and the filing in Albany of the Articles of Association for the "New York and Mississippi Valley Printing Telegraph Company" (NYMVPTC), a company which later evolved into the Western Union Telegraph Company.

In 1854 there were two rival systems of the NYMVPTC in the West. These two systems consisted of thirteen separate companies. All the companies were using Morse patents in the five states north of the Ohio River. This created a struggle between three separate entities, leading to an unreliable and inefficient telegraph service. The owners of these rival companies eventually decided to invest their money elsewhere and arrangements were made for the NYMVPTC to purchase their interests.

Hiram Sibley recapitalized the company in 1854 under the same name and began a program of construction and acquisition. The most important takeover was carried out by Sibley when he negotiated the purchase of the Morse patent rights for the Midwest for $50,000 from Jeptha H. Wade and John J. Speed, without the knowledge of Ezra Cornell, their partner in the Erie and Michigan Telegraph Company (EMTC). With this acquisition Sibley proceeded to switch to the superior Morse system. He also hired Wade, a very capable manager, who became his protege and later his successor. After a bitter struggle Morse and Wade obtained the EMTC from Cornell in 1855, thus assuring dominance by the NYMVPTC in the Midwest. In 1856 the company name was changed to the "Western Union Telegraph Company," indicating the union of the Western lines into one compact system. In December, 1857, the Company paid stockholders their first dividend.

Between 1857 and 1861 similar consolidations of telegraph companies took place in other areas of the country so that most of the telegraph interests of the United States had merged into six systems. These were the American Telegraph Company (covering the Atlantic and some Gulf states), The Western Union Telegraph Company (covering states North of the Ohio River and parts of Iowa, Kansas, Missouri, and Minnesota), the New York Albany and Buffalo Electro-Magnetic Telegraph Company (covering New York State), the Atlantic and Ohio Telegraph Company (covering Pennsylvania), the Illinois & Mississippi Telegraph Company (covering sections of Missouri, Iowa, and Illinois), and the New Orleans & Ohio Telegraph Company (covering the southern Mississippi Valley and the Southwest). All these companies worked together in a mutually friendly alliance, and other small companies cooperated with the six systems, particularly some on the West Coast.

By the time of the Civil War, there was a strong commercial incentive to construct a telegraph line across the western plains to link the two coasts of America. Many companies, however, believed the line would be impossible to build and maintain.

In 1860 Congress passed, and President James Buchanan signed, the Pacific Telegraph Act, which authorized the Secretary of the Treasury to seek bids for a project to construct a transcontinental line. When two bidders dropped out, Hiram Sibley, representing Western Union, was the only bidder left. By default Sibley won the contract. The Pacific Telegraph Company was organized for the purpose of building the eastern section of the line. Sibley sent Wade to California, where he consolidated the small local companies into the California State Telegraph Company. This entity then organized the Overland Telegraph Company, which handled construction eastward from Carson City, Nevada, joining the existing California lines, to Salt Lake City, Utah. Sibley's Pacific Telegraph Company built westward from Omaha, Nebraska. Sibley put most of his resources into the venture. The line was completed in October, 1861. Both companies were soon merged into Western Union. This accomplishment made Hiram Sibley leader of the telegraph industry.

Further consolidations took place over the next several years. Many companies merged into the American Telegraph Company. With the expiration of the Morse patents, several organizations were combined in 1864 under the name of "The U.S. Telegraph Company." In 1866 the final consolidation took place, with Western Union exchanging stock for the stock of the other two organizations. The general office of Western Union moved at this time from Rochester to 145 Broadway, New York City. In 1875 the main office moved to 195 Broadway, where it remained until 1930 when it relocated to 60 Hudson Street.

In 1873 Western Union purchased a majority of shares in the International Ocean Telegraph Company. This was an important move because it marked Western Union's entry into the foreign telegraph market. Having previously worked with foreign companies, Western Union now began competing for overseas business.

In the late 1870s Western Union, led by William H. Vanderbilt, attempted to wrest control of the major telephone patents, and the new telephone industry, away from the Bell Telephone Company. But due to new Bell leadership and a subsequent hostile takeover attempt of Western Union by Jay Gould, Western Union discontinued its fight and Bell Telephone prevailed.

Despite these corporate calisthenics, Western Union remained in the public eye. The sight of a uniformed Western Union messenger boy was familiar in small towns and big cities all over the country for many years. Some of Western Union's top officials in fact began their careers as messenger boys.

Throughout the remainder of the nineteenth century the telegraph became one of the most important factors in the development of social and commercial life of America. In spite of improvements to the telegraph, however, two new inventions--the telephone (nineteenth century) and the radio (twentieth century)--eventually replaced the telegraph as the leaders of the communication revolution for most Americans.

At the turn of the century, Bell abandoned its struggles to maintain a monopoly through patent suits, and entered into direct competition with the many independent telephone companies. Around this time, the company adopted its new name, the American Telephone and Telegraph Company (AT&T).

In 1908 AT&T gained control of Western Union. This proved beneficial to Western Union, because the companies were able to share lines when needed, and it became possible to order telegrams by telephone. However, it was only possible to order Western Union telegrams, and this hurt the business of Western Union's main competitor, the Postal Telegraph Company. In 1913, however, as part of a move to prevent the government from invoking antitrust laws, AT&T completely separated itself from Western Union.

Western Union continued to prosper and it received commendations from the U.S. armed forces for service during both world wars. In 1945 Western Union finally merged with its longtime rival, the Postal Telegraph Company. As part of that merger, Western Union agreed to separate domestic and foreign business. In 1963 Western Union International Incorporated, a private company completely separate from the Western Union Telegraph Company, was formed and an agreement with the Postal Telegraph Company was completed. In 1994, Western Union Financial Services, Inc. was acquired by First Financial Management Corporation. In 1995, First Financial Management Corporation merged with First Data Corporation making Western Union a First Data subsidiary.

Many technological advancements followed the telegraph's development. The following are among the more important:

The first advancement of the telegraph occurred around 1850 when operators realized that the clicks of the recording instrument portrayed a sound pattern, understandable by the operators as dots and dashes. This allowed the operator to hear the message by ear and simultaneously write it down. This ability transformed the telegraph into a versatile and speedy system.

Duplex Telegraphy, 1871-72, was invented by the president of the Franklin Telegraph Company. Unable to sell his invention to his own company, he found a willing buyer in Western Union. Utilizing this invention, two messages were sent over the wire simultaneously, one in each direction.

As business blossomed and demand surged, new devices appeared. Thomas Edison's Quadruplex allowed four messages to be sent over the same wire simultaneously, two in one direction and two in the other.

An English automatic signaling arrangement, Wheatstone's Automatic Telegraph, 1883, allowed larger numbers of words to be transmitted over a wire at once. It could only be used advantageously, however, on circuits where there was a heavy volume of business.

Buckingham's Machine Telegraph was an improvement on the House system. It printed received messages in plain Roman letters quickly and legibly on a message blank, ready for delivery.

Vibroplex, c. 1890, a semi-automatic key sometimes called a "bug key," made the dots automatically. This relieved the operator of much physical strain.
Related Materials:
Materials in the Archives Center

Additional moving image about Western Union Telegraph Company can be found in the Industry on Parade Collection (AC0507). This includes Cable to Cuba! by Bell Laboratory, AT & T, featuring the cable ship, the C.S. Lord Kelvin, and Communications Centennial! by the Western Union Company.

Materials at Other Organizations

Hagley Museum and Library, Wilmington, Delaware.

Western Union International Records form part of the MCI International, Inc. Records at the First Data Corporation, Greenwood Village, Colorado.

Records of First Data Corporation and its predecessors, including Western Union, First Financial Management Corporation (Atlanta) and First Data Resources (Omaha). Western Union collection supports research of telegraphy and related technologies, and includes company records, annual reports, photographs, print and broadcast advertising, telegraph equipment, and messenger uniforms.

Smithsonian Institution Archives

Western Union Telegraph Expedition, 1865-1867

This collection includes correspondence, mostly to Spencer F. Baird, from members of the Scientific Corps of the Western Union Telegraph Expedition, including Kennicott, Dall, Bannister, and Elliott; copies of reports submitted to divisional chiefs from expedition staff members; newspaper clippings concerning the expedition; copies of notes on natural history taken by Robert Kennicott; and a journal containing meteorological data recorded by Henry M. Bannister from March to August, 1866.
Separated Materials:
Artifacts (apparatus and equipment) were donated to the Division of Information Technology and Society, now known as the Division of Work & Industry, National Museum of American History.
Provenance:
The collection was donated by Western Union in September of 1971.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.

Gloves must be worn when handling unprotected photographs and negatives. Special arrangements must be made to view some of the audio visual materials. Contact the Archives Center at 202-633-3270.
Rights:
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Topic:
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Genre/Form:
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Citation:
Western Union Telegraph Company Records, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0205
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Western Union Telegraph Company Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0205
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Military Records and Personal Information - Gen. Davis.

Collection Creator:
Davis, Benjamin O., Jr., 1912-  Search this
Container:
Box 2, Folder 6
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1964-1968
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Collection Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Collection Citation:
Benjamin O. Davis, Jr. Collection, Acc. 1992.0023, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Benjamin O. Davis Jr. Collection
Benjamin O. Davis Jr. Collection / Series 2: Military Career / 2.1: General Military Records
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-1992-0023-ref1777
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  • View Military Records and Personal Information - Gen. Davis. digital asset number 1

Harriet Green Kopp Papers

Creator:
Kopp, Harriet Green, 1917-  Search this
Extent:
4.75 Cubic feet (16 boxes)
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Date:
1930-1950
Scope and Contents:
These papers relate to Kopp's work in visible speech technology, especially a project to develop a machine that would enable the deaf to understand the spoken voice; including biographical materials, research notes, lecture notes, spectrograms, research reports, log books, correspondence, slides and photographs, books, and documentation of grants for research projects.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into 6 series.

Series 1: Documents

Series 2: Books

Series 3: Photographs

Series 4: Slides

Series 5: Books

Series 6: Documents
Biographical / Historical:
Kopp was a professor in the School of Speech, Language, and Hearing Sciences at San Diego State University.
Kopp Names and Organizations:
Kopp Names

Adams, George F. -- region superintendent that signed off on HGK's request for an extension of leave from Detroit Day School for the Deaf (9/29/1972). See: Retirement Papers from the Detroit Day School for the Deaf (1970)

Adkins, Millie -- ranked No. 13 among students who participated in less than 10 tests in spring 1966; Female Test Subject; 10/14/1966; Grade 4, Test 6 - Part A. See: Graphs of Students' Test Results (Spring 1966); Test Results and Charts (October 1966)

Adkins, Judy Lee -- grade 4, in Higgins's homeroom class; ranked No. 23 overall in spring 1966 tests; on list of Prospective subjects grade 4-5, marked some experience; Student that completed an answer sheet for VRA Project #RD-143-S, Visible Speech for the Deaf; Test #1 on 6/18/1968; Test Film Strip #1 on 6/18/1968 . See: Test Subjects (1965); Graphs of Students' Test Results (Spring 1966); Information on the Visible Speech Research Project (1966); Mean Scores for Tests #1-10-VRA Project #RD-1483-S (June 1968)

Adkins, Amelia -- Student that completed an answer sheet for VRA Project #RD-143-S, Visible Speech for the Deaf; Test #1 on 6/18/1968; Test Film Strip #1 on 6/18/1968 . See: Mean Scores for Tests #1-10-VRA Project #RD-1483-S (June 1968)

Ahern, Patrick (Pat) -- ranked No. 11 among students who participated in less than 10 tests in spring 1966; Student that completed an answer sheet for VRA Project #RD-143-S, Visible Speech for the Deaf; Test #1 on 6/18/1968; Test Film Strip #1 on 6/18/1968. See: Graphs of Students' Test Results (Spring 1966); Mean Scores for Tests #1-10-VRA Project #RD-1483-S (June 1968)

Alcord, Miss -- Maine School, Mass. Private. See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Aler, Miss -- Motor Coordination - Visible Speech Education Evaluation Program; administered test of coordination. See: Progress Report #1: Visible Speech Research Program - U.Mich. (1/31/1947)

Alexander, C. -- taught HGK at Teachers College - Library Research. See: Registration for Harriet C. Green at the Office of Field Relations and Placement, Teachers College, Columbia University (c. 1948)

Altman, Silver -- in Jacobs's class; labelled Sp. See: Test Subjects (1965)

Alvarez, Jose (Joe) -- on clinic's spring and fall 1975, spring and fall 1976, spring and fall 1977 lists. See: Bell Telephone Laboratories notebook with student rosters (Spring 1975-Fall 1977)

Alvarez, Christo -- on clinic's fall 1977 list. See: Bell Telephone Laboratories notebook with student rosters (Spring 1975-Fall 1977)

Ames, Miss -- Deaf school teacher, N.J. See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Ames, September -- on clinic's fall 1977 list. See: Bell Telephone Laboratories notebook with student rosters (Spring 1975-Fall 1977)

Amrheim -- See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 1 (May '44)

Anderson, Helene -- Co-wrote report on vocal therapy with George Kopp. See: Case Report by George Kopp and Helene Anderson on Vocal Therapy for Dysphonia Plicae Ventricularis (c. 1965)

Anderson, Dr. Irving -- Associate Professor of Speech Education, U. Michigan (1947); member of Visible Speech advisory committee; attended V.S. research committee meetings on 5/1/1947, 5/29/1947, 6/28/1947, 11/7/1947. See: Minutes and Memos from the Visible Speech Research Committee - U.Mich. (1/3/1947-11/7/1947); Information on Visible Speech Education Evaluation Program - U.Mich. (5/28/1947); How Funding Continued the Project at Ypsilanti (3/25/1947-10/10/1947)

Anderson, Dr. Tom -- Texas School for the Deaf. See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Anderson, Dr. William S. -- member of the committee on Adolescent Deaf of the Alexander Graham Bell Association for the Deaf in March 1970. See: Activities and Speaking Engagements with Professional Organizations (3/30/1969-10/12/1970)

Anderson -- taught HGK at Teachers College - Guidance and Personnel. See: Registration for Harriet C. Green at the Office of Field Relations and Placement, Teachers College, Columbia University (c. 1948)

Anderson, Kenneth -- on clinic's spring 1975 list. See: Bell Telephone Laboratories notebook with student rosters (Spring 1975-Fall 1977)

Anderson, Kathy -- on clinic's fall 1977 list. See: Bell Telephone Laboratories notebook with student rosters (Spring 1975-Fall 1977)

Angelocci, Dr. Angelo A. -- Speech and Hearing Clinician, Rehabilitation Institutes, Metropolitan Detroit; born 10/16/1926, married with 4 children; B.S., Speech and English, Michigan State College (1950); M.A., Speech and Speech Correction, University of Michigan, 1954; speech teacher in Birmingham, MI for 6 years; doctoral student, Speech Pathology and Audiology, Wayne State University (1955); Research Associate during RD-526 project; budgeted for expenditures in grant proposal for project RD-526; Held copyright along with Harriet G. Kopp and Dr. George Kopp; taught the first experimental class for the RD-526 project and prepared material for the Visible Speech Manual. See: Information on Research Projects and Proposals (1959-1960); Early Draft of Final Report of Grant No. RD-526 (1963); Visible Speech Manual (3/9/1967-12/5/1974); Final Draft: Visible Speech for the Deaf (1968); Visible Speech Manual Original - to copy; Visible Speech Manual with Chapter Divisions (product of Contract No. RD-526); Visible Speech Manual with Chapter Divisions (product of Contract No. RD-526)

Arnold, Joyce -- 9 years old; Group 1 of exploratory program; congenitally deaf, severely hypacaustic, part of experimental study for Visible Speech Research at Ypsilanti (3/25/1947), experiment subject in U Mich study; scored for intelligibility in experiment 1 (1947); performance in Visible Speech Experiment #2 evaluated 1948. See: Progress Report #1: Visible Speech Research Program - U.Mich. (1/31/1947); How Funding Continued the Project at Ypsilanti (1/31/1947-10/10/1947); Logistics for Operation of Visible Speech Research Program - U.Mich. (3/25/1947-6/2/1947); Supplement to Progress Report #1: Visible Speech Research Program - U.Mich. (4/21/1947); Pattern Recognition Charts - U.Mich. (4/21/1947); Intelligibility Scores and Graphs (April-Dec. 1947); Final Report of Visible Speech Educational Evaluation Research Program (3/25/1947-8/13/1948)

Avery, Miss Charlotte -- speech teacher, translator in U Mich study; performed Visible Speech Experiment #4 at the Rackham School (March 1947); limited training in visible speech. See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45); Minutes and Memos from the Visible Speech Research Committee - U.Mich. (1/3/1947-11/7/1947); How Funding Continued the Project at Ypsilanti (1/31/1947-10/10/1947); Proposed Visible Speech Program for the Rackham School (summer 1948); Final Report of Visible Speech Educational Evaluation Research Program (3/25/1947-8/13/1948)

Aviles, Irma -- on clinic's spring and fall 1977 list. See: Bell Telephone Laboratories notebook with student rosters (Spring 1975-Fall 1977)

Ayres -- See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Bachman, Mrs. Dorothy L. -- experienced teacher of the deaf, Translator Project III; taught Group 2A, Experimenter in U Mich study, no training in visible speech; performed Visible Speech experiment #3 in March 1947; terminated her employment at the Rackham School at the end of the 1947 summer session. See: Logistics for Operation of Visible Speech Research Program - U.Mich. (3/25/1947-6/2/1947); How Funding Continued the Project at Ypsilanti (1/31/1947-10/10/1947); Proposed Visible Speech Program for the Rackham School (summer 1948); Final Report of Visible Speech Educational Evaluation Research Program (3/25/1947-8/13/1948)

Baker, George H. -- Executive Administrative Assistant, Dept. of Personnel, Detroit Public Schools; wrote HGK regarding administrative aspects of her new post at the Detroit Day School of the Deaf on 7/7/1958 and 10/15/1958. See: Harriet Kopp's personal correspondence (11/4/1949-6/3/1970)

Balbach -- See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Baldwin, Rev. DeWitt -- See: Dialogue between Martin Buber and Carl Rogers (4/18/1957)

Banks -- taught students at Detroit Day School; students labelled Sp. See: Test Subjects (1965)

Banton, James (Jim) -- Subject #18 in 1965 tests; grade 7, Steffens's homeroom class; noted as being involved in original project; ranked No. 35 overall in spring 1966 tests; grade 9 (1966-1967 school year); on list of Prospective Subjects, marked original project; Male Test Subject; 10/13/1966; Grade 9, Test 6 - Part A. See: Test Subjects (1965); Graphs of Students' Test Results (Spring 1966); Information on the Visible Speech Research Project (1966); Test Results and Charts (October 1966)

Baozhong, Dr. Tu -- Deputy Secretary General and member of the Board of Trustees, Chinese Medical Association; in charge of medical education intern program. See: Notes from Medical Study Trip to China (4/18/1980-4/28/1980)

Barberi -- new worker at Bell Labs. See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 1 (May '44); BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Barlow, Susan -- in Jacobs's class; labelled Sp. See: Test Subjects (1965)

Barnes, Dr. -- Sweden; came for instruction and demonstration of University of Michigan study, 3/17/1948. See: Final Report of Visible Speech Educational Evaluation Research Program (3/25/1947-8/13/1948)

Barney, Harold L. -- worked at Bell Telephone Laboratories; sent letter 11/1/1954 to Harriet and George Kopp. See: correspondence from Harold Barney to George and Harriet Kopp (11/1/1954)

Bastiau -- See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Bauer, Marvin G. -- taught HGK at Brooklyn College - Advanced Discussion, Classical Rhetoric, & British and American Rhetorical Theory. See: Registration for Harriet C. Green at the Office of Field Relations and Placement, Teachers College, Columbia University (c. 1948)

Bayones, David -- grade 4, in Higgins's homeroom class; ranked No. 30 overall in spring 1966 tests; grade 6 (1966-1967 school year); on list of Prospective subjects grade 4-5, marked some experience. See: Test Subjects (1965); Graphs of Students' Test Results (Spring 1966); Information on the Visible Speech Research Project (1966); Information on the Visible Speech Research Project (1966)

Beekman, Marvin E. -- Director of Special Education, Michigan Dept. of Education; sent congratulatory letter to HGK on the dedication of the new school building on 6/3/1970. See: Harriet Kopp's personal correspondence (11/4/1949-6/3/1970)

Behrens, Dr. Thomas R. -- member of the Chairmen of the Working Groups of the National Advisory Committee on the Education of the Deaf with HGK on 7/24/1969. See: Activities and Speaking Engagements with Professional Organizations (3/30/1969-10/12/1970)

Belheimer -- Bell Labs demonstration participant 12/06/1945. See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Bell, Mr. -- Bell Labs demonstration 12/12/1945. See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Benjamin -- taught HGK at Teachers College - Fundamentals of Electricity. See: Registration for Harriet C. Green at the Office of Field Relations and Placement, Teachers College, Columbia University (c. 1948)

Bennett, Jeffrey (Jeff) -- ranked No. 38 overall in spring 1966 tests; grade 5 (1966-1967 school year). See: Graphs of Students' Test Results (Spring 1966); Information on the Visible Speech Research Project (1966)

Bennett -- See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 1 (May '44)

Benya, Jr., John J. -- salary as Research Asst. budgeted for Project No. RD-1483-S (1966). See: Research Information About Project No. RD-1483-S (1964-1966)

Bierlin, Ruth -- Observed UMich demonstrations, special class of hard of hearing children . See: How Funding Continued the Project at Ypsilanti (1/31/1947-10/10/1947)

Biller, Mary E. -- Newark, NJ, Bell Labs demonstration participant 03/21/1945

Bint, Linda -- ranked No. 22 overall in spring 1966 tests; 5th grade (1966-1967 school year). See: Graphs of Students' Test Results (Spring 1966); Information on the Visible Speech Research Project (1966)

Bitter, Colleen -- grade 4, in Higgins's homeroom class; ranked No. 18 overall in spring 1966 tests; on list of Prospective subjects grade 4-5, marked some experience . See: Test Subjects (1965); Graphs of Students' Test Results (Spring 1966); Information on the Visible Speech Research Project (1966)

Black, Melissa -- grade 4, in Higgins's homeroom class; HGK noted check vision on roster; ranked No. 44 overall in spring 1966 tests; grade 6 (1966-1967 school year); on list of Prospective subjects grade 4-5, marked some experience. See: Test Subjects (1965); Graphs of Students' Test Results (Spring 1966); Information on the Visible Speech Research Project (1966); Information on the Visible Speech Research Project (1966)

Blair, Miss -- Bell Labs demonstration participant 10/24/1946. See: Progress Report #1: Visible Speech Research Program - U.Mich. (1/31/1947); How Funding Continued the Project at Ypsilanti (1/31/1947-10/10/1947)

Bloom, Jr., Edgar -- signed front of Visible Speech. See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 1 (May '44)

Bloomer, Dr. Harlan H. -- Director of Speech Clinic, Associate Prof. of Speech, University of Michigan (1947); discussed visible speech research program with Ralph K. Potter on 4/18/1946 and 3/13/1947; member of Visual Speech advisory committee; attended V.S. research committee meetings on 1/5/1947, 2/12/1947, 2/21/1947, 3/3/1947, 5/1/1947, 5/29/1947, 6/28/1947, 11/7/1947; George Kopp requested a clerical assistant for Harriet Green and a graduate laboratory assistant from Bloomer on 2/2/5/1947; sent George Kopp notes on a proposed article on visible speech on 6/24/1947; highlighted in News and Notes article (Oct. 1947); requested that students doing research with the sound spectrograph be encouraged to publish (Aug. 1948). See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45); Correspondence regarding the Visible Speech Research Program - U.Mich. study (4/18/1946-8/8/1947); Minutes and Memos from the Visible Speech Research Committee - U.Mich. (1/3/1947-11/7/1947); Progress Report #1: Visible Speech Research Program - U.Mich. (1/31/1947); Proposed Outline: Visible Speech Research Program - U.Mich. (3/3/1947); Information on Visible Speech Education Evaluation Program - U.Mich. (5/28/1947); How Funding Continued the Project at Ypsilanti (1/31/1947-10/10/1947); News and Notes (9/22/1947); Final Report of Visible Speech Educational Evaluation Research Program (3/25/1947-8/13/1948)

Bloomquist, Betty -- Other Research Participant at University of Michigan during Kopp's study; completed Master's thesis on Diadochokinetic movements of children in May 1948. See: Final Report of Visible Speech Educational Evaluation Research Program (3/25/1947-8/13/1948)

Blost, Phyllis E. -- Evaluation section, Dept. of Management and Budget; received letter from HGK about the delay of her retirement settlement on 9/11/1981. See: Retirement Papers from the Detroit Day School for the Deaf (1970)

Boatner -- Hartford School. See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Bobb, David -- on clinic's fall 1975, spring and fall 1976, spring and fall 1977 lists . See: Bell Telephone Laboratories notebook with student rosters (Spring 1975-Fall 1977)

Bock, N.B. -- authored Correcting the Spoken English of Chinese and Japanese. See: Information on Phonetics and Dialects (6/6/1949-1/26/1950)

Boggs, Barbara -- grade 8, Schmitz's homeroom class; crossed off roster; on list of Prospective Subjects, marked 4 days. See: Test Subjects (1965); Information on the Visible Speech Research Project (1966)

Bohman, Dr. George -- Chairman, Dept of Speech, Wayne State University; associated with the George A. Kopp Memorial fund

Boldt, Jan -- on clinic's spring 1975, fall 1976, fall 1977 lists. See: Bell Telephone Laboratories notebook with student rosters (Spring 1975-Fall 1977)

Boody, Barbara -- recorded spectrograms with cleft palate 4/4/1947. See: Sound Spectrograph results (1945-48)

Borst, John M. -- Some Experiments on the Perception of Synthetic Speech (Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Vol. 24, No. 6, Nov. 1952); The Interconversion of Audible and Visible Patterns as a Basis for Research in Perception of Speech (from the proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 37, No. 5, May 1951). See: Harriet Kopp's personal correspondence (11/4/1949-6/3/1970)

Boskovich, James (Jim) -- Subject #6 in 1965 tests; grade 5, in Gardiner's homeroom class; ranked Bo. 43 overall in spring 1966 tests; on list of Prospective subjects grade 4-5, marked some experience. See: Test Subjects (1965); Graphs of Students' Test Results (Spring 1966); Information on the Visible Speech Research Project (1966)

Bowen, Mr. -- Holmdel. See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 1 (May '44); BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Bowen, Miss -- Skidmore. See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Bowman, George -- Ohio State?. See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Boyd -- Bell Labs Notebook - lunch 12/31/1945

Bozorgi, Farid -- ranked No. 37 overall in spring 1966 tests; grade 8 (1966-1967 school year); sent thank you letter to HGK on 2/23/1971 regarding her help with his education; received letter back from her 3/10/1971. See: Graphs of Students' Test Results (Spring 1966); Detroit Day School for the Deaf (6/14/1961-2/23/1971); Information on the Visible Speech Research Project (1966)

Braboy, Gayle Lynn -- ranked No. 40 overall in spring 1966 tests; grade 5 (1966-1967 school year); Student that completed an answer sheet for VRA Project #RD-143-S, Visible Speech for the Deaf; Test #1 on 6/18/1968; Test Film Strip #1 on 6/18/1968. See: Graphs of Students' Test Results (Spring 1966); Information on the Visible Speech Research Project (1966);Mean Scores for Tests #1-10-VRA Project #RD-1483-S (June 1968)

Braswell, Shelly -- grade 4, in Higgins's homeroom class; ranked No. 26 overall in spring 1966 tests; grade 6 (1966-1967 school year); on list of Prospective subjects grade 4-5. See: Test Subjects (1965); Graphs of Students' Test Results (Spring 1966); Information on the Visible Speech Research Project (1966); Information on the Visible Speech Research Project (1966)

Bratsch, Don -- on clinic's spring 1975 list. See: Bell Telephone Laboratories notebook with student rosters (Spring 1975-Fall 1977)

Breading, C.M. -- representing Central Press Clipping Service, soliciting business to review public relations of the Rackham School of Special Education. See: Correspondence to George A. Kopp from C.M. Breading of the Central Press Clipping Service (9/3/1947)

Brendle, Terry -- in Banks's class; labelled Sp. See: Test Subjects (1965)

Brent, Billy -- ranked No. 12 among students who participated in less than 10 tests in spring 1966. See: Graphs of Students' Test Results (Spring 1966)

Brice, Arlene -- charted with other female test subjects. See: Charts and Spectrograph Results (female test subjects)

Brock, Christopher -- student at Detroit Day School shown in newspaper photograph. See: Clipping from The Detroit News (2/13/1966)

Brock, James T. -- wrote article on the Detroit Day School entitled: A War on Silence: Detroit Day School for Deaf Presents Students the Gifts of Speed, 'Hearing' . See: Clipping from The Detroit News (2/13/1966)

Broomfield, William S. -- Member of Congress, 18th District of Michigan; sent HGK a congratulatory letter on her reappointment to the National Advisory Committee on Education of the Deaf on 8/6/1970. See: Harriet Kopp's personal correspondence (11/4/1949-6/3/1970)

Brown, Richard -- replaced Loveel as engineer in charge of servicing the visible speech equipment in 1948. See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 1 (May '44), Final Report of Visible Speech Educational Evaluation Research Program (3/25/1947-8/13/1948)

Brownell, Dr. Samuel Miller -- Superintendent of Detroit Public Schools - offered HGK job as principal for the West Side School for the Deaf on 10/3/1958; received her acceptance letter sent 10/8/1958; recognized HGK's acceptance of the principal position on 10/14/1958; later assocatiated with Yale University Institute of Social Science; offered to write HGK a recommendation letter 11/26/1969; Information on Research Projects and Proposals (1959-1960); received memo on the reorganization of the education of the deaf and hard of hearing from HGK on 6/14/1961; allowed research for project RD-526 to be conducted at the Detroit Day School for the Deaf; received letter 1/27/1960 about approval of a grant for Harriet and George Kopp's research. See: Harriet Kopp's personal correspondence (11/4/1949-6/3/1970); Detroit Day School for the Deaf (6/14/1961-2/23/1971); Early draft of the final report of Grant No. RD-526 (1963); Information on Research Projects and Proposals (1959-1960)

Bruner -- taught HGK at Teachers College - Educational Foundations. See: Registration for Harriet C. Green at the Office of Field Relations and Placement, Teachers College, Columbia University (c. 1948)

Brunstetter, Prof. Max -- asked to review manuscript by GAK on 8/13/1941. See: Original Manuscript of and comments on George A. Kopp's elementary opus (8/3/1941)

Brust -- re: Kopp- Ohio 12/28/45. See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Buber, Martin -- famous German philosopher. See: Dialogue between Martin Buber and Carl Rogers (4/18/1957)

Buckley, Dr. Oliver E. -- President of Bell Telephone Laboratories; received reports from Chao on use of spectrograph for the study and teaching of Chinese; issues certificates recognizing contribution to war effort; discussed possibility of using voice print technology in crime-fighting. See: Voice Print Identification Procedure and Information (1 of 3) (11/26/1943-6/10/1944); Certificate WWII, BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 1 (May '44); BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Buckner, Jim -- grade 5, in Simmons's class, on list of students now using the machine; on list of Prospective subjects grade 4-5, marked some experience. See: Test Subjects (1965); Information on the Visible Speech Research Project (1966)

Buli, Mable -- charted with other female test subjects. See: Charts and Spectrograph Results (female test subjects)

Bumingham, Ann -- on clinic's spring and fall 1975 lists. See: Bell Telephone Laboratories notebook with student rosters (Spring 1975-Fall 1977)

Burge, Linda -- ranked No. 52 overall in spring 1966 tests; grade 5; Student that completed an answer sheet for VRA Project #RD-143-S, Visible Speech for the Deaf; Test #1 on 6/18/1968; Test Film Strip #1 on 6/18/1968. See: Graphs of Students' Test Results (Spring 1966); Information on the Visible Speech Research Project (1966); Mean Scores for Tests #1-10-VRA Project #RD-1483-S (June 1968)

Burrows, Dr. Harold -- Vice President - Administration, Parke Davis & Company; member of the Advisory Board for the Detroit Day School for the Deaf. See: Report to Detroit Board of Education on the Day School for the Deaf (2/26/1963)

Bush, Dr. -- OSRD - interview. See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 1 (May '44)

Campbell, Janet C. -- secretary to B.R. Wolfram, M.D., president of Educational Media, Inc.; sent HGK invoices for her signature on 1/27/1970. See: Detroit Day School for the Deaf (6/14/1961-2/23/1971)

Carlson, Beverly -- grade 9, in Martyka's class, on list of students now using the machine; on list of Prospective Subjects, marked some experience. See: Test Subjects (1965); Information on the Visible Speech Research Project (1966)

Carter, C.W. -- wrote report on Chao's testing of the Chinese language with the spectrograph. See: Memo on Visible Speech testing of Chinese langauage (4/17/1944)

Caswell, Prof. Hollis L. -- asked to review manuscript by GAK on 8/13/1941. See: Original Manuscript of and comments on George A. Kopp's elementary opus (8/3/1941); BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Caufield, Colonel Norton -- See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Chang, Dr. -- Director, Maternal and Ob.Gyn. Hospital (associated with China Welfare Institute), Shanghai. See: Notes from Medical Study Trip to China (4/18/1980-4/28/1980)

Chao, Jo -- See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Chao, Dr. Y.R. -- professor at Harvard University; provided Chinese samples to visible speech testing. See: Memo on Visible Speech testing of Chinese langauage (4/17/1944); BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 1 (May '44); Research report by Y.R. Chao on Chinese recordings (11/21/1944-2/17/1945)

Chapman -- See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 1 (May '44)

Chase, Jeffrey -- on clinic's spring and fall 1975 lists. See: Bell Telephone Laboratories notebook with student rosters (Spring 1975-Fall 1977)

Chelfant?, Jerme -- on clinic's spring and fall 1975 lists. See: Bell Telephone Laboratories notebook with student rosters (Spring 1975-Fall 1977)

Cheng, Dr. -- Deputy Director, Head of Nursing Dept., Maternal and Ob.Gyn. Hospital (associated with the China Welfare Institute), Shanghai. See: Notes from Medical Study Trip to China (4/18/1980-4/28/1980)

Cheng, Dr. -- Neurologist, Shanghai Medical College. See: Notes from Medical Study Trip to China (4/18/1980-4/28/1980)

Chinitz, Ben S. -- Region One Superintendent, Detroit Public Schools; sent HGK a congratulatory letter on 6/1/1970. See: Retirement Papers from the Detroit Day School for the Deaf (1970)

Chou, Dr. -- Shanghai Medical College. See: Notes from Medical Study Trip to China (4/18/1980-4/28/1980)

Christensen -- rep of Michigan Bell Telephone publications dept.; 10/10/1946 conference . See: Progress Report #1: Visible Speech Research Program - U.Mich. (1/31/1947)

Christopher, Harold M. -- signed front of Visible Speech. See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 1 (May '44); BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Cirker, Mr. -- See: Visible Speech Manual (3/9/1967-12/5/1974)

Clark, A.N. -- Editor, D. Van Nostrand Company, Inc.(published Visible Speech); received letter from George Kopp on 8/8/1947 expressing a need for new books in the field of speech correction. See: Correspondence regarding the Visible Speech Research Program - U.Mich. study (4/18/1946-8/8/1947)

Clark, Mr. -- Cleary Oral School, Bell Labs demonstration participant 03/07/1946. See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 1 (May '44); BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Clark, Marla -- grade 5, in Gardiner's homeroom class; ranked No. 48 overall in spring 1966 tests; on list of Prospective Subjects grade 4-5. See: Test Subjects (1965); Graphs of Students' Test Results (Spring 1966); Information on the Visible Speech Research Project (1966)

Clark, Ross -- on clinic's spring 1977 list. See: Bell Telephone Laboratories notebook with student rosters (Spring 1975-Fall 1977)

Cleary, Miss -- Cleary Oral School, Bell Labs demonstration participant 03/07/1946. See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Clement -- 6th and 9th grade teacher, Detroit Day School; 5 students in spring 1966 9th grade class. See: Test Subjects (1965); Graphs of Students' Test Results (Spring 1966)

Clemente, Mr. Joseph -- left position to join Project No. RD-1483-S on 2/1/1965; worked full time until Aug. 1965; resigned due to personal problems in Sept. 1965; budgeted salary as Research Assistant for Project No. RD-1483-S (1966). See: Research Information About Project No. RD-1483-S (1964-1966); Final Draft: Visible Speech for the Deaf (1968); Manual for Visible Speech for the Deaf (1968); Rough Draft (handwritten) - Visible Speech for the Deaf (1968)

Cohen, Marsha -- teacher at Detroit Day School; shown in newspaper photograph teaching 4-year-olds. See: Clipping from The Detroit News (2/13/1966)

Cole, Samantha -- on clinic's fall 1977 list. See: Bell Telephone Laboratories notebook with student rosters (Spring 1975-Fall 1977)

Coleman, David -- Experiment subject in U Mich Study; performance in Visible Speech Experiment #4 evaluated 1948. See: How Funding Continued the Project at Ypsilanti (1/31/1947-10/10/1947); Final Report of Visible Speech Educational Evaluation Research Program (3/25/1947-8/13/1948)

Collins, Kenneth M. (Ken; KC) -- signed front of Visible Speech. See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Colpitts, Frank -- received Visible Speech Research Project Progress Report concerning plans for producting the testing-instruction materials on 10/17/1966; met with the General Film Lab., Co., Detroit about the creation of slides of spectrographic patterns; Research Associate for Visible Speech for the Deaf, worked part time starting September 1966 until the end of the project; mailed GAK the summary of the spring 1967 research study on 6/25/1968. See: Information on the Visible Speech Research Project (1966); Final Draft: Visible Speech for the Deaf (1968); Manual for Visible Speech for the Deaf (1968); Rough Draft (handwritten) - Visible Speech for the Deaf (1968); Correspondence from Frank Colpetts to George A. Kopp (6/26/1968)

Comover, Donald -- on clinic's spring 1975, fall 1976 lists. See: Bell Telephone Laboratories notebook with student rosters (Spring 1975-Fall 1977)

Connor, Leo E. -- member of the Editorial Policies Committee of the Alexander Graham Bell Association for the Deaf in March 1970. See: Activities and Speaking Engagements with Professional Organizations (3/30/1969-10/12/1970)

Connors, Kevin -- grade 5, in Gardiner's homeroom class; ranked No. 24 overall in spring 1966 tests; on list of Prospective subjects grade 4-5; marked some experience. See: Test Subjects (1965); Graphs of Students' Test Results (Spring 1966); Information on the Visible Speech Research Project (1966)

Conroy, Colleen -- on clinic's spring and fall 1977 list. See: Bell Telephone Laboratories notebook with student rosters (Spring 1975-Fall 1977)

Cooper, Dr. Franklin S. -- NDRC demo; worked at Haskins Laboratories, NY, wrote Some Instrumental Aids to Research on Speech; Some Experiments on the Perception of Synthetic Speech (Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Vol. 24, No. 6, Nov. 1952); Guidance Devices for the Blind (Physics Today, Vol. 3, No. 7, July 1950); Spectrum Analysis (Journal of Acoustical Society of America, Vol. 22, No. 6, Nov. 1950); The Interconversion of Audible and Visible Patterns as a Basis for Research in Perception of Speech (from the proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 37, No. 5, May 1951). See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 1 (May '44); Articles and Research Materials (1950-1957)

Cooper, Eugene B. -- Executive Secretary - Sensory Study Section; Department of Health, Education, and Welfare: Vocal Rehabilitation Administration. See: Information Concerning the Termination of Grant Project No. RD-1483-S (1963-1968)

Costello -- See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Costello, Mary Rose -- member of Alexander Graham Bell Association for the Deaf, Inc. Editorial Politicies Committee (3/1/1970). See: Detroit Day School for the Deaf (6/14/1961-2/23/1971)

Coulton, Thomas -- taught HGK at Brooklyn College - History of Oratory. See: Registration for Harriet C. Green at the Office of Field Relations and Placement, Teachers College, Columbia University (c. 1948)

Cox, Admiral -- assistant Surgeon General, D.C. See: Notes from Medical Study Trip to China (4/18/1980-4/28/1980)

Cox, Mr. -- of the Keystone Co. See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 1 (May '44)

Craig, Mary V. -- authored German Dialect. See: Information on Phonetics and Dialects (6/6/1949-1/26/1950)

Crile, Nick -- grade 5, in Simmons's class, on list of students now using the machine; on list of Prospective subjects grade 4-5, marked some experience. See: Test Subjects (1965); Information on the Visible Speech Research Project (1966)

Cronon, Detective -- technician, Department of Research, New York Police Department; approached Dr. Buckley about using voice print identification in fighting crime. See: Voice Print Identification Procedure and Information (11/26/1943-6/10/1944)

Cross, Dwayne -- on list of Prospective Subjects. See: Information on the Visible Speech Research Project (1966)

Croushore, Dr. James -- Head, Dept. of Otolaryngology at Wayne State University medical School; member of the Advisory Board for the Detroit Day School for the Deaf. See: Report to Detroit Board of Education on the Day School for the Deaf (2/26/1963)

Cruickshank, Kathy (Kate) -- Subject #19 in 1965 tests; grade 7, Steffens's homeroom class; noted as being involved in original project; ranked No. 15 overall in spring 1966 tests; grade 9 (1966-1967 school year); on list of Prospective Subjects, marked as original project; Female Test Subject; 10/11/1966; Grade 9B, Test 2. See: Test Subjects (1965); Graphs of Students' Test Results (Spring 1966); Information on the Visible Speech Research Project (1966); Test Results and Charts (October 1966)

Curran, Kathleen -- on clinic's spring and fall 1975, spring 1976 lists. See: Bell Telephone Laboratories notebook with student rosters (Spring 1975-Fall 1977)

Curtis, Dr. Jack F. -- Member of the staff of the Detroit Day School for the Deaf who served in the maintenance and operation of all equipment. See: Final Draft: Visible Speech for the Deaf (1968); Manual for Visible Speech for the Deaf (1968); Rough Draft (handwritten) - Visible Speech for the Deaf (1968)

David, Dr. E.E. -- Director, Acoustic and Visual Research, Bell Telephone Laboratories; provided GAK and HGK technical assistance with the translator. See: Early Draft of Final Report of Grant No. RD-526 (1963)

David, Dr. -- worked at Bell Labs, referenced in letter from M.R. Schroeder as showing continued interest in Kopp's research. See: Correspondence from M.R. Schroeder to Dr. George A. Kopp (3/25/1965)

David, Dr. E.E. -- Executive Director - Research Communications Systems Divison . Developed the transistorized visible speech translator and provided and experimental model of the equipment for use in the last year of the research project for Visible Speech. See: Final Draft: Visible Speech for the Deaf (1968); Manual for Visible Speech for the Deaf (1968); Rough Draft (handwritten) - Visible Speech for the Deaf (1968)

Davis -- See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

De Lair, Truman -- Subject #10 in 1965 tests; grade 8, Kane's homeroom class; noted as being a child with some introduction; ranked No. 3 among students who participated in less than 10 tests in spring 1966; on list of Prospective Subjects. See: Test Subjects (1965); Graphs of Students' Test Results (Spring 1966); Information on the Visible Speech Research Project (1966)

Dean, M.D., C. Robert -- Director of the Rehabilitation Institute of Metropolitan Detroit; confirmed HGK's appointment as Clinical Director of Speech and Hearing on 5/18/1955. See: Harriet Kopp's personal correspondence (11/4/1949-6/3/1970)

Delattre, Pierre C. -- wrote The Physiological Interpretation of Sound Spectrograms (Publications of The Modern Language Association of America, Vol. 66, No. 5, Sept. 1951) and Some Experiments on the Perception of Synthetic Speech Sounds (Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Vol. 24, No. 6, Nov. 1952). See: Articles and Research Materials 91950-1957)

Delikta, Donna -- Subject #21 in 1965 tests; grade 7, Steffens's homeroom class; ranked No. 12 overall in spring 1966 tests; grade 9 (1966-1967 school year); on list of Prospective Subjects. See: Test Subjects (1965); Graphs of Students' Test Results (Spring 1966); Information on the Visible Speech Research Project (1966)

Dellas, Nick G. -- Subject #32 in 1965 tests; grade 6, in Clement's homeroom class; ranked No. 45 overall in spring 1966 tests; grade 8 (1966-1967 school year); on list of Prospective Subjects grade 4-5, marked some experience; Male Test Subject; 10/13/1966; Grade 8, Test 6 - Part A. See: Test Subjects (1965); Graphs of Students' Test Results (Spring 1966); Information on the Visible Speech Research Project (1966); Information on the Visible Speech Research Project (1966); Test Results and Charts (October 1966)

Denes, Dr. P.B. -- Head of Speech and Communication Research Department. Developed the transistorized visible speech translator and provided and experimental model of the equipment for use in the last year of the research project for Visible Speech. See: Final Draft: Visible Speech for the Deaf (1968); Manual for Visible Speech for the Deaf (1968); Rough Draft (handwritten) - Visible Speech for the Deaf (1968)

Densmore, G.E. -- member of Dept of Speech, U.Mich.?; asked Dean Lloyd Woodburne to reimburse George Kopp's expenses accrued when presenting at the convention of the Association of American Instructors of the Deaf on 5/29/1947. See: Correspondence regarding the Visible Speech Research Program - U.Mich. study (4/18/1946-8/8/1947)

Denton, Evelyn Louise -- Other Research Participant at University of Michigan during Kopp's study; completed Master's thesis on frequency range and the principal zone of energy in May 1947. See: Final Report of Visible Speech Educational Evaluation Research Program (3/25/1947-8/13/1948)

Derderian, Gary -- Subject #7 in 1965 tests; grade 5, in Gardiner's homeroom class; ranked No. 17 overall in spring 1966 tests; on list of Prospective subjects grade 4-5, marked some experience. See: Test Subjects (1965); Graphs of Students' Test Results (Spring 1966); Information on the Visible Speech Research Project (1966)

Deshon -- See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Di Franco, Franco -- in Banks's class; labelled Sp.; noted as being involved in original project. See: Test Subjects (1965)

Dincen, Miss -- 1/25/1946. See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Dobler -- See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 1 (May '44); BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Doerfler, Leo G. -- member of Alexander Graham Bell Association for the Deaf, Inc. Editorial Politicies Committee (3/1/1970). See: Detroit Day School for the Deaf (6/14/1961-2/23/1971); Actvities and Speaking Engagements with Professional Organizations (3/30/1969-10/12/1970)

Donahue, Dr. -- Psychology Bureau; saw spectrograph demonstration on 12/12/1946. See: Progress Report #1: Visible Speech Research Program - U.Mich. (1/31/1947)

Drachler, Dr. Norman -- Superintendent of Detroit Public Schools who continued the opportunity to conduct the research in the Detroit Day School for the Deaf. See: Final Draft: Visible Speech for the Deaf (1968); Manual for Visible Speech for the Deaf (1968); Rough Draft (handwritten) - Visible Speech for the Deaf (1968)

Draper, Lora -- on clinic's fall 1977 list. See: Bell Telephone Laboratories notebook with student rosters (Spring 1975-Fall 1977)

Dreher, John J. -- Other Research Participant at University of Michigan during Kopp's study; Ph.D. thesis on differences in melody of Chinese speaking acquired English and vice versa - in progress Aug 1948. See: Final Report of Visible Speech Educational Evaluation Research Program (3/25/1947-8/13/1948)

Drennen, Genevieve J. -- speech teacher, teacher of deaf, experimenter in U Mich study; performed Visible Speech Experiment #5 at the Rackham School in March 1947. See: Minutes and Memos from the Visible Speech Research Committee - U.Mich. (1/3/1947-11/7/1947); How Funding Continued the Project at Ypsilanti (1/31/1947-10/10/1947); Propsed Visible Speech Program for the Rackham School (summer 1948); Final Report of Visible Speech Educational Evaluation Research Program (3/25/1947-8/13/1948)

Dudley, Homer -- signed front of Visible Speech. See: Voice Print Identification Procedure and Information (1 of 3) (11/26/1943-6/10/1944); BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 1 (May '44); BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Dunigan, Kathy -- grade 9, in Martyka's class, on list of students now using the machine; on list of Prospective Subjects, marked some experience. See: Test Subjects (1965); Information on the Visible Speech Research Project (1966)

Dunigan, Tanya -- grade 4, in Higgins's homeroom class; ranked No. 32 overall in spring 1966 tests; grade 6 (1966-1967 school year); on list of Prospective subjects grade 4-5. See: Test Subjects (1965); Graphs of Students' Test Results (Spring 1966); Information on the Visible Speech Research Project (1966); Information on the Visible Speech Research Project (1966)

Dupree, Richard (Ritchie) -- on clinic's spring and fall 1975, spring and fall 1976 lists. See: Bell Telephone Laboratories notebook with student rosters (Spring 1975-Fall 1977)

Dworkin, Doris -- served as family representative on George A. Kopp Memorial Fund advisory board; received correspondence from HGK 1/25/1971. See: George Kopp Memorial Scholarship Fund (1964-1973)

Eames, Mr. -- See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Ebbinger -- See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Edwards -- See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 1 (May '44); BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Eisonson, Jon -- taught HGK at Brooklyn College - Psychology of Speech. See: Registration for Harriet C. Green at the Office of Field Relations and Placement, Teachers College, Columbia University (c. 1948); Lectures and Seminar Notes(1957-1966)

Eliseou? -- See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Ellis, Miss -- See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Elsner, Todd -- on clinic's fall 1976, spring 1977 list. See: Bell Telephone Laboratories notebook with student rosters (Spring 1975-Fall 1977)

Elstadt -- Gallaudet, Bell Labs demonstration participant 03/08/46

Emmens -- rep of Michigan Bell Telephone publications dept.; 10/10/1946 conference . See: Progress Report #1: Visible Speech Research Program - U.Mich. (1/31/1947)

Enkvist, Nils Erik -- Other Research Participant at University of Michigan during Kopp's study; proposed thesis to GAK on 10/8/1947 on transitions to and from vowels i and u - approved 10/13/1947; Master's thesis completed May 1948. See: Thesis Proposals by George Kopp's Students (10/8/1947-3/1/1948); Final Report of Visible Speech Educational Evaluation Research Program (3/25/1947-8/13/1948)

Essig, Mr. Robert D. -- Technical services, hired for machine maintenance at the recommendation of Lewis Holland and Paul Geiger; found by Dr. Francis Lord to serve as electronic technician (11/24/1946); saw the translator for the first time on 1/22/1947; received memo about delayed payment from Dr. Lord on 5/19/1947; associated with spectrogram of indirect recording?. See: Sound Spectrograph results (1945-48); Correspondence regarding the Visible Speech Research Program - U.Mich. study (4/18/1946-8/8/1947); Progress Report #1: Visible Speech Research Program - U.Mich. (1/31/1947); How Funding Continued the Project at Ypsilanti (1/31/1947-10/10/1947)

Etkie, Dorothy -- ranked No. 6 overall in spring 1966 tests. See: Graphs of Students' Test Results (Spring 1966)

Evans, Miss -- Scranton School for Deaf. See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Evendon -- taught HGK at Teachers College - Professional Education of Teachers. See: Registration for Harriet C. Green at the Office of Field Relations and Placement, Teachers College, Columbia University (c. 1948)

Everingham, Patti -- on clinic's spring 1975 list. See: Bell Telephone Laboratories notebook with student rosters (Spring 1975-Fall 1977)

Fairbanks -- See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Fairbanks, Grant -- Speech Research Laboratory, University of Illinois, Urbana; wrote Test of Phonemic Differentiation: The Rhyme Test (Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Vol. 30, No. 7, Jul. 1958). See: Article in the Journal of the Acoustical Society of America on Rhyme Testing (July 1958)

Falk, Dr. Mervyn -- Director of the Speech and Hearing Center, Wayne State University; Head of Communication Disorders and Sciences, Wayne State University; chosen to serve on the George A. Kopp Memorial Fund advisory board; wrote HGK concerning fund details on 7/26/1973. See: Harriet Kopp's personal correspondence (11/4/1949-6/3/1970); George Kopp Memorial Scholarship Fund (1964-1973)

Featherstone, Richard K. -- planned photographs for Birmingham Plan of Testing Hearing and Vision pamphlet. See: The Birmingham Plan of Testing Hearing and Vision (1951)

Fein, Miss Judith G. -- representative of the Dept. of Health, Education, and Welfare to the Working Groups of the National Advisory Council on the Education of the Deaf on 7/24/1969. See: Activities and Speaking Engagements with Professional Organizations (3/30/1969-10/12/1970)

Fellendorf, George W. -- member of Alexander Graham Bell Association for the Deaf, Inc. Editorial Politicies Committee (3/1/1970). See: Detroit Day School for the Deaf (6/14/1961-2/23/1971)

Felne? -- See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 1 (May '44)

Fernandez, Mr. -- Spanish Teacher. See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Findlay -- See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Fischer, Leonard (Len) -- President, Trax Softworks, Inc., Culver City, CA; showed interest in borrowing Visible Speech Manual from her; sent HGK a pre-addressed Federal Express airbill for use in sending the Visible Speech Manual to him 10/29/1991. See: Correspondence between Harriet Kopp and Len Fischer (10/29/1991)

Flanagan, Dr. J.L. -- Head of Acoustics Research Department of the Bell Telephone Laboratories, Murray Hill, New Jersey. Developed the transistorized visible speech translator and provided and experimental model of the equipment for use in the last year of the research project for Visible Speech. See: Final Draft: Visible Speech for the Deaf (1968); Manual for Visible Speech for the Deaf (1968); Rough Draft (handwritten) - Visible Speech for the Deaf (1968)

Fleets -- See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Fletcher -- See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 1 (May '44)

Forsythe, Mrs. Patria G. -- Executive Secretary, National Advisory Committee on Education of the Deaf; representative of the Dept. of Health, Education, and Welfare to the Working Groups of the NACED on 7/24/1969; thanked HGK on her participation in the Invitational Conference on Personnel Education in the Area of the Deaf on 10/27/1969; member of the Committee on the Adolescent Deaf of the Alexander Graham Bell Association for the Deaf in March 1970. See: Activities and Speaking Engagements with Professional Organizations (3/30/1969-10/12/1970)

Fowler, Dr. -- See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Frampton -- taught HGK at Teachers College - Survey, education of handicapped. See: Registration for Harriet C. Green at the Office of Field Relations and Placement, Teachers College, Columbia University (c. 1948)

Freese, Mrs. Gertrude -- NY Telephone, Bell Labs demonstration participant 01/24/1946. See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

French, Norman G. -- signed front of Visible Speech. See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 1 (May '44); BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Frisina, Dr. -- discussed Farid Bozorgi and his future at the National Technical Institute with HGK. See: Detroit Day School for the Deaf (6/14/1961-2/23/1971)

Fry -- See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Gaeth, Dr. John H. -- Prof. of Audiology, Director of Audiology, Wayne State University; Professor of Audiology; Director of Hearing Clinic; B.S. Midland College and University of Nebraska (1940); M.A. University of Nebraska (1942); Ph.D. Northwestern University (1948); married with 2 children; specialization: teaching audiology, training teachers of the deaf, administration and research in audiology; Chairman of the American Speech and Hearing Association Committee on Standards in Hearing; Advanced Certification in Hearing in ASHACSH; budgeted for expenditures in grant proposal for project RD-526; Grad Asst, University of Nebraska (Sept 1942-Feb 1944); Officer, U.S.N.R. (1944-1946); Grad Asst, Northwestern University (1946-1948); Asst. Professor, University of Denver (1948-1949); Assoc. Prof. Northwestern University (1949-1957); Professor of Audiology, Wayne State University (1957-?); wrote HGK a letter about RD-526 funding on 10/26/1959; salary as consultant budgeted for Project No. RD-1483-S (1963, 1966); member of the Advisory Board for the Detroit Day School for the Deaf. See: Information on Research Projects and Proposals (1959-1960); Research Information About Project No. RD-1483-S (1964-1966); Report to Detroit Board of Education on the Day School for the Deaf (2/26/1963)

Gallagher -- PS 47, Bell Labs demonstration participant 02/14/1946

Galloway, Victor H. -- member of the Chairmen of the Working Groups of the National Advisory Committee on the Education of the Deaf with HGK on 7/24/1969. See: Activities and Speaking Engagements with Professional Organizations (3/30/1969-10/12/1970)

Gamache, Keith -- on clinic's fall 1977 list. See: Bell Telephone Laboratories notebook with student rosters (Spring 1975-Fall 1977)

Garcia, Danny -- on clinic's fall 1976, spring and fall 1977 list. See: Bell Telephone Laboratories notebook with student rosters (Spring 1975-Fall 1977)

Gardella, Bonnie -- on clinic's fall 1976, spring and fall 1977 list. See: Bell Telephone Laboratories notebook with student rosters (Spring 1975-Fall 1977)

Gardiner, Ray -- 5th grade teacher, Detroit Day School; 9 students in spring 1966 class; Member of the staff for the Detroit Day School for the Deaf, taught experimental classes with the translator from 1966-1968. See: Test Subjects (1965); Final Draft: Visible Speech for the Deaf (1968); Manual for Visible Speech for the Deaf (1968); Rough Draft (handwritten) - Visible Speech for the Deaf (1968)

Garrett, James F. -- Assistant Commissioner of Research and Training, Dept of Health, Education, and Welfare - Vocational Rehabilitation Adminstration; Assistant Director - informed Thomas & Kopp about receipt of grant on 10/20/1959; contacted Van Buskirk about continuation of grant for Visible Speech for the Deaf on 5/31/1966. See: Information on Research Projects and Proposals (1959-1960); Financial Information on the Continuation of the Federal Grant for Project RD-1483-S-66-C2 (May 1966)

Garwood, V.P. -- Other Research Participant at University of Michigan during Kopp's study; proposed thesis to GAK on visula discrimination of amplitude variations on sound spectrograms; completed Master's thesis May, 1948. See: Thesis Proposals by George Kopp's Students (10/8/1947-3/1/1948); Final Report of Visible Speech Educational Evaluation Research Program (3/25/1947-8/13/1948)

Gates, Miss -- Motor Coordination - Visible Speech Education Evaluation Program. See: How Funding Continued the Project at Ypsilanti (1/31/1947-10/10/1947)

Gawlik, Rev. Rudolph E. -- served as an interpreter for the Working Groups of the National Advisory Committee on the Education of the Deaf on 7/24/1969. See: Activities and Speaking Engagements with Professional Organizations (3/30/1969-10/12/1970)

Gayda, Tonia -- on clinic's spring 1975 list. See: Bell Telephone Laboratories notebook with student rosters (Spring 1975-Fall 1977)

Geiger, Dr. Paul -- recommended Robert Essig for employment. See: Progress Report #1: Visible Speech Research Program - U.Mich. (1/31/1947)

Geles -- See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 1 (May '44)

Gelnak, Barbara -- Subject #16 in 1965 tests; grade 8, Kane's homeroom class; noted as being involved in original project; ranked No. 14 overall in spring 1966 tests; on list of Prospective Subjects, marked original project. See: Test Subjects (1965); Graphs of Students' Test Results (Spring 1966); Information on the Visible Speech Research Project (1966)

Gerstman, Louis J. -- Some Experiments on the Perception of Synthetic Speech (Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Vol. 24, No. 6, Nov. 1952). See: Harriet Kopp's personal correspondence (11/4/1949-6/3/1970)

Gertz -- See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Gibson -- See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Glover, Evelyn -- grade 9, in Martyka's class, on list of students now using the machine; on list of Prospective Subjects, marked some experience. See: Test Subjects (1965); Information on the Visible Speech Research Project (1966)

Goddu -- member of Editorial Committee of NACED that submitted recommendations on 10/16/1969. See: Activities and Speaking Engagements with Professional Organizations (3/30/1969-10/12/1970)

Gore, Sue -- Subject #28 in 1965 tests; grade 4, in Higgins's homeroom class; ranked No. 13 overall in spring 1966 tests; grade 6 (1966-1967 school year); on list of Prospective subjects grade 4-5; Student that completed an answer sheet for VRA Project #RD-143-S, Visible Speech for the Deaf; Test #1 on 6/18/1968; Test Film Strip #1 on 6/18/1968. See: Test Subjects (1965); Graphs of Students' Test Results (Spring 1966); Information on the Visible Speech Research Project (1966); Information on the Visible Speech Research Project (1966);Mean Scores for Tests #1-10-VRA Project #RD-1483-S (June 1968)

Gorman -- See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 1 (May '44)

Gosen, John -- on clinic's spring and fall 1975, spring 1976, fall 1977 lists. See: Bell Telephone Laboratories notebook with student rosters (Spring 1975-Fall 1977)

Graber -- See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 1 (May '44); BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Graham, Dr. A. Bruce -- Senior Audiologist, Henry Ford Hospital; member of the Advisory Board for the Detroit Day School for the Deaf. See: Report to Detroit Board of Education on the Day School for the Deaf (2/26/1963)

Graham, Craig -- ranked No. 47 overall in spring 1966 tests; grade 5 (1966-1967 school year); Student that completed an answer sheet for VRA Project #RD-143-S, Visible Speech for the Deaf; Test #1 on 6/18/1968; Test Film Strip #1 on 6/18/1968. See: Graphs of Students' Test Results (Spring 1966); Information on the Visible Speech Research Project (1966); Mean Scores for Tests #1-10-VRA Project #RD-1483-S (June 1968)

Grant, Margaret J. -- member of the committee on Adolescent Deaf of the Alexander Graham Bell Association for the Deaf in March 1970. See: Activities and Speaking Engagements with Professional Organizations (3/30/1969-10/12/1970)

Gray, Mr. Charles H.G. (CHG) -- signed front of Visible Speech; received information on voiceprint method of identifying individuals. See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45); Research Report by Y.R. Chao on Chinese recordings (11/21/1944-2/17/1945); Voice Print Identification Procedure and Information (1 of 3) (11/26/1943-6/10/1944)

Green, M.L. -- speech 01/26/1946. See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Green (Kopp), Harriet Clara (HCG) -- B.A. Brooklyn College (1937); M.A. Brooklyn College (1938); Ph.D. Columbia University (?); Assistant and Instructor at Brooklyn College (1936-1939); Teacher at Lexington School for the Deaf (1939-1940); Instructor at Indiana University (1940-1941); Grad. Asst. Teachers College, Columbia University (1941-1943); Member of Technical Staff, Bell Telephone Laboratories (1943-1946); Assistant Professor, University of Michigan (1943-46); Assoc. Prof. of Special Education, Michigan State Normal College (1947) and Research Assistant, University of Michigan (1947); performed Visible Speech Experiments #2, 6, 7 at the Rackham School for Special Education (associated with U.Mich.) (March 1947); mentioned in article in News and Notes (Oct. 1947); Public School Speech Correctionalist, Birmingham, MI (1948-1956); taught Visible Speech Program at Rackham School, summer 1948; Director, Speech and Hearing Division, Rehabilitation Institute of Metropolitan Detroit (1956-1959); specialties: teacher training, administration and research; Associate Editor of the Journal of Speech and Hearing Disorders; holder of Advanced Certification in Hearing in the American Speech and Hearing Association; Associate Professor of Special Education - Michigan State Normal College, Research Assistant - U. Mich.; carried out experimental training program of visible speech; co-wrote article on visible speech for educators of the deaf, c. 1947; attended meetings of the visible speech research committee on 1/8/1947, 2/12/1947, 2/21/1947, 3/3/1947, 5/1/1947, 5/29/1947, 6/28/1947, 11/7/1947; co-wrote report on Visible Speech Educational Research Program, 6/7/1947; wrote text for Birmingham Plan of Testing Hearing and Vision pamphlet; budgeted for expenditures in grant proposal for project RD-526; received letter from John H. Gaeth on 10/26/1959; Director of Speech and Hearing at the Rehabilitation Institute of Metropolitan Detroit; wrote S.M. Brownell on 1/27/1960 about the approval of a grant for research using the cathode ray tube translator; Project Co-Director of Grant RD-526, evaluating usefulness of the visible speech cathode ray tube translator as a supplement to the oral method of teaching speech to deaf and severly deafened children (1963); prepared Progress Report for Project No. RD-1483-S in Feb. 1965, 3/1/1965, and Feb. 1966; salary as consultant budgeted for Project No. RD-1483-S (1963, 1966); member of the Chairmen of the Working Groups of the National Advisory Committee on the Education of the Deaf with HGK on 7/24/1969; Retirement Papers form the Detroit Day School for the Deaf (1970); Chairman of the committees on adolescent deaf and editorial policies of the Alexander Graham Bell Association for the Deaf, Inc. (3/1/1970); applied for extension of leave of absence from Detroit Day School for the Deaf (1972); Professor in the Dept. of Speech Pathology and Audiology, San Diego State College; Acting Dean of the College of Human Services at San Diego State University (7/6/1982); ; Chairman, Dept. of Speech Pathology, Audiology and Education of the Deaf, SDSC (9/4/1974); charted with female subjects. See: Visual Telephony Conferences (10/14/1943-2/23/1944); Voiceprint Identification Procedure and Information (1 of 3) (11/26/1943-6/10/1944); transcript from Teachers College, Columbia University (3/15/1946); Spectrograms and Charted Results (11/17/1943); Research Report by Y.R. Chao on Chinese recordings (11/21/1944-2/17/1945); University of Michigan Project (July 1945-1948); Correspondence regarding the Visible Speech Research Program - U.Mich. study (4/18/1946-8/8/1947); Progress Report Presented at American Speech Correction Conference, Chicago - U.Mich. (12/31/1946); Article on Visible Speech for Educators of the Deaf by George A. Kopp and Harriet C. Green - U.Mich. (c. 1947); Minutes and Memos from the Visible Speech Research Committee - U.Mich. (1/3/1947-11/7/1947); Progress Report #1: Visible Speech Research Program - U.Mich. (1/31/1947); How Funding Continued the Project at Ypsilanti (1/31/1947-10/10/1947); Proposed Outline: Visible Speech Research Program - U.Mich. (3/3/1947); Final Report of Visible Speech Educational Evaluation Research Program (3/25/1947-8/13/1948); Logistics for Operation of Visible Speech Research Program - U.Mich. (3/25/1947-6/2/1947); Supplement to Progress Reports #1: Visible Speech Research Program - U.Mich. (4/21/1947); Pattern Recognition Charts - U.Mich. (4/21/1947); Report on Visible Speech Educational Research Program by George A. Kopp and Harriet C. Green - U.Mich. (6/7/1947); Information on Visible Speech Education Evaluation Program - U.Mich. (5/28/1947); How Funding Continued the Project at Ypsilanti (3/25/1947-10/10/1947); Intelligibility Scores and Graphs (April-Dec. 1947); Newspaper clipping: Visible Speech: Teaching Deaf Children to Hear (July 1947); Advance Advertisement for Visible Speech (5/28/1947); News and Notes (9/22/1947); Registration for Harriet C. Green at the Office of Field Relations and Placement, Teachers College, Columbia University (c. 1948); Papers and Charts on Frequency Ranges and Principle Zones of Energy (Feb. 1948); Proposed Visible Speech Program for the Rackham School (summer 1948); Final Report of Visible Speech Educational Evaluation Research Program (8/13/1948); Information on Phonetics and Dialects (6/6/1949-1/26/1950); The Birmingham Plan of Testing Hearing and Vision (1951); Harriet Kopp's personal correspondence (11/4/1949-6/3/1970); Information on Research Projects and Proposals (1959-1960); Detroit Day School for the Deaf (6/14/1961-2/23/1971); early Draft of Final Report of Grant No. RD-526 (1963); Description of Detroit School for the Deaf (2/26/1963); Rough Draft - Visible Speech Report (3/13/1963); Research Information About Project No. RD-1483-S (1964-1965); George Kopp Memorial Scholarship Fund (1964-1973); Information on Research Projects and Proposals (1959-1960); Information Concerning the Termination of Grant Project No. RD-1483-S (1963-1968); Visible Speech Manual (3/9/1967-12/5/1974); Final Draft: Visible Speech for the Deaf (1968); Manuscript for Visible Speech for the Deaf (1968); Rough Draft (hand-written) - Visible Speech for the Deaf (1968); Correspondence to George and Harriet Kopp from C.Van Riper (9/11/1968-9/26/1968); Activities and Speaking Engagements with Professional Organizations (3/30/1969-10/12/1970); Retirement Papers from the Detroit Day School for the Deaf (1970); Correspondence between Harriet Hopp and Bernard O'Donnell (7/6/1982); Correspondence between Mara Mills and H. Kopp (1/4/2006); Visible Speech Manual Original - to copy; Visible Speech Manual with Chapter Divisions (product of Contract No. RD-526); charts and spectrograph results (female test subjects)

Grindem, Mark -- grade 4, in Higgins's homeroom class; ranked No. 42 overall in spring 1966 tests; list on Prospective subjects grade 4-5. See: Test Subjects (1965); Graphs of Students' Test Results (Spring 1966); Information on the Visible Speech Research Project (1966)

Groht -- Bell Labs demonstration participant 11/29/1945. See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Gruenz, Jr., Otto O. -- attended conference about the translator on 12/31/1945; signed front of Visible Speech; member of Bell Telephone Laboratories, came to Detroit to fix the Translator after its move to the Detroit Day School from Wayne State University. See: Visible Speech Manual with Chapter Divisions (product of Contract No. RD-526); BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Hafer, Sarah -- on clinic's fall 1976 list. See: Bell Telephone Laboratories notebook with student rosters (Spring 1975-Fall 1977)

Hall, Dr. Roy M. -- Assistant Commissioner for Research with Cooperative Research Division of the US Office of Education. See: Information on Research Projects and Proposals (1959-1960)

Hamilton, Mr. -- Saskatechewan Deaf school, Bell Labs demonstration participant 02/21/1946 . See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Hammond, Richard -- Subject #5 in 1965 tests; grade 8, Kane's homeroom class; noted as being involved in original project; ranked No. 4 overall in spring 1966 tests; on list of Prospective Subjects, marked original project. See: Test Subjects (1965); Graphs of Students' Test Results (Spring 1966); Information on the Visible Speech Research Project (1966)

Hardy, Miriam Pauls -- member of the Editorial Policies Committee of the Alexander Graham Bell Association for the Deaf in March 1970. See: Activities and Speaking Engagements with Professional Organizations (3/30/1969-10/12/1970)

Harlan, Tom -- Subject #34 in 1965 tests; grade 6, in Clement's homeroom class; ranked No. 11 overall in spring 1966 tests; grade 8 (1966-1967 school year); on list of Prospective Subjects grade 4-5. See: Test Subjects (1965); Graphs of Students' Test Results (Spring 1966); Information on the Visible Speech Research Project (1966); Information on the Visible Speech Research Project (1966)

Harnish, Mike -- Subject #33 in 1965 tests; grade 6, in Clement's homeroom class; noted as being involved in original project; ranked No. 8 overall in spring 1966 tests; grade 8 (1966-1967 school year); on list of Prospective Subjects grade 4-5, marked original project. See: Test Subjects (1965); Graphs of Students' Test Results (Spring 1966); Information on the Visible Speech Research Project (1966); Information on the Visible Speech Research Project (1966)

Harrington, Dr. -- Winnetka Schools; came for instruction and demonstration of U Mich Study, 11/10/1947. See: Final Report of Visible Speech Educational Evaluation Research Program (3/25/1947-8/13/1948)

Harris -- Bell Labs demonstration participant 11/29/1945, Comparative Linguistics 12/11/1945. See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Harris, Chris -- on clinic's spring 1975 list. See: Bell Telephone Laboratories notebook with student rosters (Spring 1975-Fall 1977)

Hartin, Frank -- Employee of Customer Service - Dover Press; New York, NY. See: Visible Speech Manual (3/9/1967-12/5/1974)

Hartley -- See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Hasbrouck -- See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Hatchett, Jeanette -- in Jacobs's class; labelled Sp. See: Test Subjects (1965)

Hazelwood, Cheryl -- grade 9, in Martyka's class, on list of students now using the machine; on list of Prospective Subjects, marked some experience. See: Test Subjects (1965); Information on the Visible Speech Research Project (1966)

Hedstrom, Mr. -- copied on announcement of grant continuation for Visible Speech for the Deaf (5/31/1966). See: Financial Information on the Continuation of the Federal Grant for Project RD-1483-S-66-C2 (May 1966)

Heggie, Don -- grade 9, in Martyka's class, on list of students now using the machine; on list of Prospective Subjects, marked some experience. See: Test Subjects (1965)

Heggie, Patricia (Pat) -- Subject #26 in 1965 tests; grade 8, Schmitz's homeroom class; ranked No.2 overall in spring 1966 tests; on list of Prospective Subjects. See: Test Subjects (1965); Graphs of Students' Test Results (Spring 1966); Information on the Visible Speech Research Project (1966)

Heinrichs -- See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 1 (May '44)

Henselmeier, Cindy -- on clinic's fall 1975, spring and fall 1976, spring and fall 1977 lists . See: Bell Telephone Laboratories notebook with student rosters (Spring 1975-Fall 1977)

Herkimer, Katherine -- 14 years old; Group 1 of exploratory program; congenitally deaf, severly hypacaustic, part of experimental study for Visible Speech Research at Ypsilanti (3/25/1947), experiment subject in U Mich study; scored for intelligibility in experiment 1 (1947); performance in Visible Speech Experiment #2 evaluated 1948. See: Progress Report #1: Visible Speech Research Program - U.Mich. (1/31/1947); Logistics for Operation of Visible Speech Research Program - U.Mich. (3/25/1947-6/2/1947); How Funding Continued the Project at Ypsilanti (1/31/1947-10/10/1947); Supplement to Progress Report #1: Visible Speech Research Program - U.Mich. (4/21/1947); Pattern Recognition Charts - U.Mich. (4/21/1947); Intelligibility Scores and Graphs (April-Dec. 1947); Final Report of Visible Speech Educational Evaluation Research Program (3/25/1947-8/13/1948)

Herold, Timothy (Tim) -- Subject #20 in 1965 tests; grade 7, Steffens's homeroom class; ranked No. 1 among students who participated in less than 10 tests in spring 1966; on list of Prospective Subjects. See: Test Subjects (1965); Graphs of Students' Test Results (Spring 1966); Information on the Visible Speech Research Project (1966)

Hertz, Dr. Richard C. -- Temple Beth El. See: Report to Detroit Board of Education on the Day School for the Deaf (2/26/1963)

Hesson, Gary -- Proposed Experiment subject in Ypsilanti Study; scored for intelligibility in experiment 3 (1947); subject in experimental U. Michigan study with the Rackham School (3/25/1947), aged 10 yrs, 8 months; congenitally deaf and severely hypacusic. See: Logistics for Operation of Visible Speech Research Program - U.Mich. (3/25/1947-6/2/1947); How Funding Continued the Project at Ypsilanti (1/31/1947-10/10/1947); Intelligibility Scores and Graphs (April-Dec. 1947)

Hester, Mrs. -- Functional test of vision- telebinocular. See: How Funding Continued the Project at Ypsilanti (1/31/1947-10/10/1947)

Hewitt, Barnard -- taught HGK at Brooklyn College - History of Modern Theatre, History of Ancient Theatre, & Studies in Play Production

Hewittson, Dr. -- See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Hibbit, George -- See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Hicks, (William) Billy -- grade 5, in Gardiner's homeroom class; HGK noted get to wear glasses on roster; ranked No. 53 overall in spring 1966 tests; on list of Prospective Subjects grade 4-5. See: Test Subjects (1965); Graphs of Students' Test Results (Spring 1966); Information on the Visible Speech Research Project (1966)

Higgins -- See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Higgins -- 4th grade teacher, Detroit day School; 9 students in Spring 1966 class . See: Test Subjects (1965); Graphs of Students' Test Results (Spring 1966)

Hill, James E. -- Ed.D. degree; permanent replacement for J. Clemente in work for the RD-1483-S project; hired due to a background of training and experience in both electrical engineering and speech; salary as a consultant budgeted for Project No. RD-1483-S (1963, 1966); informally met with Mr. Powles of the General Film Lab., Co. concerning the creation of slides of spectrographic patterns (10/17/1966); assistant to GAK at Wayne State University; Background in speech and electrical engineering. Worked on Visible Speech project until 1966. See: Research Information About Project No. RD-1483-S (1964-1966); Information on the Visible Speech Research Project (1966); Financial Information on the Continuation of the Federal Grant for Project RD-1483-S-66-C2 (May 1966); Final Draft: Visible Speech for the Deaf (1968); Manual for Visible Speech for the Deaf (1968); Rough Draft (handwritten) - Visible Speech for the Deaf (1968)

Hoe, Dr. -- staff, Steel Complex Hospital, Nanking area. See: Notes from Medical Study Trip to China (4/18/1980-4/28/1980)

Hoekstra, Dr. Marvin -- Wayne State University Electrical Engineering Dept. staff member; added to the RD-1483-S project staff on 1/27/1966 as a consultant in equipment maintenance; salary as Research Asst & Electronic Technician budgeted for Project No. RD-1483-S (1966); Employee of the Wayne State University Electrical Engineering Department. In January 1966 was appointed as a consultant in maintenance of equipment. Assisted Dr. Jack Curtis of the Speech and Hearing Center until the termination of the contract. See: Research Information About Project No. RD-1483-S (1964-1966); Final Draft: Visible Speech for the Deaf (1968); Manual for Visible Speech for the Deaf (1968); Rough Draft (handwritten) - Visible Speech for the Deaf (1968)

Hoemann, Rev. Harry W. -- served as an interpreter for the Working Groups of the National Advisory Committee on the Education of the Deaf on 7/24/1969. See: Activities and Speaking Engagements with Professional Organizations (3/30/1969-10/12/1970)

Hoerr, III, Chris R. -- member of the Editorial Policies Committee of the Alexander Graham Bell Association for the Deaf in March 1970. See: Activities and Speaking Engagements with Professional Organizations (3/30/1969-10/12/1970)

Hograth -- See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 1 (May '44)

Hoit-Dalgaard, Jeannette -- co-authored Voice Onset Time Production and Perception in Apraxic Subjects with HGK in Brain and Language (Vol. 20, 1983, p. 329-339); affiliated with VA Medical Center, San Diego. See: Correspondence between Mara Mills and H. Kopp (1/4/2006)

Holbrook, Dr. Anthony -- specialties: training teachers of speech correction and research in Speech Science; Asst. Prof. of Speech, Wayne State University Speech and Hearing Clinic; married with 3 children; B.S. Speech Correction, University of California Santa Barabara (1951); M.A. Speech Pathology, University of Hawaii (1953); Ph.D. in Speech Science, Correction and Audiology, University of Illinois (1958); served as technical assistant in the maintenance and operation of equipment during research for project RD-526. See: Information on Research Projects and Proposals (1959-1960); Early Draft of Final Report of Grant No. RD-526 (1963); Visible Speech Manual with Chapter Divisions (product of Contract No. RD-526)

Holland, David -- test subjects, Translator Project I, 8 years old; Group 2A of exploratory program; congenitally deaf with slight residual hearing, Experiment subject in U Mich Study with Rackham School; scored for intelligibility in experiment 1 & 3 (1947); performance in Visible Speech Experiment #4 evaluated 1948. See: Progress Report #1: Visible Speech Research Program - U.Mich. (1/31/1947); Logistics for Operation of Visible Speech Research Program - U.Mich. (3/25/1947-6/2/1947); Intelligibility Scores and Graphs (April-Dec. 1947); Final Report of Visible Speech Educational Evaluation Research Program (3/25/1947-8/13/1948)

Holland, Prof. Lewis -- recommended Robert Essig for employment. See: Progress Report #1: Visible Speech Research Program - U.Mich. (1/31/1947); How Funding Continued the Project at Ypsilanti (1/31/1947-10/10/1947)

Honamen -- See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Hoth -- See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 1 (May '44)

Howell, Louise -- worker at Cleveland State Hospital; George Kopp responded to her query about the visible speech research on 8/8/1947. See: Correspondence regarding the Visible Speech Research Program - U.Mich. study (4/18/1946-8/8/1947)

Howell, Jay -- on clinic's spring and fall 1977 list. See: Bell Telephone Laboratories notebook with student rosters (Spring 1975-Fall 1977)

Huang, Mr. -- staff, Steel Complex Hospital, Nanking area. See: Notes from Medical Study Trip to China (4/18/1980-4/28/1980)

Hudgins, Dr. Clarence V. -- Director of Research, Experimental Phonetics, Clarke School for the Deaf, Northampton, Mass.; worked on rhythm and stress; colleagues with Dr. G.E. Peterson at Harvard University during World War II; Special Consultant to the Visible Speech Advisory project (1947); attended a meeting of the Visible SPeech Research Committee on 5/1/1947; submitted report to the Advisory Committe of the Visible Speech Research Project, Institute for Human Adjustment, U.Mich. on 6/10/1947; the Alexander Graham Bell Association for the Deaf, Inc. Editorial Policies Committee discussed publishing his articles and papers on 3/1/1970. See: Correspondence regarding the Visible Speech Research Program - U.Mich. study (4/18/1946-8/8/1947); Minutes and Memos from the Visible Speech Research Committee - U.Mich. (1/3/1947-11/7/1947); Information on Visible Speech Education Evaluation Program - U.Mich. (5/28/1947); How Funding Continued the Project at Ypsilanti (1/31/1947-10/10/1947); Final Report of Visible Speech Educational Evaluation Research Program (3/25/1947-8/13/1948); Detroit Day School for the Deaf (6/14/1961-2/23/1971)

Hudson, Richard (Dick) -- 10 years old; Group 1 of exploratory program; congenitally deaf, severly hypacaustic, part of experimental study for Visible Speech Research at Ypsilanti (3/25/1947), experiment subject in U Mich study; scored for intelligibility in experiment 1 (1947); performance in Visible Speech Experiment #2 evaluated 1948. See: Progress Report #1: Visible Speech Research Program - U.Mich. (1/31/1947); Logistics for Operation of Visible Speech Research Program - U.Mich. (3/25/1947-6/2/1947); How Funding Continued the Project at Ypsilanti (1/31/1947-10/10/1947); ;Supplement to Progress Report #1: Visible Speech Research Program - U.Mich. (4/21/1947); Pattern Recognition Charts - U.Mich. (4/21/1947); Intelligibility Scores and Graphs (April-Dec. 1947); Final Report of Visible Speech Educational Evaluation Research Program (3/25/1947-8/13/1948)

Humes, Larry E. -- co-authored Recognition of Synthetic Speech by Hearing-Impaired Elderly Listeners in the Journal of Speech and Hearing Research (vol. 34, Oct. 1991, p. 1180-84). See: Excerpt from the Journal of Speech and Hearing Research (Oct. 1991)

Hurst, Marlene -- Employee of Xerox- University Microfilms catalogs of Wayne State University Press. See: Visible Speech Manual (3/9/1967-12/5/1974)

Hutchkins -- See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 1 (May '44)

Hyde, Timothy -- on clinic's spring and fall 1975, spring 1976, spring 1977 lists. See: Bell Telephone Laboratories notebook with student rosters (Spring 1975-Fall 1977)

Hykes, John -- member of Alexander Graham Bell Association for the Deaf, Inc. Editorial Politicies Committee (3/1/1970). See: Detroit Day School for the Deaf (6/14/1961-2/23/1971)

Ickes, James (Jim) -- Subject #31 in 1965 tests; grade 6, in Clement's homeroom class; ranked No. 34 overall in spring 1966 tests; grade 8 (1966-1967 school year); on list of Prospective Subjects grade 4-5, marked some experience. See: Test Subjects (1965); Graphs of Students' Test Results (Spring 1966); Information on the Visible Speech Research Project (1966); Information on the Visible Speech Research Project (1966)

Ireland, Dwight B. -- Superintendant of Birmingham, MI public schools; wrote HGK a congratulatory letter on her new post at the Rehabilitation Institute on 11/6/1958. See: Harriet Kopp's personal correspondence (11/4/1949-6/3/1970)

Irwin, David -- test subjects, Translator Project I, 8 years old; Group 2A of exploratory program; congenitally deaf with slight residual hearing, Experiment subject in U Mich Study with Rackham School; scored for intelligibility in experiment 1 & 3 (1947); performance in Visible Speech Experiment #4 evaluated 1948. See: Progress Report #1: Visible Speech Research Program - U.Mich. (1/31/1947); Logistics for Operation of Visible Speech Research Program - U.Mich. (3/25/1947-6/2/1947); How Funding Continued the Project at Ypsilanti (1/31/1947-10/10/1947); Intelligibility Scores and Graphs (April-Dec. 1947); Final Report of Visible Speech Educational Evaluation Research Program (3/25/1947-8/13/1948)

Jackson -- Comparative linguistics 12/11/945. See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Jacobs -- See: Voice Print Identification Procedure and Information (1 of 3) (11/26/1943-6/10/1944); BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 1 (May '44); BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Jacobs -- taught students at Detroit Day School; students labelled Sp. See: Test Subjects (1965)

Jacobs, Henry -- in Banks's class; labelled Sp. See: Test Subjects (1965)

Jeffries, Charles -- in Banks's class; labelled Sp. See: Test Subjects (1965)

Jersild, A. -- taught HGK at Teachers College - Child Psychology. See: Registration for Harriet C. Green at the Office of Field Relations and Placement, Teachers College, Columbia University (c. 1948)

Johnson, Miss -- See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 1 (May '44); BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Johnson, Dr. Kenneth O. -- Executive Secretary at the American Speech and Hearing Association; sent material from the Dept. of Health, Education, and Welfare in the Office of Education to encourage increased activity with the Cooperative Research Division on 1/4/1959. See: Information on Research Projects and Proposals (1959-1960)

Johnson, T. Earle -- authored Southern Dialects. See: Information on Phonetics and Dialects (6/6/1949-1/26/1950)

Johnson, Michael (Mike) -- Subject #1 in 1965 tests; grade 8, Schmitz's homeroom class; noted as being involved in original project; ranked No. 2 among students who participated in less than 10 tests in spring 1966; on list of Prospective Subjects, marked original project. See: Test Subjects (1965); Graphs of Students' Test Results (Spring 1966); Information on the Visible Speech Research Project (1966)

Jones, Lloyd -- taught HGK at Teachers College - Guidance and Personnel. See: Registration for Harriet C. Green at the Office of Field Relations and Placement, Teachers College, Columbia University (c. 1948)

Jones, Miss -- Teacher, Bell Labs demonstration participant 03/21/45. See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Jones, Michael (Mike) -- Subject #35 in 1965 tests; grade 6, in Clement's homeroom class; ranked No. 9 overall in spring 1966 tests; on list of Prospective Subjects grade 4-5. See: Test Subjects (1965); Graphs of Students' Test Results (Spring 1966); Information on the Visible Speech Research Project (1966)

Joos, Prof. -- professor at U.Mich. at the Linguistic Institute; received permission from Harlan Bloomer to use the spectrograph for linguistics research on 2/26/1947 . See: Correspondence regarding the Visible Speech Research Program - U.Mich. study (4/18/1946-8/8/1947)

Kaczerowski, Janet -- marked off of clinic's fall 1976 list; on spring and fall 1977 list. See: Bell Telephone Laboratories notebook with student rosters (Spring 1975-Fall 1977)

Kandel -- taught HGK at Teachers College - Educational Foundations. See: Registration for Harriet C. Green at the Office of Field Relations and Placement, Teachers College, Columbia University (c. 1948)

Kane, Mr. Ronald -- 7th and 8th grade teacher, Detroit Day School; 7 students in spring 1966 7th grade class; realeased half time to work on Project No. RD-1483-S in Oct. 1964; salary as Research Asst. in budget for Project No. RD-1483-S (1966); received Visible Speech Research Project Progress Report concerning plans for producting the testing-instruction materials on 10/17/1966; Member of the staff of the Detroit Day School for the Deaf, taught experimental classes with the translator from 1965-1967. See: Research Information About Project No. RD-1483-S (1964-1966); Test Subjects (1965); Graphs of Students' Test Results (Spring 1966); Information on the Visible Speech Research Project (1966); Final Draft: Visible Speech for the Deaf (1968); Manual for Visible Speech for the Deaf (1968); Rough Draft (handwritten) - Visible Speech for the Deaf (1968)

Karpel, Miss -- See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Kavosi, Janice -- Subject #13 in 1965 tests; grade 7, Steffens's homeroom class; ranked No. 16 overall in spring 1966 tests; on list of Prospective Subjects. See: Test Subjects (1965); Graphs of Students' Test Results (Spring 1966); Information on the Visible Speech Research Project (1966)

Ke Ju, Dr. Cheng -- from Capital Med. Corp.; of the Chinese Medical Association. See: Notes from Medical Study Trip to China (4/18/1980-4/28/1980)

Keilman, Joanne -- severly hypacaustic, experiment subject in U Mich study. See: Final Report of Visible Speech Educational Evaluation Research Program (3/25/1947-8/13/1948)

Keitz, Christine -- grade 5, in Simmons's class, on list of students now using the machine; on list of Prospective subjects grade 4-5, marked some experience. See: Test Subjects (1965); ; Information on the Visible Speech Research Project (1966)

Keller, Miss -- Bell labs demonstration participant 10/24/1946. See: Progress Report #1: Visible Speech Research Program - U.Mich. (1/31/1947); How Funding Continued the Project at Ypsilanti (1/31/1947-10/10/1947)

Kelley -- See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 1 (May '44); BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Kelly, Joe (Joey) -- on clinic's spring and fall 1975, spring and fall 1976, spring and fall 1977 lists. See: Bell Telephone Laboratories notebook with student rosters (Spring 1975-Fall 1977)

Kennedy, Miss Rosemary J. -- Bell Labs secretary; signed front of Visible Speech. See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 1 (May '44); BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Kennedy, Louise -- taught HGK at Brooklyn College - Speech Pathology. See: Registration for Harriet C. Green at the Office of Field Relations and Placement, Teachers College, Columbia University (c. 1948)

Kerps -- See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Kersta, Mr. -- U Mich Study; serviced sound spectrograph equipment 7/16/1948. See: Sound Spectrograph results (1945-48); Final Report of Visible Speech Educational Evaluation Research Program (3/25/1947-8/13/1948)

Kerster -- re: specs 01/16/46. See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Kester, Miss -- audited V.S. training course part time

King, Mr. -- Bell labs demonstration 12/12/1945. See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Kinney, Richard -- Production Manager and Associate Director of Wayne State University Press . See: Visible Speech Manual (3/9/1967-12/5/1974)

Knott, John -- University of Iowa; saw demonstration of spectrograph on 6/12/1946. See: Progress Report #1: Visible Speech Research Program - U.Mich. (1/31/1947)

Koeing, Jr., Wallace -- signed front of Visible Speech. See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 1 (May '44); BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Kohr, Margaret -- charted with other female test subjects. See: Charts and Spectrograph Results (female test subjects)

Kolbusz, Gerald (Gerry) -- Grade 4, in Simmons's class, on list of students now using the machine; ranked No. 4 among students who participated in less than 10 tests in spring 1966; crossed off grade 8 list (1966-1967 school year); on list of Prospective subjects grade 4-5, marked some experience. See: Test Subjects (1965); Graphs of Students' Test Results (Spring 1966); Information on the Visible Speech Research Project (1966); Information on the Visible Speech Research Project (1966)

Kopp, George A. (GAK) -- specialities: training teachers in speech pathology and audiology, research in speech science, correction, audiology, and administration; Presidnet of American Speech and Hearing Association; held Advanced Certification in Speech in the ASHA; consultant on the staff of Sinai Hospital and the Rehabilitation Institute of Metropolitan Detroit; B.A. from Monmouth College, Manmouth, IL (1926); M.S. Speech Correction, University of Wisconsin (1930); Ph.D. Speech Pathology and Medical Science, University of Wisconsin (1933); Chairman, Dept. of Speech, Jamestown College, Jamestown ND (1926-1928); Instructor in Speech, University of Wisconsin (1928-1931); Asst. Prof. of Speech, University of Wisconsin (1931-1936); Asst. Prof. of Speech, Director of Speech and Hearing Clinic, Columbia University (1939-1943); taught course on Sppech Correction at Columbia in 1941; Associate Prof. of Speech at Teachers College, Columbia University; Consultant to Bell Labs on technical speech problems(Member of Technical Staff Bell Telephone Laboratories, NY (1943-1946)); Research Associate, U.Mich. (c. 1947); presented with John Steinberg at the 1945 American Speech Correction Conference, Columbus, OH, on the development of Visible Speech; presented a progress report at the American Speech Correction Conference, Chicago on 12/31/1946; wrote report on Visible Speech Educational Research Program with Harriet Green, 6/7/1947; co-wrote Article on Visible Speech for Educators of the Deaf, c. 1947; attended meetings of the Visible Speech research committee on 1/8/1947, 2/12/1947, 2/21/1947, 3/3/1947, 5/1/1947, 5/29/1947, 6/28/1947, 11/7/1947; requested clerical assistant for Harriet Green and graduate laboratory assistant from Harlan Bloomer on 2/25/1947; received comments on a proposed article on visible speech in the Volta Review from Clark Tibbitts on 5/31/1947 and Harlan Bloomer on 6/24/1947; Research in visible speech: Associate Professor of Speech and Research Associate, University of Michigan and Director of Visible Speech Research (1946-1948); sent letter to A.N. Clark on 8/8/1947 expressing a need for new books in the speech correction field; highlighted in an article in News and Notes (Oct. 1947); Prof. of Speech, Director, Speech and Hearing Clinic, Wayne State University (1948-?); director of 5-year cooperative research project with Bell Telephone Laboratories, University of Michigan, and Michigan State Normal College; responsible for phonetic organization of visible speech; taught HGK at Teachers College - Voice Science, Psychology of Speech, Research in Speech Education, Speech Pathology; signed front of Visible Speech; filled out Application for Research or Demonstration Grant with the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare on 8/19/1959; salary as Director budgeted in grant proposal for project RD-526 (1959, 1963, 1966); Project Co-Director of Grant RD-526, evaluating usefulness of the visible speech cathode ray tube translator as a supplement to the oral method of teaching speech to deaf and severly deafened children (1963). Social Security No. 127-05-4264; copied on announcement of grant continuation for Visible Speech for the Deaf; prepared Progress Report for Project No. RD-1483-S in Feb. 1965, 3/1/1965, and Feb. 1966; part of application for the continuation of grant for Project No. RD-1483-S (9/26/1963; 2/10/1966); received Visible Speech Research Project Progress Report concerning plans for producting the testing-instruction materials on 10/17/1966; member of Editorial Committee of NACED that submitted recommendations on 10/16/1969; wrote Meeting Speech Needs of Elementary School Children while an assoc. prof. at Columbia. See: Syllabus for Speech Correction - Education 261K, Teachers College, Columbia University (1941); Original Manuscript of and comments on George A. Kopp's elementary opus (8/3/1941); Visual Telephony Conferences (10/14/1943-2/23/1944); Voiceprint Identification Procedure and Information (1 of 3) (11/26/1943-6/10/1944); Research report by Y.R. Chao on Chinese recordings (11/21/1944-2/17/1945); University of Michigan Project (July 1945-1948); Correspondence regarding the Visible Speech Research Program - U.Mich. study (4/18/1946-8/8/1947); Progress Report Presented at American Speech Correction Conference, Chicago - U.Mich. (12/31/1946); Progress Report #1: Visible Speech Research Program - U.Mich. (1/31/1947); How Funding Continued the Project at Ypsilanti (1/31/1947-10/10/1947); Information on Visible Speech Education Evaluation Program - U.Mich. (5/28/1947); Correspondence form Adrian Leon y Marquez to George Kopp (3/14/1947); Newspaper clipping: Visible Speech: Teaching Deaf Children to Hear (July 1947); Correspondence to George A. Kopp from C.M. Breading of the Central Press Clipping Service (9/3/1947); News and Notes (9/22/1947); Advance Advertisement for Visible Speech (c. 1947); Minutes and Memos from the Visible Speech Research Committee - U.Mich. (1/3/1947-11/7/1947); Article on Visible Speech for Educators of the Deaf by George A. Kopp and Harriet C. Green - U.Mich. (c. 1947); Proposed Outline: Visible Speech Research Program - U.Mich. (3/3/1947); Final Report of Visible Speech Educational Evaluation Research Program (3/25/1947-8/13/1948); Logistics for Operation of Visible Speech Research Program - U.Mich. (3/25/1947-6/2/1947); Supplement to Progress Reports #1: Visible Speech Research Program - U.Mich. (4/21/1947); Pattern Recognition Charts - U.Mich. (4/21/1947); Report on Visible Speech Educational Research Program by George A. Kopp and Harriet C. Green - U.Mich. (6/7/1947); Registration for Harriet C. Green at the Office of Field Relations and Placement, Teachers College, Columbia University (c. 1948); Papers and Charts on Frequency Ranges and Principle Zones of Energy (Feb. 1948); Final Report of Visible SPeech Educational Evaluation Research Program (8/13/1948); Lectures and Seminar Notes(1957-1966); Information on Research Projects and Proposals (1959-1960); early Draft of Final Report of Grant No. RD-526 (1963); Description of Detroit School for the Deaf (2/26/1963); Rough Draft - Visible Speech Report (3/13/1963); Research Information About Project No. RD-1483-S (1964-1966); George Kopp Memorial Scholarship Fund (1964-1973); Case Report by George Kopp and Helene Anderson on Vocal Therapy for Dysphonia Plicae Ventricularis (c. 1965); Correspondence from M.R. Schroeder to Dr. George A. Kopp (3/25/1965); Financial Information on the Continuation of the Federal Grant for Project RD-1483-S-66-C2 (May 1966); Information on the Visible Speech Research Project (1966); Information Concerning the Termination of Grant Project No. RD-1483-S (1963-1968); Visible Speech Manual (3/9/1967-12/5/1974); Final Draft: Visible Speech for the Deaf (1968); Manuscript for Visible Speech for the Deaf (1968); Rough Draft (hand-written) - Visible Speech for the Deaf (1968); Correspondence to George and Harriet Kopp from C.Van Riper (9/11/1968-9/26/1968); Activities and Speaking Engagements with Professional Organizations (3/30/1969-10/12/1970); Report to Detroit Board of Education on the Day School for the Deaf (2/26/1963); Notes from Medical Study Trip to China (4/18/1980-4/28/1980); Visible Speech Manual Original - to copy; Visible Speech Manual with Chapter Divisions (product of Contract No. RD-526); Manuscript of Meeting Speech Needs of Elementary School Children by George A. Kopp; How Funding Continued the Project at Ypsilanti (3/25/1947-10/10/1947); Seminar Notes of George A. Kopp - Speech 337

Kopp, Dr. Joseph B. -- George Kopp's son; designated to serve on the George A. Kopp Memorial Fund advisory board. See: Harriet Kopp's personal correspondence (11/4/1949-6/3/1970)

Koren, Mr. Norman -- appointed to temporarily replace J. Clemente in work on Project No. RD-1483-S from Sept to Jan, 1965; Temporary worker on the Visible Speech project ending December 1965. See: Research Information About Project No. RD-1483-S; Final Draft: Visible Speech for the Deaf (1968); Manual for Visible Speech for the Deaf (1968); Rough Draft (handwritten) - Visible Speech for the Deaf (1968)

Kornacki, Kathryn -- 4-year-old student at Detroit Day School; shown in newspaper photograph . See: Clipping from The Detroit News (2/13/1966)

Koskos -- [n/a]

Kosztowny, Alan -- Student that completed an answer sheet for VRA Project #RD-143-S, Visible Speech for the Deaf; Test #1 on 6/18/1968; Test Film Strip #1 on 6/18/1968 . See: Mean Scores for Tests #1-10-VRA Project #RD-1483-S (June 1968)

Kovack, Joanne -- test subject - class 3B, age 10. See: Lip Reading Study (10/5/1943); Students' Spectrograms (fall 1943)

Kower? -- See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 1 (May '44)

Kramer, Magalene -- taught HGK at Teachers College - Research in Speech Education; Chairman of the Department of the Teaching of Speech at Columbia University, noted in the acknowledgements page of Harriet Kopp's doctoral dissertation for her interest and help. See: Registration for Harriet C. Green at the Office of Field Relations and Placement, Teachers College, Columbia University (c. 1948); Harriet Kopp's Doctoral Dissertation (1962)

Kramer -- See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Krieger, Connie -- produced sound spectrograms with cleft palate on 4/4/1947. See: Sound Spectrograph results (1945-48)

Kroll, Geraldine -- ranked No. 10 among students who participated in less than 10 tests in spring 1966. See: Graphs of Students' Test Results (Spring 1966)

Kroll, Gary -- Student that completed an answer sheet for VRA Project #RD-143-S, Visible Speech for the Deaf; Test #1 on 6/18/1968; Test Film Strip #1 on 6/18/1968 . See: Mean Scores for Tests #1-10-VRA Project #RD-1483-S (June 1968)

Krug -- See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Kubitsky, Eleanor -- age 10 (1947); Substitute for J. Keilman in U Mich study ; performance in Visible Speech Experiment #5 evaluated 1948. See: Final Report of Visible Speech Educational Evaluation Research Program (3/25/1947-8/13/1948)

Kuezela -- recorder 01/16/46. See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Kuplicki, Paul -- grade 4, in Higgins's homeroom class; ranked No. 36 overall in spring 1966 tests; grade 6 (1966-67 school year); on list of Prospective subjects grade 4-5, marked some experience; Student that completed an answer sheet for VRA Project #RD-143-S, Visible Speech for the Deaf; Test #1 on 6/18/1968; Test Film Strip #1 on 6/18/1968. See: Test Subjects (1965); Graphs of Students' Test Results (Spring 1966); Information on the Visible Speech Research Project (1966); Information on the Visible Speech Research Project (1966); Mean Scores for Tests #1-10-VRA Project #RD-1483-S (June 1968)

Kurath, Prof. Hans -- Director of the Linguistic Institute, University of Michigan; received memo from Harland Bloomer on 2/26/1947 about use of the spectrograph during the summer of 1947 for linguistic research; recorded spectrograms in German 5/15/1947. See: Sound Spectrograph results (1945-48); Correspondence regarding the Visible Speech Research Program - U.Mich. study (4/18/1946-8/8/1947)

Kuzda -- See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Kuzela, Mr. -- See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 1 (May '44)

Lacey, Wendy -- on clinic's spring and fall 1975, fall 1977 lists. See: Bell Telephone Laboratories notebook with student rosters (Spring 1975-Fall 1977)

Lage, Larry -- severly hypacaustic, experiment subject in U Mich study. See: Final Report of Visible Speech Educational Evaluation Research Program (3/25/1947-8/13/1948)

Lahera, Omar -- on clinic's spring 1977 list. See: Bell Telephone Laboratories notebook with student rosters (Spring 1975-Fall 1977)

Lassman, Frank M. -- member of Alexander Graham Bell Association for the Deaf, Inc. Editorial Politicies Committee (3/1/1970). See: Detroit Day School for the Deaf (6/14/1961-2/23/1971); Activities and Speaking Engagements with Professional Organizations (3/30/1969-10/12/1970)

Le Clerc, Sherry -- Subject #23 in 1965 tests; grade 7, Steffens's homeroom class; noted as being involved in original project; ranked No. 29 overall in spring 1966 tests; grade 9 (1966-1967 school year); on list of Prospective Subjects, marked original project. See: Test Subjects (1965); Graphs of Students' Test Results (Spring 1966); Information on the Visible Speech Research Project (1966)

Lee, John J. -- Distinguished Professor Emeritus, Department of Special Education and Vocational Rehabilitation, Wayne State University; wrote HGK a congratulatory letter on her new post at the Detroit Day School on 11/4/1958; Chairman, Special Education, Wayne State University (1963); member of the Advisory Board for the Detroit Day School for the Deaf; wrote HGK a recommendation letter 7/31/1969

Lee, Mike -- on clinic's fall 1977 list. See: Bell Telephone Laboratories notebook with student rosters (Spring 1975-Fall 1977)

Leon y Marquez, Adrian -- suggested Spanish words for Visible Speech tracings. See: Correspondence form Adrian Leon y Marquez to George Kopp (3/14/1947)

Leone, Berta -- drew illustrations for Birmingham Plan of Testing Hearing and Vision pamphlet. See: The Birmingham Plan of Testing Hearing and Vision (1951)

Lepre, Michael -- on clinic's spring and fall 1975, spring and fall 1976 lists. See: Bell Telephone Laboratories notebook with student rosters (Spring 1975-Fall 1977)

Levine, Mrs. -- Bell Labs secretary, Bell Labs demonstration participant 11/29/1945. See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 1 (May '44); BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Lewis, Mrs. E. -- Associate Editor Tide Magazine. See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Leyland -- Bell Labs secretary. See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 1 (May '44); BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Liberman, Alvin M. -- worked at Haskins Laboratories, NY, and University of Connecticut, Storrs; wrote Some Experiments on the Perception of Synthetic Speech (Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Vol. 24, No. 6, Nov. 1952); Some Results of Research on Speech Perception (Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Vol. 29, No. 1, Jan. 1957); The Interconversion of Audible and Visible Patterns as a Basis for Research in Perception of Speech (from the proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 37, No. 5, May 1951) . See: Harriet Kopp's personal correspondence (11/4/1949-6/3/1970)

Loertet, C.M. -- taught HGK at Indiana University - Psychological Testing. See: Registration for Harriet C. Green at the Office of Field Relations and Placement, Teachers College, Columbia University (c. 1948)

Lorbaugh, Dr. -- NYU. See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Lord, Dr. Francis E. -- Director of Rackam School of Special Education and Professor of Speech and Special Education, Michigan State Normal College; worked in conjunction with Clark Tibbitts on the visible speech research project at U.Mich.; received letter from Tibbitts about the research program on 11/27/1946; attended meetings of the Visible Speech Research committee on 1/8/1947, 2/12/1947, 2/21/1947, 3/3/1947, 5/1/1947, 5/29/1947, 6/28/1947, 11/7/1947; send Robert Essig a memo about delayed payment on 5/19/1947; mentioned in article in News and Notes, Oct. 1947. See: Correspondence regarding the Visible Speech Research Program - U.Mich. study (4/18/1946-8/8/1947); Minutes and Memos from the Visible Speech Research Committee - U.Mich. (1/3/1947-11/7/1947); Progress Report #1: Visible Speech Research Program - U.Mich. (1/31/1947); Proposed Outline: Visible Speech Research Program - U.Mich. (3/3/1947); Proposed Outline: Visible Speech Research Program - U.Mich. (3/3/1947); Information on Visible Speech Education Evaluation Program - U.Mich. (5/28/1947); How Funding Continued the Project at Ypsilanti (1/31/1947-10/10/1947); News and Notes (9/22/1947)

Lorge, Irving -- Noted in the acknowledgements page of Harriet Kopp's doctoral dissertation for her interest and help in the project. See: Harriet Kopp's Doctoral Dissertation (1962)

Lovato, Joseph -- on clinic's spring 1975 list

Lovell, James -- student engineer in charge of servicing equipment in U Mich study; worked on sound spectrograph on Jan 13-15, 1948. See: Final Report of Visible Speech Educational Evaluation Research Program (3/25/1947-8/13/1948)

Lowell, Edgar L. -- member of the Editorial Policies Committee of the Alexander Graham Bell Association for the Deaf in March 1970. See: Activities and Speaking Engagements with Professional Organizations (3/30/1969-10/12/1970)

Lynch, Jennifer -- on clinic's fall 1977 list. See: Bell Telephone Laboratories notebook with student rosters (Spring 1975-Fall 1977)

Lyons -- Western Electric. See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

MacGinitie, Walter H. -- Member of Harriet Kopp's dissertation committee at Columbia University . See: Harriet Kopp's Doctoral Dissertation (1962)

Macoule, Mrs. -- Mentioned in a letter from Frank to Dr. Kopp regarding the index on 1/23/1968. See: Correspondence between Frank and George Kopp re. index of Visible Speech Research Materials (1/23/1968)

Madden, Shannon -- Subject #22 in 1965 tests; grade 7, Steffens's homeroom class; ranked No. 25 overall in spring 1966 tests; grade 9 (1966-1967 school year); on list of Prospective Subjects. See: Test Subjects (1965); Graphs of Students' Test Results (Spring 1966); Information on the Visible Speech Research Project (1966)

Madson, Miss -- recorded spectrograms on 11/12/1946 of phrase This is the house that Jack built. See: Sound Spectrograph results (1945-1948)

MaGee, Harley W. -- Assistant to the Editor of Science Illustrated; requested pictures to go along with an up-coming Visible Speech story. See: Correspondence regarding the Visible Speech Research Program - U.Mich. study (4/18/1946-8/8/1947)

Magill, Dorothy -- charted with other female test subjects. See: Charts and Spectrograph Results (female test subjects)

Mahoney, Danny -- test subjects, Translator Project I, 12 years old; Group 1 of exploratory program; congenitally deaf, severly hypacaustic, part of experimental study for Visible Speech Research at Ypsilanti (3/25/1947); experiment subject in U Mich study; scored for intelligibility in experiment 1 (1947); performance in Visible Speech Experiment #2 evaluated 1948. See: Progress Report #1: Visible Speech Research Program - U.Mich. (1/31/1947); Logistics for Operation of Visible Speech Research Program - U.Mich. (3/25/1947-6/2/1947); How Funding Continued the Project at Ypsilanti (3/25/1947-10/10/1947); Supplement to Progress Report #1: Visible Speech Research Program - U.Mich. (4/21/1947); Pattern Recognition Charts - U.Mich. (4/21/1947); How Funding Continued the Project at Ypsilanti (1/31/1947-10/10/1947); Intelligibility Scores and Graphs (April-Dec. 1947); Final Report of Visible Speech Educational Evaluation Research Program (3/25/1947-8/13/1948)

Majerowski, Michael (Mike) -- Subject #9 in 1965 tests; grade 8, Kane's homeroom class; noted as being a child with some introduction; ranked No. 7 overall in spring 1966 tests; on list of Prospective Subjects. See: Test Subjects (1965); Graphs of Students' Test Results (Spring 1966); Information on the Visible Speech Research Project (1966)

Mallory -- Bell Labs demonstration participant 12/21/1945

Manning, Dr. J.J. -- physicist, Research Department of New York Police Department; approached Dr. Buckley about using voice print identification in fighting crime. See: Voice Print Identification Procedure and Information (11/26/1943-6/10/1944)

Mao, Mrs. -- HGK interviewed her about the commune primary school. See: Notes from Medical Study Trip to China (4/18/1980-4/28/1980)

Marcus, Robert -- Subject #11 in 1965 tests; grade 8, Kane's homeroom class; noted as being a child with some introduction; ranked No. 21 overall in spring 1966 tests; on list of Prospective Subjects. See: Test Subjects (1965); Graphs of Students' Test Results (Spring 1966); Information on the Visible Speech Research Project (1966)

Marge, Michael -- Coordinator Unit on Speech and Hearing Programs, Division of Training Programs, Bureau of Education for the Handicapped; Department of Health, Education, and Welfare- Office of Education. See: Information Concerning the Termination of Grant Project No. RD-1483-S (1963-1968)

Markel, Norman N. -- co-authored Judging Personality from Voice Quality in Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology (Vol. 64, No. 4, Oct. 1964). See: Markel and Meisels - Judging Personality from Voice Quality (Oct. 1964) [large sleeve]

Marrison -- See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Marshall, Steve -- ranked No. 8 among students who participated in less than 10 tests in spring 1966; Male Test Subject; 12/13/1966; Grade 4, Test S-D. See: Graphs of Students' Test Results (Spring 1966); Test Results and Charts (October 1966)

Martimer, Dr. Edgar -- Chief of Pediatrics, Harper Hospital; member of the Advisory Board for the Detroit Day School for the Deaf. See: Report to Detroit Board of Education on the Day School for the Deaf (2/26/1963)

Martin, Miss -- Manhasset Public School, Bell Labs demonstration participant 03/07/46

Martin, Fred -- Official from Detroit Public Schools who signed off on HGK's application for an extension of leave (9/29/1972). See: Retirement Papers from the Detroit Day School for the Deaf (1970)

Martin, Paul -- on clinic's fall 1977 list. See: Bell Telephone Laboratories notebook with student rosters (Spring 1975-Fall 1977)

Martinez, Alfredo -- on list of Prospective Subjects, marked 5 exp. See: Information on the Visible Speech Research Project (1966)

Martyka, Emilia -- staff member at the Detroit Day School for the Deaf; taught experimental classes with the Translator from 1964-1968; taught 9th grade students at the Detroit Day School already using the machine; 7 students in spring 1966 class. See: Early Draft of Final Report of Grant No. RD-526 (1963); Test Subjects (1965); Graphs of Students' Test Results (Spring 1966); Final Draft: Visible Speech for the Deaf (1968): Manual for Visible Speech for the Deaf (1968); Rough Draft (handwritten) - Visible Speech for the Deaf (1968)

Mase, Darrel -- Teachers College, Newark, NJ; 10/28/1946 demonstration. See: Progress Report #1: Visible Speech Research Program - U.Mich. (1/31/1947); How Funding Continued the Project at Ypsilanti (1/31/1947-10/10/1947)

Matthes -- See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Matthews, Mrs. M.G. -- Principal, Kennedy School; sent complimentary letter to HGK on 5/14/1970 . See: Retirement Papers from the Detroit Day School for the Deaf (1970)

May, Merri (Merrie) -- on clinic's fall 1976, spring and fall 1977 list. See: Bell Telephone Laboratories notebook with student rosters (Spring 1975-Fall 1977)

Mayes, Thomas A. -- director of the Regional Conference for Coordinating Rehabilitation and Education Services for the Deaf on Oct 26-28, 1970; sent HGK an invitation to the conference on 10/12/1970

McCarthy, Julia M. -- Deputy Superintendent, Detroit Public Schools; sent HGK a congratulatory letter on 6/1/1970. See: Retirement Papers from the Detroit Day School for the Deaf (1970)

McCrystal -- See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 1 (May '44); BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

McDonald, Henry S. -- member of Bell Telephone Labs engineering staff, came to Detroit to fix Translator after its move to the Detroit Day School from Wayne State University. See: Visible Speech Manual with Chapter Divisions (product of Contract No. RD-526)

McGrew, Professor J. Fred -- Fresno State College. See: University of Michigan Project (July 1945-1948)

McLoughlin -- lunch 12/11/1945. See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

McManus, Kathy -- on clinic's spring and fall 1977 list. See: Bell Telephone Laboratories notebook with student rosters (Spring 1975-Fall 1977)

Mealy -- (Meaghly)

Meisels, Murray -- co-authored Judging Personality from Voice Quality in Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology (Vol. 64, No. 4, Oct. 1964). See: Markel and Meisels - Judging Personality from Voice Quality (Oct. 1964) [large sleeve]

Melby, Dean -- Dean of NYU. See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Merrill, Jr., Edward C. -- President of Gallaudet College; offered HGK a a position as Dean of Pre-College Programs and Directory of the Model Secondary School for the Deaf, 3/14/1970; HGK turned down this position 4/15/1970. See: Harriet Kopp's personal correspondence (11/4/1949-6/3/1970)

Meyer, Dr. John Stirling -- Head, Dept. of Neurology, Wayne State University Medical School; member of the Advisory Board for the Detroit Day School for the Deaf. See: Report to Detroit Board of Education on the Day School for the Deaf (2/26/1963)

Meyerson, Dr. Lee -- Vassar College; came for Instruction and Demonstration in U Mich Study, 9/22/1947. See: Final Report of Visible Speech Educational Evaluation Research Program (3/25/1947-8/13/1948)

Miguel, David -- on clinic's fall 1975, spring 1976 lists. See: Bell Telephone Laboratories notebook with student rosters (Spring 1975-Fall 1977)

Miller, Ed.D., June -- President, Alexander Graham Bell Association for the Deaf, Inc.; asked HGK to continue serving as Chairman of the Editorial Policies on 9/10/1970. See: Retirement Papers from the Detroit Day School for the Deaf (1970)

Milligan, Tony -- on clinic's spring 1976 list. See: Bell Telephone Laboratories notebook with student rosters (Spring 1975-Fall 1977)

Mills, Mara -- Ph.D. Candidate at Harvard University; Instructor at Brown University; contacted HGK on 1/4/2006 to request an interview for more information on her research. See: Correspondence between Mara Mills and H. Kopp (1/4/2006)

Mock, Terri -- on clinic's spring 1977 list. See: Bell Telephone Laboratories notebook with student rosters (Spring 1975-Fall 1977)

Mohan, Mr. -- teacher from Rackham School of Education; training for Visual Speech. See: Progress Report #1: Visible Speech Research Program - U.Mich. (1/31/1947)

Monroe, Thomas -- Superintendent of Region Two, Detroit Public Schools; wrote HGK informing her of his resignation 7/3/1969; wrote HGK a recommendation letter 8/6/1969 . See: Harriet Kopp's personal correspondence (11/4/1949-6/3/1970)

Moore, Anthony -- ranked No. 7 among students who participated in less than 10 tests in spring 1966. See: Graphs of Students' Test Results (Spring 1966)

Moore, Paul -- co-authored Comments on Physiology of Hoarseness in Archives of Otolaryngology (Vol. 81, Jan. 1965). See: Moore and Thompson - Comments on Physiology of Hoarseness (Jan. 1965) [large sleeve]

Moore, Tony Loviece -- Student that completed an answer sheet for VRA Project #RD-143-S, Visible Speech for the Deaf; Test #1 on 6/18/1968; Test Film Strip #1 on 6/18/1968 . See: Mean Scores for Tests #1-10-VRA Project #RD-1483-S (June 1968)

Morison, Dr. -- See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Morley, D.E. -- Other Research Participant at University of Michigan during Kopp's study; Ph.D. thesis on comparative study of visible speech patterns as transmitted by several hearing aids - in progress, Aug. 1948. See: Final Report of Visible Speech Educational Evaluation Research Program (3/25/1947-8/13/1948)

Morris, Dr. -- Psychology Bureau; conference. See: Progress Report #1: Visible Speech Research Program - U.Mich. (1/31/1947)

Morrisett -- See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Moss, Arnold -- taught HGK at Brooklyn College - Comparative Phonetics. See: Registration for Harriet C. Green at the Office of Field Relations and Placement, Teachers College, Columbia University (c. 1948)

Mulgrave, Dr. Dorothy -- NYU, Bell Labs demonstration participant 01/24/1946

Mulholland, K. -- taught HGK at Brooklyn College - Theories of Oral Reading. See: Registration for Harriet C. Green at the Office of Field Relations and Placement, Teachers College, Columbia University (c. 1948)

Munson, Mr. -- President, Michigan State Normal College; came for instruction and demonstration of U Mich study, 3/10/1948. See: Final Report of Visible Speech Educational Evaluation Research Program (3/25/1947-8/13/1948)

Murry, Thomas -- co-authored Voice Onset Time Production and Perception in Apraxic Subjects with HGK in Brain and Language (Vol. 20, 1983, p. 329-339); affiliated with VA Medical Center, San Diego. See: Correspondence between Mara Mills and H. Kopp (1/4/2006)

Myers -- Ac. Society. See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Mysak, Edward D. -- Member of Harriet Kopp's dissertation committee at Columbia University . See: Harriet Kopp's Doctoral Dissertation (1962)

Nace, Dr. John G. -- member of the Chairmen of the Working Groups of the National Advisory Committee on the Education of the Deaf with HGK on 7/24/1969. See: Activities and Speaking Engagements with Professional Organizations (3/30/1969-10/12/1970)

Nakaji, Daniel (Danny) -- on clinic's fall 1975, spring and fall 1976, spring and fall 1977 lists . See: Bell Telephone Laboratories notebook with student rosters (Spring 1975-Fall 1977)

Nelson, Kathleen J. -- co-authored Recognition of Synthetic Speech by Hearing-Impaired Elderly Listeners in the Journal of Speech and Hearing Research (vol. 34, Oct. 1991, p. 1180-84). See: Excerpt from the Journal of Speech and Hearing Research (Oct. 1991)

Nelson, Max -- Other Research Participant at University of Michigan during Kopp's study; proposed thesis to GAK on 3/4/1947 on articulatory constancy - approved 3/6/1947; Master's thesis on articulatory constancy in May 1947. See: Thesis Proposals by George Kopp's Students (10/8/1947-3/1/1948); Final Report of Visible Speech Educational Evaluation Research Program (3/25/1947-8/13/1948)

New -- Bell Labs demonstration participant 11/29/1945. See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Nicholls, Dorren -- age 13 (1947); severly hypacaustic, experiment subject in U Mich study; performance in Visible Speech Experiment #5 evaluated 1948. See: Final Report of Visible Speech Educational Evaluation Research Program (3/25/1947-8/13/1948)

Nio, Dr. -- pediatrician, Maternal and Ob.Gyn Hosptial (attached to the China Welfare Institute), Shanghai. See: Notes from Medical Study Trip to China (4/18/1980-4/28/1980)

Nordstrom, Pat -- Aztec Shops Bookstore. See: Visible Speech Manual (3/9/1967-12/5/1974)

Norton -- taught HGK at Teachers College - Educational Foundations. See: Registration for Harriet C. Green at the Office of Field Relations and Placement, Teachers College, Columbia University (c. 1948)

Norvoine -- 1/22/1946. See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Nouhan, Eleanor -- Subject #8 in 1965 tests; grade 8, Schmitz's homeroom class; ranked No. 5 overall in spring 1966 tests; on list of Prospective Subjects. See: Test Subjects (1965); Graphs of Students' Test Results (Spring 1966); Information on the Visible Speech Research Project (1966)

Nuccio, Philip -- grade 5, in Gardiner's homeroom class; ranked No. 19 overall in spring 1966 tests; on list of Prospective subjects grade 4-5. See: Test Subjects (1965); Graphs of Students' Test Results (Spring 1966); Information on the Visible Speech Research Project (1966)

Nyquist -- See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 1 (May '44)

O'Connor, A. -- Bell Labs secretary, Bell Labs demonstration participant 11/29/1945. See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 1 (May '44); BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

O'Connor, C.D. -- taught HGK at Teachers College - Special methods in Teaching the Deaf & Practice Teaching Deaf. See: Registration for Harriet C. Green at the Office of Field Relations and Placement, Teachers College, Columbia University (c. 1948)

O'Connor, Mary New -- taught HGK at Teachers College - Teaching Speech to Deaf. See: Registration for Harriet C. Green at the Office of Field Relations and Placement, Teachers College, Columbia University (c. 1948)

O'Dell, Barbara -- on list of Prospective Students. See: Information on the Visible Speech Research Project (1966)

O'Donnell, Bernard -- Director, ERIC (Educational Resources Information Center) Clearinghouse on Reading and Communication Skills; sent a letter to HGK concerning the inclusion of one of her documents in the ERIC system (7/6/1982). See: Correspondence between Harriet Kopp and Bernard O'Donnell (7/6/1982)

Olds, Mrs. -- administered test of visual acuity. See: Progress Report #1: Visible Speech Research Program - U.Mich. (1/31/1947); How Funding Continued the Project at Ypsilanti (3/25/1947-10/10/1947)

Olinger, Kenneth -- on clinic's spring and fall 1975 lists. See: Bell Telephone Laboratories notebook with student rosters (Spring 1975-Fall 1977)

O'Neil -- Bell Labs demonstration participant 12/21/1945

O'Neill, James M. -- taught HGK at Brooklyn College - Seminar in Speech & Current Trends in Speech. See: Registration for Harriet C. Green at the Office of Field Relations and Placement, Teachers College, Columbia University (c. 1948)

Ostrow, Dr. -- See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Overall, Natalie -- Subject #27 in 1965 tests; grade 5, in Gardiner's homeroom class; ranked No. 41 overall in spring 1966 tests; on list of Prospective Subjects grade 4-5; Student that completed an answer sheet for VRA Project #RD-143-S, Visible Speech for the Deaf; Test #1 on 6/18/1968; Test Film Strip #1 on 6/18/1968. See: Test Subjects (1965); Graphs of Students' Test Results (Spring 1966); Information on the Visible Speech Research Project (1966); Mean Scores for Tests #1-10-VRA Project #RD-1483-S (June 1968)

Page (Paige), Mrs. -- See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Paloheimo, Lily -- recorded spectrograms on 5/2/1947; charted with other female subjects. See: Spectrograms for Lily Paloheimo (5/2/1947); Charts and Spectrograph Results (female test subjects)

Parral, Ricky -- on clinic's spring and fall 1977 list. See: Bell Telephone Laboratories notebook with student rosters (Spring 1975-Fall 1977)

Pate, Aaron -- See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Patterson, W. Calvin -- Vice President, Public Relations, Michigan Bell Telephone Company; public relations to maintain interest in the program; member of the Advisory Board for the Detroit Day School for the Deaf. See: How Funding Continued the Project at Ypsilanti (3/25/1947-10/10/1947); Newspaper clipping: Visible Speech: Teaching Deaf Children to Hear (July 1947); Report to Detroit Board of Education on the Day School for the Deaf (2/26/1963)

Pauls -- Navy, Philadelphia Hospital. See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Pease, Gloria -- test subject - class 3B, age 10. See: Lip Reading Study (10/5/1943); Students' Spectrograms (fall 1943)

Peckham, Mr. Ralf A. -- authorized state agency official representing the Dept. of Health, Education, and Welfare in George A. Kopp's grant application; copied on announcement of grant continuation for Visible Speech for the Deaf (5/31/1966); acknowledged receipt of application for continuation of grant RD-1483-S. See: Information on Research Projects and Proposals (1959-1960); Research Information About Project No. RD-1483-S (1964-1966); Financial Information on the Continuation of the Federal Grant for Project RD-1483-S-66-C2 (May 1966)

Peet, Miss Martha -- speech teacher, instructor in U Mich Study; performed Visible Speech Experiment #6 on congenitally deaf nursery school children at the Rackham School, March 1947; teacher, Visible Speech Program at the Rackham School, summer 1948. See: Minutes and Memos from the Visible Speech Research Committee - U.Mich. (1/3/1947-11/7/1947); How Funding Continued the Project at Ypsilanti (3/25/1947-10/10/1947); Proposed Visible Speech Program for the Rackham School (summer 1948); Final Report of Visible Speech Educational Evaluation Research Program (3/25/1947-8/13/1948)

Pegram -- See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Penn, John -- authored Scandinavian Dialect. See: Information on Phonetics and Dialects (6/6/1949-1/26/1950)

Peterson, Dr. Gordon E. -- staffer at Bell Telephone Laboratories; sent by Potter to Ypsilanti with a modified Sound Mirror the week of 4/28/1947; worked in speech correction; colleagues with Clarence Hudgins at Harvard University during World War II; sat in at conference at U.Mich. on 4/28/1947; Evaluation program, serviced spectrograph in U Mich study on Jan. 10-11, 1948; signed front of Visible Speech. See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45); Correspondence regarding the Visible Speech Research Program - U.Mich. study (4/18/1946-8/8/1947); Final Report of Visible Speech Educational Evaluation Research Program (3/25/1947-8/13/1948)

Peterson, Christine -- on clinic's spring and fall 1975, spring 1976 lists. See: Bell Telephone Laboratories notebook with student rosters (Spring 1975-Fall 1977)

Petrie, Prof. -- from Lansing; at lab for cleft palate research 2/16/1947; produced spectrograms of phrase buy me one shoe. See: Sound Spectrograph results (1945-1948)

Piel, Ordway F. -- Other Research Participant at University of Michigan during Kopp's study; proposed thesis to GAK on 3/1/1948 on visible speech reference patterns of 9- and 10-year-old boys - approved 3/9/1948; Master's thesis completed May 1948. See: Thesis Proposals by George Kopp's Students (10/8/1947-3/1/1948); Final Report of Visible Speech Educational Evaluation Research Program (3/25/1947-8/13/1948)

Pierce, Nancy -- in Jacobs's class; labelled Sp. See: Test Subjects (1965)

Pike, Professor -- University of Michigan; came for instruction and demonstration of U Mich study, 2/6/1948. See: Final Report of Visible Speech Educational Evaluation Research Program (3/25/1947-8/13/1948)

Pintner -- taught HGK at Teachers College - Psychology of Handicapped. See: Registration for Harriet C. Green at the Office of Field Relations and Placement, Teachers College, Columbia University (c. 1948)

Pisoni, David B. -- co-authored Recognition of Synthetic Speech by Hearing-Impaired Elderly Listeners in the Journal of Speech and Hearing Research (vol. 34, Oct. 1991, p. 1180-84). See: Excerpt from the Journal of Speech and Hearing Research (Oct. 1991)

Pittman -- See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Poleski, Olivia -- aided in the preparation for the publication of the Visible Speech Manual . See: Visible Speech Manual with Chapter Divisions (product of Contract No. RD-526)

Pompeo, Harry -- on clinic's spring and fall 1977 list. See: Bell Telephone Laboratories notebook with student rosters (Spring 1975-Fall 1977)

Poparad, Gayle -- on clinic's fall 1975 list. See: Bell Telephone Laboratories notebook with student rosters (Spring 1975-Fall 1977)

Popp, Kimberly (Kim) Marie -- ranked No. 39 overall in spring 1966 tests; grade 5 (1966-1967 school year); Student that completed an answer sheet for VRA Project #RD-143-S, Visible Speech for the Deaf; Test #1 on 6/18/1968; Test Film Strip #1 on 6/18/1968. See: Graphs of Students' Test Results (Spring 1966); Information on the Visible Speech Research Project (1966); Mean Scores for Tests #1-10-VRA Project #RD-1483-S (June 1968)

Potter, Dr. Ralph K -- Director of Transmission Research, Bell Telephone Laboratories; Approved 5 year research program at U. Mich; wrote Visible Patterns of Sound in Science magazine; received Y.R. Chao's report on using the sound spectrograh with Chinese recordings; originated visible speech and supervised its development; signed front of Visible Speech; Special Consultant to Visible Speech Research project (1947); discussed visible speech research program at the University of Michigan with Dr. Harlan Bloomer on 4/18/1946 and 3/13/1947; discussed visible speech research project with Clark Tibbitts on 4/17/1947; decided on Feb. 26-27, 1948 to send the sound spectrograph back to Bell Labs for servicing. See: Voice Print Identification Procedure and Information (1 of 3) (11/26/1943-6/10/1944); BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 1 (May '44); Science Magazine with Ralph Potter article (Visible Patterns of Sound) (11/9/1945); Research Report by Y.R. Chao on Chinese recordings (11/21/1944-2/17/1945); Correspondence regarding the Visible Speech Research Program - U.Mich. study (4/18/1946-8/8/1947); Advance Advertisement for Visible Speech (c. 1947); Proposed Outline: Visible Speech Research Program - U.Mich. (3/3/1947); Information on Visible Speech Education Evaluation Program - U.Mich. (5/28/1947); How Funding Continued the Project at Ypsilanti (3/25/1947-10/10/1947); Final Report of Visible Speech Educational Evaluation Research Program (3/25/1947-8/13/1948); Visible Speech Manual (3/9/1967-12/5/1974); Final Draft: Visible Speech for the Deaf (1968); Visible Speech Manual Original - to copy; Visible Speech Manual with Chapter Divisions (product of Contract No. RD-526)

Powles, Edward -- President and General Manager of General Film Laboratory, Inc.; also related administratively to the Dynamic Film Co.; provided quote to GAK for the production of 13/35mm black and white single frame filmstrips; contact person for the project. See: Financial Information on the Continuation of the Federal Grant for Project RD-1483-S-66-C2 (May 1966); Information on the Visible Speech Research Project (1966)

Proctor, Wanda Jean -- ranked No. 20 overall in spring 1966 tests; Female Test Subject; 10/17/1966; Grade 7, Test 6 - Part A. See: Graphs of Students' Test Results (Spring 1966); Test Results and Charts (October 1966)

Provenzano, Vincent -- on clinic's fall 1975, spring 1977 lists. See: Bell Telephone Laboratories notebook with student rosters (Spring 1975-Fall 1977)

Pry, Jamie -- ranked No. 9 among students who participated in less than 10 tests in spring 1966. See: Graphs of Students' Test Results (Spring 1966)

Purnell, Mrs. Catherine C. -- representative of the Dept. of Health, Education, and Welfare at the Working Groups of the National Advisory on the Education of the Deaf on 7/24/1969; member of Alexander Graham Bell Association for the Deaf, Inc. Editorial Politicies Committee (3/1/1970. See: Activities and Speaking Engagements with Professional Organizations (3/30/1969-10/12/1970)

Quigley, Dr. Stephen P. -- member of the Chairmen of the Working Groups of the National Advisory Committee on the Education of the Deaf with HGK on 7/24/1969; served as committee chairman. See: Activities and Speaking Engagements with Professional Organizations (3/30/1969-10/12/1970)

Raedler, Miss -- See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Rambeau, Jeremy -- on clinic's spring and fall 1975, spring 1976 lists. See: Bell Telephone Laboratories notebook with student rosters (Spring 1975-Fall 1977)

Raubicheck, Lettitia -- NYC, Bell Labs demonstration participant 01/24/46

Reed, L. Deno -- Executive Secretary - Sensory Study Section; Department of Health, Education, and Welfare: Social and Rehabilitation Service. See: Information Concerning the Termination of Grant Project No. RD-1483-S (1963-1968)

Reese -- See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Reissner -- taught HGK at Teachers College - Educational Foundations. See: Registration for Harriet C. Green at the Office of Field Relations and Placement, Teachers College, Columbia University (c. 1948)

Reuther, Roy -- Director of Citizenship Dept., U.A.W.; member of the Advisory Board for the Detroit Day School for the Deaf. See: Report to Detroit Board of Education on the Day School for the Deaf (2/26/1963)

Reynolds, William -- Bell Labs demonstration participant 03/18/1946

Richardson, Elliot Lee -- Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare; on 8/5/1970, invited HGK to serve on the NACED from 7/1/1970 to 6/31/1974. See: Activities and Speaking Engagements with Professional Organizations (3/30/1969-10/12/1970)

Richardson, Eugene -- Consultant for Higher Education and Certification for Michigan Dept. of Public Instruction; contacted HGK regarding the status of her elementary and secondary permanent certificates on 3/20/1951. See: Harriet Kopp's personal correspondence (11/4/1949-6/3/1970)

Riddell, Wendy -- on clinic's spring and fall 1977 list. See: Bell Telephone Laboratories notebook with student rosters (Spring 1975-Fall 1977)

Riesz, Dr. Robert R. (Bob) -- Bell Telephone Labs employee; installed spectrograph equipment at the Speech Clinic, Institute of Human Adjustment, U.Michigan on 9/24/1946 and repaired in on10/30/1946; signed front of Visible Speech; sent George Kopp bulletins to be attached to the cathode ray translator maintenance notes (2/20/1947) delivered a replacement transformer for the spectrograph during the U.Mich. Study (Oct. 31, 1947). See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45); Correspondence regarding the Visible Speech Research Program - U.Mich. study (4/18/1946-8/8/1947); Progress Report #1: Visible Speech Research Program - U.Mich. (1/31/1947); Final Report of Visible Speech Educational Evaluation Research Program (3/25/1947-8/13/1948)

Robbins, Dr. -- NATS

Robertson, Scott -- on clinic's fall 1976, spring 1977 lists. See: Bell Telephone Laboratories notebook with student rosters (Spring 1975-Fall 1977)

Robinson, Luther D. -- member of the committee on Adolescent Deaf of the Alexander Graham Bell Association for the Deaf in March 1970. See: Activities and Speaking Engagements with Professional Organizations (3/30/1969-10/12/1970)

Robinson, Cindy -- on clinic's spring and fall 1975, spring 1976, fall 1977 lists. See: Bell Telephone Laboratories notebook with student rosters (Spring 1975-Fall 1977)

Rogers, Carl -- professor of psychology and Executive Secretary of the Counseling Center, University of Chicago. See: Dialogue between Martin Buber and Carl Rogers (4/18/1957)

Rondut -- Bell Labs demonstration participant 12/06/1945

Rooney -- PS 47, Bell Labs demonstration participant 02/14/1946. See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Rosario, Bill -- on clinic's spring 1975 list. See: Bell Telephone Laboratories notebook with student rosters (Spring 1975-Fall 1977)

Rosenstein, Dr. Joseph -- representative of the Dept. of Health, Education, and Welfare at the Working Groups of the National Advisory on the Education of the Deaf on 7/24/1969; member of Alexander Graham Bell Association for the Deaf, Inc. Editorial Politicies Committee (3/1/1970). See: Detroit Day School for the Deaf (6/14/1961-2/23/1971); Activities and Speaking Engagements with Professional Organizations (3/30/1969-10/12/1970)

Rowell, Sartorious -- taught HGK at Teachers College - Guidance of Handicapped. See: Registration for Harriet C. Green at the Office of Field Relations and Placement, Teachers College, Columbia University (c. 1948)

Ruppel, Alfred E. -- signed front of Visible Speech. See: Voice Print Identification Procedure and Information (1 of 3) (11/26/1943-6/10/1944); BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 1 (May '44); BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Rutland, Darryl -- on clinic's spring and fall 1975 lists. See: Bell Telephone Laboratories notebook with student rosters (Spring 1975-Fall 1977)

Saenz, Raul -- grade 4, in Higgins's homeroom class; HGK noted slow on roster; on list of Prospective subjects grade 4-5. See: Test Subjects (1965); Information on the Visible Speech Research Project (1966)

Samuelson -- taught HGK at Teachers College - Teaching Lip Reading. See: Registration for Harriet C. Green at the Office of Field Relations and Placement, Teachers College, Columbia University (c. 1948)

Samuelson, Miss Estelle -- Bell Labs demonstration participant 02/21/1946. See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Sandlin, R. -- Author of An Analysis of the Intelligibility of Twenty-Six Selected Sentences Spoken by Four Deaf Individuals Before and After a Period of Instruction Using the Visible Speech Translator. M.A. Thesis, Wayne State University Speech and Hearing Clinic (1953). See: Final Draft: Visible Speech for the Deaf (1968)

Saunders, M.D., William H -- author of The Larynx pamphlet. See: William H. Saunders, M.D. - The Larynx (1964) [large sleeve]

Sawyer, Dean -- Dean, University of Michigan graduate school; 11/26/1946 demonstration . See: Progress Report #1: Visible Speech Research Program - U.Mich. (1/31/1947); How Funding Continued the Project at Ypsilanti (3/25/1947-10/10/1947)

Schiappacasse, Ed -- Subject #14 in 1965 tests; grade 8, Kane's homeroom class; noted as being a child with some introduction; ranked No. 28 overall in spring 1966 tests; on list of Prospective subjects. See: Test Subjects (1965); Graphs of Students' Test Results (Spring 1966); Information on the Visible Speech Research Project (1966)

Schlagter, Charles -- on clinic's spring and fall 1975, spring 1976, spring and fall 1977 lists . See: Bell Telephone Laboratories notebook with student rosters (Spring 1975-Fall 1977)

Schmitz -- 6th and 8th grade teacher, Detroit Day School; 9 students in spring 1966 6th grade class. See: Test Subjects (1965); Graphs of Students' Test Results (Spring 1966)

Schott, Dr. Lionel -- worked in Bell Labs; installed spectrograph equipment at the Speech Clinic, Institute of Human Adjustment, U.Michigan on 9/24/1946; wrote report on Chao's testing of the Chinese language with the spectrograph; signed front of Visible Speech. See: Memo on Visible Speech testing of Chinese langauage (4/17/1944); BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 1 (May '44); BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45); Progress Report #1: Visible Speech Research Program - U.Mich. (1/31/1947)

Schroeder, M.R. -- Director, Acoustics, Speech and Mechanics Research Laboratory at Bell Telephone Labs; offered a new transistorized translator for Kopp's research . See: Correspondence from M.R. Schroeder to Dr. George A. Kopp (3/25/1965)

Scott, Jean -- Subject #2 in 1965 tests; grade 8, Schmitz's homeroom class; HGK noted check for glasses on roster; noted as being involved in original project; ranked No. 31 overall in spring 1966 tests; on list of Prospective Subjects, marked original project. See: Test Subjects (1965); Graphs of Students' Test Results (Spring 1966); Information on the Visible Speech Research Project (1966)

Scott, Pam -- grade 9, in Martyka's class, on list of students now using the machine; on list of Prospective Subjects, marked some experience. See: Test Subjects (1965); Information on the Visible Speech Research Project (1966)

Scouten, Edward L. -- Prinicipal of the Florida School for the Deaf and Blind; sent an article entitled A.G. Bell, a friend of deaf people to Mrs. Ester M. Stoval on 12/9/1969. See: Activities and Speaking Engagements with Professional Organizations (3/30/1969-10/12/1970)

Searcella, Vera -- on clinic's spring 1975 list. See: Bell Telephone Laboratories notebook with student rosters (Spring 1975-Fall 1977)

Seater -- See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Seawell, Miss -- re: Visible Speech 01/10/1946. See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Secord -- Bell Labs demonstration participant 12/21/1945. See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Shaffer, Laurance F. -- Chairman of the dissertation committee for Harriet Kopp's doctoral dissertation, submitted to Columbia University in 1962. See: Harriet Kopp's Doctoral Dissertation (1962)

Sharkey, Dixie -- on list of Prospective Subjects. See: Information on the Visible Speech Research Project (1966)

Sheridan, Miss -- Teacher, Bell Labs demonstration participant 03/21/45

Sheridan -- Western Electric. See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Shi, Mrs. -- Directress of Workers Commune (Workers New Liang Quarters). See: Notes from Medical Study Trip to China (4/18/1980-4/28/1980)

Shirk, Richard -- Executed Photographs for Birmingham Plan of Testing Hearing and Vision pamphlet. See: The Birmingham Plan of Testing Hearing and Vision (1951)

Shohara, Dr. Hide -- Dept. of Languages; made some japanese spectograms; 12/13/1946 conference . See: Progress Report #1: Visible Speech Research Program - U.Mich. (1/31/1947)

Siegenthaler, Bruce -- Other Research Participant at University of Michigan during Kopp's study; completed Master's thesis on relationship between measured hearing loss and the intelligibility of selected words in May 1948; first student to research with sound spectrograph to submit his study for publication. See: Final Report of Visible Speech Educational Evaluation Research Program (3/25/1947-8/13/1948)

Silverman, S. Richard (Dick) -- Director, Central Institute for the Deaf, St. Louis, MO; sent HGK congratulatory letter on 11/3/1958 about new post; Chairman of the Working Groups of the National Advisory Committee on the Education of the Deaf on 7/24/1969; member of Editorial Committee of NACED that submitted recommendations on 10/16/1969; agreed to write a recommendation letter for HGK on 11/24/1969. See: Harriet Kopp's personal correspondence (11/4/1949-6/3/1970); Activities and Speaking Engagements with Professional Organizations (3/30/1969-10/12/1970)

Silverstein, Miss -- NAPTSD Publicity Agent, Bell Labs demonstration participant 03/08/1946

Simmons, Michael -- staff member at the Detroit Day School for the Deaf; taught experimental classes with the Translator. See: Early Draft of Final Report of Grant No. RD-526 (1963)

Simmons -- teacher of 4th and 5th grade students at the Detroit Day School already using the machine. See: Test Subjects (1965)

Simon, Mr. Frank -- photographer with the Dynamic Film Co., Detroit; making slides of spectrographic patterns (10/17/1966). See: Information on the Visible Speech Research Project (1966)

Simpson, Ruth -- charted with other female test subjects. See: Charts and Spectrograph Results (female test subjects)

Simson, Dr. Clyde B. -- Chief of Children's Services, Lafayette Clinic; member of the Advisory Board for the Detroit Day School for the Deaf. See: Report to Detroit Board of Education on the Day School for the Deaf (2/26/1963)

Sirois, Steve -- Grade 4, in Simmons's class, on list of students now using the machine; ranked No. 5 among students who participated in less than 10 tests in spring 1966; on list of Prospective subjects grade 4-5, marked some experience. See: Test Subjects (1965); Graphs of Students' Test Results (Spring 1966); Information on the Visible Speech Research Project (1966)

Slater -- See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Smartwood, Miss -- audited V.S. training course part time

Smith, Mrs. -- recorded sound spectrograph in Jackson, MI on 12/9/1947. See: Sound Spectrograph results (1945-48)

Smith, M. -- See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Smith, M. -- taught HGK at Teachers College - Research in Speech Education. See: Registration for Harriet C. Green at the Office of Field Relations and Placement, Teachers College, Columbia University (c. 1948)

Snodgrass -- Western Electric. See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Sonnenstrahl, Alfred -- test subject - class 3B, age 10. See: Lip Reading Study (10/5/1943); Students' Spectrograms (fall 1943)

Sperling -- charted with other female test subjects. See: Charts and Spectrograph Results (female test subjects)

Spishak, Joel -- Subject #29 in 1965 tests; grade 6, in Clement's homeroom class; ranked No. 1 in spring 1966 tests; grade 9 (1966-1967 school year); on list of Prospective Subjects grade 4-5, marked some experience. See: Test Subjects (1965); Pictographic Tests; Graphs of Students' Test Results (Spring 1966); Information on the Visible Speech Research Project (1966); Information on the Visible Speech Research Project (1966)

Spriestersbach, D -- Author of An Exploratory Study of the Motility of the Peripheral Oral Structures in Relation to Defective and Superior Consonant Articulation, Mentioned in Harriet Kopp's Doctoral Dissertation. See: Harriet Kopp's Doctoral Dissertation (1962)

Star, Miss -- See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Stark, Miss -- From Coronet, interview 01/28/1945. See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Steffen, Bonnie -- on list of Prospective Subjects. See: Information on the Visible Speech Research Project (1966)

Steffens -- 7th and 8th grade teacher, Detroit Day School; 7 students in spring 1966 8th grade class. See: Test Subjects (1965); Graphs of Students' Test Results (Spring 1966)

Steinberg, Dr. John C. -- U Mich Study, Supervisor in Transmission Research, Bell Telephone Laboratories; signed front of Visible Speech; presented with George Kopp at the 1945 American Speech Correction Conference in Columbus, Ohio on the development of visible speech; Special Consultant to the Visible Speech Research Project (1947); attended meetings of the Visible Speech Research Committee on 5/1/1947, 6/28/1947; planned to sit in at conference at the Institute of Human Adjustment, U.Mich., on 4/28/1947; decided on Feb 26-27, 1948 to send the sound spectrograph back to Bell Labs for servicing. See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 1 (May '44); BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45) Correspondence regarding the Visible Speech Research Program - U.Mich. study (4/18/1946-8/8/1947); Progress Report Presented at American Speech Correction Conference, Chicago - U.Mich. (12/31/1946); Minutes and Memos from the Visible Speech Research Committee - U.Mich. (1/3/1947-11/7/1947); Information on Visible Speech Education Evaluation Program - U.Mich. (5/28/1947); How Funding Continued the Project at Ypsilanti (3/25/1947-10/10/1947); Final Report of Visible Speech Educational Evalution Research Program (8/13/1948)

Steinberg, Naomi -- test subject - class 6; age 13. See: Lip Reading Study (10/5/1943); Students' Spectrograms (fall 1943)

Steris, David -- made recording, station WPAG of all the children in the visible speech research program. See: Supplement to Progress Report #1: Visible Speech Research Program - U.Mich. (4/21/1947)

Stewart, Mr. -- See: Information on Research Projects and Proposals (1959-1960)

Stewart, Glen -- Subject #4 in 1965 tests; grade 8, Schmitz's homeroom class; ranked No. 52 overall in spring 1966 tests; on list of Prospective Subjects. See: Test Subjects (1965); Graphs of Students' Test Results (Spring 1966); Information on the Visible Speech Research Project (1966)

Stockbold, Mrs. -- See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Stocker, Dr. Harold -- employed part-time on Project RD-1483-S to carry out satistical evaluations as data was compiled; Appointed in September 1966 to work part time for the Visible Speech project. See: Research Information About Project No. RD-1483-S (1964-1966); Final Draft: Visible Speech for the Deaf (1968); Manual for Visible Speech for the Deaf (1968); Rough Draft (handwritten) - Visible Speech for the Deaf (1968)

Stoval(l), Esther M. -- worked for the Volta Bureau, Washington, DC; received letter from Ed Scouten on 12/9/1969; member of Alexander Graham Bell Association for the Deaf, Inc. Editorial Politicies Committee (3/1/1970). See: Detroit Day School for the Deaf (6/14/1961-2/23/1971)

Strang -- taught HGK at Teachers College - Guidance and Personnel. See: Registration for Harriet C. Green at the Office of Field Relations and Placement, Teachers College, Columbia University (c. 1948)

Subrezi -- mechanic?. See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 1 (May '44)

Sumwolt, Dina -- on clinic's fall 1977 list. See: Bell Telephone Laboratories notebook with student rosters (Spring 1975-Fall 1977)

Sunday, Richard -- Director, Detroit's Multi-Faceted Special Education Project in Detroit Public Schools; sent HGK a congratulatory letter 6/9/1970. See: Retirement Papers from the Detroit Day School for the Deaf (1970)

Tactile -- See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Tapley, Terry -- Subject #30 in 1965 tests; grade 6, in Clement's homeroom class; on list of Prospective Subjects grade 4-5. See: Test Subjects (1965); Information on the Visible Speech Research Project (1966)

Taylor -- Bell Labs demonstration participant 11/29/1945. See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Temple -- Bell Labs demonstration participant 12/21/1945. See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Tenny, Dr. John -- Bell Labs demonstration participant 10/24/1946; associated with the George A. Kopp Memorial Fund. See: Progress Report #1: Visible Speech Research Program - U.Mich. (1/31/1947); How Funding Continued the Project at Ypsilanti (3/25/1947-10/10/1947); Harriet Kopp's personal correspondence (11/4/1949-6/3/1970)

Tepoorton, Randy -- Other Research Participant at University of Michigan during Kopp's study; Master's thesis on degrees of nasality - in progress in Aug 1948. See: Final Report of Visible Speech Educational Evaluation Research Program (3/25/1947-8/13/1948)

Thayer -- See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Therman, Miss -- University publications department; 12/19/1946 conference. See: Progress Report #1: Visible Speech Research Program - U.Mich. (1/31/1947)

Thomas, Dr. Olin E. -- Vice President and Treasurer, Wayne State University; filled out Application for Research or Demonstration Grant with the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare on 8/19/1959; received letter from James F. Garrett on 10/20/1959 about the receipt of a grant for research with the cathode ray tube translator; copied on announcement of grant continuation for Visible Speech for the Deaf (5/31/1966); part of an application for the continuation of the grant for Project No. RD-1483-S (9/25/1963, 2/10/1966) . See: Information on Research Projects and Proposals (1959-1960); Research Information About Project No. RD-14-83-S (1964-1966); Financial Information on the Continuation of the Federal Grant for Project RD-1483-S-66-C2 (May 1966)

Thompson -- See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Thompson, Carl L. -- co-authored Comments on Physiology of Hoarseness in Archives of Otolaryngology (Vol. 81, Jan. 1965). See: Moore and Thompson - Comments on Physiology of Hoarseness (Jan. 1965) [large sleeve]

Thompson, Richard E. -- member of the committee on Adolescent Deaf of the Alexander Graham Bell Association for the Deaf in March 1970. See: Activities and Speaking Engagements with Professional Organizations (3/30/1969-10/12/1970)

Thompson, Robert H. -- Business Manager - Wayne State University Press. See: Visible Speech Manual (3/9/1967-12/5/1974)

Thorndike -- taught HGK at Teachers College - Descriptive Statistics. See: Registration for Harriet C. Green at the Office of Field Relations and Placement, Teachers College, Columbia University (c. 1948)

Thorpe, Leonard -- Subject #25 in 1965 tests; grade 5, in Gardiner's homeroom class; ranked No. 50 overall in spring 1966 tests; on list of Prospective subjects grade 4-5; Student that completed an answer sheet for VRA Project #RD-143-S, Visible Speech for the Deaf; Test #1 on 6/18/1968; Test Film Strip #1 on 6/18/1968. See: Test Subjects (1965); Graphs of Students' Test Results (Spring 1966); Information on the Visible Speech Research Project (1966); Mean Scores for Tests #1-10-VRA Project #RD-1483-S (June 1968)

Thoubboron -- See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Tibbitts, Mr. Clark -- Director of University of Michigan Institute of Human Adjustment; worked in conjunction with Dr. Francis Lord of the Rackham School of Special Education on the visible speech research project; sent Dr. Lord letter 11/27/1946; called meeting of the visible speech committee on 1/8/1947; attended meetings of the Visible Speech research committee on 1/8/1947, 2/12/1947, 2/21/1947, 3/3/1947, 5/1/1947, 5/29/1947, 6/28/1947, 11/7/1947; discussed visible speech research project with Ralph K. Potter on 4/17/1947; sent George Kopp comments on a proposed visible speech article on 5/31/1947 . See: Correspondence regarding the Visible Speech Research Program - U.Mich. study (4/18/1946-8/8/1947); Minutes and Memos from the Visible Speech Research Committee - U.Mich. (1/3/1947-11/7/1947); Progress Report #1: Visible Speech Research Program - U.Mich. (1/31/1947); Proposed Outline: Visible Speech Research Program - U.Mich. (3/3/1947); Information on Visible Speech Education Evaluation Program - U.Mich. (5/28/1947); How Funding Continued the Project at Ypsilanti (3/25/1947-10/10/1947)

Tiffany, Bernard -- severly hypacaustic, experiment subject in U Mich study. See: Final Report of Visible Speech Educational Evaluation Research Program (3/25/1947-8/13/1948)

Tiffin, Jos. -- taught HGK at Brooklyn College - Experimental Phonetics. See: Registration for Harriet C. Green at the Office of Field Relations and Placement, Teachers College, Columbia University (c. 1948)

Toliver, Linda -- Grade 4, in Simmons's class, on list of students now using the machine; on list of Prospective subjects grade 4-5, marked some experience. See: Test Subjects (1965); Information on the Visible Speech Research Project (1966)

Toppin, Terrence (Terry) -- Subject #3 in 1965 tests; grade 8, Kane's homeroom class; noted as being involved in original project; ranked No.3 overall in spring 1966 tests; on list of Prospective Subjects, marked original project. See: Test Subjects (1965); Graphs of Students' Test Results (Spring 1966); Information on the Visible Speech Research Project (1966)

Trabman, Bernice -- staff member at the Detroit Day School for the Deaf; taught experimental classes with the Translator from 1964-1965. See: Early Draft of Final Report of Grant No. RD-526 (1963); Final Draft: Visible Speech for the Deaf (1968); Manual for Visible Speech for the Deaf (1968); Rough Draft (handwritten) - Visible Speech for the Deaf (1968)

Trayner, Larry -- ranked No. 6 among students who participated in less than 10 tests in spring 1966; Male Test Subject; 10/14/1966; Grade 4, Test 6 - Part 6; Student that completed an answer sheet for VRA Project# RD-1483-S, Visible Speech for the Deaf; Test# 1 on 6/18/1968; Male Test Subject; 12/13/1966; Grade 4, Test S-D; Student that completed an answer sheet for VRA Project# RD-1483-S, Visible Speech for the Deaf; Test Film Strip #1on 6/18/1968. See: Graphs of Students' Test Results (Spring 1966); Test Results and Charts (October 1966); Mean Scores for Tests #1-10-VRA Provect #RD-1483-S (June 1968)

Truex -- See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Tuarter? -- See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 1 (May '44)

Turner, Jimmy -- on clinic's spring and fall 1977 list. See: Bell Telephone Laboratories notebook with student rosters (Spring 1975-Fall 1977)

Tweet, Cathy (Kathy) -- on clinic's spring and fall 1975, spring and fall 1976, spring and fall 1977 lists. See: Bell Telephone Laboratories notebook with student rosters (Spring 1975-Fall 1977)

Twiner, James -- on clinic's fall 1976 list. See: Bell Telephone Laboratories notebook with student rosters (Spring 1975-Fall 1977)

Upham, Jennifer -- on clinic's fall 1977 list. See: Bell Telephone Laboratories notebook with student rosters (Spring 1975-Fall 1977)

Usdane, William M. -- Chief, Division of Research and Demonstrations: Department of Health, Education, and Welfare - Social and Rehabilitation Service. See: Information Concerning the Termination of Grant Project No. RD-1483-S (1963-1968)

Vadersen, Charles W. -- learn to use recorder 04/11/1946; signed front of Visible Speech. See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Van Adestine, Elizabeth -- first principal of Detroit Day School for the Deaf in 1898. See: Description of Detroit School for the Deaf (2/26/1963)

Van Adestine, Dr. Gertrude -- principal of Detroit Day School for the Deaf in 1924

Van Brie -- See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Van Buskirk, Mr. Clifford M. -- Grant and Contract Officer, Wayne State University; contacted about the grant continutation for Visible Speech for the Deaf on 5/31/1966; signed Application for Continuation of Grant for Project No. RD-1483-S (9/25/1963, 2/10/1966); worked on the George A. Kopp Memorial Fund in Dept. of Grants and Contracts, Wayne State University; received letter from HGK concerning the advisory board on 11/3/1969 and one from George Bohman on 11/17/1969 . See: Harriet Kopp's personal correspondence (11/4/1949-6/3/1970); Research Information About Project No. RD-1483-S (1964-1966); Financial Information on the Continuation of the Federal Grant for Project RD-1483-S-66-C2 (May 1966)

Van Horn -- See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 1 (May '44); BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Van Riper, C. -- worked in the Western Michigan University Dept. of Speech Pathology and Audiology; contacted GAK about his research in stuttering on 9/11/1968; sent condolences on the death of George to HGK on 9/26/1968. See: Correspondence to George and Harriet Kopp from C.Van Riper (9/11/1968-9/26/1968)

Velazquez, Carlos -- Subject #12 in 1965 tests; grade 6, in Clement's homeroom class; ranked No. 27 overall in spring 1966 tests; grade 8 (1966-1967 school year); on list of Prospective Subjects grade 4-5; Male Test Subject; 10/12/1966; Grade 8B, Test 2. See: Test Subjects (1965); Graphs of Students' Test Results (Spring 1966); Information on the Visible Speech Research Project (1966); Information on the Visible Speech Research Project (1966); Test Results and Charts (October 1966)

Vollmer, Alice -- charted with other female test subjects. See: Charts and Spectrograph Results (female test subjects)

Waddle (Waddell) -- Photog. 01/14/46. See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 1 (May '44)

Waisenen, Eva -- severly hypacaustic, experiment subject in U Mich study. See: Final Report of Visible Speech Educational Evaluation Research Program (3/25/1947-8/13/1948)

Walker, Alice -- taught HGK at Teachers College - Statistics of Inference. See: Registration for Harriet C. Green at the Office of Field Relations and Placement, Teachers College, Columbia University (c. 1948)

Walker, Elizabeth Prescott -- Junior League of Detroit; member of the Advisory Board for the Detroit Day School for the Deaf. See: Report to Detroit Board of Education on the Day School for the Deaf (2/26/1963)

Walker, Ginger -- on clinic's fall 1977 list. See: Bell Telephone Laboratories notebook with student rosters (Spring 1975-Fall 1977)

Wallace. Jr., R.L. -- Worker at Bell labs starting 03/20/1945; signed front of Visible Speech . See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Ward, Iva -- London, England; came for instruction and demonstration on U Mich study, 2/6/1948. See: Final Report of Visible Speech Educational Evaluation Research Program (3/25/1947-8/13/1948)

Washington -- See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 1 (May '44)

Watkins, Stanley -- signed front of Visible Speech. See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 1 (May '44); BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Weare, Christopher (Chris) -- on clinic's spring 1975 last; marked as dropped on fall 1975 list. See: Bell Telephone Laboratories notebook with student rosters (Spring 1975-Fall 1977)

Weaver -- See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 1 (May '44); BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Webber, Ernie -- charted with female test subjects. See: Charts and Spectrograph Results (female test subjects)

Wedal, Norm -- in Wayne State University's accounting department; send memo to GAK regarding balance of Account 303-2911 (VRA grant) on 6/10/1966. See: Financial Information on the Continuation of the Federal Grant for Project RD-1483-S-66-C2 (May 1966)

Weekes -- See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Weill, Hannah W. -- Secretary for Harriet Green Kopp, Chairman, Department of Speech Pathology, Audiology & Education of the Deaf. See: Visible Speech Manual (3/9/1967-12/5/1974)

Weinberg, Dr. Sal -- Philadelphia. See: Notes from Medical Study Trip to China (4/18/1980-4/28/1980)

Weinberger, Caspar W. -- invited HGK to serve on the National Advisory Committee on the Handicapped of the Office of Education for a term lasting Oct 1973-June 1974. See: Correspondence from Caspar W. Weinberger to Harriet Kopp (10/11/1973)

Weiner, Milton -- Director, ACSW, Dept. of School Social Work; sent congratulatory letter to HGK on 5/26/1970. See: Retirement Papers from the Detroit Day School for the Deaf (1970)

Wertzel, Mike -- on clinic's spring 1977 list. See: Bell Telephone Laboratories notebook with student rosters (Spring 1975-Fall 1977)

Westerman, Mr. S. -- District Supervisor, Office of Vocational Rehabilitation; member of the Advisory Board for the Detroit Day School for the Deaf. See: Report to Detroit Board of Education on the Day School for the Deaf (2/26/1963)

Westerwick, Robyn -- on clinic's fall 1977 list. See: Bell Telephone Laboratories notebook with student rosters (Spring 1975-Fall 1977)

White, Marian L. -- Author of Mental Age Norms for Vocabulary Scores in the 1937 Stanford-Binet - The Psychological Record Vol. 5, No. 5. Pamphlet included in Harriet Kopp's Masters Thesis. See: Harriet Kopp's Masters Thesis (April 1940)

Whitton, Harold -- Headmaster, Royal Schools for the Deaf (Manchester); sent a note HGK on 3/30/1969 thanking her for her hospitality in showing him her school and sharing her home. See: Activities and Speaking Engagements with Professional Organizations (3/30/1969-10/12/1970)

Wildgen, Tommy -- severly hypacaustic, experiment subject in U Mich study. See: Final Report of Visible Speech Educational Evaluation Research Program (3/25/1947-8/13/1948)

Williams, Miss E. -- See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Williams, T.W. -- Asst. Pres of NY Telephone Bell Labs, demonstration participant 1/24/1946

Williams, Maureen -- ranked No. 14 among students who participated in less than 10 tests in spring 1966. See: Graphs of Students' Test Results (Spring 1966)

Williams, Pat -- Subject #24 in 1965 tests; grade 5, in Gardiner's homeroom class; on list of Prospective Subjects grade 4-5. See: Test Subjects (1965); Information on the Visible Speech Research Project (1966)

Williams, Maureen -- Student that completed an answer sheet for VRA Project #RD-143-S, Visible Speech for the Deaf; Test #1 on 6/18/1968; Test Film Strip #1 on 6/18/1968 . See: Mean Scores for Tests #1-10-VRA Project #RD-1483-S (June 1968)

Williams -- rep of Michigan Bell Telephone publications dept.; 10/10/1946 conference . See: Progress Report #1: Visible Speech Research Program - U.Mich. (1/31/1947)

Wilson -- See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Win -- Columbia Institute Deaf - Washington, DC. See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Wishart, Dr. -- See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Witts -- See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Wojnarowski, Janice -- Subject #15 in 1965 tests; grade 8, Kane's homeroom class; noted as being a child with some introduction; ranked No. 10 overall in spring 1966 tests; on list of Prospective Subjects. See: Test Subjects (1965); Graphs of Students' Test Results (Spring 1966); Information on the Visible Speech Research Project (1966)

Wojnarowski, Joanne -- Subject #17 in 1965 tests; grade 8, Schmitz's homeroom class; ranked No. 49 overall in spring 1966 tests; on list of Prospetive Subjects. See: Test Subjects (1965); Graphs of Students' Test Results (Spring 1966); Information on the Visible Speech Research Project (1966)

Wolfe, Charles J. -- Executive Deputy Superintendent, Detroit Public Schools; sent HGK a congratulatory letter on 5/26/1970. See: Retirement Papers from the Detroit Day School for the Deaf (1970)

Wolfram, Dr. B.R. -- president of Educational Media, Inc. See: Detroit Day School for the Deaf (6/14/1961-2/23/1971)

Woodburne, Dr. Lloyd S -- Associate Dean, College of Literature, Science, and the Arts, University of Michigan; asked by G.E. Densmore on 5/29/1947 to defray costs to reimburse George Kopp's expenses accrued by presenting to a convention of the Association of American Instructors of the Deaf. See: Correspondence regarding the Visible Speech Research Program - U.Mich. study (4/18/1946-8/8/1947)

Wooden, Dr. -- 10/24/1946 demonstration. See: Progress Report #1: Visible Speech Research Program - U.Mich. (1/31/1947); How Funding Continued the Project at Ypsilanti (3/25/1947-10/10/1947)

Woods, Morris Wistar -- See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Wunsch, Ernest -- University of Detroit Law School Faculty; member of the Advisory Board for the Detroit Day School for the Deaf. See: Report to Detroit Board of Education on the Day School for the Deaf (2/26/1963)

Xu(a), Dr. Ma (Shuh) -- President, Peking/Beijing Medical College. See: Notes from Medical Study Trip to China (4/18/1980-4/28/1980)

Yates -- See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Yost, Janet -- age 16 (1947); severly hypacaustic, experiment subject in U Mich study; performance in Visible Speech Experiment #5 evaluated 1948. See: Final Report of Visible Speech Educational Evaluation Research Program (3/25/1947-8/13/1948)

Zeilauf, Donald (Don) -- test subject - class 3B, age 10. See: Lip Reading Study (10/5/1943); Students' Spectrograms (fall 1943)

Zhoc, Dr. Gian -- Deputy Director of Foreign Relations, Assoc. Professor of Surgery, Beiging Medical College. See: Notes from Medical Study Trip to China (4/18/1980-4/28/1980)

Zimmerman, Jane Dorsay -- Noted in the acknowledgements page of Harriet Kopp's doctoral dissertation for her interest and help in the project. See: Harriet Kopp's Doctoral Dissertation (1962)

Zisler, Janice -- ranked No. 33 overall in spring 1966 tests; grade 5 (1966-1967 school year). See: Graphs of Students' Test Results (Spring 1966); Information on the Visible Speech Research Project (1966)

Zulczyk, Martin -- ranked No. 46 overall in spring 1966 tests; grade 5 (1966-1967 school year). See: Graphs of Students' Test Results (Spring 1966); Information on the Visible Speech Research Project (1966)

Kopp Organizations

American Association of University Women -- Important Demonstration in U Mich Study, 11/18/1947. See: Bell Laboratories Notebook 1 (Box 2, Folder 8), Visible Speech Research Program (Box 3, Folder 11)

American Speech Correction Conference, Chicago -- 12/31/46 progress report. See: Voice Print Identification Procedure and Information (1 of 3) (Box 1, Folder 13)

ASH of H Convention -- See: Bell Laboratories Notebook 1 (Box 2, Folder 8)

Bruce School for the Deaf -- See: Bell Laboratories Notebook 2 (Box 2, Folder 11)

Hallowel Central Institute -- See: Bell Laboratories Notebook 2 (Box 2, Folder 11)

Horace H. Rackham School of Special Education -- University of Michigan Study Site. See: Proposed Visible Speech Program for the Rackham School (Box 3, Folder 18)

Lansing teachers -- 10/30/46 demonstration. See: Voice Print Identification Procedure and Information (1 of 3) (Box 1, Folder 13)

University of Michigan Hospital Group -- Important Demonstration in University of Michigan Study (10/15/1947). See: How Funding Continued the Project at Ypsilanti (Box 3, Folder 1)

Michigan State School of the Deaf -- demonstration. See: Voice Print Identification Procedure and Information (1 of 3) (Box 1, Folder 13)

National Association for the Deaf -- Austin, TX. See: Bell Laboratories Notebook 2 (Box 2, Folder 11)

Pi Lamda Theta -- 12/11/46 illustrated talk. See: Voice Print Identification Procedure and Information (1 of 3) (Box 1, Folder 13)

Royal Canadian Commission of Education -- 1/22/47 demonstration. See: Voice Print Identification Procedure and Information (1 of 3) (Box 1, Folder 13), How Funding Continued the Program at Ypsilanti (Box 3, Folder 1)

St. Joseph's School of Nursing -- 10/24/46 demonstration. See: Voice Print Identification Procedure and Information (1 of 3) (Box 1, Folder 13), How Funding Continued the Program at Ypsilanti (Box 3, Folder 1)

St. Oln -- See: Bell Laboratories Notebook 1 (Box 2, Folder 8)

University of Michigan School of Nursing -- 11/20/46 demonstration. See: Voice Print Identification Procedure and Information (1 of 3) (Box 1, Folder 13)

University of Michigan Speech Staff -- 12/6/46 demonstration. See: Voice Print Identification Procedure and Information (1 of 3) (Box 1, Folder 13)

Empire State Association of the Deaf -- See: Bell Laboratories Notebook 2 (Box 2, Folder 11)

Union League of the Deaf -- 711 Eighth Avenue. See: Bell Laboratories Notebook 2 (Box 2, Folder 11)

Wayne County Health Guild -- 11/7/46 demonstration. See: Voice Print Identification Procedure and Information (1 of 3) (Box 1, Folder 13), How Funding Continued the Program at Ypsilanti (Box 3, Folder 1)

Women's Research Club -- University of Michigan; 1/6/47 illustrated talk. See: Voice Print Identification Procedure and Information (1 of 3) (Box 1, Folder 13), How Funding Continued the Program at Ypsilanti (Box 3, Folder 1)

Ypsilanti -- See: Voice Print Identification Procedure and Information (1 of 3) (Box 1, Folder 13), How Funding Continued the Program at Ypsilanti (Box 3, Folder 1)

D. Van Nostrand Co. -- New York - Publisher of Visible Speech. See: Bell Laboratories Notebook 2 (Box 2, Folder 11)

Rackham School of Special Education at Michigan Normal -- housed spectrograph at the University Institute of Human Relations' speech clinic. See: Proposed Visible Speech Program for the Rackham School (Box 3, Folder 18)

Office of Vocational Rehabilitation, Dept. of Health, Education, and Welfare -- grant that supported RD-526 research. See: Progress Report for Grant #RD-526 (Box 3, Folder 30)
Provenance:
The collection was donated by Kathy Green and Philip Green in 2008.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Citation:
Harriet Green Kopp Papers, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1130
See more items in:
Harriet Green Kopp Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1130
Online Media:

William R. Hutton Papers

Creator:
Hutton, William R., 1826-1901  Search this
Extent:
30 Cubic feet (33 boxes, 21 oversize folders)
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Photographs
Letterpress copybooks
Blueprints
Diaries
Drawings
Cashbooks
Business records
Business letters
Notebooks
Topographic maps
Tax records
Technical drawings
Stock certificates
Technical literature
Photoengravings
Notes
Maps
Microfilms
Linen tracings
Letter books
Letters
Land titles
Legal documents
Sketches
Salted paper prints
Reports
Receipts
Plans (drawings)
Photostats
Photographic prints
Architectural drawings
Administrative records
Albumen prints
Albums
Annual reports
Booklets
Account books
Books
Family papers
Financial records
Cyanotypes
Correspondence
Deeds
Printed material
Contracts
Harlem River Bridge
Photograph albums
Specifications
Christmas cards
Menus
Place:
France
Maryland
Chesapeake and Ohio Canal
Panama Canal (Panama)
New Jersey
New York (N.Y.)
Hudson River
Baltimore (Md.)
Georgetown (Washington, D.C.)
New York
Washington Bridge
New Croton Aqueduct
Kanawha River Canal
Washington Aqueduct
Potomac River -- 19th century
Washington Memorial Bridge
Hudson River Tunnel
Date:
1830-1965
Summary:
The papers document the life and work of William R. Hutton, a civil engineer during the late 1800s to the early 1900s. Materials include diaries, notebooks, correspondence, letterpress copy book, printed materials, publications, specifications, photographs, drawings, and maps that document the construction of several architectural and engineering projects during this period. Most notable are the records containing information related to the construction of the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, Hudson River Tunnel, the Washington Aqueduct, the Kanawha River Canal, and the Washington/Harlem River Bridge. There are also several records about railroads in the state of Maryland, the District of Columbia and elsewhere, including the Western Maryland Railroad, Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, Colorado Midlands Railway, Baltimore and Drum Point Railroad, the Northern Adirondack Railroad, and the Pittsfield and Williamstown Railroad. The records can be used to track the progression of these projects, and engineering innovation during the late 1800s to the early 1900s.
Scope and Contents:
These papers document William R. Hutton's professional career as a civil engineer and his personal affairs. Although the personal materials in the collection provide insight into a man and a family that have been largely forgotten by biographers, it is the professional materials that are perhaps the most interesting to researchers. They provide a compelling narrative of the push to the West that occurred in 19th century America and the internal improvements movement typified by the American System plan proposed by Henry Clay. Perhaps best remembered for the high tariffs that accompanied it, the American System plan was also concerned with the advancement of internal improvements, such as canals, that would unite the East and West in communication, travel, and trade. The Chesapeake and Ohio Canal can be seen as one of the products of this movement (1) and was in fact initially heralded as the first great work of national improvement (2).

The papers in this collection that are related to the construction and maintenance of the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal are an invaluable documentation of efforts during this turbulent time to unite the eastern and western United States. They provide details of the canal from its initial construction to its decline with the incline at Georgetown project. The canal also serves as an example, or perhaps a warning against, federal involvement in state improvement efforts as it was the first project to be directly funded and staffed by the federal government (3). The groundbreaking ceremony was attended by then President John Quincy Adams whose toast, "to the canal: perseverance," (4) became an ironic omen, as construction of the canal took over twenty-two years to be completed. The Chesapeake and Ohio Canal materials can be used as a case study for the problems encountered during canal building (5). These problems are best typified in the collection by the papers relating to the Georgetown incline. This project was headed by Hutton and was plagued with construction problems, boating accidents, and obsolescence from the moment of its completion. Despite these issues, the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal remains a structure of historical significance in America. As the third and last effort to construct an all-water route to the West (6), the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal is an important artifact of 19th century attitudes and efforts towards commerce, trade, travel, and communication between the eastern and western United States. Other significant canals and water structures represented in the collection are the Kanawha Canal, the Washington Aqueduct, and a large collection of materials relating to the Kingston Water Supply (New York).

One of the most significant internal improvements made during this time was the railroad. The legal conflicts that arose between the canal companies and railroads is also represented in the materials relating to the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal. These materials specifically deal with the legal conflict's between the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal and the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad. The development and construction of the railroads is also represented in the materials documenting the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, the Baltimore and Drum Point Railroad, the Northern Adirondack Railroad, the Western Maryland Railroad, the Mexican National Railroad, the Colorado Midlands Railroad, and the Columbia Railroad.

The collection also demonstrates the spirit of innovation and invention that was prevalent in the engineering field in the nineteenth century. Joseph Gies writes, "...one of the distinctive characteristics of the great nineteenth century engineering adventurers was their readiness to gamble on the translation of theory into practice" (7). In this quote, he is speaking of the civil engineer Dewitt Clinton Haskins and a project that truly encapsulates engineering invention in the nineteenth century, the Hudson River Tunnel. Responding to the increase in the population of the City of New York in the late nineteenth century from sixty thousand to three and a half million, the Hudson River Tunnel was originally devised as a way to alleviate traffic and to transport train passengers directly across the Hudson River (8). Beginning with records dating from 1881 to 1901, the Hutton papers can be used to document not only the advances in engineering during this time but also the costs of progress. Haskins' initial efforts to build the tunnel using submerged air pressurized caissons were marked by failure and in some cases fatalities. Workers on the tunnel often suffered from what came to be known as "caisson disease" or "the bends," caused by the immense forces of compression and decompression experienced while working in the tunnels (9). This problem was so prevalent that as construction progressed the rate of worker deaths caused by "the bends" rose to twenty-five percent (10). Materials in the collection document worker complaints and deaths resulting from this disease as well as providing a technical record of the construction of the tunnel. The highlight of the materials relating to the Hudson River Tunnel is an album that contains photographs of workers in the tunnel and a detailed daily report of the construction progress on the tunnel that was maintained by Hutton's assistant, Walton Aims. The first hand account in these reports provides insight not only into the construction of the tunnel, but also the problems encountered.

Another project featured in the Hutton collection that was devised in response to the population explosion in the City of New York in the nineteenth century is the Harlem River Bridge, or as it is now known, the Washington Bridge. Known as one of the longest steel arch bridges of its time, the Harlem River Bridge also represents that spirit of invention and innovation that was prevalent in the civil engineering field during the nineteenth century. The collection provides an invaluable resource for those wishing to track the construction of the bridge from early concept drawings and proposals to finalized plans. Also present are photographs of the construction and workers. Societal response to the bridge in the form of newspaper and magazine clippings help to create the narrative of the Washington Bridge, and these are supplemented by correspondence from the builders, suppliers, and planners.

This collection also includes diaries, 1866-1901; letterpress copybooks, 1858-1901; correspondence on the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, Hudson River Tunnel, Washington Bridge over the Harlem River, and Maryland and Colorado railroads, 1861-1901, and on Hutton's financial and real estate affairs, 1835-1921; construction photographs of the Harlem River, Cairo, Poughkeepsie, Niagara bridges and the Hudson River Tunnel, Washington Aqueduct, and Capitol Dome (in the form of albumen, cyanotype, salted paper print); data and drawings; rolled land profile drawings; canal notes, 1828-1892; Hudson River Tunnel construction reports, 1889-1891; publications, drawings, and maps of railroad routes; pamphlets and reprints on hydraulic works and water supply; road, railway, bridge, and hydraulic construction specifications, 1870-1900; drawings (linen, oil cloth, and heavy drawing paper), and blueprints; account books, 1891-1899; and plans, drawings, field notebooks, and publications on American and European construction projects, especially in Maryland, New York, and France; personal correspondence detailing his role as executor for the estates of Benjamin H. Hutton, Joseph Hutton, Annie Theller, and the Countess H. De Moltke-Hvitfeldt and his relationships with his children, siblings, cousins, and colleagues, 1850-1942.

Materials are handwritten, typed, and printed.

Special note should be made that any materials dated after the year 1901 were added to the collection by another creator who is unidentified. It can be speculated that professional materials added after this date were contributed by his brother and colleague Nathanial Hutton or his son Frank Hutton. Personal materials contributed after this date may have been added by his wife, daughters, or other members of his extended family.

Series 1, Letterpress Copybooks, 1858-1901, consists of twenty seven letterpress copybooks containing correspondence between Hutton and other engineers, architects, and building suppliers. The letterpress copybooks in this series have been arranged chronologically. The books involve a process by which ink is transferred through direct contact with the original using moisture and pressure in a copy press. The majority of the correspondence is business- related. Some letterpress copybooks are devoted to specific projects such as the Washington/Harlem River Bridge, Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, Baltimore and Drum Point Railroad, Annapolis and Elk Ridge Railroad, and the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad. The letterpress copybooks provide a record of correspondence written by Hutton, which makes it distinctive from the other correspondence in the collection. Most of the other correspondence has Hutton as recipient.

The letterpress copybooks also document Hutton's various residences throughout his life and provide a glimpse into the civil engineering profession at the time by demonstrating how engineers shared ideas and comments about projects. This can be supplemented with the printed materials in the collection as many of the authors also appear in the correspondence. Other topics covered in the letterpress copybooks include business reports (specifically the report of the president and directors of the Baltimore and Drum Point Railroad), records of people and companies involved in projects, pasted in engineering sketches, engineering specifications and notes, travel expenses and estimates, construction histories and progress, legal issues with family estates, tax information, Colorado Railroad, payment certificate schedules, St. Paul Railroad, personal correspondence, title guarantees, Hudson River Tunnel, financial matters, real estate matters, insurance information, sketches and drawings, supply lists, cost estimates, the Memorial Bridge, Coffin Valve Company, engineering expenses, engineering calculations, payroll notes for Kingston Water Supply, proposals, account information, Hutton Park, reservoirs, contract drafts, French Society of Civil Engineers, inspection results (specifically Piedmont Bridge), land descriptions, damage reports, Morse Bridge, Illinois Central Railroad, North Sea Canal, moveable dams, iron works, site histories, Potomac Lock and Dock Company, Kanawha River canal (lock quantities, specifications, payroll information), Pennsylvania Canal, and bills for services.

Series 2, Professional Correspondence, 1861-1901, consists of correspondence that relates to Hutton's architectural and engineering projects. This series is further subdivided into two subseries: Project Correspondence and General Correspondence. Subseries 1, Project Correspondence, 1876-1899, correspondence is divided by project and arranged alphabetically. Subseries 2, General Correspondence, 1861-1901, is arranged chronologically. Both series contain handwritten and typed letters. Some letters are on letterpress copybook pages and are most likely copies. Some materials are in French and Spanish. Special note should be made that this series does not contain all of the professional correspondence in the collection. Some correspondence has been separated according to project and placed in Series 8, Professional Projects, 1830-1965, in order to make it easier for researchers to access materials related to those subjects.

Subseries 1, professional correspondence topics include comparisons between construction projects (specifically comparisons of the Kanawha River Canal to other canals), supply lists, location recommendations, sketches, construction plans and modifications, bills for supplies and works, leaks in the gates, cost estimates, Brooklyn Water Supply, use of lake storage (Ramapo Water Supply), water supply to states and counties, damages to water supply pipes, estimates of water quantities, responses to construction reports, legal issues related to projects, Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, and payment for services.

Subseries 2, general correspondence topics include employment opportunities, committee meetings and elections, land surveys, sketches, engineering plans and ideas, work on projects, dismissal from projects, notes on supplies, Washington Aqueduct, construction progress, land purchases, Civil War, Jones Falls, cost of water pumps, steam drills, lots divisions and prices, repairs, report of the engineering bureau, tidewater connection at Annapolis, bridge construction, construction costs, statement of vessels that entered and cleared Baltimore, technical questions from colleagues, Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, supply costs, letters of introduction, requests for reference, changes to plans and designs, survey reports, St. Andrew's lot, Canal Coal Company, publication process, American Society of Civil Engineers and its members, responses to project inquiries, Graving Dock gross revenue, job offers, specifications, trade figures, contracts, water levels, appointment dates and times, moveable dams, proposals for membership, salaries, Piedmont Coal Lands, maps, land profiles, Washington Bridge, board payments, Nicaragua Canal, Grant Coal Company, statistics, engineering notes, Hartford Bridge, water pressures, coal deposits, Colorado Coal, pipe lines, reservoirs, boat costs for canals, floods, bridges, letters of resignation, engines, Ruxton Viaduct, Colorado and Midland Railroad, Morse Bridge, share values, railroad locations, membership invitations, call for submissions, structural tests, record of accounts for room and board, appointments, water rights (Putnam County), publications, blueprints, visitation programs, cotton compresses, street trenches, pressures in dams, level tests, Portland Transportation bureau, trade information, concrete steel, Chicago drainage canal, ship canals, Augusta Cotton and Compress Company, Sooysmith case, Consolidated Gas Company, masonry, book binding, Columbia Railway Company, jetties, land grades, Chesapeake and Delaware canal, water wheels, pneumatic lock, tunnel arches, rifton power, Hutton's health, elevators, Brooklyn Bridge Terminals, girder weights, legal issues and their results, rating table for the Potomac, land profiles, transmission lines, transformers, water turbines, and water power on the Potomac River.

Correspondents for this series include the following: Captain Montgomery C. Meigs, Captain T.W. Symons, William Bryan, Ernest Flagg, John Hurd, Jake Wolfe, J.C. Saunders, J.H. Dolph, Charles J. Allen, G.H. Mendell, Virgil S. Bogue, B.A. Mounnerlyn, Edward Burr, H.G. Prout, R. William, H. Dodge, C.R. Suter, M. Mink, W.R. King, John Lyons, Alex Brown and Sons, John G. Butler, D. Condon, Bernard Carter, R.P. McCormick, D.R. Magruder, Andrew Banks, Isaac Solomon, C.J. Mayer, C.W. Kern, John Herring, James S. Mackie, D.R. Magunde, D. Rittaguide, R.S. Stevens, J.L. Raudolph (Baltimore and Ohio Railroad), J.M. Lane, W.D. Stuart, W.G.P. Palmer (Committee Church of the Ascension), C. Crozet, General W. Hughes, V.R. Maus, J.M. Hood (Western Maryland Railroad Company), Ernest Pontzen, M. Haus, William F. Craighill, Harry Hutton, John W. Pearce, Reverend James A. Harrald, William Watson, A.L. Rives, Thomas Monro, A.F. Croswan (Commander United States Navy), H.R. Garden, William McAlpine, James Forrest, Wm. Bloomsfield, Daniel Ammen, Linel Wells, A. and Otto Sibeth, Alfred Noble, Clemens Hershel, Sidney Warner, E.H. de Rheville, Theodore Cooper, William Findlay Shunk, Lewis S. Wolfe, Rufus Mead, Theodore F. Taylor, John Bogart, J. Whaler, B. Williamson, Colonel F.V. Greene, Robert H. Sayre (Lehigh Valley Railroad Company), Charles W. Pussey, Louis Q. Rissel, V.C. Bogue, H.C. Eckenberger, Melville E.G. Leston, Edwin Parson, Rudolph Hering, R.S. Hale, F.M. Turner, Thosl Martindale, Justus C. Strawbridge, William M. Ayresm, R.L. Austin, A.M. Miller, P. Livingston Dunn, T.J. Cleaver, C.S. Dutton, H.A. Carson, William Bainbridge Jaudon, H.A. Presset, Thomas H. McCann, Russel Sturgis, H.G. Prout, Alexis H. French, John K. Cowen, F.W. Williams, J. Waldorf, B.H. Byrant, B.H. Jones, M.H. Rogers, J.W. Ogden, General W. Cashing, William Longhudge, A.J. Cameron, T.L. Patterson, J.J. Hagerman, H. Wigglesworth, Charles B. Rowland, E. Bantz, W.G. Lathrop, Clarence King, George Rowland, George A. Tibbals (Continental Iron Works), George N. Vanderbilt, Eugene C. Lewis, F.P. Burt, Colonel John C. Clarke, Lieutenant Thomas Turtle, W.S.M. Scott, E. Bates Dorsey, Bernard Carter, George M. Shriver (Baltimore and Ohio Railroad), Russel Sturgis, Macmillan Publishing, James Abernethy, B. Baker, J.G.W. Fynje, A. Mallet, Jean Hersuy, L.F. Vernon Horcourt, Robert Lilley, A.J. Johnson, F.M. Colby, Henry D. Loney, A.S. Cameron, James A. Harrald, William Watson, John B. Lervis, A.L. Rives, Edwin F. Bidell, Frank H. Stockett, E. McMahon, C.F. Elgin, Enrique Budge, G. Clayton Gardiner, Dwight Porter, William A. Chapman, T.E. Sickels, Theodore Cooper, C.J. Warner, Institution of Civil Engineers, Robert Gordon, United States Coast of Geodetic Survey Office, C.P. Pattun, J.N. Putnam, Sidney B. Warner, H.D. Fisher, Union Pacific Railway Company, Lewis S. Wolle, George E. Waring Junior, The American Exhibition, G.F. Swain, American Society of Civil Engineers, N.H. Whitten, U.S. Engineer Office, Government Works Committee, J.J. Hagerman, D. Jackson, Sterling Iron and Railway Company, E.P. Alexander, E. Williamson, Central Railway Company of New Jersey, William A. Underwood, F. Collingwood, James Dun (Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railroad Company), Henry F. Kilburn, Louis A. Bissell, Virgil G. Boque, H.C. Eckenberger, Melville Egleston, Charles Parson, George Swain, Continental Iron Works, Rudolph Hering, J.B. Gordon, Mayor's Office (Baltimore), Harry Robinson, Pennsylvania Railway Company, W.H. Gahagan, L. Luiggi, B.H. Bryant, T.J. Cleaver (Chesapeake and Delaware Canal Company), H.A. Carson, H.A. Presset (Department of the Interior, United States Geological Survey), John K. Cowen, Vernon H. Brown, J. Waldorf, B.H. Bryant, L.F. Root, P.W. White, Metropolitan Railroad Company, Charles F. Mayer (Consolidated Coal Company, Cumberland and Pennsylvania Railroad Company), J.M. Lane (Western Maryland Railroad), Dr. R.S. Stewart (Annapolis and Elk Ridge Railroad), Baltimore and Drum Point Railroad (John Lyons, John G. Butler, D. Candon, R.P. McCormick, Andrew Banks), Thomas F. Rowland, J.A. Bensel, Walton Aims, S.D. Coykendall, H.C. Rogers, John F. Ward, T.B. Jewell, H.A. Pressey, C.S. Armstrong, J. Nennett, V.G. Bague.

Series 3, Personal Correspondence, 1850-1942, contains correspondence with immediate and extended family, specifically the heirs to the Benjamin H. Hutton and Joseph Hutton estates and Adele Gorman. Correspondence is primarily arranged chronologically, but some files have been divided based on subject or author (the Deer Park and Adele Gorman files), or by form (the Telegrams, and Cablegrams file). Special note is made of the posthumous correspondence file, which includes correspondence both relating to Hutton's death and correspondence that was written by family members after the years of his death. The series contains both hand written and typed letters. Some correspondence is in French. The correspondence demonstrates his relationship with his children specifically Elizabeth (Bessie) Hutton, and illuminates his role in his family. This series also provides details about nineteenth century upper class society and activities. Special note should be made that this folder does not contain all of the personal correspondence contained in the collection. Some correspondence has been separated according to recipient, or subject in order to make researching these recipients or subjects easier.

Series 3 correspondence topics include: estate payments, distribution of assets, funds transfers, estate lines, conflicts with tenants, sketches, lot maintenance, real estate sales, deeds, real estate sales negotiations, congratulations wishes on new babies, family illnesses, family affairs and travels, traveling directions, personal investments, invitations for social occasions, family debts, professional interests, professional and personal appointments, family issues, requests for money, sketches, advice to children (specifically Frank Hutton), life insurance, books, letters of introduction, legal issues, funeral expenses, charity donations, advertisements, minutes from professional organizations, army enlistment, deaths of friends and family, recipes, estimates of personal expenses, renovations, stock certificates (Great Northern Railway Company, New York), food, social activities, the weather, marriages, real estate and construction plans, and loan agreements.

Correspondents include the following: Frank Hutton, Thomas B. Brookes, J.L. Marcauley, C.M. Matthews, Edward J. Hancy, John M. Wilson, H.A. Carson, William H. Wiley (of John Wiley and Sons Scientific Publishers, New York), Georgina Hutton, Pierre and Jane Casson, George McNaughlin, Henrietta Hutton, Aaron Pennington Whitehead, J.B. Wheeler, B. Williamson, Robert De Forest, Elizabeth (Bessie) Hutton, Grace Beukard, J.C. Saunders, Mary Hutton, William J. Pennington, C.S. Hurd, Henry C. Cooper, Henry J. Segers, S.F. Miller, Annie Theller, Alfred Noble, Maria Burton, Joseph Hobson, E. Lennon, F. Hulberg, Charles Gordon Hutton, Edward C. Ebert, A. William Lewin, E.R. Dunn, William P. Craighill, Theodore Cooper, P.I. Chapelle, Anita McAlpine, Clarence King, Victoria Raymond, and Adele Gorman.

Series 4, Personal Materials, 1835-1946, contains documentation about Hutton's personal finances, role as executor of the Benjamin H. Hutton, Joseph Hutton, Annie Theller, and Countess H. De Moltke-Hvitfeldt estates, Mary Augusta Hutton (wife), Mary Hutton (daughter), Frank Hutton, John Caulfield (son-in-law), and B.F. and C.H. Hutton. The series has been divided into four subseries: Financial Records, 1876-1901, Estate and Real Estate Records, 1835-1921, Other Huttons, 1876-1936, and Personal Material, 1878-1946. Subseries 2, Estate and Real Estate Records, 1835-1921, contains correspondence relating to specific family estates and family members. This correspondence was separated from Series 3, Personal Correspondence, 1850-1942, to make it easier for researchers to access all records relating to the family estates. This series includes hand written, typed, and printed materials. Some materials are in French. All material dated after 1901 has been added to the collection by other creators such as Hutton's wife and children.

Subseries 1, Financial Records, 1876-1901, includes account books, account records, correspondence related to bank accounts, bank statements, financial notes, bills and proofs of payment, rent receipts, tax bills (New York, Flatbush, Montgomery County), checks, money exchanges, receipts for tax payments, real estate receipts, stock and bond certificates, loan agreements, executor accounts, rebate calculation sheet, and tax and insurance payments.

Subseries 2, Estate and Real Estate Records, 1835-1921, includes property maps and information (rent, mortgage costs, deeds), correspondence, notes on estate distribution, estate assets, value of estate and estate payments, account records, loan agreements, receipts, proof of payments, checks, financial records, legal documents, insurance documents, tax bills, auction receipts, and wills relating to the estates of Benjamin H. Hutton, Joseph Hutton, Countess H. de Moltke-Hivtfeldt, Annie Theller, and William R. Hutton. Also included are correspondence, property maps and information, and deeds and mortgages on Hutton properties.

Subseries 2, the estate and real estate records correspondence topics include: Virginia state building codes, construction costs, construction notices, purchasing offers for property, real estate prices, receipts of payments, property lines, real estate purchases and sales, real estate sales negotiations, deeds insurance estimates and costs, loan costs, property estimates, renovation costs, mortgages, property damages and repairs, property tax payments, insurance rates and payments, rent payments, telephone installation, building permits, rental agreements, reports on property condition, contracts of sale, conflicts with tenants, changes of address, deeds, distribution of estate monies, details about the Countess' illness, estate arrangements, changes of address, problems arising out of estate distribution, payment of debts, will details, selling of mortgage shares, accounts, estate settlement, money cables and transfers, dealings with lawyers, rent on Hutton Park property, legal and accounting fees, power of attorney transfer, investments, property security, land appraisals, lists of assets, legacy taxes, mortgages transfers, property management, Flatbush property, property rent and values, and physicians bills.

Correspondents include the following: A.C. Weeks, Walter I. Green, John D. Probsh, A.G. Darwin, Thomas H. McCann, Allan Farguhar, Thomas Dawson, Potter and Crandall Real Estate and Insurance Brokers, George C. Tilyou, H.D. Olephant, F. Winston, Richard E. Calbraith, Frank P. Martin, Henry DeForest, Henry C. Cooper, Metropolitan Telephone and Telegraph Company, John Ecker, C.K. Avevill, Georgina Hutton, Edward J. Hancy, Robert Graham, W.M. Bennett, Willis E. Merriman, Nathan L. Miller, Harry Hutton, Marquise de Portes (Adele Gorman), Annie Theller, Samuel L. Theller, Mrs. R. Locke, Frank Z. Adams, John Palmer (Secretary of State, New York), J.T. Cammeyer, Frank P. Martin, Florence Theller, Francis H. Seger, Henry C. Cooper, D.W.G. Cammeyer, Campbell W. Adams, Jane Casson, Elizabeth Hutton, Rene de Portes, H.G. Atkins, Grace Beukard, Aaron Pennington Muikhead, J.E. Delapalme, T.H. Powers, Egerton L. Winthrop Junior, George B. Glover, William Jay and Robert W. Candler, B. Williamson, J.E. Knaff, Cornelius C. Vermeule, S.V. Hayden, Charles G. Landon[?], H.A. Hurlbert, F.A. Black, John L. Calwalder, the Health Department of New York, A.G. Darwin, William Laue, Frederick Frelinghuysen, Charles S. Brown, Henrietta Hutton, Edward Gelon.

Subseries 3, Other Huttons, 1874-1936, includes professional drawings and proposals, checks, insurance information, correspondence, tax information, medical information, tax bills, relating to Mary Augusta Hutton (wife), Mary Hutton (daughter), Henry and Harry Hutton, Frank Hutton (son), John Caulfield (son-in-law), B.F. Hutton, and C.H. Hutton.

Subseries 4, Personal Materials, 1878-1946, contains handwritten property notes, school notes, sermons, travel documents, menus, Christmas cards, jewelry box, postal guide, typed religious materials and flyers.

Series 5, Diaries, 1866-1901, contains twenty nine diary books that document both Hutton's personal and professional life. These diaries provide not only a record of Hutton's life, but were also used by Hutton himself as a reference tool. When working on projects he would refer to notes and observations he made in his diary (as evidenced by notes made in his diaries). The first pages of the diaries often list his height, weight and clothing sizes as they varied from year to year. A researcher could probably use the cashbooks (see Series 7) and the diaries in conjunction as both detail the purchases made by Hutton. Many of the diaries also include a short record of accounts in the back. The diaries are arranged chronologically.

Topics found in the diaries include short form accounts of daily activities and appointments, records of the weather, Chesapeake and Ohio Canal project, construction progress on projects, steam pumps, sketches and calculations, extension of Washington railroads, cost of food, work supplies, travel costs, costs of goods and food, work deadlines, home renovations, visits to family, cash accounts, accounts of household duties, produce on Woodlands property, records of deaths, debts owed, account of clearing Woodlands property, church visits, Hancock and Tonoloway Aqueduct, canals, Drum Point Railroad, Montgomery C. Meigs, Washington Aqueduct, Annapolis Water Works, telegram costs, wages for Chesapeake and Ohio Canal project, William Craighill, Morris Canal, Annapolis Railroad and Canal, professional duties (inspections), Kanawha River Canal, travel schedules, professional expenses, cash received from Chesapeake and Ohio Canal project, Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, John's Dam, cathedral construction (St. Patricks?), Piedmont Bridge, Cumberland, account of farm property belonging to Major Campbell Bruns, Cunard Pier, Marquise de Portes, rent costs, Baltimore Canal, Kingston Water Supply, Croton Orange Estate, Pierre Casson, Hudson River Tunnel, Washington/Harlem River Bridge, entertainment costs, Greenwood cemetery, train schedule, notes on illness, real estate sales, Hutton Park, Benjamin H. Hutton estate and heirs, estimates, accounts of correspondence received and sent, Central Railroad, rent on Orange properties, addresses, contracts and building supplies for projects, personal finances, Joseph Hutton property on Vanderbilt Avenue, New York, amounts paid and received, medical appointments, Ramapo Water Company, drawing progress of maps and diagrams, Harbor Board (New York), property repairs, inspection and test reports, reservoirs, lists of birthdays, Boston Tunnel, family financial issues, tax payments, and prayers.

Series 6, Notebooks, 1860-1900, document the engineering and architectural projects worked on by Hutton. The series has been divided into three subseries: Subseries 1, Engineering and Survey Field Notes, 1860-1899; Subseries 2, Notebooks, 1871-1886; and Subseries 3, Notes, 1863-1900. Subseries 1, Engineering and Survey Field Notes, 1860-1899, contains sixteen field notebooks used by Hutton. Subseries 2, Notebooks, 1871-1886, contains seven notebooks. Subseries three, Notes, 1863-1900, contains four documents.

Some notebooks correspond to specific projects such as the Kanawha River Canal (lockgate and Phoenix Waterline), Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, Buffalo Reservoir, Potomac Lock and Dock Company, Northern Adirondack Railroad account, Washington Aqueduct, Little Rock Bridge, Wilson-Adam Dock, Croten Brick Works, Hutton Park, Centennial Iron Works, Cumberland Canal, Williamsport Aqueduct, Catoctin Aqueduct, Alexandria Canal, Miller's Saw Mill, Seneca Dam, Union Tunnel, Cumberland Waterworks, Victoria Bridge, Welland Canal, North Sea Canal, Ramapo Water Company, Annapolis Water Company, Antietam Aqueduct, Interoceanic Canal, San Quentin Canal, Suez Canal, Amsterdam Canal, Harlem Bulkhead, Morris Canal, Blue Lake Canal, and Nicaragua Canal.

These notebooks should be used in conjunction with the other materials in the collection related to professional projects, as they often provide more detailed accounts of the construction and land surveys. Some of the notebooks contain entries from several different sources. The notebooks were probably shared among the engineers working on these projects. The notebooks also contain looseleaf ephemera such as hand written calculations, newspaper clippings, and blueprints. Languages found in this series are English and French.

Notebook topics include construction projects, supply needs, costs for labor, sketches (Woodland Mills, landscapes, dams, railway cars, Noland Tunnel), costs of crops, survey measurements, cost of livestock, aqueducts, inspections, canal bridges, seed prices, dams, measurements, coffer dam, canal maintenance, worker salaries, calculations, towpath sketches and measurements, shipping rates, worker accidents, water and coal used, geometrical sketches (Washington Aqueduct), locks, damage reports, interactions with other engineers (William Reading), coal shipments on the canal, travel expenses, land survey notes, drafts for correspondence, William Craighill, Victoria docks, lists of personal supplies used, construction time estimates, surveying expenses, telegram costs, sand pump, canal from Sherling to Tuxedo Bay, analysis of several artificial lakes and reservoirs, distances of reservoirs to main pipes, calculations for the Austin Wheel, engine construction, bridges, gauging water depth, results and observations of tests and performance, problems with construction, to-do lists, cost of land surrounding towpaths, Fawcett's Lock, Tarman's Lock, comparison of costs in transporting coal by water and by rail, inspection notes, iron work, drainages, leaks, cost of supplies, watergates, harbor ferries, railroad station distances, flood protection, Panama Canal via the Nicaraguan route, cost of jetties, water levels, pressure of steam, boilers, steam and water cycle, water depth, cement, Great Falls, Virginia, waterflow, soundings, time of floats, flow of currents, rain fall measurements, tunnel measurements, cost of trenching San Francisco water supply, record of livestock, cost of food, rates of sawing woods and mills, preliminary railroad line measurements, profile of final line, and railroad line profiles.

Series 7, Cash Books, 1856-1899, contains seven cashbooks which list prices for personal items purchased by Hutton. Topics include groceries, church dues, clothes, hygiene products, cigars, some short journal entries about his work (Williamstown), concerts, dinners, family addresses, cakes, meals, cars, stamps, office supplies (pencils and papers), valentines, glasses, gloves, fabric, medicine, needles, diapers, tobacco, shoes (adult and childrens), travel expenses, telegrams, candles, newspapers, liquor, coal oil, jewelry, allowances given to family members, bank deposits, monies paid and received, taxes, subscriptions, tailoring costs, deposits and payments into estate trusts, and notes about payments to Benjamin H. Hutton heirs. The cashbooks also contain some personal loose leaf ephemera such as prayers, sketches, and engineering notes collected by Hutton.

Series 8, Professional Projects, 1830-1965, contains documents about engineering and architectural projects throughout Hutton's career, including information about the professional organizations and the legal issues in which he was involved. This series has been divided into eight subseries based on project, document form, and document subject. Some materials are in French and Italian.

Series 8, Professional Projects, also includes correspondence related to specific projects, primarily the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, the Hudson River Tunnel, the Washington/Harlem River Bridge, and the Georgetown Incline.

Topics include construction and repair to the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, engineering and use of Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, worker contracts, supply and labor purchases, design plans and proposals, construction and repair costs, supply notes and costs of supplies, water pressure and power, shipping materials and routes (specifically the shipping of coal), inspections and their findings, condition of canal dam and locks, water supply, drainage, sketches, board proceedings, business meetings, deeds, cost comparisons to other shipping methods, hiring processes, wages, cost estimates, Hutton's consulting fees, measurements and calculations, funding issues, worker conflicts, negotiations with municipal governments, payment schedules, bills for services, air pressure in Hudson River Tunnel, permission for construction, specifications, mortality rate among workers on the Hudson River Tunnel, construction reports, outlet incline, proposals for construction, letters of introduction, railroad versus water for trade, controversy with Tiersey, construction contracts, construction schedules, construction issues, construction progress, construction damage, basis for estimates, supply requests, internal politics, changes to construction plans, contract and price adjustments, issues with suppliers, construction delays, work permits, bills, worker issues, engineering notes, construction excavations, expenses, construction instructions, Union Bridge Company, lighting installations, construction processes, hiring practices, electrical conductors, water proofing, hydraulics, cement, concrete, payment of contributors, processes of approval for construction, meeting dates of the Harlem River Bridge Commission, and contract restrictions.

Correspondents include the following: W.W.M. Kaig, Henry Dodge, E. Mulvany, John Shay, James Clarke, H.D. Whitcomb, Horace Benton, J. Rellan, J.R. Maus, W.E. Merrill, A.P. Gorman, J.H. Staats, Vernon H. Brown, Charles H. Fisher (New York Central and Hudson River Railway Company), B. Baker, John Fowler, Benjamin and John Dos Passos, Charles B. Colby, Charles B. Brush, S. Pearson, Stanford White, Horace E. Golding, R.H. Smith, Daniel Lord, A. Fteley, Herbert Hinds, J.R. Bartlett, D.M. Hirsch, M.H. Bartholomew, Thomas O. Driscoll, W.E. Porter, Thomas F. Rowland, George Edward Harding, R.H. Dames, William Watson, James B. Eads, J.D. Bright, H. Aston, Charles Suley, A.M. Maynard, W.R. Henton, G. Geddes, H.P. Gilbut, Malcolm W. Niver (Secretary of the Harlem River Bridge Commission), J.D. Patterson, George Devin (Assistant Engineer Washington/ Harlem River Bridge), J.B. Wheeler, John Bogart, Charles Burns, J. McClellon, Rob Bassee, B. Williamson, Theodore Cooper, Lewis Cass Ledyard, R.M. Hunt, John Cooper, Henry Wilson, A.A. Caille, Myles Tierney, W. Pentzen, L.B. Cantfield, George Q. Grumstaid Junior, M.J. Funton, George Pierce, W.O. Fayerweather, Noah S. Belthen, Herbert Steward, W.M. Habirsham. Subseries 1, Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, 1828-1965, consists of plans, blueprints, land profiles, drawings, boat rates, contract forms, order forms, descriptions of the canal, design information, engineering data, sketches, cost estimates, land titles, microfilm, business papers, supply bills, patent bills, news clippings, reports, specifications, stockholder's reports, receipts, water leases, printed materials, and correspondence.

The Chesapeake and Ohio Canal project was started in 1828 and completed twenty two years later in 1850. The canal's main objective was to connect Georgetown to the coal banks above Cumberland, Maryland, providing a short and cheap trade route between the eastern and western United States. It was also hoped that the canal would provide greater communication and travel between these two regions. Plagued by natural disasters, and construction setbacks, the canal was never completed in time to be useful and became obsolete shortly after its completion. Canal trade was eventually put out of business by the increase of railroads. Although it was an important development in engineering at its inception, the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal is no longer in use and has become what locals affectionately refer to as "the old ditch." The canal was designated a National Historical Park in 1971 and consists of 184.5 miles of hiking and biking trails.

Subseries 2, Hudson River Tunnel, 1887-1901, consists of agreements for construction, certificates, contracts, and cost estimates, construction reports, engineering notebooks, engineering notes, sketches, land profiles, maps, progress profiles, plans, proposals, printed material, statements of expenses, and correspondence.

The Hudson River Tunnel project was started in 1874, and the final tubes were opened in 1910 after several construction setbacks. The tunnel connects Weehawken, New Jersey and Pennsylvania Station in Manhattan, New York City. Today the Hudson River Tunnel, known as the North River Tunnels is used by Amtrak's Northeast Corridor and New Jersey Transit rail lines.

Subseries 3, Harlem River Bridge, 1878-1982, consists of blueprints, printed materials, photographs, engineer's estimates, schedules, costs, reports, proposals, contracts, specifications, and correspondence.

The Harlem River Bridge project was started in 1885 and was completed in 1889. It spans the Harlem River in New York City, New York and connects the Washington Heights section of Manhattan with the Bronx. It was later named and is still known as the Washington Bridge and has been adapted over time to carry highway traffic. These adaptations have allowed the bridge to remain in use today.

Subseries 4, Other Projects, 1858-1832, consists of drawings, maps, blueprints, plans, proposals, cost estimates, bills, correspondence, sketches, land profiles, dimensions, engineering notes, account records, photostats, supply lists, calculations, legal documents, surveys, inspection reports, financial data, and measurements on architectural and engineering projects. Highlights of this subseries include: Western Maryland Railroad, Washington Aqueduct, Panama Canal, Ramapo Water Company, Piedmont Bridge, Northern Adirondack Railroad, Columbia Railroad, Morris Canal, Pittsfield and Williamstown Railroad, Suez Canal, St. Gothard Canal, Tansa Dam, Colorado Midland Railroad Company, Memorial Bridge, Mersey Tunnel, Little Rock Bridge, Kingston Water Supply, Kanawha River Canal, Florida Ship Canal, East Jersey Water Company, Consolidated Coal Company, Dismal Swamp Canal, Boston and Baltimore Tunnels, St. Patrick's Cathedral, Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, Annapolis Water Company, Baltimore and Drum Point Railroad Company, and the Baltimore Beltline.

Subseries 5, Unidentified Project Files, 1872-1900, consists of bills of sale, engineering forms and regulations, cement test results and methods, census bulletin, contracts, cost estimates, correspondence, notes on publications, engineering data and notes, drawings, surveys, sketches, payrolls, photographs, and reports.

Subseries 6, Specifications, 1870-1900, consists of documents related to some of Hutton's projects, including specifications for bridges, reservoirs, canals, viaducts, docks, buildings, water works, and tunnels. Some specifications are more general, and some are blank proposal/specification forms. There are also proposals for estimates and a "call" or advertisement to contractors to bid on certain projects. Many of the specifications deal with projects in New York State, but projects in Pennsylvania, the City of Baltimore, and Europe are represented. The materials are arranged alphabetically by project name. There is one folder of documentation for the Potomac River Bridge (Arlington Memorial Bridge) in Washington, D.C. The Arlington Memorial Bridge was part of the 1901 McMillan Commission's plan for restoring Pierre (Peter) Charles L'Enfant's original plan for the capital. Two decades passed before construction was initiated by the architectural firm McKim, Mead, and White. The documentation for the Memorial Bridge consists of calculations and monetary figures for materials such as granite.

Subseries 7, Legal Documents, 1886, contains documents related to a patent infringement suit for moveable dams involving Alfred Pasqueau vs. the United States. This file contains both a printed version of the case and a handwritten statement from Hutton.

Subseries 8, Professional Organizations, 1870-1902, contains documents related to professional organizations where Hutton held membership. Specific organizations represented are American Institute of Architects, American Society of Civil Engineers, Institution of Civil Engineers, Boston Society of Civil Engineers, Societe des Ingenieurs Civils de France, Librarie Polytechnique, American Agency of "Engineering" in London, Imperial Institute, League of Associated Engineers, Railroad Corporation, American Institute of Mining Engineers, and the Century Association. Material in the subseries includes correspondence, candidates for membership, membership payments, membership lists, meeting minutes, schedule of terms, professional practices, charges, articles of association, invitations for membership, and election notes. Some materials are in French.

Series 9, Printed Materials, 1850-1913, contains a variety of printed materials relating to engineering and architectural projects written by Hutton and fellow engineers. This series can be used to examine not only professional developments of the period and responses to those developments, but also to track how ideas were transferred between engineers across countries and continents. This series should be used in conjunction with the professional correspondence found in this collection, as many of the authors also appear there. Some materials are in French, German, Spanish, and Italian.

Subseries 1, Printed Materials by Hutton, 1852-1900, includes printed papers on the Missouri flood wave, the Ravine du Sud, the Potomac waterfront, the Colorado midlands, and the application of water supply machinery.

Subseries 2, Printed Materials by Others, 1826-1913, includes printed materials on the Chesapeake and Ohio Canals, Tehuantec Ship Railway, Interoceanic canals and railways, jetties, Nicaragua Canal, uses of cements, mortars, concretes, steam power, harbors, Niagara Falls, Kanawha River canal, Mississippi River, Hudson River Bridge, sewage disposal, Washington Aqueduct, specifications, construction progress reports, hydraulic experiments, water supply, drainage, road surfacing, sea walls, water-cooling apparatus, pollution reports, bridges, pipes, channels, reservoirs, irrigation, water power, and sewers.

Subseries 2 contains an issue of The North American Review in which Hutton has specifically highlighted an article entitled, "The Inter-Oceanic Canal." Please see the container list for names of authors.

Subseries 3, Printed Materials with No Author, 1852-1903, includes printed materials on harbor reports, Annapolis Water Company, Ramapo Water Company, water departments and boards, maps, engineer's reports, sea walls, preservation of structures, annual reports, Coal and Iron Railway Company, sewers, Baltimore and Drum Point Railroad, contract specifications, proposals, social club life, Croton Water Supply, law suits, water supplies, moveable dams, reservoirs, East River Bridge, Eastern Canal, water filtration, Kingston New Water Supply, water pipes, locks, docks, contracts, construction reports, Croton Water Supply, and surveys. Also included are issues of journals such as Le Correspondant, Circular of the Office of Chief Engineers, The Club, VIII Congres International de Navigation, Journal of the Association of Engineering Studies, and Journal of the Franklin Institute.

Subseries 4, Newspaper, Journals and Magazine Clippings, 1873-1900, contains clippings from a variety of newspapers such as Scientific American, andRailroad Gazette. Subjects included are the Union Tunnel opening in Baltimore, Drum Point Railroad, railroad company conflicts, Washington/Harlem River Bridge, Metropolitan Railroad, Western Maryland Railroad, crop prospects, lumber trade, North Avenue Bridge, Nicaraguan Canal, harbors, river improvements, reactions to engineering projects, Belt tunnel, city transit, Washington, D.C. flood in 1880, tunnel shields, Springfield Bridge, railroad patents, Panama Canal, jetties, Hudson Tunnel, steel boilers, composition and use of cement, and the Brooklyn Bridge.

Subseries 5, Oversized Printed Materials, 1889-1892, contains large printed materials related to the Washington Aqueduct, General Post Office Building, subway arches, cornices, Warwick's Castle, Neuschwanstein Castle, Renaissance paintings, botanical drawings, school buildings, church architecture, the Hospital for the Insane of the Army and Navy and the District of Columbia, the Panama Canal, Morningside Park, and the Mississippi Jetties. Also includes engravings of Hutton, T.N. Talfound, and F. Jeffrey and photographs of Montgomery C. Meigs, and Hutton. Some materials are in German and French.

References:

1. Ward, George Washington, "The Early Development of the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal Project," Johns Hopkins University Studies in Historical and Political Science Series XVII, no. 9-11 (1899): 8.

2. Ibid., 88.

3. Ibid., 55.

4. Ibid., 90.

5. Sanderlin, Walter S., "The Great National Project: A History of the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal," Johns Hopkins University Studies in Historical and Political Science Series LXIV, no. 1 (1946): 21.

6. Ibid., 282.

7. Gies, Joseph, Adventure Underground (Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday and Company Inc., 1962): 134.

8. Ibid., 131-132.

9. Ibid., 135-136.

10. Ibid., 145.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into ten series.

Series 1, Letterpress Copybooks, 1858-1901

Series 2, Professional Correspondence, 1861-1901

Subseries 1, Project Correspondence, 1876-1899

Subseries 2, General Correspondence, 1861-1901

Series 3, Personal Correspondence, 1850-1942

Series 4, Personal Materials, 1835-1946

Subseries 1, Financial Records, 1876-1901

Subseries 2, Estate and Real Estate Records, 1835-1921

Subseries 3, Other Huttons, 1874-1936

Subseries 4, Personal Materials, 1878-1946

Series 5, Diaries, 1866-1901

Series 6, Notebooks, 1860-1900

Subseries 1, Engineering and Survey Field Notes, 1860-1899

Subseries 2, Notebooks, 1871-1886

Subseries 3, Notes, 1863-1900

Series 7, Cashbooks, 1856-1899

Series 8, Professional Projects, 1830-1965

Subseries 1, Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, 1828-1965

Subseries 2, Hudson River Tunnel, 1887-1901

Subseries 3, Harlem River Bridge, 1878-1892

Subseries 4, Other Projects, 1858-1932

Subseries 5, Identified Project Files, 1872-1900

Subseries 6, Specifications, 1870-1900

Subseries 7, Legal Documents, 1886

Subseries 8, Professional Organizations, 1870-1902

Series 9, Printed Materials, 1826-1913

Subseries 1, Printed Materials by Hutton, 1852-1900

Subseries 2, Printed Materials by Others, 1826-1913

Subseries 3, Newspaper, Journals, and Magazine Clippings, 1855-1901

Subseries 4, Oversized Printed Material, 1889-1892

Series 10: Drawings, 1875, 1883
Biographical / Historical:
Not much is known about the history of William Rich Hutton outside of his role in architectural and engineering projects of the late 1800s and early 1900s. In many cases, he is spoken of only in reference to his projects, and the short biographies that have been written read more like a resume than a life story. Because of this lack of information, this note will focus on Hutton's professional accomplishments, but will attempt to make some comments on his personal life.

William Rich Hutton was born on March 21, 1826 in Washington, D.C., the eldest son of James Hutton (died 1843) and his wife, the former Salome Rich (1). He was educated at the Western Academy (Washington, D.C.) from 1837-1840 under George J. Abbot and then at Benjamin Hallowell's School in Alexandria, Virginia, where he received special training in mathematics, drawing, and surveying (2). Hutton began his professional career in California when he, along with his younger brother James, accompanied their uncle William Rich to work for the United States Army. His uncle was a paymaster for the army and Hutton became his clerk. They traveled around the new state paying the various platoons stationed there, but Hutton also occupied his time by drawing the landscapes and structures he saw in the settlements of Los Angeles, San Francisco, La Paz, Mazatlan, Santa Barbara, Monterey, San Pedro, San Diego, and Cape San Lucas (3). These drawings are now held by the Huntington Library in San Marino, California. Hutton held the position of clerk until the spring of 1849, and in July of that year he began working with Lieutenant Edward O.C. Ord and completed the first survey of Los Angeles and its surrounding pueblo lands and islands. Hutton continued surveying in California from 1850-1851. He was hired by William G. Dana to survey the Nipomo Ranch in San Luis Obispo County and also surveyed the ranches Santa Manuela and Huer-Huero, both owned by Francis Z. Branch. After his employment with Dana, he became the county surveyor for San Luis Obispo County, where he prepared the first survey and map of the region. He also continued to survey ranches for Captain John Wilson during this time. In August 1851, he resigned from his position as county surveyor and moved to Monterey where he worked as an assistant to Captain (later General) Henry W. Hallack, superintendent of the New Almaden Quicksilver Mine in Santa Clara County (4). He remained in this position until March, 1853 when he returned to Washington, D.C. by way of Mexico (5).

Hutton began his career as a civil engineer in Washington, D.C. He was first assigned to the position of assistant engineer on a survey of the projected Metropolitan Railroad in 1853, which was chartered to connect Washington, D.C. with the mainline of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad. In 1855 he began his professional relationship with Montgomery C. Meigs when he was appointed to the position of assistant engineer on the Washington Aqueduct. He also served as division engineer on this project until construction was shut down in 1861 because of the outbreak of the Civil War. Fortunately for Hutton, the construction on the Aqueduct was resumed in 1862, and when Congress transferred the supervision of the aqueduct project from the War Department to the Department of the Interior, Hutton was made chief engineer. By the end of the Civil War, Hutton's reputation as a civil engineer was established (6).

During this decade Hutton also served as the chief engineer for the Annapolis Water Works (1866) and as chief engineer for one of his most famous projects, the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal (1869-1871). Although some historians minimize Hutton as just one of many engineers to work on the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, he did make one major contribution to its construction: the Georgetown Canal Incline. Perhaps the final effort of the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal company to compete with the emerging and fast expanding railroad, the Georgetown Incline was designed to allow canal boats to travel through the canal with low water levels and to alleviate canal congestion. Unfortunately, by the time the incline was completed use of the canal had decreased so significantly that it was no longer needed to help control traffic (7). Despite this, Hutton continued to work as a consulting engineer for the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal Company until 1881, when he was let go because of the dwindling fortunes of the company (7).

In the 1870s and 1880s Hutton was busy with several engineering projects. During 1871-1873, he was the chief engineer in the completion of the Western Maryland Railroad to Hagerstown and Williamsport (9). He also practiced as an architect with his brother, the prominent Baltimore architect Nathanial Henry Hutton, during the years 1873-1880. He relocated to New York in 1880, serving as chief engineer for the Washington Bridge in 1888 and 1889 and the Hudson River Tunnel from 1889 to 1891. In 1886, he became the consulting engineer for the New Croton Aqueduct and served in the same position for the Colorado Midland Railway between the years of 1886-1889 (10).

As his personal and professional correspondence shows, Hutton continued to work on various engineering and architectural projects until his death on December 11, 1901. In addition to these projects, he also invented the innovative system of locks and moveable dams used in the Kanawha River Canal. He was awarded the Diplome d'Honneur for this featat the Paris Exposition in 1878 (11). His correspondence also demonstrates how Hutton was respected within his professional community. These letters refer to the accuracy of his work, his willingness to help other colleagues and supply them with reference materials and information, and, in addition to all this, his politeness. It seems that these qualities defined not only his personality but also his ideology. In one of the cashbooks in the collection, dated 1899, a hand written note contains a religious parable of "The Straw." The phrase in this parable that speaks most to Hutton's work ethic, and to the spirit of inventors everywhere, is this: "Even so however lowly may be the act, however little opportunities we may have of assisting others, we may still do something. Let us beg to fulfil our duty in this regards by making ourselves useful to others by some little act of thoughtful charity..." (12). Hutton, in his dedication to civil engineering, seems to have lived up to this virtue, and in his work he changed the landscape of Washington, D.C. and New York.

The Fairy Godfather: Hutton's Personal History

His professional records reveal a man who was fiercely dedicated to his work. His obituary references his professional life more than his personal life (13). Despite his reputation in the professional engineering community, his personal records demonstrate that Hutton was also dedicated to his family and children. In 1855, he married Montgomery County native Mary Augusta Clopper (died 1915). Together they lived on her family's estate known as the Woodlands, and had five children: Frank C. Hutton, Mary Hutton, Elizabeth Hutton (later Caulfield), Rosa Hutton, and Annie Salome Hutton (14). It is at this estate that Hutton died and was buried. The personal letters to his wife found in the Woodlands Collection held at the Montgomery County Historical Society show a man in love and willing to take time from his work to write to his wife. His letters to his children show a similar interest and compassion. In the many letters found in this collection from his daughter Elizabeth (Bessie) one can see a father who is interested in not only his daughter's activities abroad, but also in her opinion. This interest also extends to his son Frank Hutton, as their correspondence shows Hutton offering his son advice on his own engineering projects.

Hutton also served as executor to many of his extended family's estates. Many letters show the conflicts that Hutton had to mediate and the dependence of his cousins on him for advice and money. Although his family was wealthy (his cousin was Benjamin H. Hutton whose daughters married into the court of Napoleon III), they were volatile, and his records seem to indicate that he served as a mediator for many of their disputes. In addition to this, as his nickname of Fairy Godfather suggests, Hutton was always willing to lend his family either financial or moral support when needed. Unfortunately, little other documentation concerning Hutton's personal life exists outside of this collection and the one held at the Montgomery County Historical Society.

References:

1. Waters, Willard O., "Introduction," California 1847-1852 (San Marino: The Huntington Library, 1942).

2. Waters, Willard O., "Memoir," Glances at California 1847-1853 (San Marino: The Huntington Library, 1942): ix.

3. Waters, Willard O., "Introduction," California 1847-1852 (San Marino: The Huntington Library, 1942). and Waters, Willard O., "Memoir," Glances at California 1847-1853 (San Marino: The Huntington Library, 1942): x-xi.

4. Waters, Willard O., "Introduction," California 1847-1852 (San Marino: The Huntington Library, 1942).

5. Waters, Willard O., "Memoir," Glances at California 1847-1853 (San Marino: The Huntington Library, 1942): xvii.

6. Waters, Willard O., "Memoir," Glances at California 1847-1853 (San Marino: The Huntington Library, 1942): xvii-xviii.

7. Skramstad, Harold, "The Georgetown Canal Incline," Technology and Culture, Vol. 10, no. 4 (Oct. 1969): 555.

8. Business Correspondence, Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, 22 February 1881, William R. Hutton Papers, 1830-1965, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution, box number 27, folder number 29.

9. "William Rich Hutton," The Club: A Journal of Club Life for Men and Women,(July 1894):37

10. Ibid.

11. Monzione, Joseph, "William R. Hutton," A.P.W.A. Reporter (Sept. 1977): 7.

12. Cashbook, 1899, William R. Hutton Papers, 1830-1965, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution, box number 23, folder number 5.

13. The Woodlands Collection, Montgomery County Historical Society.
Related Materials:
Materials in the Archives Center

The Montgomery C. Meigs Papers, 1870-1890, (AC0987). Contains materials relating to the construction of the Washington Aqueduct including a book of drawings illustrating reservoirs, tunnels, culverts, and other structural elements, a Government Senate Document relating to construction progress, scrapbooks created by Meigs that include newspaper clippings about the Washington Aqueduct project, water supply, engineering projects, building construction, architecture and other subjects. Collection is currently unprocessed, but is available for research.

Materials in Other Organizations:

The William Rich Hutton Papers, 1840-1961, are located at the Huntington Library in California (see http://catalog.huntington.org).

The collection contains 95 drawings, 13 letters, and 39 facsimile copies of letters and manuscripts. The illustrative material includes both watercolor and pencil drawings of California (including Los Angeles, Monterey, San Francisco, the New Almaden Quicksilver Mine, and the California missions), Baja California, Mexico, and Peru. There are also five pieces in the collection related to the author María Amparo Ruiz de Burton. In 1942, the Huntington Library published Glances at California 1847--853: Diaries and Letters of William Rich Hutton, Surveyor and California 1847--852: Drawings by William Rich Hutton.

The Hutton family papers are located at the Montgomery County Historical Society, Sween Library (see http://www.montgomeryhistory.org/sites/default/files/Family_Files.pdf).

The collection contains account books from the Woodlands estate, recipe books, livestock records, records of Mary Augusta Hutton (wife), Mary and Rose Hutton (daughters), newspaper clippings (including his obituary), correspondence, record books, deeds, bills and receipts, engineering papers, religious momentos (funeral service cards), and insurance papers.
Provenance:
The collection was donated by Mr. and Mrs. James J. Madine, a relative of Hutton's and last owners of the Woodlands estate; the Department of Forests and Parks, Maryland; Louis Fischer; and Mr. and Mrs. Mayo S. Stuntz, 1965-1966, 1974.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research. Gloves must be worn when handling unprotected photographs and negatives.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Dams  Search this
Hydraulic engineering  Search this
Canals  Search this
Underwater tunnels  Search this
Railroad bridges  Search this
Railroad construction  Search this
Water-supply  Search this
Construction workers  Search this
Construction equipment  Search this
Concrete construction  Search this
Concrete  Search this
Coal -- Transportation  Search this
Civil engineers  Search this
Civil engineering  Search this
Canals -- Panama  Search this
Canals -- Washington (D.C.)  Search this
Canals -- Maryland  Search this
Canals -- Design and construction  Search this
Bridges -- United States  Search this
Waterworks  Search this
Tunnels  Search this
Tunnels -- New York (N.Y.)  Search this
Construction -- Washington (D.C.)  Search this
Underground construction  Search this
Locks and dams  Search this
Shipping  Search this
Iron and steel bridges  Search this
Sewage disposal  Search this
Railroads -- Maryland  Search this
Railroads -- 19th century  Search this
Railroad engineering  Search this
Railroad companies  Search this
Aqueducts  Search this
Arch bridges  Search this
Architects -- 19th century  Search this
Books  Search this
Bridges -- New York (N.Y.)  Search this
Bridges -- Design and construction  Search this
Bridge construction industry -- United States  Search this
Engineering notebooks  Search this
Docks  Search this
Domestic and family life  Search this
Architecture -- United States  Search this
Architecture -- Washington (D.C.)  Search this
Western Maryland Railroad  Search this
Annapolis Waterworks  Search this
Steam engineering  Search this
Harlem River Bridge Commission  Search this
Washington (D.C.) -- 19th century  Search this
Reservoirs  Search this
Patents  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Letterpress copybooks
Blueprints
Diaries
Drawings
Photographs -- 19th century
Cashbooks
Business records -- 19th century
Business letters
Notebooks
Topographic maps
Tax records
Technical drawings
Stock certificates
Technical literature
Photoengravings
Notes
Maps -- 19th century
Microfilms
Linen tracings
Letter books
Letters
Land titles
Legal documents
Sketches
Salted paper prints
Reports
Receipts
Plans (drawings)
Photostats
Photographic prints
Architectural drawings
Administrative records
Albumen prints
Albums
Annual reports
Booklets
Account books -- 19th century
Books -- 19th century
Family papers -- 18th century
Financial records -- 19th century
Diaries -- 19th century
Drawings -- 19th century
Cyanotypes
Correspondence -- 19th-20th century
Deeds
Printed material
Correspondence
Contracts
Harlem River Bridge
Photograph albums
Specifications
Christmas cards
Menus
Citation:
William R. Hutton Papers, dates, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0987
See more items in:
William R. Hutton Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0987
Online Media:

SHARE Records

Creator:
Bernstein, Maurine  Search this
Oswald, Alison  Search this
Bernstein, Morton I.  Search this
Strong, Jack  Search this
Wagner, Frank  Search this
Armer, Paul, 1924- (computer technician)  Search this
Author:
SHARE (Association)  Search this
Extent:
20.5 Cubic feet (57 boxes including audiocassettes)
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Audiocassettes
Date:
1955-1986
Summary:
SHARE, the first organized user group in the computer industry, was established by a group of IBM 704 users in the Los Angeles area in 1955. The records document the SHARE group through proceedings of minutes, technical reports, by-laws, policies, projects, and subject files.
Scope and Contents:
The collection documents the SHARE group through proceedings of minutes, technical reports, by-laws, policies, projects, and subject files.
Arrangement:
This collection is divided into six series:

Series 1, Proceedings of Meetings, 1958 1986

Series 2, Share Secretary Distributions (SSD), 1958 1986

Series 3, Corporate Organization, 1970 1973

Series 4, Computer Measurement & Evaluation Project, 1967 1984

Series 5, Committee on Graphic Requirements, 1965-1967

Series 6, Subject Files, 1955 1979
Biographical / Historical:
SHARE (Society to Help Avoid Redundant Effort), the first organized user group in the computer industry, was established by a group of IBM 704 users in the Los Angeles area in 1955. After IBM announced the introduction of the 704 in early 1955, MM installations recognized the need for a cooperative effort to prepare for the onset of new hardware. A similar group, the Project for the Advancement of Coding Techniques (PACT), had been formed in 1954 to improve computer productivity of the IBM 701. The spark for the creation of SHARE was a seminar conducted by the MM Applied Science on the new IBM 704. At the seminar, many users realized that they were more informed about IBM hardware than the IBM seminar instructors. After lunch on the day of the seminar, Jack Strong and Frank Wagner of North American Aviation, Lee Amaya of Lockheed, and Paul Armer of the Rand Corporation placed calls to all known 704 customers from a phone booth in Los Angeles to plan a meeting. The meeting was to bring together all 704 users for the purpose of cooperative planning for 704 installations. During the week of August 22, 1955, the first SHARE meeting (SHARE I) was held in the basement conference room of the RAND Corporation. Forty-six people, representing seventeen IBM 704 installations, were at the first meeting.

From the beginning SHARE's primary goals were to foster joint research and development, provide a forum for the exchange of ideas pertaining to computer science, facilitate the development of data processing standards and for dialogue with IBM hardware and software users, and promote the exchange of programs. During the ensuing years, SHARE held meetings biannually and various organizational policies and trends were established. SHARE III established basic rules of procedure and definition of membership. SHARE V, held in May 1956, established the practice of having smaller workshops at the meeting. At SHARE VII, members from Canada, France, and England were included and a formal set of by laws was created establishing SHARE as a formal organizational structure. In addition, SHARE VII initiated Standing Committees and an Executive Board. At SHARE IX, the hardware emphasis was combined with a focus on programming languages, translators, commercial data processing, and application packages. In April 1964, IBM announced the availability of the new System 360 and the next several years were focused on the OS/360, new time sharing technology, and absorbing new members with application interests varying from the original SHARE members.

During 1968 and 1969, SHARE was planning for a merger with another user group, GUIDE. GUIDE was an IBM user group concerned with the 705 and the 7080. In 1969, the merger was voted down and this prompted a major restructuring of SHARE. An administrative office with full time help was established, the by laws were redrawn, and SHARE in its original form was dissolved and renamed SHARE Inc. The name change was completed at SHARE 34 in Denver, Colorado in March 1970. In practice, SHARE continued to function in the same way but with more precise definition of behavior and larger recognition of the information processing marketplace.

By 1986, members of SHARE represented the mainstream of the world's computer usage development. A substantial percentage of major users of high speed digital computing equipment now belong to SHARE. SHARE continues to provide users with a forum to gain knowledge from formal proceedings and informal conversations with colleagues having similar concerns. SHARE provides IBM with documented user requirements for developing new products and for modifying present hardware and software systems. SHARE has produced formal specifications to further define these requirements. Through SHARE procedures for establishing such requirements and evaluating their relative costs and merits, IBM has received concise information about user needs.
Related Materials:
Materials at the Archives Center

Computer Oral History Collection (AC0196)

Share Numerical Analysis Project Records (AC0498)
Provenance:
This collection was donated by Morton and Maurine Bernstein, October, 1996.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use.
Rights:
Conditions Governing Reproduction and Use: Copyright held by the Smithsonian Institution. Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Reproduction permission from Archives Center: fees for commercial use.
Topic:
Computers -- 1950-2000  Search this
Genre/Form:
Audiocassettes
Citation:
SHARE Records, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0567
See more items in:
SHARE Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0567

Correspondence

Collection Creator:
Breuer, Marcel, 1902-  Search this
Extent:
5.3 Linear feet (Boxes 1-6, OV 47; Reels 5708-5717)
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1923-1986
Scope and Contents note:
Correspondents in this series include a wide range of international architects, designers, and artists who interacted with Breuer. The letters discuss his training and the execution of his hundreds of architectural projects and designs for furnishings. Researchers will find the letters between Breuer and his Bauhaus colleagues, including Josef Albers, Herbert Bayer, Walter Gropius, and László Moholy-Nagy, of particular interest.

Appendix A: List of Notable Correspondents from Series 2: Correspondence
Arrangement note:
The files are arranged chronologically, with the undated letters arranged alphabetically according to the correspondents' surnames.
Appendix A: List of Notable Correspondents from Series 2: Correspondence:
Aalto, Alvar, 1964 (1 invitation): to reception honoring Aalto

Abercrombie, Stan (architect), 1964-1977 (8 letters)

Abramovitz, Max (Harrison & Abramovitz, Architects), 1947 (3 letters) and 1963 invitation from Brandeis University in honor of Abramovitz

Harry N. Abrams, Inc., 1975 (2 letters): from Breuer's office Académie d'Architecture, 1976-1979 (4 letters)

Acme Laboratory Equipment Company, 1950 (1 letter): from Breuer's office ács, Gábor and Anikó, 1956 (1 letter)

Adelaide Festival of Arts, 1959 (1 letter)

Adler, Bruno, 1937 (1 letter) ágasvári, Vilmos, 1957-1958 (2 letters)

Agel, Jerome B. (Agel & Friend), 1959 (1 letter): includes press release

Agostini, Edward (Becker and Becker Associates), 1969 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Airflow Refrigeration, 1954: (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Alabama Polytechnic Institute, 1947 (1 letter)

Albers, Josef ("Juppy") and Anni (Black Mountain College), 1933-1958 (11 letters): a 1956 letter includes miscellaneous typescripts by Albers and clippings; a 1965 letter to the Phoenix Art Museum from William A. Leonard of the Contemporary Arts Center concerns an Albers exhibition and includes a list of works; a 1967 letter from Breuer to National Institute of Arts and Letters includes a typescript concerning Albers

Albert, Edouard (architect), 1956-1958 (2 letters)

Albright Art Gallery, 1959 (3 letters)

Alexander, H. J. W. (Architectural Association), 1957-1958 (4 letters)

Alpern, Robert, 1964 (letter from Breuer)

B. Altman & Company, 1951 (1 letter)

Aluminum Company of America (ALCOA), 1946-1964 (2 letters)

Aluminum Import Corporation, 1946 (2 letters)

Alvarez, Raúl J., 1968 (1 letter)

American Academy in Rome, 1947-1961 (4 letters): request recommendations for Frederic S. Coolidge, Arthur Myhrum, and Thomas B. Simmons

American Academy of Arts and Letters, 1965-1978 (10 letters): a letter 1967 is a nomination by Walter Gropius for Sigfried Giedion's honorary membership in American Academy of Arts and Letters and National Institute of Arts and Letters; see National Institute of Arts and Letters

American Academy of Arts and Sciences, 1977 (1 letter)

American Academy of Political and Social Science, 1946 (1 letter)

American Arbitration Association, 1960-1968 (52 letters)

American Church in Paris, 1966 (1 letter): from Robert F. Gatje

American Council for Emigres in the Professions, Inc., undated: letter introduces Viola Kondor

American Craftsmen's Council (Mrs. Vanderbilt Webb), 1967 (1 letter)

American Designer's Institute, 1947 (convention schedule)

American Export and Isbrandtsen Lines, 1963 (1 letter)

American Federation of Arts, 1958-1967 (8 letters)

American Field Service, 1956 (1 ): letter from Breuer on behalf of Danielle Eyquem

American Fork & Hoe Company, 1944 (1 letter)

American Hungarian Studies Foundation (August J. Molnár), 1964-1968 (10 letters): a 1967 invitation is to George Washington Awards Dinner in honor of Breuer, Watson Kirkconnel, and Hans Selye

American Institute of Architects, 1946-1976 (45 letters): membership applications for Edward Larrabee Barnes, Landis Gores, John MacL. Johansen, George Sherman Lewis, A. McVoy McIntyre, Robert Hays Rosenberg, Bernard Rudofsky); a 1963 letter from Breuer's office concerns a Skyscraper Architecture survey team from Japan; a 1968 letter concerns the Comité Organizador de Los Juegos de la XIX Olimpiada

American Institute of Architects, College of Fellows, 1976 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

American Institute of Architects, Jury of Fellows, 1960 (3 letters): from Breuer

American Institute of Architects, Library Buildings Award Program, 1967 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

American Institute of Architects, New York Chapter, 1945-1963 (16 letters)

American Institute of Decorators (Richard F. Bach), 1956 (1 letter)

American Institute of Interior Design in Switzerland (Charles D. Gandy and Susan Zimmermann), 1977-1978 (2 letters)

American-Jewish Congress: see Commission on Community Interrelations (CCI)

American Library Association, 1951-1968 (2 letters)

American Planning and Civic Association, undated: membership notice

American Press Institute, 1974-1975 (5 letters): from Breuer

American Radiator and Standard Sanitary Corporation, 1947 (1 letter): from Breuer

American Shakespeare Festival, 1954 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

American Society for Church Architecture, 1965-1966 (4 letters)

American Society for Friendship with Switzerland, 1969 (1 letter)

American Society of Interior Decorators, 1976 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

American Society of Planners and Architects (ASPA), 1945-1947 (12 letters)

Anderson, Lawrence B., 1945-1965 (2 letters): see American Society of Planners and Architects (ASPA)

András, Ivánka, 1957 (1 letter)

Andrews, Robert, 1956 (1 letter)

Aoyagi, Nobuo, 1964 (1 letter)

Aoyagi, Tetsu, 1965 (1 letter)

Arbelaez, Carlos, 1952 (1 letter): from Breuer)

Architects & Engineers Institute, 1959 (1 letter)

Architects' Collaborative, 1946-1959 (3 letters): see McMillan, Louis and Peggy

Architectural Association, London, 1965-1969 (7 letters): see project file for UNESCO for correspondence with Edward J. Carter Architectural Design, 1960 (1 letter): from Ernesto Fuenmayor and Manuel Sayago of Centro Profesional del Este)

Architectural Forum, 1960 (1 letter): from Leonard J. Currie

Architectural Group, (W. D. Wilson), 1947 (1 letter)

Architectural League of New York, 1947-1975: (26 letters and minutes from 6 meetings): see Ketchum, Morris

Architectural Record, 1946-1959 (9 letters)

Architectural Students Association, 1958 (1 letter)

Architecture Formes Fonctions, 1971 (3 letters): includes a typescript "Design Research in Concrete" for July 1971 magazine

Architektur + Wohnwelt, 1975 (3 letters)

Argan, Giulio Carlo, 1955-1957 (6 letters)

Arizona, University of, 1974 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Arnold, Randolph, undated: illustrated Christmas card

Arp, Hans Jean, 1954-1959 (5 letters): a 1959 letter on Arp's behalf from Marguerite Hagenbach; a 1959 wedding announcement for

Arp and Hagenbach

Arseniev, Milko, 1975 (1 letter)

Art Circus: see Long Beach Art Association, Inc.

Art Directors Club, Inc., 1975 (5 letters)

Artek-Pascoe (Clifford Pascoe), 1941-1946 (2 letters)

Artigas, Josep Llorens (ceramist colleague of Joan Miró), undated and 1960-1963 (5 letters)

Arts Council of Great Britain, 1962 (4 letters): concern an

Alexander Calder sculpture

Art Squad, Inc. (Ernest Costa), 1952 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Asfia, H. E. Dr. Safi (Iranian deputy prime minister), 1974 (1 telegram): from Breuer

Ashihara, Yoshinobu ("Yosh"), undated and 1954-1970 (26 letters): a 1955 letter encloses a photograph of Ashihara and a model of his project

Association of Hungarian Students in North America, undated and 1958 (4 letters)

Atelier International, Ltd., 1968 (2 phone messages)

Atkin, William Wilson (Silvermine Publishers), 1965 (1 letter)

Atlanta Central Library, 1975 (1 letter): from Breuer

Atlantic Refining Company, Inc., 1956 (1 letter)

Atlas Tile & Marble Company, 1955 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Auchincloss, Lily and Douglas, undated and 1963 (5 letters)

Auckland University College, 1945 (2 letters): 1 letter from Walter Gropius

Aufricht, Gustave and Maria, 1955-1970 (4 letters)

Aujame, Roger and Edith (and María Feuyo McVitty), undated (1 letter)

Australian National Gallery, Canberra, 1975 (3 letters): from Breuer

Austrian Consulate General, 1951 (2 letters)

Austrian Institute and Mrs. Schlag, 1964 (invitation to reception)

Auzelle, Robert (architect), 1956 (1 letter): see Académie d'Architecture

Babarovic, Gretchen and John, undated and 1963 (2 letters)

Bacal, Jacob, 1967 (1 letter)

Bachem, Hans Peter (architect), 1950 (1 letter)

Baer, David C. (AIA), 1956 (1 letter): from Breuer

Bak, Joseph, 1950 (1 letter)

Baker, James (Tower Development), 1981 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Baldes, Jeannette, 1948 (1 letter)

Baldwin, Benjamin, undated (2 letters)

Ballard, Robert F. R., 1975 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Bard Civic Award Trust Fund: see City Club of New York, Albert S. Bard Civic Award Trust Fund

Bárdos, Tamés, 1947 (1 letter): from Breuer

Barnes, Belva Jane ("B. J."), undated and 1956-1957 (4 letters)

Barnes, Edward Larrabee (architect), 1945-1955 (5 letters)

Barnett, Steven G., 1966 (1 letter)

Barroso, Nicolás Mariscal (VIII Congreso Panamericano de Arquitectos, México), 1952 (2 letters)

Barry, Gerald, 1951 (1 invitation): mentions Barry

Bartholdy & Klein, 1933 (1 letter)

Bartlett, Allan J., 1950 (1 letter): from Robert W. Gumbel

Bartolozzi, Goffredo (Vetro Italiano di Sicurezza, Milan [VIS]), 1959 (1 letter)

Bassetti, Fred (Bassetti & Morse, Architects), 1951 (2 letters)

Bauen + Wohnen, 1974-1975 (5 letters): from Breuer

Baughman, George F. (New York University), 1959 (1 letter)

Bauhaus-Archiv, Bibliothek und Schausammlung, 1972 (1 letter): to Knoll International

Bauhaus Archiv E. V., 1960 (1 letter)

Bayer, Herbert and Joella, undated and 1933-1966 (87 letters)

Beaux Arts Club, 1968 (1 letter)

Beaux-Arts Institute of Design, 1946-1947 (3 letters)

B.E.B. Consultants, 1982 (1 letter): from Robert F. Gatje

Bechtol, Ron (Lance Larcade & Bechtol), 1968-1976 (3 letters)

Beck, Martin (New York University), 1962-1964 (2 letters): from Hamilton Smith

Beckhard, Herbert and Ellie and Susan, undated and 1954-1980 (45 letters)

Bee, Anton, 1957 (1 letter)

Beekman, Rev. Gerardus, 1955 (1 letter): from Breuer

Begrow, Harold J., 1954 (3 letters)

Behar, Esther, 1968 (1 letter): from Breuer

Belgiojoso, Lodovico (Lodovico B. Belgiojoso, Enrico Peressutti, Ernesto N. Rogers, architects), 1950 (1 letter)

Belluschi, Pietro (MIT School of Architecture and Planning), 1954-1968 (3 letters)

Bemis, Frances, 1954 (1 letter)

Bemo Shipping Company, 1954-1956 (2 letters)

Bender, Richard (Harvard University), 1952 (2 letters)

Benesch, Edward M. (Gomprecht & Benesch), 1955 (1 letter)

Benglia, Christine (architect; married architect Alistair Bevington), 1964 (1 letter)

Bennett, Richard M. (Loebl, Schlossman & Bennett), 1958 (1 letter)

Benton & Bowles, Inc., Advertising, 1955 (1 letter)

Beothy, E., undated (1 letter)

Bergen County Cut Stone Company, 1967 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Bergen, Emiel, 1956 (1 letter)

Berger, Donald (North Dakota Agricultural College), 1953 (1 letter)

Berger, George, 1950 (1 letter)

Berger, Otti, undated and 1934-1937 (7 letters)

Berger, Sanford and Helen (architects), 1945 (1 letter): from

Breuer to László Moholy-Nagy and Ludwig Mies Van der Rohe introducing the Bergers

Berger, Stephen E., 1959 (1 letter)

Berizzi, Sergio, 1959 (4 letters): letters of introduction

Berko, Franz, 1946-1947 (5 letters): including one from László Moholy-Nagy

Berlin Interbau, (International Building Exhibition), 1957 (1 letter): from mayor of Berlin

Berndt, Marianne, 1933 (1 letter)

Berti, Vincent, 1974 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Better-Philadelphia Exhibition (Richard A. Protheroe, Harry

B. Nason, Hugh B. Sutherland), 1947 (1 letter)

Bevington, Alistair M., 1959 (1 letter): includes résumé

Bevington, Mariette (stained-glass designer), 1967 (1 letter): to Herbert Beckhart

Bharadwaj, Ajaya, 1955 (2 letters)

Biasini, E. J. (French prime minister), 1972 (1 letter)

Biddle, Mrs. Francis, 1962-1968 (3 letters): includes a funeral announcement for her husband)

Biddle, George, 1965 (4 letters): 3 from Breuer

Bier, Justus (University of Louisville), 1938 (3 letters)

Bigeleisen, Jacob (University of Rochester), 1970 (1 letter) Ronald S. Biggins and Associates, 1958 (1 letter)

Bijenkorfbeheer N.V., Amsterdam, 1967-1974 (2 letters): from Breuer

Bill, Alexander H., Jr., undated (1 calling card)

Blake, Peter (architect), undated and 1950-1976 (41 letters): a 1958 letter from Breuer is illustrated with a hand-drawn map by

Blake of Easthampton property

Blanton, John A., 1951 (1 letter)

Blaustein, Morton K., 1963-1965 (2 letters)

Bliss, Douglas P. (Glasgow School of Art), 1947 (1 letter): from Breuer

Bloeme, Sidney, 1963 (1 memorandum): from James S. Plaut

Blum, Kurt (photographer), 1974 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Bode, Paul (architect), 1956 (1 letter)

Bodri, Ferenc, 1967-1975 (3 letters): 2 1975 letters from Breuer

Boehringer Ingelheim, Ltd., 1975 (1 letter): from Breuer

Bogner, Walter, 1938-1960 (4 letters): see Project File for UNESCO

Boissonnas, Eric and Sylvie, undated and 1960-1978 (20 letters)

Bollingen Foundation, 1964 (1 invitation): to reception in honor of Sigfried Giedion

Bonaparte, Mrs. Robert L., 1955 (1 letter)

Bonomi, Maria, undated and 1958 (2 letters)

Bookman, Mrs. John, 1964 (1 letter)

Borbíró, Virgil (Hungarian architect), 1945-1956 (2 letters): includes Borbíró's obituary

Borglum, Paul, 1950 (1 letter): see Project File for UNESCO

Born, Karl, 1968 (1 letter): from Breuer

Borsódy, István ("Stephen"; historian; Hungarian Legation) and Zsóka, 1946-1965 (5 letters): 1951 letter includes a biographical sketch of Borsódy by Aladár Szegedy-Maszák

Bortfeldt, Hermann (Büro Willy Brandt), 1963 (1 letter)

Bosch, Robert, 1934 (2 letters)

Bosserman, Joseph Norwood, 1963-1967 (2 letters)

Bosshard, J., 1956 (1 letter)

Boston Architectural Center, 1968 (1 letter)

Boston Redevelopment Authority, 1970 (1 letter)

Boston Society of Architects, 1946 (1 letter): from Breuer to John R. Abbott

Botond, Stephen G. ("Pista"; architect), 1958-1960 (2 letters): includes wedding announcement for Botond and Patricia Potter Luce

Bouchet, Maxime, 1953 (5 letters)

Bourget, Inc., 1955 (2 letters): from Breuer's office

Bower, John, 1954 (1 letter)

Bozzola, Vittorio, 1964 (2 letters)

Bradford, Carol (Mrs. Amory H. Bradford), 1951 (1 letter): from Breuer

Brandon-Jones, John, 1958 (1 letter)

Brandstätter, Elsbeth, 1936-1937 (2 letters)

Brassaï, Gyula Halász (Romanian photographer), undated (1 calling card): no signature

Peter Bratti Associates, 1974-1975 (2 letters): from Breuer

Bratti, Peter (A. Tozzini Tile Works, Inc.), 1958 (1 letter)

Braun, Wolfgang, 1968 (1 letter): from Breuer

Braziller, George, 1966 (1 letter)

Bremer, Paul and Nina, 1975 (2 letters)

Breuer, Constance (née Leighton), 1947-1982 (22 letters): from Breuer and Breuer's office; a 1967 letter, 1967, from French filmmaker Gerard Calisti is routed from Robert Osborn; an invitation from M. Knoedler and Company concerns reception for Lina Kandinsky

Breuer, Francesca, undated and 1966-1973 (3 letters): includes a letter of recommendation from Tician Papachristou

Breuer, Hermina, 1950 (1 telegram): from Breuer

Brewer-Cantelmo Company, Inc., 1966 (3 letters): from Breuer's office

Brewer, Joseph, 1965 (1 letter)

Brewster, George W. W., Jr., undated and 1946 (2 letters)

Brey, David M. (architect), 1950 (1 letter)

Breydert, Katherine, 1946 (1 letter)

Brickel/Eppinger, Inc., 1963 (3 letters)

Brigham, Richard C., 1954 (1 letter)

Brion, Maud (secretary to Eric Cercler), 1966-1972 (10 letters)

Brissenden, Norine (Mrs. P. R. Brissenden), 1947 (1 letter)

British Chair Company, 1954 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Brodovitch, Alexey (Harper's Bazaar), 1954-1961 (16): 13 letters from Breuer's office

Broner, Gisela (wife of Erwin Broner, architect), undated (1 letter)

Brooklyn College Library, 1958 (1 letter)

Brooklyn Museum, 1944 (1 letter)

Brooks, J. H. (Putnam & Company), 1954 (1 letter): from Breuer

Brooks, Kenneth, 1968 (2 letters)

Brown, Elliott, 1951 (4 letters)

Brown, Graham, 1954 (1 letter)

Brown, Helen M., 1958 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Brown, Jane M. (Mrs. Elliott Brown), 1975 (1 letter): letter is illustrated with drawing of Alexander Calder mobile

Brown, Joseph, 1955 (1 letter): includes transcript of

Brown's lecture at Princeton University

Browne, Robert Bradford (architect), 1968 (1 letter)

Brumwell, Marcus, 1944 (1 letter)

Brun, Jacques D. (architect), 1958 (1 letter)

Bryn Mawr School for Girls, 1981 (1 letter): from Betsy Prioleau

Bryson, Clayton J., 1950 (1 letter)

Budapest Muszaki Egyetem (István Benke), 1970 (1 letter)

W. S. Budworth and Son, Inc., 1963 (1 letter): from Charles H. Sawyer

Builders Publishing Company, 1954 (1 letter): to Rufus Stillman

Building Progress, 1974 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Bujdosó, Ferenc, 1963 (2 letters)

Bulova, Arthur, 1950 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Burchard, Charles (architect), 1945-1960 (10 letters)

Burchard, John E., 1967-1971 (2 letters): see American Society of Planners and Architects (ASPA)

Burkland, Howard (Shere Naven Corporation), 1951 (1 letter): from Stamo Papadaki

Burton, Véra, undated (1 letter)

Buyoucos, James V., 1952 (1 letter): from Breuer

Byrd, Dale, 1950-1968 (5 letters)

Cabinet Norbert Guerle, 1953-1954 (10 letters)

Caesar, Harry I. (Leslie Stillman's father, married to sculptor Doris Caesar), 1954-1955 (4 letters): 3 from Breuer's office

Calder, Alexander, 1938-1975 (12 letters): a 1947 letter is illustrated with a map; a 1975 letter contains a typescript about

Calder

Calico Museum of Textiles, India, 1974 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

California Council, AIA, 1960 (5 letters)

California, University of, Berkeley, 1957-1964 (3 letters)

Calisti, Gerard (French filmmaker): see Breuer, Constance

Canaday, John (New York Times), 1959 (1 letter): from Rufus Stillman

Canadian Architect, 1974 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Canavesi, Schifra, undated and 1935-1957 (8 letters)

Candela, Felix (Cubiertas ALA S.A.) and Dorothy, undated and 1956 (3 letters)

Caplan, Frank (Creative Playthings), 1950 (1 letter)

Cardinal Stritch College, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, 1970 (1 letter)

Cardot, Vera (photographer), 1975 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Carmel, Moty, 1968 (1 letter): from Breuer

Carpanelli, Franco, 1951 (1 letter)

Carpentier, Jacques H., 1960 (1 letter)

Carré, Louis, 1964 (1 letter and 1 picture postcard): postcard shows map to Maison Carré and house designed by Alvar Aalto

Carreras, Guillermo and Margarita, 1968 (1 letter): from Breuer

Carson, Alice Morgan (Museum of Modern Art), undated and 1943 (3 letters)

Carstensen, William (Carstensen, Inc.), 1954 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Carter, Edward J. ("Bobby"; librarian, UNESCO): see, Architectural Association, London; see Project File for UNESCO

Carter, Stephen Newhall, 1976 (1 letter)

Cassinello, F. (Instituto Tecnico de la Construcción y de Cemento), 1960 (1 letter)

Catalano, Eduardo Fernando, 1945-1968 (8 letters)

Catan-Rose Institute of Art, 1965 (invitation): to reception at Gracie Mansion

Cavazzuti, Ugo, 1969-1970 (2 letters)

Central Mortgage and Housing Corporation, 1975-1976 (3 letters): from Breuer's office

Central School of Arts and Crafts, London, 1947-1950 (2 letters): includes an invitation to the school's presentation of diplomas by Sir Kenneth Clark

Central State AIA Conference, Omaha, 1976 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Century Association, 1976 (1 letter)

Century Club, 1974-1976 (3 letters): 2 letters from Breuer's office

Century Lighting Company, 1956 (1 letter): from Breuer's office concerning Torrington, Connecticut factory

Cepero, Carlos Celis (architect), 1965 (1 letter)

Cercle d'études Architecturales, 1953 (1 letter)

Cercler, Eric: see Brion, Maud

Chase Manhattan Bank, 1955-1965 (5 letters): from Breuer's office

Chatfield, Ayla K. (architect), 1975 (2 letters)

Checkman, Louis (photographer), 1955 (1 letter)

Cheever, John, 1967 (1 letter)

Chelsea Association for Planning and Action, 1941 (1 letter)

Cheng, Tzu-tsai, 1968 (1 letter): from Breuer

Chermayeff and Cutting, Architects and Industrial Designers, 1956 (2 letters)

Chermayeff, Ivan, 1957-1975 (2 letters): from Breuer's office; a 1957 letter concerns a 70th birthday greeting for Le Corbusier

Chermayeff, Serge (Erich Mendelsohn & Serge Chermayeff, Architects), 1936-1978 (10 letters)

Cherry, Ned, 1968 (1 letter): from Breuer

Chiang, Helen and Arthur, 1950 (envelope only) and 1970 (1 letter)

Chicago Housing Authority, 1946 (2 letters)

Chien, Alan Shue Shih, 1969 (2 letters)

Children's Recreation Foundation, Inc., 1967 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Chinoy, Rustam, 1954 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Churchill, Henry S. (Churchill-Fulmer Associates), 1947 (1 letter): from Breuer

Ciampi, Mario J. (architect), 1968 (1 letter)

Cidor, Ruth, 1971 (1 letter)

Citizens Committee for a Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, 1963 (1 letter): see also Van Doren, Mark

City Club of New York, 1963-1964 (3 letters)

City Club of New York, Albert S. Bard Civic Award Trust Fund, 1968 (6 letters)

Ciudad Universitaria de México, 1952 (1 invitation): to VIII Congreso Panamericano de Arquitectos

Clark, Donald and Dallas (Associated Seed Growers), 1954 (1 letter): see Project File for UNESCO

Clarke, Arundell, 1950 (1 letter)

Clergue, Lucien (photographer), 1966-1967 (5 letters)

Cleveland Museum of Art, 1967 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Cleveland Trust Company, 1970 (1 letter)

Clyne, Harry, 1947 (1 letter): from Breuer

Cochran, Alexander S. (architect), 1950-1967 (4 letters)

Coderch, J. A. (architect), 1961 (1 greeting card): includes photograph of exhibition

C. Coggeshall Design, 1944 (3 letters)

Cohen, Ken, 1968 (1 letter): from Breuer

Cold Spring Granite Company, 1960-1965 (11 letters): a 1964 letter has a design for a candle holder

Cole, Howard I. (Rutgers University), 1957 (1 letter): from Breuer

Coleman, Albert, 1945 (1 letter)

Colen, Eszter and Bruce, 1963 (2 letters)

Colorado, University of, Boulder, Student Chapter of AIA, 1958 (1 letter)

Columbia Broadcasting System (CBS), 1975 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Columbia University, 1964-1977 (6 letters): see Project File for UNESCO

Comité Français de l'American Field Service, 1956 (1 letter)

Comité Organizador de Los Juegos de la XIX Olimpiada, 1968 (4 letters)

Commission on Community Interrelations (CCI) of the American-Jewish Congress, 1945 (8 letters)

Compagnie Française de Transports Internationaux, 1954 (1 letter)

Compton, W. Danforth, 1950 (1 letter)

Concha, Gonzales, 1952 (1 letter): from Breuer

Concrete Industry Board, Inc., 1969 (2 letters)

Condé Nast Publications, Inc., 1955 (1 letter)

Congrès Internationaux d'Architecture Moderne (CIAM),

Chapter for Relief and Post-War Planning, 1944-1956 (27 letters)

Congrès Internationaux d'Architecture Moderne, Mars Group (British branch of CIAM), 1946-1947 (5 letters)

Conklin, George W. (architect), 1956 (2 letters)

Connecticut Chapter of AIA, 1963 (2 letters)

Connecticut Public School Building Commission, 1951 (1 letter): from Breuer

Connecticut Society of Architects (Norman L. Raymond), 1963 (1 letter)

Contemporary Arts Association, 1952 (2 letters)

Contemporary Arts Center, 1965 (3 letters): concerning Josef Albers exhibition

Contemporary Authors, 1963 (1 letter)

Contini, Paolo and Jeanne, 1968 (1 letter)

Contreras, Carlos (XVI Congreso Internacional de Planificacion y de la Habitación, México), 1938 (2 letters)

Conway, Harvi, 1968 (1 letter): from Breuer

Cooke, Maymay (Mrs. Francis Cooke), 1947 (1 letter)

Coolidge, Frederic S. and Anne, 1947 (1 letter)

Cooper-Hewitt Museum of Design, 1975 (2 letters): from Breuer

Cooper Union, 1958 (2 letters)

Cooper, Wyatt Emory, undated (1 letter): mentions Eugene J. McCarthy

Corcoran, Kostelanetz, Gladstone & Lowell, 1959 (1 letter)

Cordos, Stephan, undated (1 letter)

Corkran, D. C. (Charles F. Orvis Company), 1944 (5 letters)

Cornigliano S.p.A. ("Società per Azioni"; limited company which installs exhibitions), 1958 (3 letters)

Corson, Richard A., 1950 (1 letter)

Coulson, Anthony J., 1975 (1 letter): from Breuer

County Roofing Company, 1957 (1 letter)

Crampton, Nancy (photographer), 1975 (1 letter)

Creighton, Thomas H., 1950 (1 letter): written with Katherine Morrow Ford

Crohn, Norma and Richard, 1968 (1 letter)

Croll, Jean, 1939 (1 letter)

Cromley, Don, 1968 (1 letter): from Breuer

Crotin, 1934-1935 (5 letters)

Crowther, J. G. (author) and Fransiska, 1936 (2 letters)

Csernyei, Zsuszi, 1939 (1 letter)

Cuevas de Vera, Adela ("Tota"), 1933-1934 (7 letters)

Cunningham, Allen, 1957 (1 letter)

Currie, Leonard (architect), undated and 1944-1978 (29 letters): see Architectural Forum

F. B. Curry Company (Frank B. Curry), 1945 (3 letters)

Cushing, Tom, 1937 (3 letters)

Cutler Farm (Lily C. Johanson), 1951 (1 letter)

Cutler, Robert W., 1968 (1 letter)

Czike, Dr. Gyuláné, 1957 (3 letters)

Dach, Joseph, 1944 (1 letter)

Daidone, Anthony J., 1958 (1 letter)

Damora, Robert (photographer), 1955-1967 (3 letters)

D'Andrea Brothers, Inc., 1957 (1 letter)

Bernard Danenberg Galleries, 1974-1975 (3 letters): from Breuer

Danielsson, Lars (Swedish architect), 1956 (3 letters)

D'Arcy, Frank (architect), 1957 (1 letter)

Dauber, Deanna L., 1975 (2 letters)

Daurel, Paul (architect), 1970 (1 letter)

Davenport, Keith H., 1946 (1 letter)

Daves, L. Joan, 1951 (1 letter)

Davis, Arthur, 1946 (1 letter): from Breuer

Davis, Brody, Chermayeff, Geismar, deHarak, Associates, 1969 (2 letters)

Davis, Columbus, 1946 (1 letter)

Davis, Paul (photographer), 1955 (1 letter): from Breuer

de Bever, Leo J., 1958-1960 (2 letters)

de Bodard, Connie, 1956 (1 letter)

De Carli, Carlo (Politecnico Milano), 1968 (1 letter)

Decima Triennale di Milano, 1954 (1 letter)

Decker, H. Carlton (architect), 1968 (1 letter): concerns Interama

DeCoene, Pierre, 1966-1968 (2 letters)

Dedet, Dr. Jacques (and Mme. Georges Cexier, Mme. Pierre

Dedet, Mme. André Laurenti), undated (1 letter)

De Hausner, Mrs. Djin Lilli S., undated and 1935-1936 (11 letters)

Deimel, Klöckner, Koebel, 1959 (1 letter)

Del Buttero Enzo (Vetro Italiano di Sicurezza [VIS], Milan), 1959 (1 letter)

De Leu Dulles, Mrs. J., undated (1 letter)

Delft Student Debating Society "Vrije Studie," 1957-1958 (6 letters)

DeMars, Vernon (DeMars and Wells), 1967 (1 letter)

Democratic National Committee, 1960 (1 letter)

De Rivera, José, 1946 (1 letter)

Derome, Leon, 1953 (1 letter)

Deschamps, Julio, 1950 (1 letter): includes 4 photographs of a house under construction

design magazine, 1975 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Design Quarterly, 1976 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Design Research, 1965 (2 letters)

de Spirlet, André (Cie. Belge de Chemins de Fer et d'Enterprises), 1963 (1 letter)

Dévényi, Iván, undated (1 letter)

De Vries & Company, 1953 (1 letter)

de Waldner, C. (IBM, France), 1970 (1 letter)

Dewey [Thomas E. Dewey], Ballantine, Bushby, Palmer & Wood, 1955-1969 (5 letters)

de Zwart, J., 1957 (1 letter): from Breuer

d'Harnoncourt, René, 1950-1951 (3 letters): see Project File for UNESCO

Diamant-Berger, Renée, 1954 (2 letters): from Evelyn Rocourt

Dicke, Hendrik Adolph (civil engineer), 1976 (1 death announcement)

Dickey, Thomas A., 1954 (1 letter)

Eugene Dietzgen Company, 1956 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Dodd, Betty, undated (1 letter)

Dodd, Mead & Company (Edward Dodd), 1949-1960 (33 letters)

Doerr, Harold J. (interior decorating), 1975 (1 letter)

Doherty, Neil (photographer), 1974 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Domela, Cesar (Dutch artist who worked at the Bauhaus), 1961 (2 letters)

Dominick & Dominick, 1936 (1 letter)

Domus magazine, 1947 (1 letter)

Dorner, Alexander (Brown University), 1947 (1 letter)

Drabkin, Murray (Kaler, Worsley, Daniel & Hollman), 1970-1978 (10 letters)

Dreier, Theodore and Barbara, 1956 (1 letter)

Drew, Jane B. (Fry, Drew, Drake & Lasdun), 1958 (1 letter)

Dreyer-Dufer, B., 1953 (1 letter)

Duane, Duane & Cahill, Architects (Franklin J. Duane), 1969 (1 letter)

Fred S. Dubin Associates, 1954-1958 (12 letters): 9 letters from Breuer's office

Dubsky, Caroline (Svoboda & Company), 1968 (1 letter)

Dufau, Pierre, 1963 (2 letters): from Breuer

Duhart, Emile and Raquel, undated (1 illustrated Christmas card)

Dunkel, E., 1934 (1 letter)

Dunn, Frederick, 1955 (1 letter): from Marvin Halverson concerning Commission on Architecture meeting

Dunning, James O., 1969 (1 letter)

DuPont, Henry B., 1958 (1 letter): from Rufus Stillman

Eastern Schokbeton Corporation, 1969 (1 letter)

Edwards, David J. (Georgia Institute of Technology), 1951-1968 (2 letters): see Project File for UNESCO

Egender, Karl, 1947 (1 letter)

Eggington, Geoff, 1968 (1 letter): from Breuer

Eken, Andrew J. (Starrett Brothers and Eken, Inc.), 1952 (1 letter): from Sherley W. Morgan, Princeton University; see Project File for UNESCO

Eldredge, Joseph L., 1948 (1 letter)

Electric Arts Intermix, Inc., 1974 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Elkington, Robert (architect), 1968 (1 letter)

Elliott, Edward Proctor, 1945 (calling card)

Ellis, W. A., 1936 (1 letter)

Ellwood, Craig, 1966 (1 letter)

Elsbree, E., 1947 (1 letter)

Elsner, Werner, 1968 (1 letter)

Elte, Hans (School of Architecture, University of Toronto), 1950 (2 letters)

Elzas, A. (architect) and Hermine, 1956-1978 (18 letters)

Embru-Werken, 1950 (2 letters)

Emery, P., 1947 (1 letter)

Emslie, Murray Sims, 1954-1964 (20 letters): see Project File for UNESCO

Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1951-1964 (3 letters)

Engel de Janosi, Karl, 1950 (1 letter)

English-Speaking Union, 1951 (1 invitation): to reception in honor of Gerald Barry

Entenza, John D. (Graham Foundation for Advanced Studies in the Fine Arts), 1968 (1 letter)

Epler, Robert E., 1966 (1 letter)

Escoffier, Pierre, 1963 (1 letter)

Escrito Trading Post, New Mexico, 1950 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

European Investment Bank, Luxembourg, 1974-1978 (5 letters): 3 letters from Breuer

Evans, T. Randall (Yorke Rosenberg Mardall, Architects), undated and 1947-1965 (3 letters)

Eyquem, Danielle, 1956 (3 letters)

Fairweather, W. Ross, 1958 (1 letter)

Farkas, Nicholas (Farkas & Barron, consulting engineers), 1955-1969 (3 letters)

Farnsworth, S. W. (Torrington Manufacturing Company), 1956 (1 letter)

Farris, Mary E. (Breuer's secretary), 1964-1968 (13 letters)

Faudon, M. J. (European Investment Bank, Luxembourg), 1974-1975 (4 letters): from Breuer

Fédération Internationale du Film d'Art (FIFA), 1956 (1 letter)

Fehér, Nicolaus, 1966-1967 (4 letters)

Fejér, George (Selection Engineering Company, Ltd.), 1946-1947 (2 letters)

Ferguson, E. S., 1946 (1 letter)

Ferry, W. Hawkins, 1963 (1 letter)

Ficks Reed Furniture Company, 1951 (1 letter)

Fifth Avenue Association, Inc., 1968 (2 letters)

Finger, Sally L. (Mrs. W. L. Finger), 1950 (2 letters)

Finn, Herman L. (Abbe & Finn), 1960 (1 letter): from Breuer

Finn, Michael (from Breuer's office), 1972 (3 letters)

Finsler, Hans (photographer), 1936-1937 (3 letters)

Fintel, Nat, 1976 (1 letter)

Fiocchi, Annibale (architect), 1955 (1 letter)

Firma l.u.c. arnold, 1934 (1 letter)

Firmage, Margaret ("Peg"; Mrs. Charles Firmage; Breuer's secretary), 1947-1964 (48 letters)

First Hanover Corporation, 1967 (1 letter)

Fischer, Edward L., 1943 (1 letter)

Fischer, Eta, 1956 (1 letter): from Breuer

Fischer, John, 1956-1957 (2 letters): from Breuer's office

Fischer, Joseph (Hungarian architect), undated and 1923-1966 (17 letters)

Fischer, Margrit (Mrs. Edward L.; sculptor at Bauhaus), undated and 1934-1950 (5 letters)

Fitzgibbons, Frank, 1968 (1 letter): from Breuer

Fitzhugh, Greene, 1946 (1 letter)

Fjödl, Fjeinrich, 1964 (1 letter)

Flansburgh, Earl F. (Earl F. Flansburgh and Associates), 1976 (1 letter): from Robert F. Gatje

Fletcher, Jean Bodman (architect), 1947 (1 letter)

Flick, Miriam Hilliard (formerly Miriam Flick White), 1950 (1 letter)

Flos, Merano, 1963 (1 letter)

Földes, Dr. István ("Pista"), 1933-1934 (7 letters)

Foote, Elliott and Caroline, 1960-1967 (4 letters)

Forbàt, Alfréd ("Fred"; Hungarian architect), 1938 (2 letters): see Congrès, Les Congrès Internationaux d'Architecture Moderne (CIAM)

Forberg, Kurt, 1975 (1 letter)

Forbes, E. W., undated (1 letter)

Forbes, Marla, 1939 (1 letter)

Forbes, R. E. and Pauline, undated (1 letter)

Ford, Katherine Morrow (Mrs. James Ford), 1950-1951 (2 letters): 1950 letter written with Thomas H. Creighton

Fornells-Pla, Francisco, 1969 (1 letter)

Forrest, Robert E. (Princeton University), 1952 (2 letters)

Forum of Contemporary Arts, 1958 (1 letter)

Foundation for the Arts and Humanities, 1967 (1 letter)

Foundation for the Arts, Religion and Culture, 1963-1965 (4 letters)

Fox, John P. (Murray Hill Assn., Inc.), 1949-1957 (2 letters)

Foyle, Christina, 1947 (1 letter)

France: French Embassy, Washington, D.C. (François De Laboulaye, ambassador), 1978 (1 invitation): to presentation of Médaille d'Or to Breuer

Frank, Oswald, 1947 (1 letter)

Frank, Mrs. Robert J., 1940 (1 letter)

Frantz, Al (Edward Gottlieb & Associates), 1958 (2 letters)

Franzen, Ulrich ("Rickey"; architect), 1956-1968 (2 letters)

Fratelli Salvadori, 1964 (1 letter)

Frazer, Peter M., 1950 (1 letter)

Freck, Byron, 1945 (1 letter)

Freeman, Elizabeth E. (Wellfleet Real Estate), 1947 (1 letter)

Freeth, Evelyn (Royal West of England Academy), 1958 (2 letters)

Frey, Emil (Motorfahrzeuge), 1956 (1 letter): from Breuer

Friedman, B. H. (Bob), 1970 (1 letter)

Friedrich, Clara, 1935 (1 letter)

Frost, Frederick G. (Frederick G. Frost Jr. & Associates, Architects), 1960 (1 letter)

Frost, Henry A. (Harvard University), 1947 (2 letters)

Fry, Louis Edwin (architect), 1945-1946 (3 letters)

Fry, Lynn W. (University of Michigan, Ann Arbor), 1951 (1 letter): see Project File for UNESCO

Fry, Maxwell, 1950 (1 letter): from Breuer

Fuenmayor, Ernesto (Centro Profesional del Este), 1960 (3 letters)

Fulde, Philip, 1965 (1 telegram): from Breuer

Fürbeth, Albrecht, 1974 (1 letter)

Gabetti, Gianluigi, 1969 (1 letter): from Breuer

Gabo, Naum, 1938 (2 letters)

Gábor, László ("Laci"; graphic designer for Kaufmann), undated and 1938 (3 letters)

Gagarin, Andrew (Torrington Manufacturing Company) and Jamie, 1953-1975 (15 letters)

Galhidy, László, undated and 1960-1963 (4 letters)

Gambaro, E. James (architect), 1968 (1 letter)

Gane, Crofton Endres, undated and 1945-1967 (25 letters)

Gantschi, Edith, 1934 (1 letter)

Gardella, Ignazio, 1950 (1 letter): from Breuer

Gardner-Medwin, R. J. (Liverpool School of Architecture), 1957-1959 (5 letters): see also Selwood, Christopher

Gargas, Klára, 1970 (3 letters)

Gastón, Miguel (Gastón y Dominguez, S.A.), 1950-1967 (6 letters): 1951 letter contains 2 floor plans and 7 photographs of Gastón's house

Gatje Papachristou & Smith, 1984-1985 (3 letters)

Gatje, Robert Frederick, undated and 1954-1982 (45 letters): see Project File for UNESCO

Gautschi, Dr. Georg, 1936 (1 letter)

Gavina, Dino (furniture manufacturer), 1962-1976 (111 letters)

Geberta, Victor F., undated (1 letter)

Geisler, Howard, 1968 (1 letter): from Breuer

Gelb, Mr., 1963 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Gelland, Carolyn (Breuer's secretary), 1972-1974 (8 letters)

Geller, Bert and Phyllis, 1963-1968 (2 letters)

General Electric Appliances, Inc., 1947 (1 letter)

General Electric Company, 1943-1950 (6 letters)

General Fireproofing Company, 1943-1946 (4 letters)

Georges, Alexandre (photographer), 1974-1976 (2 letters): from Breuer's office

Geraghty, Margaret, 1960 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Gerbman, Joyce, 1968 (1 letter): from Breuer

Giedion-Welcker, Sigfried and Carola, undated and 1932-1976 (62 letters): see Congrès Internationaux d'Architecture Moderne (CIAM; Chapter for Relief and Post-War Planning)

Girsberger, H., 1976 (1 letter): from Breuer

Glazier, Helen, 1946 (1 letter)

Gogolák, Ludwig, 1958 (1 letter)

Goldinger, Harry, 1946 (1 letter)

Goldings, Morris M. (Mahoney, McGrath, Atwood, Piper & Goldings), 1970 (1 letter)

Goldman, Paul (Plymold Corporation), 1945 (2 letters): from Breuer

Goldman Sokolow Copeland, 1984-1985 (3 letters)

Gömöri, Herman Iván, 1956-1957 (2 letters)

Goodman, Mrs. Alvin Malcolm, 1967 (1 letter): from Breuer

Goodman, Charles, 1946 (1 letter): from Breuer

Goodman, Percival, 1968 (1 letter)

B. F. Goodrich Company, 1965 (1 letter)

Goodwin, Philip L. (architect), 1947-1955 (3 letters): see Project File for UNESCO

Gores, Landis, 1947-1951 (2 letters): from Breuer

Gorlich Editore, 1957 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Gorn, Samuel G. (Gorn Brothers, Inc.), 1956 (1 letter)

Gottscho-Schleisner (photographer), 1955-1956 (2 letters): from Breuer

Goudsmit, Alfred and Gertie, 1963-1970 (2 letters)

Gould, Eleanor J. (Mrs. J. Howard Gould), 1966 (1 letter)

Graber, Rudolf (Wohnbedarf furniture store), undated and 1938-1969 (21 letters): see Project File for UNESCO

Gramling, Hdikó, 1975 (1 letter)

Grand Coulee Dam Project, 1974-1975 (2 letters): from Breuer; see United States Department of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation

Grant, Barbara, 1968 (1 letter): from Breuer

Grayboff, Ira, 1955 (2 letters)

Green, Lynda, 1968 (1 letter): from Breuer

Grefe, Richard (McDonald & Smart, Inc.), 1976 (1 letter): from Breuer

Grieco, Vito (Grieco Bros., Inc.), 1958-1959 (3 letters)

Griffis, Nixon (Hemphill, Noyes & Company), 1946 (1 letter)

Griffith, J. Neal, undated (1 letter)

Grimball, Henry G. (Harvard University), 1950 (1 letter)

Gropius, Walter ("Pius") and Ise ("Pia"), undated and 1933-1969 (120 letters): see Harvard University, Graduate School of Design; Project File for UNESCO

Grosse Pointe Public Library, 1960 (1 letter)

Grossi, Olindo (Architectural League of New York), 1957 (4 letters): see Pratt Institute; see Project File for UNESCO

Grosswirth, M. (New York University, College of Engineering), 1958 (1 letter)

Gröte, Dr. Andreas and Laura, 1961-1967 (3 letters)

Gröte, Ludwig and Gertrud Maud, 1956-1967 (5 letters)

Groupe Espace, 1952-1954 (5 letters)

Gruber, Gerd, 1965-1967 (2 letters)

Gruber, Richard D. (Independent Oil Company of Connecticut, Inc.), 1970 (1 letter)

Gruzen, Barney Sumner, 1956 (1 letter): from Breuer

Gstrein, Kassian, 1936 (1 letter)

Guenther, Carl Frederic, 1958 (1 letter)

Guerrero, Pedro E. (photographer), 1955 (1 letter): from Breuer

Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, 1964 (1 letter): concerns the loan from Breuer of an Alexander Calder work

Guilford Leather Company, 1950 (1 letter): from Breuer

Gumbel, Robert W., 1950 (1 letter)

Gutheim, Polly (Mrs. Frederick A. Gutheim), 1946 (1 letter)

Haas, Robert (Ram Press), 1954-1957 (8 letters): from Breuer's office

Hächler, W. (architect), 1956 (1 letter): from Breuer

Hack, Lynda, 1968 (1 letter): from Breuer

Hackett, Gabriel D. (photographer), 1963 (1 letter)

Hackley Art Museum, 1977 (3 letters)

Hagenbach, Marguerite: see Arp, Hans Jean

Hagerty, Francis (Hagerty Company), 1945 (2 letters)

Hagerty, John, 1958 (1 letter)

Haggerty, Brian (Sacred Heart Seminary), 1964 (1 letter)

Hagmann, John S. (and Robert A. M. Stern), undated (1 letter)

Hagood, M. Lindsey (Virginia Polytechnic Institute, Architectural Speakers Committee), 1952 (3 letters)

Hahn, Alexander, 1957-1958 (2 letters)

Halász, Dezso (International Union of Local Authorities), 1957-1959 (3 letters)

Halász, Ferenc, 1959 (2 letters)

Halborg, Rev. John E. (Evangelical Lutheran Church of the Advent), 1968 (1 letter)

Hall, John Hughes (Nardin & Radoczy), 1956-1957 (2 letters)

Halprin, Lawrence, 1966-1970 (2 letters)

Halverson, Marvin (National Council of the Churches of Christ in the USA), 1955-1956 (4 letters)

Halvorson, Roy E., 1956-1971 (4 letters)

Hambuechen, Dr. Eva-Dorothee, 1937 (1 letter)

Hamer, R. D. (Aluminium Laboratories Ltd.), 1946 (1 letter)

Hammett, Ralph W., 1975 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Hancy, L., 1975 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Hansen, Thomas L. (University of Colorado, Boulder), 1956 (1 letter)

Hanson, B. (Mrs. John Hanson), 1955-1967 (3 letters)

Haraszty, Eszter, undated and 1956 (2 letters)

Harbert, Guido, 1950 (1 letter)

Hardoy, Jorge Ferrari (architect), 1965 (1 letter)

Hardy, Holzmann, Pfeiffer (Christine Donovan), 1974 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Harkness, Elaine, 1960 (2 letters)

Harnischmacher, Paul and Marianne, undated and 1933-1964 (41 letters)

Harper's Bazaar, 1954-1955 (4 letters)

Harris, James L., 1946 (1 letter)

Harris, S. I. (Keasbey & Mattison Company), 1956 (1 letter)

Harrison, Wallace K. (architect) and Ellen, 1937-1956 (3 letters)

Hars, Anthony, 1964 (1 letter)

Hartgen, Vincent A. (University of Maine, Orono), 1956-1957 (4 letters)

Hartung, Herrn Dipl. Eng. (Staatshochbauamt Dusseldorf), 1976 (1 letter): from Breuer

Harvard Club of New Canaan, Connecticut, 1951 (1 letter)

Harvard Club of New York City, 1946-1950 (6 letters)

Harvard University, Carpenter Center for the Visual Arts, 1966-1970 (10 letters)

Harvard University, Graduate School of Design, 1938-1953 (49 letters)

Harvard University Society of Fellows, 1967-1970 (5 letters)

Harvard-Yenching Library, 1954 (1 letter)

Haskell, Douglas (architect; Architectural Forum), 1958 (1 letter)

Hassenpflug, Gustav (architect), undated and 1933-1955 (20 letters)

Hatje, Gerd (Verlag Gerd Hatje GMBH), 1955-1964 (111 letters): see Kaspar, Karl

Hauf, Harold D. (Edwards Street Laboratory, Yale University) and Dorothy, 1951-1954 (3 letters): see Project File for UNESCO

Haughwout, John L., 1950 (1 letter)

Havinden, Ashley, 1969 (2 letters)

Hayes, Mrs. Alfred Hayes, undated (2 letters)

Hayes, Bartlett H. (Addison Gallery of American Art), 1955 (2 letters)

Hayes, Peggy, 1963 (1 letter)

Hayes, Thom, 1968 (1 letter): from Breuer

Hayoz, Marcel, 1957 (2 letters)

Headquarters First Service Command, 1945 (1 letter)

Healy, Estelle, undated (1 letter)

Hebert, Elmer T., 1951-1974 (3 letters): from Breuer

Heckscher, August, undated and 1962-1970

Hedrich, E. (Hedrich-Blessing Photographers), 1967-1975 (2 letters)

Heinz, H. J. and Drue Maher, undated and 1954 (3 letters)

Heiser, Bruce, 1950 (1 invitation): for luncheon honoring Heiser

Helsel, Marjorie (M. Helsel Interiors), 1966 (1 letter)

Helseth, Glenn, undated (1 letter)

Henderson, Priscilla A. B., 1954 (1 letter)

Hendry, Charles E. ("Chick"; University of Tornoto), 1950 (2 letters): see Commission on Community Interrelations (CCI) of the American Jewish Congress

Henin, Mme. S., 1956 (2 letters)

Henze, Wilfried, 1964 (1 letter)

Herbe, Paul (architect), 1963 (1 letter)

Herford, Julius G., 1945 (1 letter)

Herman, Harold M., undated (1 letter)

Hermanson, Ray T. (Trynor & Hermanson, Architects), 1957 (1 letter)

Herrera, Alberto Rodriguez (El Recreo, Centro Profesional del Este), 1960 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Herrey, Hermann (architect), 1946-1947 (3 letters)

Herter, Susan and Chris, undated (1 letter)

Hertner, W. (architect), 1939 (1 letter)

Hertzell, Tage (Meningsblad for Unge Arkitekter), 1956 (1 letter)

Hervé, Lucien, 1960 (4 letters): see Project File for UNESCO

Herz, Alexandra, 1965-1967 (2 letters)

Hess, Orvan W., 1976 (1 letter)

Hester, James M. (New York University, Washington Square), 1963-1970 (2 letters)

Hetényi, George, 1954 (1 letter)

Heyer, Paul O., 1965-1970 (11 letters)

Heyman, Marla, undated (1 letter)

Heywood-Wakefield Company (Mr. Greenwood, Mr. Paul Posser), 1944 (6 letters)

Higgins, Ambrose S. (architect), 1947 (1 letter)

Hill, Albert Henry, 1950-1951 (2 letters)

Hill and Knowlton, Inc., 1974 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Hill, Henry and Heather, 1950-1964 (7 letters): see Project File for UNESCO

Hirschfeld, Ludwig, undated and 1935-1963 (18 letters)

Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden, 1975 (2 letters): from Breuer

Hitchcock, Henry-Russell, Jr., 1937-1938 (4 letters)

Hobart Manufacturing Company (KitchenAid Home Dishwasher Division), 1950 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Hockaday Associates, Inc., 1954 (2 letters)

Hödl, Heinrich, 1964 (1 letter)

Hoffman, Mildred, 1966 (1 letter)

Hoffman, Tom, 1968 (1 letter): from Breuer

Hoffmann, Alfred, 1938 (1 letter)

Hofmann, Hans (from Weimar), 1947 (1 letter)

Julius Hoffmann Verlag Stuttgart, 1955-1961 (2 letters): see Project File for UNESCO

Hoffmeyer, Ted (Marcel Breuer and Associates field office), 1963-1970 (3 letters)

Hogan, P. A., 1975 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Holden, Thomas S. (F. W. Dodge Corporation), 1954-1958 (3 letters)

Holland Shade Company, 1950 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Holzmann, Philipp, 1975-1977 (2 letters)

Hooper, Edith Ferry, undated and 1963 (2 letters)

Hooper, Elizabeth, 1969 (1 letter)

Hooykaas, J. A. (Nederlandse Natuursteen Importeurs), 1957 (1 letter)

Hopfe, Charles T. (Hop-Mac, Inc.), 1974 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Horizon, 1970 (1 letter)

Hosei University, 1954 (1 letter)

House & Garden -- , 1970 (1 letter)

House and Home magazine, 1954 (1 letter)

Housing and Urban Development (HUD), Department of, 1968 (1 invitation): to dedication

Houston, University of, Architectural Society, 1953-1955 (4 letters)

Edward F. Howard Company, 1956 (1 letter)

Howard, Herbert Seymour, 1946 (1 letter)

Howe, George (Yale University), 1951 (1 letter): from Breuer

Howland, Mrs. John, 1957 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Hsin-Yieh Architects & Associates, undated (1 letter)

Hu, Kuang-Yu, 1947 (1 letter): from Breuer

Huber, Karl, 1950 (1 letter): from Breuer

Hudnut, Joseph ("Vi"; Harvard University) and Claire, undated and 1946-1947 (3 letters): see American Society of Planners and Architects (ASPA); Congrès Internationaux d'Architecture Moderne (CIAM), Chapter for Relief and Post-War Planning; Harvard University, Graduate School of Design

Hug, Hattula Moholy-Nagy (daughter of László Moholy-Nagy), 1976 (1 letter)

Hughes, Ella C., 1937 (1 letter)

Hughes, Jennifer, 1964 (2 letters)

Hughes, K. E., undated (1 letter)

Hultberg, Hilary (Rudi Blesh's daughter ?), 1957 (3 letters)

Hungarian Alumni Association, undated (1 letter): includes a hand-drawn map, 8 photographs of Hungarian cityscapes, 4 photographs of city views, and a drawing of the facade of a building

Hunter, Louise, 1947 (1 letter)

Hurley, Jane C., 1947 (1 letter): from Breuer

Hurwitz, Joe, 1968 (1 letter): from Breuer

Hutchhausen, Walther, 1937 (1 letter)

Hutchins, John Jay (Law Offices of S. G. Archibald), 1963-1969 (14 letters): see Project File for UNESCO

Hutton: E. F. Hutton Company, 1946-1951 (7 letters)

Huygens, W., 1957 (1 letter)

Ichban [?], Hans ("Zero"), undated and 1939 (2 letters)

Ikuta, Tsutomu, 1951 (1 letter)

Illinois, University of, Chapter of AIA, 1959 (2 letters)

Illinois, University of, Urbana, 1957-1964 (4 letters)

Ilmanen, J. William, 1955-1956 (2 letters)

Immanuel, M., 1946 (2 letters)

India, ambassador from, 1965 (1 invitation): to Nehru

N.V. Induventa, 1935 (1 letter)

Ingrand, Max, undated (2 letters)

Institute der Schwestern, Baldegg, Switzerland, 1970-1975 (5 letters): 4 from Breuer

Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton University, 1970 (1 letter)

Institute of Contemporary Art, 1954-1956 (3 letters): see Project File for UNESCO

Institute of Contemporary Art, Department of Design in Industry, 1951 (3 notices of meetings)

Institute of Design, Illinois Institute of Technology, 1953-1959 (6 letters)

Institute of International Education, 1960-1961 (4 letters)

Instituto Internazionale di Arte Liturgica, 1970 (1 letter)

Interiors Incorporated, 1975 (1 letter): from Breuer

Interiors International, 1963 (4 letters)

Interiors magazine, 1950 (1 letter)

International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, 1975 (1 letter): from Breuer

International Business Machines Corporation (IBM), 1963-1974 (4 letters): 2 from Breuer

International Business Machines (IBM) Deutschland, 1970 (1 letter)

International Congress for Engineering Education, 1947 (2 letters)

International Congress for Modern Architecture: see Congrès Internationaux d'Architecture Moderne (CIAM)

International Contract Furnishings, Inc., 1975 (1 letter): from Breuer

International Design Conference, Aspen, Colorado, 1953-1955 (4 letters)

International Lighting Review, 1961 (1 letter)

International Rescue Committee, Inc., undated (1 letter)

Iowa State College, 1960 (1 letter): see Myers, John S.

Iran, empress of, 1975 (1 letter): from Breuer

Irving & Casson/A. H. Davenport Company, 1945 (1 letter): see Commission on Community Interrelations (CCI)

Irving, Michael H. (Irving and Jacob), undated and 1968-1971 (4 letters)

Isokon (Lawn Road) Limited, 1936-1966 (2 letters)

Istituto Italiano di Cultura, 1967 (1 letter)

Jackson, Huson (Plan-Tech Associates), 1945-1958 (3 letters)

Jacobs, Robert Allan (Kahn & Jacobs), 1958 (2 letters)

Jacobson, Egbert (Container Corporation of America), 1950 (1 letter)

Janis Gallery (Sidney Janis), 1955-1970 (2 letters): concerning Josef Albers exhibition

Japan Architect Company, Ltd., 1977 (2 letters)

Japan House Gallery, 1975 (1 letter): from Breuer

Japan Society, Inc., 1964-1975 (3 letters)

Jaredat, Nizar and Ellen, 1946-1958 (4 letters)

Jaritz, András, 1934 (1 letter)

Jarrell, Katherine O., 1960 (2 letters)

Jefferson Foundation Medal in Architecture, 1968 (1 letter)

G. A. Jellicoe & Partners, Architects, undated (1 letter)

Georg Jensen, Inc., 1946-1947 (4 letters)

Jewish Community Center of Cleveland, 1965 (3 letters)

Jobco Incorporated, 1980 (1 letter): from Herbert Beckhard

Johansen, John MacL.("Jo") and Mary Ellen, undated and 1947-1970 (7 letters)

Johns Hopkins University, 1981 (2 letters)

Johnson, Dan Rhodes, 1965 (1 letter)

Johnson, Frances, 1950-1951 (2 letters): from Breuer

Johnson, Lyndon Baines, 1965 (1 invitation): to presidential inauguration

Johnson, Marian Willard: see Willard, Marian G.

Johnson, Philip (architect), 1945-1948 (10 letters): 4 letters from Breuer: see Project File for UNESCO

Johnson, Reid B., 1964 (1 letter)

Johnstone, William (Colorado Springs Fine Arts Center), 1949 (1 letter)

Joly, Pierre (photographer), 1975 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Jomain, Pierre, 1960 (1 letter)

Jones, Adolph (U.S. Embassy, The Hague), 1956 (1 letter): from Breuer

Jones, Cranston and Jean, 1958-1966 (10 letters)

Jones, Cyrus C., 1945 (1 letter): from Breuer

Jones, Douglas (University of Bristol, U.K.), 1967 (1 letter)

Jones, Noel W. (district engineer, OCS), 1968 (1 letter)

Jones, Paul K. (mayor of Shaker Heights, Ohio), 1970 (1 letter)

Jones, Theodore S. (Institute of Contemporary Art), 1950-1951 (2 letters)

Joraschek, Josef (architect), 1965 (1 letter)

Jordi, Beat, 1970-1976 (13 letters): 12 from Breuer

Jordy, William H. (Yale University), 1951 (2 letters)

Jossa, Mario, 1966-1976 (37 letters): 28 from Breuer

Joyce, Nora, 1934 (1 letter)

Junyer, Joan [?]1961 (1 letter)

Kacmarcik, Frank, 1968 (1 letter): from Breuer

Kaffka, Péter (C. E. Pratt & Péter Kaffka, Architects), 1950 (1 letter)

Kahlen, Wolfgang, 1965 (1 letter)

Kahn, Hugo, 1968 (1 letter)

Kahn, Louis I. (Oscar Stonorov and Louis I. Kahn Associated Architects), 1945-1966 (5 letters): see American Society of Planners and Architects (ASPA)

Kalmai, K., 1924 (1 letter)

Kálmán, Timon, 1967 (2 letters)

Kalnay, Ferenc, 1938 (1 letter)

Kamer, Henri A. (Kamer, Inc.), 1964-1966 (2 letters)

Kamphoefner, Henry L. (School of Design, North Carolina State College), 1951-1954 (6 letters)

Kandinsky, Lina, 1969-1976 (mentioned in 2 letters from Constance Breuer)

Kane, Ervin (Viewtone Television), 1946 (2 letters)

Kaneko, Masanori (Kagawa Prefectural Government, Japan), 1970 (1 letter)

Kann, Henry Robert, 1951 (1 letter)

Karajabey, Ayla, 1966 (telegram from Breuer)

Karlock, Michael (Benton & Bowles), 1946 (1 letter): from Breuer

Karsten, Thomas and Marilyn (American Trading Company), 1963-1975 (8 letters)

Kaspar, Karl (Verlag Gerd Hatje GMBH), 1955 (2 letters)

Kass, Gertrud [?], 1939 (1 letter)

Katsuyama, S., undated (1 letter)

Kaufman, Stanley Lloyd, 1950 (1 letter): see Project File for UNESCO

Kaufmann, Edgar J. (Kaufmann Department Store), 1954-1963 (2 letters)

Kazi, Abdul-Rassak, 1966 (2 letters)

Kazin, Alfred, 1971 (1 letter)

W. R. Keating & Company, 1962 (1 letter): concerns shipment of Alexander Calder sculpture

Keller, Dieter, 1965 (2 letters)

Kelly, John Terence (architect), 1964 (1 letter)

Kelly, Virginia Whitmore, 1949 (1 letter)

Kennedy, Edith (Robert Woods Kennedy's mother), 1939 (1 letter)

Kennedy, John Fitzgerald, 1961-1963 (3 letters): from the White House

Kennedy, Robert Woods (first architect in Gropius-Breuer office, Cambridge, Massachusetts), undated and 1950 (3 letters): see American Society of Planners and Architects (ASPA)

Kennerly, Albert (Kennerly Construction Company, Inc.), 1947 (1 letter)

Keogh, Eugene J. (Halpin, Keogh & St. John), 1970 (1 letter)

Kepes, György (architect) and Juliet, undated and 1924-1978 (29 letters)

Kertész, André, 1968 (1 letter): from Breuer

Kertész, Gyula, 1938 (1 letter)

Kessler-Gallacher & Burton, Seagram-Distillers Corporation, 1954-1963 (5 letters)

Ketchum, Morris (Ketchum, Gina & Sharp, Architects), 1957-1963 (25 letters)

Ketchum, Phillips (Ketchum Building Corporation), 1967 (4 letters)

Keyser, William, 1964 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Kida, Miho, 1975 (2 letters)

Kiley, Dan, 1955 (1 letter)

Kilham, Walter H. (R. B. O'Connor and W. H. Kilham, Architects), 1951-1960 (2 letters)

Kimura, Akira, 1965 (1 letter): includes photograph of family E. & F. King & Company, 1946 (2 letters)

King, Helen (William Morrow & Company, Inc., Publishers), 1951 (1 letter)

Kipnis, Leonid (Leonid Kipnis Gallery), 1954 (1 letter)

Kirkconnell, Watson, 1967 (1 invitation): to George Washington Awards Dinner in honor of Breuer, Kirkconnell, and Hans Selye

Kistler, Daniel, undated and 1964 (2 letters)

Kivett & Myers & McCallum (Architects - Engineers), undated (1 letter)

Kleyer, Bertel and Erwin Kleyer, 1946-1954 (10 letters)

Klöckner (Deimel, Klöckner, Koebel), 1959 (1 letter)

Kniffin, Ogden ("Nif"; inventor of Colorforms) and Kitty, 1950-1960 (5 letters): 3 from Breuer

Knoll, Hans G. and Florence (H. G. Knoll Associates, Inc.), undated and 1945-1961 (12 letters); see Project File for UNESCO

Knoll International, Inc., 1971-1977 (7 letters): see Vidal, Yves

Knox, Sanka (New York Times), 1960 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Kobler, John (Saturday Evening Post), 1959 (1 letter)

Koch, Alexander, 1948-1961 (2 letters)

Koerfer, Jacques and Christina, undated and 1964-1977 (18 letters)

Kolozsváry-Kiss, árpád, 1957 (2 letters)

Kondor, E. ("Pista"), 1937 (1 letter)

König, Dr. Heinrich, 1954-1959 (3 letters)

Konwiser, Inc., 1954 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Kootz, Samuel B. (Kootz Art Gallery), 1954-1956 (2 letters)

Koran, Spencer, 1974-1975 (4 letters): from Breuer's office

Korn, Arthur (Architectural Association School of Architecture), 1947-1956 (2 letters)

Kornfeld, Albert, 1956 (1 letter)

Kortan, Enis (Turkish architect), 1956-1960 (3 letters)

Koudela, E. Hugi (Deeter Ritchey Sippel), 1968 (1 letter)

Koyama, Shin (photographer), 1974 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Kósa, Zoltán, 1962 (1 letter)

Kozlowski, Jean Paul and Shirley, 1960-1972 (2 letters)

Kraemer, Friedrich Wilhelm (architect), 1955 (1 letter)

Kramer, Edwin R., 1950 (1 letter): from Breuer

Krausz, László, 1957-1968 (2 letters)

Krivátsky-Szüts, ádám (Hungarian architect), 1960 (1 letter)

Kri anac, Dr. Matko, 1974 (1 letter)

Ku, Danna Morison, 1968 (1 letter): from Breuer

Kuenzle, Creed (Swiss architect), 1959 (1 letter)

Kuh, Katharine (Art Institute of Chicago), undated and 1951 (2 letters)

Kulkarni, Ashok, 1968 (1 letter): from Breuer

Keith R. Kunhardt Associates, Inc., 1966 (1 letter)

Kunst Kabinett Klihm, Munich, 1956 (1 letter)

Kuwayama, A. (Kuwayama & Company, Inc.), 1945 (1 letter)

Laaff, George, 1960 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Laboratoires Sarget, 1970 (1 letter)

Lacey, Joseph (Eero Saarinen Associates), 1957 (2 letters)

Ladd, Fred, 1965 (1 letter)

LaFarge, Bancel: see American Institute of Architects

La Joie Par Les Livres, 1964 (1 letter)

Lalonde, Gisele and Jean-Louis, undated and 1955 (2 letters)

Laminated Veneers, Inc., 1948 (2 letters)

Lamson, Jarvis (Functional Furniture, Inc.), 1947-1948 (9 letters): see Noyes, Eliot

Landram, Fred, 1947 (1 letter)

M. Landsberg Stationery Company, 1960 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Landsberg, William W., 1953-1959 (5 letters)

Lang, George E. (Restaurant & Waldorf Associates, Inc.), 1967-1968 (2 letters)

Lányi, George, 1939-1946 (2 letters)

L'Architecture d'Aujourd'hui, 1954 (3 letters)

La Rinascente Compasso d'Oro, 1955-1965 (43 letters)

Larson, Else M. (Mrs. Arthur W. Larson), 1963 (2 letters)

Laseau, Paul, 1968 (1 letter): from Breuer

László, Carl, 1964 (1 letter)

Lauck, Peter (Morton Sundour Company, Inc.), 1950 (1 letter)

Lauper, Peter (Fraser's), 1955 (1 letter)

Laurenti, André, 1959-1968 (8 letters)

Lautman, Robert C. (photographer), 1973 (1 letter): from Herbert Beckhard

La Verne Originals, 1947 (1 letter): from Breuer

Lavigueur, Gilles (architect), 1967 (1 letter): includes 2 photographs of a chair

Lawrence, John W. (Tulane University), 1953 (1 letter)

Le Corbusier, 1957 (1 letter): from Walter Gropius to friends concerning Le Corbusier's 70th birthday; see also Project File for UNESCO

Lee, Duk, 1968 (1 letter): from Breuer

Lee, Richard C. (mayor of New Haven), 1964 (1 letter): from Breuer

Al Paul Lefton Company, Inc., Advertising, 1949-1950 (2 letters)

Lehigh Furniture Corporation, 1951 (1 letter)

Leibowitz, Matthew, 1946 (1 letter)

Leight, Lillian, 1972 (1 letter)

Leighton, O. S., 1946-1951 (11 letters)

Lemm, H. J. , undated (1 letter)

Lennon, Jacques E., 1975 (1 letter)

Leontieff, Wassily, 1947 (1 letter)

Lercaro, His Eminence Jacques Cardinal, 1969-1970 (2 letters)

Lescaze, William (architect), 1954 (1 letter)

Lever, Lance, 1966 (1 letter)

Levin, Arnold B., 1954 (1 letter)

Levine, Leon, 1971 (1 letter)

Lévy, Vilmos (Hungarian sculptor), undated and 1938 (2 letters)

Lewin, Kurt and G., 1944-1947 (4 letters)

Lewis, George Sherman (architect), 1946-1954 (4 letters): see Project File for UNESCO

Li, Ying, 1947 (1 letter)

Liberman, Tatiana and Alexander, 1969 (1 invitation): for cocktails with Helen Frankenthaler Librairie d'Art Ancien et Moderne, 1962-1963 (2 letters)

Librairie Ernest Flammarion, 1975 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Lili, S. Braun, 1936-1939 (8 letters)

Lilinthal, Benjamin, 1956 (1 letter)

Limbach, Scott (Limbach Company), 1976 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Lincoln Warehouse Corporation, 1951 (1 letter)

Lindsay, John V. (mayor of New York) and Mary, 1967-1969 (5 letters)

L'Industria Italiana del Cemento, 1975 (2 letters)

Linke, Siegfried, 1968 (1 letter): from Breuer

Lionni, Leonardo and Nora, 1962 (1 letter): see also International Design Conference, Aspen

Littke, George, 1950 (1 letter)

Liverant, Mrs. M. J., 1960 (1 letter)

Lloyd, Eleanor B. (Mrs. H. Gates Lloyd), 1959 (1 letter)

Lloyd, Miss M. E., 1939 (1 letter)

Lobell, Mimi, 1968 (1 letter): from Breuer

L'Oeil, 1974-1975 (2 letters): from Breuer

Lohse, Richard P. (editor, Bauen + Wohnen), 1950 (1 letter)

Lombard, M. A. (M. A. Lombard & Son, Company, General Contractors), 1966 (1 letter)

Long Beach Art Association, Inc., 1954 (1 letter)

Longmans, Green & Company, Ltd., 1958 (1 letter)

Lortz, R., 1946 (1 letter): from Breuer

Louisiana State University, Department of Architecture, 1964 (1 letter)

Lubroth, I. (Lubroth y Henriquez, Estudio de Arquitectura), 1975 (1 letter)

Ludolf, H. G., 1933-1934 (2 letters)

Lundy, Victor A., 1950-1951 (3 letters)

Lunning, Just, 1956 (1 letter)

Lurie, H. Lee, 1946-1947 (4 letters): see Project File for UNESCO

Lutz, Pierre, 1961-1968 (2 letters): from Breuer Lydakis, George (Precision Metal Model Corporation), 1950-1955 (2 letters)

Lydon, Ken, 1972 (1 letter)

Lyles, Bissett, Carlisle & Wolff, 1955 (2 letters)

Lyman, Bill, 1946 (3 letters)

Lyn, Robert J., 1951 (2 letters)

Lyndon, Maynard (architect), 1965 (1 letter)

Maas, Carl ("Happy"/"Hap"; editor, House Beautiful), 1937-1946 (6 letters)

Maas, Walter, 1947 (1 letter): from Breuer

Macomber, George A. (Cambridge Trust Company), 1947 (2 letters)

Madison, Bob, 1951 (1 letter)

I. Magnin, San Francisco, 1961 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Magyar Album, 1956 (1 letter)

Magyar épitomuvészek Szövetsége magazine, 1956-1977 (4 letters)

Maki, Fumihiko (Harvard University), 1963 (1 letter) George E. Mallison Importing Company, 1950-1955 (2 letters)

Manders, Dave, 1968 (1 letter): from Breuer

Mandl, Zoltán, 1939 (1 letter)

Manfred, Ernest F., 1966 (1 letter)

Mang, Karl (architect), 1967 (1 letter)

Manitoba, University of, Students' Architectural Society, 1953 (1 letter)

Mantel, H. J., 1951 (1 letter)

Manton, Mr. and Mrs. John, 1967 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Marbleloid, Inc., 1946 (1 letter)

Marine-Air-Research Corporation, 1946 (1 letter): from Breuer

Maroy, Jean-Paul, 1981 (1 letter): from Robert F. Gatje William L. Marshall, Ltd., 1944-1947 (8 letters)

Marson, Bernard A. (architect), 1968 (1 letter)

Marston, Natalie (Institute of Contemporary Art), 1951 (1 letter)

Martens, Michel (Hedendaagse Kerkelijke Kunst), 1956-1957 (2 letters)

Martignetti, Antonio, 1956 (1 letter)

Martin, J. L. (architect), 1938 (1 letter)

Martin, Leslie and Sadie, undated and 1954 (3 letters)

Mary College and the Annunciation Priory, 1963-1976 (6 letters)

Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Art Committee, 1968 (1 letter)

Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Office of the President, 1961-1965 (2 letters)

Massachusetts Institute of Technology Press, 1975 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Massachusetts Institute of Technology, School of Architecture and Planning, 1958-1960 (4 letters)

Massachusetts, University of, Amherst, 1968 (1 letter)

Massenot, J. P. (éditions Techniques), 1974 (1 letter): from Breuer's office Master, Dipak C. (Master Sathe and Kothari, Architects), 1968 (1 letter): from Breuer

Mathews, Joseph F., 1956 (1 letter)

Maucher, Helmut, 1976 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Maurer, Laurie, undated (3 letters)

Mauser Kommandit-Gesellschaft, 1966 (1 letter)

Mayekawa, Kunio, 1963 (1 letter)

McClean-Smith, Betty, 1940 (1 letter)

McComb, Peter K. and Karen, 1954-1956 (4 letters)

McGarry, Ann M., 1947 (1 letter)

McGill University, Montreal, 1967 (1 letter)

McGlynn Associates, Inc., 1956 (1 letter)

McGrath, Raymond (Office of Public Works, Dublin, Ireland), 1937-1969 (9 letters)

McGraw-Hill Publications, 1967 (1 letter)

McGuinness, William J. (Pratt Institute), 1951 (1 letter)

McIntyre, A. McVoy, 1950-1951 (2 letters)

McLaughlin, Peter, 1959 (1 letter)

McMillan, Louis and Peggy (Architects' Collaborative), 1945-1946 (2 letters)

McVitty, John D., 1946 (1 letter)

John O. Meadows Associates, Ltd., 1984-1985 (2 letters)

Medical Economics, 1960 (1 letter)

Meier, Richard Alan, undated and 1957-1967 (5 letters)

Meldrum, Andrew, 1956 (1 letter): from Breuer

Meller, Herbert, 1969-1970 (4 letters)

Mellon, Mary, 1938 (1 letter)

Meng, John J. (Hunter College), 1963 (1 letter)

Menken, Julian (Julian Menken and Associates), 1964 (1 letter)

Merit Studios, Inc., 1965 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Merle, André (André Merle Associates, Architectural Engineers), 1946 (1 letter)

Merrill and Holmbren, Architects, 1954 (1 letter): concerns Campbell Building Company

Merrill, Ruth P., 1950-1964 (2 letters)

Metropolitan Milwaukee War Memorial, Inc., 1945 (4 letters): 1 to Walter Gropius

Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1944-1975 (8 letters)

Metropolitan Structures, Inc., 1974 (2 letters): from Breuer's office

Metropolitan Washington Board of Trade, 1969 (2 letters)

Meunier, John, 1957 (1 letter)

México, Consulado Honorario de, 1938 (2 letters)

Meyer-Bohe, Walter, 1975 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Michaëlis, Lorenz S. (Swiss doctor), undated (1 letter)

Michaelis-Lenolt, Ilse, 1937 (1 letter)

Michaud, Marcel (Stylclair), 1950-1951 (3 letters)

Michel, John (General American Transportation Corporation), 1947-1948 (2 letters)

Michelson, Val (architect), 1970 (1 letter)

Michigan, University of, Ann Arbor, 1957-1963 (19 letters)

Middelhauve, Dr. F. G., 1963 (1 letter)

Mies Van der Rohe, Ludwig, 1945 (1 letter): from Breuer introducing Sanford L. and Helen Berger, architects

Mihályfy, Károlyné, 1966 (1 letter)

Millar, L. R., 1935 (1 letter)

Millard, Charles W., 1957 (1 letter)

Miller Company, 1945-1947 (2 letters)

Miller, Flora W. (Mrs. G. MacCulloch Miller), undated (1 letter)

Miller, H. Wisner, 1968-1969 (2 letters)

Herman Miller Furniture Company, 1951-1954 (4 letters): from Breuer

Miller, Rev. John (St. Charles Seminary), 1975 (1 letter): from Breuer

Miller, Richard J., 1955 (1 letter)

Miller, Steve, 1968 (1 letter): from Breuer

Milliken, W. H. (Binney & Smith Company), 1951 (1 letter)

Mills, Mrs. Edward E., 1954 (1 letter): from William W. Landsberg

Mills, Willis N. (Sherwood, Mills and Smith, Architects), 1960-1969 (2 letters)

Ministre d'état Chargé des Affaires Culturelles, 1963 (1 letter): from Breuer

Minnesota Society of Architects, 1958 (1 letter)

Minnesota, State of, Board of Registration, 1954 (2 letters)

Minnesota, University of, 1953 (1 letter)

Miró, Joan, 1959-1963 (2 letters): 1 from Breuer

Mitchell and Ritchey, 1947 (2 letters)

Mitchell, Mary, 1954 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Miya & Company, 1956 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Modern Industry, 1947 (1 letter)

Modern Master Tapestries, Inc., 1974-1975 (4 letters): from Breuer's office

Moffett, Toby, 1974 (1 letter)

Moholy, Lucia, 1957-1958 (5 letters)

Moholy-Nagy, László ("Lakci") and Sibyl, 1934-1955 (40 letters): includes a 1946 exhibition catalog for a Walter Gropius exhibition at the School of Design, Chicago; see also Hug, Hattula Moholy-Nagy

Moldcast Products, Inc., 1950 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Molitor, Joseph W. (photographer), 1955-1975 (5 letters): 4 from Breuer

Molnár, Farkas (Hungarian architect), undated and 1933-1940 (25 letters)

Mongan, Agnes, 1938 (1 letter)

Montague, Harvey, 1968 (1 letter): from Breuer

Montgomery, Elizabeth (Mrs. Wilmot), 1950 (1 letter)

Moore, Henry, 1946-1962 (13 letters): 6 from Breuer

Moore, Joe A., 1945 (2 letters)

Moore, Paul S. (architect), 1966-1967 (3 letters)

Morassutti, Mangiarotti, 1961 (1 letter)

Moretti, Bruno, 1936 (1 letter)

Morgan, Alice, 1939 (1 letter)

Morgan, Sherley W. (Princeton University), 1952 (3 letters)

Móricz, Miklós, 1947 (1 letter)

Morrell, Mrs. Ben, 1965 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Sydney Morrell & Company, Inc., 1973-1976 (4 letters)

Morris, Walter (Fuller & Smith & Ross, Inc.), 1950 (1 letter)

Morrow, Margot, 1950 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Mory, Bob, 1968 (1 letter): from Breuer

Moschette, Angela, 1950 (1 letter)

Motherwell, Robert, 1968 (1 letter)

Muguruza Otaño, José María (architect), 1935-1967 (3 letters)

Mulford, Edwin H., 1966 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Müller-Rehm, Klaus (architect), 1951 (1 letter)

Mundipharma GmbH, Frankfurt, 1975-1976 (4 letters)

Eduard Munz & Company, 1954-1959 (3 letters)

Murray, J. A. (University of Toronto School of Architecture), 1947-1956 (3 letters)

Murrow, Mrs. Edward R., 1961 (1 letter)

Musée des Arts Décoratifs, 1969 (2 letters)

Museu de Arte Moderna do Rio de Janeiro, 1954 (1 letter)

Museu de Arte Moderna do São Paulo, 1956 (1 letter concerning IV Bienal de S. Paulo)

Museum of Contemporary Crafts, 1967 (7 letters)

Museum of Modern Art, New York, 1941-1976 (49 letters)

Museum of Science and Industry, Chicago, 1967 (3 letters)

Museum of the City of New York, 1959 (2 letters)

Muskat, Irving E., 1968 (2 letters)

Mutsu, Masako, 1964-1965 (2 letters): from Breuer

Myers, John S. and Shirlee, 1955-1959 (4 letters)

Myers, Ralph E., 1958 (2 letters)

Myers, Robert L., 1950 (1 letter)

Nadeau, Eleanor Saxe, 1950 (1 letter)

Nader, Fouzieh, 1972 (2 letters)

Nagare, Masayuki, 1963-1965 (6 letters): 5 letters from Breuer

Nagel, Chester (architect), 1968 (1 letter)

Nagy Iván, Dr. Vitéz (Ministry Secretary), undated (1 letter)

Najibullah, Yousof, 1968 (1 letter): from Breuer

Napier, Frieda (Mrs. Ian Napier), undated and 1937 (7 letters)

Nathan, Carl H. (Suncraft), 1945 (1 letter)

National Academy of Sciences/National Research Council, undated (1 letter)

National Citizens for Johnson and Humphrey, 1964 (1 letter)

National Committee of Arts, Letters and Sciences for John F. Kennedy for President, 1960 (2 letters)

National Concrete Masonry Association, 1958-1959 (7 letters)

National Council of American Soviet Friendship, Inc., Architects' Committee, 1944-1945 (13 letters)

National Council of American Soviet Friendship, Inc., Building Industry Committee, 1946 (6 letters)

National Council of Architectural Registration Boards, 1946-1959 (5 letters): request recommendations for Jean Bodman Fletcher, I. M. Pei, and Richard G. Stein

National Council of Churches, 1955 (1 letter)

National Council on Schoolhouse Construction, 1951 (1 letter)

National Institute of Arts and Letters, 1965-1968 (47 letters): 1967 letter from Breuer includes typescripts concerning Josef Albers and Constantino Nivola; 1968 encloses a letter from Philip Johnson; see American Academy of Arts and Letters National Society of Interior Designers, Inc., 1958 (1 letter) National Terrazzo & Mosaic Association, 1955 (1 letter from Murray S. Emslie)

National Trust for Historic Preservation, 1975 (2 letters): from Breuer's office

Nedberg, Björn, 1951 (1 letter)

Nederlandsch-Amerikaansche Fundatie, 1957-1958 (2 letters)

Neighbour, Keith, 1955 (1 letter)

Neiman Marcus, Dallas, Texas, 1961 (1 letter)

Nelson, George (architect), undated and 1958 (2 letters)

Nemeny, George (architect), 1945 (2 letters): from Breuer

Nervi, Mario (son of Pier Luigi Nervi), 1975 (1 letter): from Breuer

Nervi, Pier Luigi, undated and 1960-1978 (5 letters): see Project File for UNESCO

Neski, Joe and Barbara, 1957 (1 letter)

Neski, Julian (architect), 1967-1970 (2 letters)

Neufert, Ernst, 1946 (1 letter)

Neumann, J. B., 1950 (1 card): sent jointly with Elsa Schmid

Neumann, Lena, 1951 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Neumann, Vera (Scarves by Vera), 1970 (1 letter)

Nevendorff, Peter (construction supervisor for Ludwig Mies van der Rohe's Museum of the 20th Century), 1967 (1 office message)

Newark Museum, 1954-1955 (5 letters)

New Canaan Advertiser, 1974 (1 letter)

New Canaan Committee for Shakespearean Festival, undated (1 invitation): from Francis A. Sunderland to meet Sir Cedric and Lady Hardwicke

New Canaan Community Nursery School, Inc., 1955 (1 letter)

New Canaan Country School, 1957 (1 letter): from Breuer

New Haven Festival of Arts, Inc., 1959 (4 letters)

New Hungarian Quarterly, 1967 (1 letter)

Newman, Robert B. (Bolt Beranek and Newman), 1951 (1 letter)

Newport, Charles W. (R. S. Noonan, Inc.), 1945 (2 letters)

Newsome, Carroll V. (Prentice-Hall, Inc.), 1962 (1 letter)

Newsweek, 1955 (1 letter)

New York Association of Consulting Engineers, Inc., 1970 (1 letter)

New York Division of Housing and Community Renewal, 1964 (1 letter)

New Yorker, 1967-1975 (3 letters)

New York Institute of Technology AIA Chapter, 1976 (1 letter)

New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad Company, 1951-1963 (6 letters)

New York Public Library, 1966 (1 letter)

New York State Council on Architecture, 1975 (1 letter)

New York World's Fair 1964-1965, 1964 (1 invitation): for cocktails at Pavilion of Spain

Nicholson, Christopher (architect), 1946 (2 letters)

Nicholson's Sports Apparel, 1945 (1 letter)

Nivola, Constantine, 1966 (1 letter): from Breuer

Noever, Peter (Svoboda and Company), 1958-1968 (4 letters)

Noirot, Genevieve, 1975 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Nolen, James A., 1970 (1 letter)

Nolen-Swinburne and Associates, 1970 (1 letter): from Herbert Beckhard concerning Department of Housing and Urban Development

Nordmann, Christian, 1934 (1 letter)

North Dakota Agriculture College, AIA, 1959 (1 letter)

North Dakota State College, 1960 (2 letters)

Northey, Ned H., 1956 (1 letter)

Norton, Clifford, undated (1 letter)

Norton, Noël E. ("Peter"; Lady Clifford Norton), undated and 1933-1965 (36 letters)

Norweb, Emery May (Mrs. R. Henry Norweb), 1970 (1 letter)

Noyes, Eliot Fette (architect), undated and 1946-1974 (13 letters)

N.V. Ingenieurs - Bureau Voor Bouwnijverheid, 1960 (2 letters)

Ochs, Fritz, 1950 (1 letter)

O'Connor, Vincent A. G., 1963 (5 letters)

Oehler, Erma L. (Fuller & Smith & Ross, Inc., Advertising), 1947 (3 letters)

Oestreicher, W. L., 1947 (1 letter)

Ohye, Hiroshi, 1954 (1 letter): of introduction from Hyoe Ouchi

Oklahoma Agricultural and Mechanical College, 1950 (1 letter)

Oklahoma, University of, School of Architecture, 1966 (2 letters)

Okudaira, Kozo, 1954-1955 (6 letters)

Olgyay, Aladár (Hungarian architect; twin brother Viktor Olgyay) and Elizabeth, undated and 1939-1960 (12 letters)

Olivetti, Adriano, 1956 (1 letter)

Olivetti, Dino, 1963 (1 letter)

Olivetti, Roberto, 1970 (1 letter)

Olsen, Don and Helen, 1947 (1 letter)

Olsen, Ralph, 1968 (1 letter): from Breuer

Omega Marble, 1965 (1 letter)

O'Neill, John C. R., and Marvin H. Segner (consulting engineers), undated (1 letter)

On Site, 1975 (2 letters): from Breuer's office

Oppenheim, Dennis, 1968 (1 letter)

Ordre des Architectes, Paris, 1964 (1 letter from Robert F. Gatje)

Originators, The, 1977 (1 letter)

Ortega, Alvaro (Colombian architect, student of Breuer), 1960-1972 (3 letters): 1972 letter from Leonard Currie concerns a recommendation for Ortega

Osborn, Elodie and Robert, undated and 1946-1971 (18 letters)

Osborne, Stafford, 1963 (1 memorandum): from James S. Plaut

Otto, Marguerite, 1946 (1 letter)

Oud, J. J. P. (architect), undated (1 calling card)

Owens-Corning Fiberglas Corporation, 1959 (2 letters)

Owurowa, Saji, 1968 (1 letter): from Breuer

Oxford University Press, Inc., 1954 (1 letter)

Pabst, Robert E. (Mabaco Marine), 1956 (1 letter)

Pach Brothers, 1965 (1 letter): from Breuer

Pack, Isabelle (Breuer's secretary), 1958 (3 letters)

Pack, Nancy (Mrs. Howard Meade Pack), undated and 1953 (2 letters)

Paine Furniture Company, 1946 (1 letter)

Pajor, Zoltán, 1938-1947 (7 letters)

Palestrant, Stephen, 1963 (1 letter)

Palmer Physical Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey, 1945 (1 letter)

Papachristou, Tician and Judy, undated and 1967-1974 (6 letters)

Papadaki, Stamo, 1945-1951 (14 letters): see Commission on Community Interrelations (CCI) of the American-Jewish Congress; Congrès Internationaux d'Architecture Moderne (CIAM), Chapter for Relief and Post-War Planning

Papadakis, Stanis (architect), 1935-1936 (2 letters)

Papock, Herbert (Wylie F. L. Tuttle Company), 1970 (1 letter)

Papp, Leslie G., 1957 (1 letter)

Paquin, G., 1938 (1 letter)

Parkin, John B., 1950 (1 letter)

Parkinson (Cobb), Eliza, undated (2 letters)

Parkinson, Elizabeth, 1969 (1 letter)

Parsons School of Design, 1956 (1 letter)

Passonneau, Joseph R. (Washington University, St. Louis), 1956-1958 (3 letters)

Paterson State Teachers College, undated and 1954 (7 letters)

Payer, Ernst, undated (1 letter)

Pázmándi, Margó (Hungarian architect), 1974 (1 letter)

Pearman, Charles, 1964 (2 letters)

I. M. Pei & Associates, undated and 1959 (6 letters): 1959 letter is letter of recommendation by Breuer for Pei

Pella Rolscreen Company, 1966 (1 letter)

Pennsylvania State University, 1958 (5 letters)

Pennsylvania, University of, 1958-1959 (2 letters)

Pepper, Eleanor (and Alta Grant Samuels), undated (1 letter)

Peressutti, Enrico (Banfi Belgiojoso Peressutti Rogers, architects), 1949-1959 (4 letters)

Perkins, G. Holmes (Harvard University), 1940-1947 (6 letters): see American Society of Planners and Architects (ASPA)

Perrin, Luis (architect), 1957 (1 letter)

Peter, J. A., 1945 (1 letter)

Peter, John, 1951 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Peterson, Cynthia, undated (1 letter)

Peterson, G. H., 1975 (1 letter): from Breuer

Philco Corporation, 1950 (1 letter)

Phoenix Art Museum, 1965 (1 letter): concerns a Josef Albers exhibition

Pichler, Albrecht, 1968 (1 letter): from Breuer

Picker, Fred, 1974 (4 letters): from Breuer's office

John B. Pierce Foundation, 1945 (1 letter)

Pignot, Gilbert (architect), 1971 (1 letter)

Pilchik, Ely E. (Congregation B'nai Jeshurun), 1962 (1 letter)

Pilzer, Leopold (Thonet Brothers, Inc.), 1943-1954 (9 letters): see also Project File for UNESCO

Pinkus, Dr. Felix, 1933-1934 (3 letters)

Pinter, Anthony S. (Study Abroad, Inc.), 1950-1951 (2 letters)

Pinter, Margit, 1946 (1 letter)

Pintori, Giovanni (Pubblicità Olivetti), 1956 (1 letter): from Breuer

Pisenti, Oreste, 1956 (1 letter): from Breuer

Pittsburgh Plate Glass Company, 1947 (1 letter): from Breuer

Plaut, James S. (Institute of Contemporary Art) and Mary, 1947-1963 (5 letters)

Polak, Jean and André, 1969-1970 (3 letters)

Polányi, Cecil, 1935 (1 letter)

Polieri, Jacques, 1957-1958 (2 letters)

Pomerance, Ralph, 1968 (1 letter)

Centre Georges Pompidou (P. Hussen), 1976 (1 letter): from Breuer

Ponti, Gio (architect), 1963-1967 (2 letters)

Poon, Sze-chiu, 1958 (3 letters): includes a photograph of Poon

Pope and Evans (consulting engineers), 1956 (1 letter)

Porter, Bernice, 1954 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Porter, Lucy (Mrs. A. Kingsley Porter), 1950 (1 letter)

Porter, Tom, 1974-1976 (3 letters): from Breuer

Portland Cement Association, 1959 (1 letter): from Breuer

Pospischil, Ernest, 1968 (1 letter): from Breuer

Posse, Ricardo Muratorio, 1956 (1 letter)

Postman, Art, 1968 (1 letter): from Breuer

Potter, Arnold and Selma, undated (1 letter)

Potts, Del G. (Fred H. Towery Equipment Company), 1947 (1 letter)

Pouget, Cl. (Cie. IBM, France), 1961-1970 (2 letters)

Pradelle, T. and D., undated (1 letter)

Praeger, Frederick A. (Frederick A. Praeger, Inc.), 1959-1969 (19 letters): includes a 1959 transcript of Praeger's conversation with Breuer concerning the publication of a book on Breuer's life work

Pratt Institute, 1953-1969 (11 letters)

Présentè, G. M., 1954 (1 letter): see Project File for UNESCO

Prestressed Concrete Institute, 1970 (1 letter)

Price, Thomas M., 1946 (1 letter)

Prichard, Theodore J. (University of Idaho), 1946-1950 (3 letters)

Princeton University, 1954-1959 (12 letters)

Princeton University, Graduate Council, 1954 (1 letter)

Princeton University School of Architecture, 1955-1963 (3 letters)

Pritchard, J. C. ("Jack"; producer of Isokon furniture) and Molly, 1944-1977 (56 letters)

Producers' Council, Inc., 1958-1967 (6 letters)

Progressive Architecture, 1974 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Pullman Company, 1945-1946 (2 letters)

Pusztai, György, 1963 (2 letters)

Quale, Marcia, 1974 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Quigley, T. T. (Wallace and Tiernan Company), 1946 (1 letter): from Breuer

Quinn, Robert H. (Attorney General of Massachusetts), 1970 (1 letter)

Raab, Martin D. (MIT School of Architecture), 1954 (2 letters)

Raabe, Sally (Harvard University, School of Design), 1947-1960 (4 letters): from Breuer

Rachlin, Abraham H. (Union Building Company), 1944 (2 letters)

Radcliffe Club of Long Island, 1954 (1 letter)

Radich, Stephen J. (Stephen Radich Gallery), 1967 (1 letter)

Rado, Ladislav L. ("Laco"; architect), 1943-1945 (6 letters)

Radwany, Emery L. and Helen, 1951-1954 (2 letters)

Rafferty, James B. (RCA Communications, Inc.), 1954 (1 letter)

Raffo, Nestor, 1968 (1 letter): from Breuer

Rakatansky, Ira (architect), 1954-1959 (7 letters)

Ram Press, Inc., 1954 (1 letter): from Robert F. Gatje

Rand, Ann, 1951 (1 letter)

Randinsky, Nina, 1963 (1 letter)

Rapson, Ralph (University of Minnesota, School of Architecture), 1954-1959 (5 letters)

Rather, Lillian Townsend (Mrs. James Rather), 1966 (1 letter)

Rauschenback, Esther, 1951 (1 letter)

Read, Sir Herbert, 1955 (3 letters)

Réalitiés, 1964 (1 letter)

Rebay, Baroness, 1936 (1 letter)

Rédèr, J. M., 1956 (1 letter)

Reed & Barton, Silversmiths, 1963-1964 (7 letters)

Reed, Joe, 1958 (1 letter): from Breuer concerning the first tubular steel chair

Reese, Ilse Meissner, 1974 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Reidy, Affonso Eduardo, 1963 (1 letter)

Reilly, Ambassador (of Great Britain) and Lady, 1965 (1 invitation): to reception for the Fourth Biennale de Paris

Reinwald, Karl, 1969 (1 letter)

Rendy, Lili, undated (1 letter)

Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 1950 (1 letter)

Renz, Wilhelm (Wilhelm Renz K G, Moebelfabrik), 1966 (1 letter)

Republic, The, 1975 (1 letter): from Breuer

Residence Lighting Forum (Illuminating Engineering Society), 1953 (1 letter)

Rettaliata, John (Illinois Institute of Technology), 1955 (1 letter)

Rév, Lajos, 1974 (1 letter): from Breuer

Reynolds Metals Company, undated and 1946-1956 (9 letters)

Rhode Island Chapter of AIA, 1959 (1 letter)

Rhode Island School of Design, 1956-1959 (4 letters)

Richards, Jim M. and Peggy, undated and 1936-1939 (5 letters)

Richards, Steve, 1966 (1 letter)

Richlan, Frank, 1968 (1 letter): from Breuer

Richman, Robert (Institute of Contemporary Art), 1952 (2 letters): from Breuer

Richmond, C. R., 1941 (1 letter)

Richmond Radiator Company (A. A. Marks), 1944 (2 letters): from Breuer

Rietkerk, William, 1956 (1 letter)

John and Mable Ringling Museum of Art, 1956 (1 letter)

Ritchey, Dahlen K. (Deeter Ritchey Sippel, Architects), 1968 (1 letter)

Rivers, Shavaun, 1950 (1 letter)

Roberts, Russell (opera singer who bought Breuer's first New Canaan house), 1951-1955 (7 letters): 6 letters from Breuer

Robinson, Frank S., 1969 (2 letters)

Robinson, Mrs. Preston, 1946-1960 (2 letters)

Roche, Mme. Yolande, 1966-1967 (4 letters)

Rockefeller, Blanchette (Mrs. John D. Rockefeller III), 1962 (1 letter)

Rockefeller, John Davison, IV, 1967 (1 wedding announcement): for Rockefeller and Sharon Lee Percy

Rockefeller, Nelson A., undated and 1967 (2 printed invitations)

Rocourt, Evelyn, 1954-1955 (4 letters)

Rodgers, Paul C. (Burton-Rodgers, Inc.), 1946 (13 letters)

Roffman, Edward A. Roffman Associates, 1951 (1 letter): from Breuer's office mentioning György Kepes

Rogers, Ernesto N. (Banfi Belgiojoso Peressutti Rogers, architects), undated and 1938-1950 (6 letters): see Project File for UNESCO

Rombro, Louise, 1950 (1 letter)

Root, Ballantine, Harlan, Bushby & Palmer, 1952 (1 letter)

Rosenberg, E., 1956 (1 letter)

Rosenthal, Julius, 1950 (2 letters)

Rosenthal, Richard Laurence, 1969 (1 letter)

Ross, Janet (Vassar College), 1950 (1 letter)

Rossi, Irving, 1944 (2 letters)

Rossum, Cheryl (photographer), 1974 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Roth, Alfred (architect), 1933-1963 (9 letters)

Roth, Gordon (builder), 1946-1947 (3 letters)

Roth, Joan, 1968 (1 letter): from Breuer

Rothschild, Sigmund, 1974 (1 letter): from Breuer

Roux, Alina (Photograph Department, UNESCO), 1960 (2 letters): see Project File for UNESCO

Rowe, James (Corcoran, Foley, Youngman & Rowe), 1970 (1 letter)

Royal Society of Arts, 1969 (4 letters)

Rudert, Anton, 1976 (1 letter): from Breuer

Rudofsky, Bernard, 1946-1950 (2 letters)

Russell, Gordon, 1936-1947 (3 letters)

Russell, Véra, 1969 (1 letter)

Rutherford, Eric, 1964-1967 (6 letters)

Rutledge, Dick, 1951 (2 letters): from Breuer's office

Saarinen, Eero, undated and 1946-1954 (5 letters): see Project File for UNESCO

Eero Saarinen & Associates, 1955 (1 letter)

Sackler, Raymond R., 1972 (1 letter)

Ed Sacks Company, 1950 (1 letter)

Saidenberg, Eleanore (Mrs. Daniel Saidenberg), undated (1 letter)

Sailer, John, 1968 (1 letter)

St. Francis de Sales Church, 1965-1966 (2 letters)

St. James Press, Ltd., 1977 (2 letters)

St. John's Abbey, 1953-1978 (9 letters)

Sakakura, Junzo, 1968 (1 letter)

Sakakura, Miho, 1968 (1 letter): from Breuer

Salzano, Baron de Ferraris (Italian Consulate General), 1956 (2 letters): from Breuer

Salzman, Stanley (architect), 1947-1971 (2 letters)

Sampson, Thérèse (Mrs. Richard Sampson), 1954 (1 letter)

Samuely, Felix J. (consulting engineer), 1954 (3 letters)

Sanchez, Sergio, 1968 (1 letter): from Breuer

Sanders & Malsin, Architects, 1949 (1 letter)

Krausz J. Sándor és Jeno, 1933 (1 letter)

San Francisco Redevelopment Agency, 1961 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Sarabhai, Gera, 1946 (1 letter): from Breuer

Sarah Lawrence College, 1961-1976 (4 letters): 3 from Breuer

Sarton, May, undated (1 letter)

Sato, Chikafusa, 1968 (1 letter): from Breuer

Satterlee, Nicholas, 1965 (1 letter)

Saturday Home Magazine, 1947 (1 letter)

Saxl, Erwin J. (Saxl Instrument Company), 1945 (1 letter)

Sayago, Manuel (Centro Profesional del Este), 1960 (2 letters)

Saybolt, Cleland & Alexander, Inc., 1945-1946 (2 letters)

Schaaf, Miv (Architectural Panel), 1958 (1 letter)

Scharff, Stephen L., 1950 (1 letter): from Breuer

Schawinsky, Xanti and Irene, undated and 1934-1964 (14 letters)

Schecter, Jack H. (architect), 1950 (1 letter)

Schendell, Hal, 1947 (2 letters): to Eliot Noyes

Schickel, William J., 1964 (1 letter)

Schillinger, Emilio F., 1964 (1 letter)

Schleifer, Fritz, 1934 (1 letter)

Schlemmer, Tut (Mrs. Oscar Schlemmer), 1960-1965 (3 letters)

Schlesinger, Alajos, undated (1 letter)

Schmalenbach, Werner (Kunstsammlung Nordrhein-Westfalen), 1976 (2 letters)

Schmid, Elsa, 1950 (1 card): sent jointly with J. B. Neumann

Schmidt, Benno C. (J. H. Whitney & Company), 1970 (1 letter)

Schmidt-Gellerau, Karl, 1934 (3 letters)

Schmieg & Kotzian, 1945 (1 letter)

Architekturbüro Joachim Schmitz, 1974 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Schnall, Ben (photographer), undated (2 letters) vSchneck, Adolf G. (architect), 1947-1950 (2 letters)

Schneider-Manzell, Toni (Biennale Christlicher Kunst der Gegenwart Salzburg), 1964 (2 letters)

Robert Schoelkopf Gallery, undated (1 invitation): to meet Walker Evans

Schoendorff, Ellen G., 1937 (1 letter)

Schömer, Ervin (architect), 1974-1975 (6 letters)

Schorer, Mark, 1960 (1 letter): from Breuer

Schultz, Lili, 1964 (1 letter)

F. Schumacher & Company, 1954-1964 (2 letters): from Breuer's office

Schuster, Mathias and Gerda (Schuster & Geiger), 1950-1964 (3 letters)

Schweighofer, Dr. Fritz, 1960 (1 letter)

Science Illustrated, 1955 (1 letter): from Breuer

Scitorszky, Hanna, 1966 (1 letter)

Scott, Stuart N. (Dewey, Gallantine, Bushby, Palmer & Wood), 1958 (1 letter)

Seagram-Distillers Corporation: see Kessler-Gallacher & Burton

Sears, Roebuck and Company (Arthur M. Wood), 1974 (1 letter): from Breuer concerning luncheon for Alexander Calder

Segal, Georgette, 1954 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Seghers, Pierre, 1963 (1 letter)

Segner, Marvin H., and John C. R. O'Neill (consulting engineers), undated (1 letter)

Segre, Mr., 1959 (2 letters): from Breuer

Seidel, Bert (architect), 1955 (2 letters)

Seidler, Harry (architect, Black Mountain College), 1946-1978 (24 letters)

Sekey, Sue, 1968 (1 letter): from Breuer

Selinger, Hans, 1956 (1 letter)

Selwood, Christopher, 1958-1959 (2 letters): see also Gardner-Medwin, R. J.

Selye, Hans, 1967 (1 invitation): to George Washington Awards Dinner in honor of Breuer, Selye, and Watson Kirkconnell

Semrad, Peter H., 1957 (1 letter)

Senix Aerial (Don Preuss), 1947 (1 letter)

Sert, José Luis (architect) and Moncha, 1945-1970 (7 letters): see National Council of American Soviet Friendship, Inc., Architects' Committee; Project File for UNESCO

Setzer, H. O. (Spartan Tire & Recapping Company), 1947 (3 letters)

Sevely, Marvin, 1951 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Seyton, Mrs., 1954 (1 letter)

Shackleton, Edwin, 1951 (1 letter)

Shand, James (Art and Technics, Ltd.), 1950 (1 letter)

Shankland, Graeme, 1939 (1 letter)

Shannon, Edgar Finley (University of Virginia), 1967 (1 invitation): to Founder's Day Exercises

Sharon Forest Service Company, Inc., 1950 (5 letters)

Shattuck, George, 1946 (1 letter): from Breuer

Shelton Roofing Company, Inc., 1956 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Shepley, Anna L., undated (2 letters)

Shinoda, Toko, 1964 (2 letters)

Shokokusha Publishing Company, 1961-1964 (10 letters)

Shook, Ken, 1968 (1 letter): from Breuer

Shuster, George N. (University of Notre Dame), 1962 (1 letter)

Sichel, Miss Cuy, 1964 (1 letter): from Breuer concerning Eric Rutherford's artwork

Siepman, Charles, 1956 (1 letter)

Siesel, Harold J. (Harold J. Siesel Company, Advertising), 1947 (1 letter)

Simha, O. Robert (Fulbright scholar), 1958 (1 letter)

Simon, Eva, 1934 (1 letter)

Simon, Steph (Ateliers Jean Prouvé), 1953-1956 (7 letters)

Simonson, Lee, 1955 (1 letter)

Simpson, Robert (Chemical Bank), 1975 (1 letter)

Simpson, William (New York University), 1960 (1 letter): from Robert F. Gatje

Sindicato Nacional de la Construcción (Jorge Fernández de Cuevas, architect), 1976 (1 letter): from Breuer

Sive, André (architect), 1947 (1 letter)

Skidmore College, 1954 (1 letter)

Skidmore, Owings & Merrill, 1959-1965 (3 letters)

Skouras, Odyssia A. and Federico Quadrani, 1964 (1 exhibition announcement): for Francesco Somaini

Slayton, William L. (Urban America, Inc.), 1967-1968 (2 letters)

Sloth, Finn (Milieu Company), 1966-1967 (5 letters)

Smith, Christina, 1963 (2 letters)

Smith, Elbert G. (University of Denver), 1946 (1 letter)

Smith, Hamilton and Caroline, 1954-1978 (34 letters): see Gatje Papachristou & Smith; Project File for UNESCO

Smith, Linus Burr, 1956 (1 letter)

Smithsonian Institution: 1981 (4 letters)

Snyder, J. Rowland, 1968 (1 letter)

Sobelsohn, Jacob (CPA), 1945-1946 (3 letters)

Sociedad de Art Moderno, México, 1944 (1 letter)

Società degli Ingegneri e degli Architetti in Torino, 1960 (3 letters)

Society of Student Architects (Polytechnic, London), 1955 (2 letters)

Somaini, Francesco, 1964 (exhibition announcement)

Somerville, City of, Massachusetts, 1950 (1 letter)

Charles W. Sommer & Bro., Inc. (importers), 1946 (2 letters)

Sonnenberg, Benjamin (and John L. Loeb), undated (1 invitation): to birthday for Armond Eiff [?]

Sorensen, Abel (Von der Lancken, Lundquist and Sorensen), 1954 (1 letter)

Soupault, Ré Philippe, 1946-1950 (2 letters)

Southern California, University of, 1947-1958 (2 letters)

Sovik, Mathre and Madson, Architects, 1966 (1 letter)

Speert, Harry A., 1974 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Spencer, William A. (New York University), 1960 (2 letters): from Robert F. Gatje

Speyer, Darthea (American Legation), 1950 (1 letter)

Spilman, Raymond, 1955 (1 letter)

Spinelli, Pat, 1968 (1 letter): from Breuer

Spring, Bernard Polmer, 1945 (1 letter)

Stadler-Stölzl, G., 1967 (1 letter)

Staehelin, William R. and Marina, 1959-1977 (11 letters)

Staempfli, George, 1965-1966 (2 letters)

Stanpat Company, 1954 (2 letters): from Breuer's office

Starkey, Mrs. Robert James, 1960 (1 letter): from Breuer

Starr, Polly (Mrs. Donald Starr), 1937-1938 (2 letters)

Stattelman, Richard, 1966 (1 letter)

Stein, Richard G. (architect), undated and 1951 (2 letters)

Steinberg, Saul, 1951-1965 (2 letters): from Breuer

Stendig, Charles (Contract Furniture), 1963-1967 (5 letters)

Stern, Alfred (U.S. Department of Commerce, Office of International Trade Fairs), 1957-1958 (4 letters)

Stern, Andor, 1950 (1 letter)

Stern, Max, 1963 (2 letters)

Sternberg, Charles (International Rescue Committee), 1956 (1 letter): of introduction for ádám Krivátsky-Szüts

Stevens, Edmund, 1960 (2 letters)

Stillman, Edgar and Kate [?] ("B + J"), 1953-1965 (2 letters)

Stillman, Jean, 1965 (1 letter)

Stillman, Kathy, 1965 (1 letter)

Stillman, Rufus C. ("Ruf") and Leslie, undated and 1951-1975 (60 letters): 1954 letter from Breuer's office encloses Stillman's outline for a book

Stockton, Sue, undated and 1964 (2 letters)

Stoddard, Whitney S. (Society of Alumni of Williams College), 1951 (1 letter)

Stoller, Ezra (photographer) and Helen, undated and 1945-1967 (8 letters)

Stonorov, Oskar (architect) and Elizabeth, 1944-1946 (4 letters)

Storch, Samuel (Astorloid Manufacturing Company/Astor-Ramel Manufacturing Company), 1945 (6 letters)

Storrow, Helen (Mrs. James Jackson Storrow), undated (4 letters)

Strenger, József, 1963 (2 letters)

Strettell, Marguerita (Rita), undated (1 letter)

Strohbach, Susi, 1968 (1 letter): from Breuer

Strudwick Board of Trade, 1945 (1 letter)

Strunk, Granville B. (Santa Ana City Schools), 1946 (1 letter)

Stubbins, Hugh A. (architect), 1950-1977 (6 letters)

Stylos, Architectural Students Association at Delft, 1954 (1 letter)

Sugár, Stephen, 1947-1951 (2 letters): from Breuer

Sunderland, Mrs. Francis A., 1954 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Suter-Moser, Claude, 1956: see Project File for UNESCO

Sutnar, Ladislav, 1951-1965 (2 letters): see Project File for UNESCO

Suzuki, Shizuo, 1975 (1 letter including résumé)

Swan, Robert Andrew, 1960-1963 (2 letters)

Swanson & Brey, Architects, 1961 (1 letter)

Swanson, Dean, 1963 (1 letter): to Charles H. Sawyer

Sweeney, James J., 1938 (2 letters): from Breuer

George J. Switzer Company, 1954-1956 (4 letters): see Project File for UNESCO

Syracuse University Library, 1968 (1 letter)

Syracuse University, School of Architecture, 1959 (8 letters)

Syska and Hennessy, Inc., 1975 (1 letter): from Breuer

Szabó, Albert, 1947-1950 (2 letters)

Szabó, Eva Mary (master weaver), 1966 (1 letter)

Szabó, G. (African Hide Trading Corporation), 1964 (1 letter)

Szak, László, 1957 (2 letters)

Szegedy-Maszák, Aladár (minister of Hungary), 1947 (1 letter)

Székely, Sándor, 1957-1959 (5 letters)

Székely, Tamás István (Wohnbedarf furniture store), 1956-1965 (10 letters): see Project File for UNESCO

Szüle, Peter János, 1975 (2 letters)

Tadashi, Iijima, 1963 (1 letter)

Tange, Kenzo and Toshike, 1960-1968 (3 letters)

Tanier, George (George Tanier, Inc.), 1961 (2 letters)

Tapia, Raúl, 1968 (1 letter): from Breuer

Tate, Allen and Helen, 1966-1967 (2 letters)

Tate, Isabella (Bella), 1963 (1 letter)

Taylor, Harold, 1951-1968 (3 letters)

Tech Reps, Inc., 1966 (1 letter)

Teller, Mrs. Walter M., 1945 (1 letter)

Terminal Radio Corporation, 1951 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Tesla, S., 1961 (1 letter)

Thames and Hudson, Ltd., 1962-1963 (2 letters)

Theband, Polly, 1964-1965 (3 letters)

Thebond [?], Sacha, 1959 (1 letter)

Thole, Henry G. (Seaboard Surety Company), 1947 (1 letter)

J. Walter Thompson Company, 1956 (1 letter)

Thompson, Marion Gordon (Mrs. A. W. Thompson), 1950 (1 letter): see Project File for UNESCO

Thompson, Rolland, 1955-1969 (3 letters)

Thonet Brothers, Inc., 1966-1968 (3 letters): see also Pilzer, Leopold

Thost, Eberhard, undated and 1934-1937 (4 letters)

Throop, Mortimer, 1959 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Thun, Ole, 1976 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Thurman, Marie Christophe de Menil, undated (1 letter)

Thürmer, Ludwig and Marie Luise, 1965-1970 (8 letters)

Tibby, Jack, 1954-1956 (4 letters)

Tice & Lynch, Inc., 1953 (1 letter)

Tieger, Robert M.., 1946 (1 letter)

Tildy, Mrs. Zoltán, 1947 (1 invitation): to her honorary dinner

Tillinger, Jerry D. (Ferendino, Grafton, Spillis, Candela), 1974 (1 letter): from Breuer

Time magazine, 1954-1960 (6 letters): see also Jones, Cranston

Tischler, Julie [?], 1934 (1 letter)

Tizzone [?], Joe, 1967 (1 letter)

Todd, Charles I. (Pittsburgh Plate Glass Company), 1958 (1 letter)

Tolnay, Károly ("Carl"), 1959 (1 letter)

Tompkins, Gilbert Calyer, undated and 1941-1968 (7 letters)

Torin Corporation, 1974-1975 (2 letters): from Breuer's office

Torok, László (engineer), 1933 (1 letter)

Toronto, University of, Architectural Society of, 1958-1960 (7 letters)

Touche, A., 1963 (1 letter): from Breuer

Tourneroche, R. (Comptoir Artisanal du Maroc), 1956 (2 letters)

Towers, Mrs. Henry, 1950 (1 letter): from Breuer

Townsend-Chatterton Company, 1974 (1 letter): from Breuer

Tragseil, Karl (Austrian architect), 1950 (1 letter)

Tralau, Walter (Gerhard Marcks/Wera Mayer-Waldeck/Walter Tralau), 1953 (1 letter): includes a printed statement about Walter Gropius

Treseder, Frank C., 1946 (2 letters)

W. F. Tubbs Company, 1944 (1 letter): from Breuer

Tuchman, Barbara (Mrs. Lester Tuchman), 1970 (1 letter)

Turner, Howard (Turner Construction Company), 1968 (1 letter)

Mark Twain Journal (Cyril Clemens), 1969 (1 letter)

Tyroler, József ("José"), 1938-1940 (2 letters)

Uda, William, 1951 (1 letter)

Ugarte, Federico A. (architect), 1963 (1 letter)

Undicesima Triennale di Milano, 1957 (5 letters)

UNESCO Centrum Nederland, 1954 (1 letter)

UNESCO, Paris, 1958-1961 (4 letters)

Union Carbide Building, 1963 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Union pour le Recouvrement des Cotisations de Sécurité Sociale et d'Allocations Familiales (URSSAF), 1953 (1 letter): from Breuer

United Nations, New York, 1966 (2 letters)

United States Department of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation, 1974 (1 letter): from Breuer's office concerning Grand Coulee Dam

United States Department of Justice, Immigration and Naturalization, 1938-1959 (4 letters from Breuer)

United States Department of State, 1946-1974 (4 letters)

United States Embassy, London, 1960-1961 (2 letters): from Breuer concerning Jo Yorke and Jane Susannah Yorke

United States General Services Administration (GSA), 1963-1977 (3 letters)

United States Government Printing Office, 1947 (2 letters): from Breuer

United States Information Agency, 1957-1964 (7 letters)

United States National Commission for UNESCO, 1951 (information for a conference)

United States Plywood Corporation, 1946 (1 letter)

United States Postmaster General, 1955 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

United States Selective Service, 1942 (notice of classification)

United States Social Security Administration, 1956 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Untermeyer, Louis, 1964 (1 letter)

Urbahn, Max O. (architect), 1965-1975 (2 letters)

Ustinov, Nadie, undated (1 letter)

Vachon, Judy and David, undated and 1964 (2 letters)

Valentin, Kurt (Buchholz Gallery), 1944 (1 letter)

Valle, Tommaso and Gilberto, undated (1 letter)

Van Altena, Edward, 1951 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Van den Broek, Professor J. H. (architect), undated (1 letter)

van der Straeten, Jean (CBR Cimenteries Bruxelles), 1970 (1 letter)

Van der Wal, Dr. G., undated and 1961-1966 (6 letters)

Van Doren, Mark, 1963 (2 letters): see also Citizens Committee for a Nuclear Test Ban Treaty

van Eesteren, C. (architect), 1951 (1 letter)

van Leer, Oscar, 1970 (1 letter)

van Westen, J. H., 1960 (1 letter)

Varèse, Edgard (composer), 1956 (1 letter)

Vargha, László I., 1967 (2 letters)

Vecchione, Robert, 1964-1970 (2 letters)

Véghelyi, Péter (Acta Paediatrica, Hungarian Science Academy), 1963-1972 (5 letters)

Ventris, Dora (and Michael), undated (1 letter)

Vergun, Alexei, 1975 (1 letter): from Breuer

Verlag Girsberger, 1956 (1 letter): from Breuer

Viasz, Andor Safed ("Bendj"), 1962 (1 letter)

Vidal, Yves, 1956-1971 (7 letters)

Vincent, Mr., 1963 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Violich, Francis, 1955 (1 letter)

Virág, Csaba (Hungarian architect), 1965-1974 (3 letters)

Virginia Polytechnic Institute, 1960 (2 letters)

Virginia, University of, 1967-1970 (18 letters)

Vissière, A. (architect), undated (1 letter)

Visy, Béla, 1957 (1 letter)

Vitrum magazine (Centro Informazioni e Studi per le Applicazioni del Vetro nell'Edilizia e nell'Arredamento; C.I.S.A.V.), 1955 (1 letter)

Vogel, George S. (Temple Israel, Cortlandt), 1951 (1 letter)

Voigt, James D. (Voigt and Fourré, Architects), 1958 (4 letters)

Volante, Julio C., 1955-1963 (2 letters)

von Debschitz, Irene, 1935 (1 letter)

von Erffa, H., 1951-1968 (2 letters)

von Meyerburg, Henrietta [?], undated (1 letter)

von Moltke, Wilhelm Viggo, 1946-1958 (4 letters)

von Segesser, Beat and Francisca, 1968-1975 (1 letter, plus 4 from Breuer)

Wachsmann, Konrad (architect/designer, General Panel Corporation), 1945-1965 (8 letters): see National Council of American Soviet Friendship, Inc., Architects' Committee

Wadsworth, Suzanne G., 1975 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Wagner, Martin (Harvard University), 1946 (2 letters)

Senator Wagner Memorial Dinner, 1965 (1 invitation): from mayor of New York

Walker and Company, 1966-1967 (2 letters): includes a typescript about Breuer; see also Heyer, Paul O.

Walker Art Center, Center Arts Council, 1959-1962 (12 letters)

Walker, H. E. L. (Universal Moulded Products Company, Ltd.), 1943 (1 letter)

Walker, Ralph (AIA), 1951 (1 letter): from Walter Gropius

Walker, Vicki, 1968 (1 letter): from Breuer

Ward, Ernest and Priscilla (Sprague Electric Company), 1946 (2 letters)

Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri, 1975 (1 letter): from Breuer

Watson, Arthur K. (U.S. Embassy, Paris), 1970-1972 (2 letters)

Watson, Thomas, 1970 (1 letter)

Wattjes, Professor J. G., 1935 (1 letter)

Webb & Knapp (Canada), Ltd., 1963 (3 letters)

Weidler, Charlotte (Bauhaus Ausstellung), 1968 (1 letter)

Weidlinger, Paul, 1946: see Project File for UNESCO

Weidlinger Associates, 1983-1984 (2 letters)

Weiner, Paul L., 1950-1966 (2 letters)

Weinstein, Jerry, 1945 (1 letter)

William H. Weintraub & Company, Inc., 1943-1947 (3 letters)

Weiz [?], Tiberio, 1939 (1 letter)

Weizenblatt, Sprinza, 1946-1963 (20 letters)

Wenzler, William P. (architect), 1965-1968 (4 letters)

Weren, Edward C., 1946 (1 letter)

Werner, Ingrid, 1963 (3 letters)

Wertz, Mr. (Der Finanzminister des Landes Nordrhein-Westfalen), 1974 (1 letter): from Breuer

West China Development Corporation, 1947 (1 letter)

West Coast Stained Shingle Company, 1950 (1 letter): from Breuer

Westcott and Mapes, Inc. (architects and engineers), 1970 (1 letter)

Western Arts Association, 1959 (4 letters)

Western Reserve University, 1958 (5 letters)

Westport Public Library, 1975 (1 letter): from Breuer

Wetter, Barbara, 1980 (1 letter): concerns traveling exhibition

Wheaton, William L. (Pomona College), 1960 (1 letter)

White, George (architect of the Capitol), 1975 (1 letter): from Breuer

White House (Letitia Baldridge), 1963 (1 letter): mentions Jacqueline Kennedy

White, J. G. (Peerless Flooring Company), 1955 (1 letter)

Whitney, Charles E. (Publications, Inc.), 1954-1956 (2 letters): from Breuer's office

Whitney Museum of American Art, 1968-1976 (19 letters): 1 from Jean Lipman; 14 from Breuer and a typescript about Alexander Calder

Who's Who in America, 1947 (2 letters)

Wieland, Albert, 1963 (1 letter)

Wiener, Paul Lester and Ingebord, 1944-1955 (3 letters)

Wiesenfeld, David, 1957 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Wieser, U. P. (Wohnbedarf furniture store), 1959-1960 (3 letters)

Wigglesworth, Isabella C., 1946 (1 letter)

Wilcox & Company, 1972 (1 letter)

Wilder, Hugo, 1946 (1 letter): from E. S. Ferguson

Wiley, Chuck, 1950 (1 letter)

Wilhelm, Günter, 1949 (1 letter)

Wilinski, Erich, 1935 (2 letters)

Willard, Marian G. ("Viva Villa"; East River Gallery), undated and 1935-1965 (25 letters)

Williams, Amancio (architect), 1955 (1 letter)

Williams, Daniel, 1974 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Williams, Peter C., 1956 (1 letter)

Williams, Preston, 1958 (2 letters)

Wilson, Dr. and Mrs. Julius Lane, 1965 (1 letter)

Wilson, June P. (Mrs. Kenneth Wilson), 1968 (1 letter)

Wilson, Marjorie (Mrs. Will Wilson), 1956 (1 letter)

Winde, McCormick & Chapin, 1945 (1 letter)

Wingler, Hans, undated and 1966-1980 (23 letters): 14 from Breuer; see also Bauhaus Archiv E.V.

Winkler, Robert, 1955 (1 letter)

Winsten, Steve, 1968 (1 letter): from Breuer

Winston, E., 1950 (1 letter)

Winter, Edward, 1950-1951 (3 letters)

Wisconsin Chapter of AIA, 1960 (1 letter)

Wisconsin, University of, 1960 (2 letters)

Wisdom Encyclopedia, 1966 (1 letter)

Wogner, Charles, 1951 (2 letters)

Wohlstetter, Albert (Atlas Aircraft Products Corporation), 1944-1946 (7 letters)

Wohlstetter, Marjorie, 1946 (1 letter)

Wolf, Albin, 1933 (5 letters)

Wolf, Ferenc, 1963-1965 (4 letters)

Wolfe, James F. (Ketchum, MacLeod & Grove, Inc.), 1960 (2 letters)

Wolff, Robert Jay, 1956-1975 (3 letters): 1 from Breuer

Wolfson, Sidney, 1954-1955 (2 letters): from Breuer's office; 1975 letter is from Nicholas P. Appy, executor of Sidney Wolfson's will

Wollowick, David P., 1947 (1 letter)

Wong, Andy, 1968 (1 letter): from Breuer

Wong, Tommy (UCLA), 1974 (1 letter)

Worcester Art Museum, 1954 (1 letter)

Working, Jane, undated and 1961 (5 letters)

Wright, Irving S. and Lois, 1963-1968 (2 letters)

Wright, Russell (pottery), 1950-1951 (2 letters): from Breuer's office

Wu, King-lui, 1945-1950 (7 letters): 6 from Breuer

Wunderlich, Carlos Asensio, 1946 (1 letter): from Breuer

Wundrich-Meissen, 1934 (1 letter)

Wurster, William W. (architect) and Catherine, 1946-1960 (6 letters): see American Society of Planners and Architects (ASPA)

X Functie, 1953-1957 (3 letters)

Yale University, 1945-1976 (4 letters)

Yamawaki, Iwao, 1954 (2 letters)

Yasko, Karel, 1968 (1 letter)

Yorke, F. R. S. (Francis Reginald Stevens Yorke; architect), 1944-1962 (31 letters)

Yorke, Thelma and Kay, 1938-1939 (2 letters)

Yoshimura, Junzo (architect), undated (1 letter): to Yoshimura from Pella Rolscreen Company

Yoshioka, Yasugoro, undated (1 letter)

Young, Edward L., 1966 (1 letter)

Young, Hamilton, 1938 (1 letter)

Yu, Jane, 1964-1965 (3 letters)

Yurchenco, Basil ("Chenk"; Goldwater & Yurchenco Associates), 1947-1950 (3 letters)

Zahedi, H. E. Ardeshir (ambassador of Iran), 1974-1975 (4 letters): from Breuer

Zanuso, Marco (architect; Olivetti), 1957 (1 letter): from Breuer

Zechlin, Hans Josef, 1950 (1 letter)

Ziegler, Barbara, 1947 (1 letter)

Ziegler, Frank, 1974 (1 letter): from Breuer

Ziegler, Richard, undated (1 letter)

Zwick, Virgil J., 1959 (1 letter)
Collection Restrictions:
The microfilm for this collection has been digitized and is available online via the Archives of American Art website.
Collection Rights:
The Marcel Breuer papers are owned by the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Literary rights as possessed by the donor have been dedicated to public use for research, study, and scholarship. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Collection Citation:
Marcel Breuer papers, 1920-1986. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.breumarc, Series 2
See more items in:
Marcel Breuer papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aaa-breumarc-ref54

Serge A. Scherbatskoy Papers

Creator:
Scherbatskoy, Serge A., 1908-2002  Search this
Names:
Neufeld, Jacob, 1906-2000  Search this
Extent:
17 Cubic feet (39 boxes)
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Contracts
Agreements
Notebooks
Correspondence
Diazo prints
Laboratory notebooks
Patent applications
Reports
Date:
1925-2002
Summary:
Collection documents the professional career and business interests of inventor Serge A. Scherbatskoy, who specialized in petroleum geophysics. Papers include laboratory notebooks, license agreements, correspondence, blue line prints, patent litigation files, newspaper clippings, reference files, patents, promotional literature, and audio-visual materials.
Scope and Contents:
The Scherbatskoy papers provide insight into the relationship between inventors and the United States oil industry between the 1930s and 1990s, the evolution of the history of applied geophysics, and the development of technological innovation in oil prospecting, specifically applied and geophysics. One of the strengths of the collection is the patents Scherbatskoy pursued, renewed, or impeded. As sole proprietor of his own company, Geophysical Measurements Corp., Scherbatskoy meticulously constructed an international patenting program which made him a successful player among the giants of the oil industry. Another highlight of the collection is Scherbatskoy's fifteen laboratory notebooks that include his well logging work notes and drawings. Legal files illustrating litigation over the infringement of Scherbatskoy's patents are also found in the collection. The papers demonstrate how the oil prospecting industry worked from scientific, commercial and legal perspectives. The bulk of the papers are arranged chronologically to reflect the timeline of Scherbatskoy's career. Due to the limited number of personal materials, Scherbatskoy's personal papers are placed at the end of the series list.

Series 1, World War II Work, 1935-2002, is divided into three subseries and includes information on Scherbatskoy's relationship with physicists Bruno Pontecorvo (1913-1993) and Jacob Neufeld (1906-2000). Neufeld and Scherbatskoy worked on the application of nuclear physics to geophysical prospecting. Neufeld would later join the staff of Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Materials include a file about Pontecorvo, Neufeld's laboratory notebook, and some correspondence between Neufeld and Scherbatskoy. This series also includes materials on Scherbatskoy's well logging projects during and after World War II.

Series 2, Invention Laboratory Journals and Drawings, 1958-1992, is further divided into two subseries and includes fifteen laboratory journals and a folder of drawings related to Scherbatskoy's well logging work. The journals are arranged numerically by journal number. In some instances, journal numbers repeat. Journals are paginated and include drawings, tipped-in graphs and charts, and notes relating to Scherbatskoy's well logging work. Some of the notebooks include pages signed by a witness, which Scherbatskoy could use as evidence to prove his ownership of a particular well logging invention idea.

Series 3, Radio Corporation of America (RCA), 1946, 1948, is comprised of one folder with a license agreement between Scherbatskoy and Radio Corporation of America for magnetic recording systems.

Series 4, Canadian Geophysical Measurements Corporation (GMC), 1957-2002, is divided into three subseries and provides information on Scherbatskoy's company Canadian Geophysical Measurements Corporation. Materials include license agreements, correspondence, and Canadian Geophysical Measurements vs. Computalog Gearhart, Ltd litigation files.

Series 5, ARPS Corporation (Jan J. Arps), 1960-1995, includes information on Arps Corporation, organized by Scherbatskoy, Jacob Neufeld, and Jan J. Arps in Dallas, TX to develop and practice measurement while drilling. The Arps Corporation materials are comprised of administrative and financial records, business correspondence, contracts of consultation, patents, license agreements, and Scherbatskoy's stock information.

Series 6, Gearhart-Owen Industries (GOI) (Gearhart Industries, Inc., (GII)), 1961-1996, is divided into seven subseries and consists of records generated during Scherbatskoy's measurement while drilling (MWD™) work with Gearhart-Owen Industries, Inc. One of the largest series in the collection, the Gearhart-Owen materials include license agreements, correspondence, litigation files, measurement while drilling reports and blue line prints of measurement while drilling equipment, signal extraction measurement while drilling study reports, reference materials, and United States, United Kingdom, and Canadian patent assignments between Scherbatskoy, Gearhart-Owen, and the Scherbatskoy Family Trust. Included in the litigation subseries is the Scherbatskoy Family Trust vs. Gearhart Industries, Inc., case. The Scherbatskoy Family Trust in 1975 sued for royalty payments due Scherbatskoy under the Scherbatskoy Gearhart-Owen Agreement on nuclear well logging technology and measurement while drilling. The case was settled in the late 1980s, and Gearhart Industries, Inc., paid royalties to the Scherbatskoy Family Trust. Gearhart materials are also present in Series 7, 8 and 9.

Series 7, Halliburton Company, 1978-1999, is divided into four subseries and includes license agreements, lawsuits and patent infringements, patents, and company acquisitions. This series documents Scherbatskoy's relationship with the Halliburton Company pre-and post-Halliburton's acquisition of Gearhart Industries in the 1980s. Halliburton materials are also in Series 8 and 10.

Series 8, Other Professional Work, 1964-1999, is divided into twelve subseries: McCullough Tool Company, Exploration Logging, Inc., Eastman Whipstock, Schlumberger, Ltd., Sperry-Sun Well Surveying Company, Christensen, Inc., Gunn and Kuffner (attorneys), NL Industries, Inc., Baker Oil Tools, Inc., AMF Scientific Drilling International, Inc., Geolink (UK) Ltd., Technolink (Cyprus), Ltd., and Computalog Gearhart, Ltd. In addition to providing information on oil prospecting companies that Scherbatskoy consulted with during his career, materials also include correspondence between Scherbatskoy and attorneys Gunn and Kuffner relating to Scherbatskoy's well logging patent rights.

Series 9, Well Logging Research Materials, 1937-2002, includes correspondence, papers, reports, promotional literature, and general research files relating to Scherbatskoy's well logging research.

Series 10, Licensing Agreements, 1961-1989, contains four folders documenting the nuclear well logging agreement between oil prospecting companies such as Gearhart Owen, Halliburton, Geophysical Measurements, Inc., and Welex Jet Services. Both Marvin Gearhart and Harold Owen of Gearhart-Owen had been employees of Welex before founding Gearhart-Owen Industries.

Series 11, Patents, 1937-1998, includes copies of patents issued to, among others, Scherbatskoy, Robert E. Fearon (inventor), James Upchurch (inventor), John Westlake (inventor), Mobil Oil Corp and Exxon. Materials also include patent applications, patent protests, patent annuities, and correspondence with the United States Patent Trademark Organization and the German Trademark Office.

Series 12, Personal Materials, 1925-1983, includes materials on Scherbatskoy's immigration to the United States, school diplomas, and memorial book. Visual materials include original photographs, and color copies of original photographs of Scherbatskoy as an adult, his family, and his inventions. Also included is a 1944 submarine training 16mm reel-to-reel film and an audio cassette tape of Scherbatskoy discussing his World War II work with his daughter Mary Scherbatskoy.
Arrangement:
Collection arranged into twelve series.

Series 1, World War II Work, 1935-2002

Subseries 1, Relationship with Bruno Pontecorvo, 1940-2002

Subseries 2, Relationship with Jacob Neufeld, 1935-1954

Subseries 3, Scherbatskoy Well Logging Project, 1940-1951

Series 2, Invention Journals and Drawings, 1958-1992

Subseries 1, Lab Journals, 1963-1992

Subseries 2, Scherbatskoy Invention Drawings, 1958, 1966

Series 3, Radio Corporation of America (RCA), 1946, 1948

Series 4, Canadian Geophysical Measurements Corporation (GMC), 1957-2002

Subseries 1, License Agreements, 1957-2002

Subseries 2, Correspondence, 1967-2002

Subseries 3, Canadian Geophysical Measurements vs. Computalog Gearhart, Ltd., 1986-1996

Series 5, ARPS Corporation (Jan J. Arps), 1960-1995

Series 6, Gearhart-Owen Industries, Inc., (GOI), (Gearhart Industries Inc., (GII), 1961-1996

Subseries 1, License Agreements, 1961-1996

Subseries 2, Correspondence, 1974-1988

Subseries 3, Scherbatskoy Family Trust (SFT) vs. Gearhart Industries, Inc., 1975-1988

Subseries 4, Measurement While Drilling (MWD) Development Reports and Blue Line Prints, 1973-1984

Subseries 5, Gearhart-Owen Signal Extraction (MWD) Study, 1979-1981

Subseries 6, Reference Materials, 1977-1990

Subseries 7, Patent Assignments, 1961-1987

Series 7, Halliburton Company, 1978-1999

Subseries 1, License Agreements, 1979-1999

Subseries 2, Lawsuits and Patent Infringements, 1989-1996

Subseries 3, Patents, 1978-1997, undated

Subseries 4, Halliburton Acquisitions, 1988-1999

Series 8, Other Professional Work, 1964-1999

Subseries 1, McCullough Tool Company, 1964-1996

Subseries 2, Exploration Logging, Inc., 1966-1998

Subseries 3, Eastman Whipstock, (Gesellschaft mit beschränkter Haftungz-(GmbH)), 1978-1995

Subseries 4, Schlumberger, Ltd., 1967-1999

Subseries 5, Sperry-Sun Well Surveying Company, 1971-1996

Subseries 6, Christensen Diamond Products, Inc., 1977-1988

Subseries 7, Gunn and Kuffner (Attorneys), 1977-1999

Subseries 8, NL Industries, Inc., 1978-1994

Subseries 9, Baker Oil Tools, Inc., 1980-1999

Subseries 10, AMF Scientific Drilling International, Inc., 1984-1987

Subseries 11, Geolink (UK), Ltd., /Technolink (Cyprus) Ltd., 1985-2002

Subseries 12, Computalog Gearhart, Ltd., 1990-2002

Series 9, Well Logging Research Materials, 1937-2002

Subseries 1, Correspondence, 1967-2002

Subseries 2, Papers and Reports, 1960-1990

Subseries 3, Promotional Literature, 1978, undated

Subseries 4, General, 1937-1996

Series 10, Licensing Agreements, 1961-1989

Series 11, Patents, 1937-1998

Subseries 1, Well Logging Patents, 1937-1998

Subseries 2, John E. Westlake (Inventor) Patents, 1972-1996

Subseries 3, James M. Upchurch (Inventor) Patents, 1990-1998

Subseries 4, Other, 1943-1997

Series 12, Personal Materials, 1925-1983

Subseries 1, Personal Papers, 1925-1966

Subseries 2, Photographs, circa 1950s, undated

Subseries 3, Audio Visual Materials, 1944, 1983
Biographical / Historical:
Serge Alexander Scherbatskoy (1908-2002), a petroleum geophysical engineer, held more than 200 patents worldwide in petroleum exploration. Scherbatskoy was born July 18, 1908, in Buyuk Dere, Turkey, a suburb of Constantinople where his father, Alexander Ippolitovich Scherbatskoy, was Third Secretary to the Russian Embassy. After the Russian Revolution of 1917, Alexander Ippolitovich planned to accept a post in the Kerensky government. When that fell, he joined the League of Nations offices in Berlin. Later, he moved the family to Paris where he was employed by Yokohama Specie Bank. Young Serge completed his education at the Sorbonne, earning a degree in physics in 1926.

In 1929, only months before the stock market crash, Scherbatskoy immigrated to the United States. He worked for Bell Labs in New York City from 1929 to 1932. While there, Scherbatskoy worked on the Type C Carrier telephone system, assisted in the Reproduction of Music in Auditory Perspective (the first Hi Fi) and invented an automatic volume control using copper oxide semiconductors, for which the patent was denied. About this time, he met Mary Ellen Dunham; they married in 1938 and had four children: Mary, Serge, Timothy, and Jonathan.

After being laid off from Bell Labs in 1932, Scherbatskoy held a number of odd jobs. He organized the "Bureau of Radio Engineering" to repair radios house-to-house. In 1933, he went to the University of Pennsylvania under a grant from the Works Progress Administration (later Work Projects Administration; WPA) and assisted with developing a "sound prism" (i.e., spectrometer). He worked for PHILCO Radio and Television Corporation from 1933 to 1934 where he developed a "sweeping frequency" oscillator for testing radios. About 1936, Scherbatskoy headed west to Tulsa, Oklahoma, and joined Seismograph Services Corporation. While at Seismograph, he developed the "Expander" and the "Automatic Signal Control" for use in seismographic exploration.

Scherbatskoy left Seismograph Corp. and, with Bill Green and Jerry Westby, started Well Surveys Incorporated in 1937 to develop his idea of nuclear logging of cased wells. In nuclear logging, logs are obtained by using radiation sources in the logging tool. Well Surveys was one of the first American companies that applied nuclear physics to oil prospecting. Standard Oil of New York financed the project, but various parties could not agree and they dissolved the Well Surveys Incorporated.

According to an audiotaped interview conducted by Scherbatskoy's daughter Mary, during World War II Serge Scherbatskoy worked for the U.S. Navy as an independent prime contractor to develop the lethal probability integrator (aircraft gunner training simulator) and other projects. Scherbatskoy also was involved tangentially with the Manhattan Project. As part of the Project, Scherbatskoy was recruited by Gilbert LaBine (1890-1977), a Canadian prospector who discovered radium and uranium deposits at Port Radium, Northwest Territories in 1930. Known as the father of Canada's uranium industry, LaBine was president of Eldorado Mining and Refining Limited from its start in the late 1920s to 1947. Scherbatskoy developed a portable radiation detector and headed a team pioneering this form of uranium exploration near Great Bear Lake, Canada, during 1944, locating deposits used in atomic weapons production.

In 1948, Scherbatskoy formed Geophysical Measurements Corporation (GMC) in Tulsa, Oklahoma. During this time, Scherbatskoy worked on the development of well logging technology. "Well logging is the process of exploring systematically the entire length of a drill hole by means of an instrument capable of measuring physical factors associated with the rocks traversed and producing a graph."1 In December 1960, Scherbatskoy, Jan J. Arps (physicist), and Jacob Neufeld (physicist) joined together with Reinholdt & Gardner (a brokerage firm) to form a limited partnership named Arps Corp. to assign, sell and license patents. The purpose was to lease to the oil industry, equipment utilizing the patented Arps process for continuous telemetering to the earth's surface of measurements made at the bottom of a borehole while drilling.

In 1964, GMC conducted a stock swap with McCullough Tool which then went bankrupt in 1968. During the 1970s, Scherbatskoy's activities included consulting with Jacob Neufeld of Oak Ridge National Laboratories. In 1973 he began a relationship with Marvin Gearhart of Gearhart-Owen Industries of Dallas, Texas. Gearhart-Owen was an instrument and oil services firm originally founded by Marvin Gearhart and Harold Owen in 1955. In 1980, Marvin Gearhart changed the name from Gearhart -Owen to Gearhart Industries, Inc., "The GO Company." Scherbatskoy was named Director of Special Projects and continued his own patent program which developed "Measurement While Drilling" and directional drilling patents.

"Measurement While Drilling" (MWD) refers to measurements acquired down hole while drilling that specifically describe directional surveying and drilling-related measurements. "Logging While Drilling" (LWD) refers to petrophysical measurements, similar to open hole wireline logs, acquired while drilling. Wireline logs are a cabling technology used by operators of oil and gas wells to lower equipment into the well. Directional drilling is the science of drilling non-vertical wells. These systems—MWD and LWD—are based on mud telemetry which is the transmission of encoded data through a drilling rig's drilling mud system using rapid fluctuations in the pressure of a closed loop circulating system.

When Gearhart-Owen went bankrupt in 1986, it was acquired by Halliburton. Scherbatskoy worked at Gearhart-Owen until 1988, when he opened his own office in Fort Worth developing Measurement While Drilling patents. Scherbatskoy died on November 25, 2002 in Fort Worth, Texas.

Source

Oil and Gas Journal, February 22, 1940, p. 62.
Related Materials:
The Scherbatskoy Papers complement the Philip Bishop Collection documenting petroleum prospecting and extraction in the Museum's Modern Physics Collection and the American Petroleum Institute (API) Photograph and Film Collection (AC0711) in the Archives Center. The API Collection documents all aspects of the production of oil, including exploration, drilling, cracking, refineries, pipelines, tankers, storage tanks, service stations, and the numerous products other than gasoline produced by the petroleum industry.

The Division of Science, Medicine and Society holds three prototypes related to this collection. See accession 2007.0212.
Provenance:
The collection was donated by Serge A. Scherbatskoy's daughter, Mary Scherbatskoy, and three sons, Serge Scherbatskoy, Jr., Timothy Scherbatskoy, and Jonathan Scherbatskoy, on 2007
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning intellectual property rights. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Seismology  Search this
Physicists  Search this
Seismic prospecting  Search this
Physics  Search this
Petroleum -- Prospecting  Search this
Petroleum industry  Search this
Patents  Search this
Licenses  Search this
Inventors  Search this
Inventions  Search this
Geophysics  Search this
Genre/Form:
Contracts
Agreements
Notebooks
Correspondence
Diazo prints
Laboratory notebooks
Patent applications
Reports
Citation:
Serge Scherbatskoy Papers, 1925-2002, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0936
See more items in:
Serge A. Scherbatskoy Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0936

Most of the correspondence between 1911-1914 is in regard to Dall's mother's finances, her emotional and physical capabilities, her will, and her estate. Also included are the following Dall letters:

Collection Creator::
Dall, William Healey, 1845-1927  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Record Unit 7073, William Healey Dall Papers
See more items in:
William Healey Dall Papers
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-sia-faru7073-refidd1e939

Reaching Toward Space

Creator:
Smithsonian Magazine  Search this
Type:
Blog posts
Smithsonian staff publications
Blog posts
Published Date:
Thu, 01 Feb 2001 05:00:00 +0000
Topic:
Search this
See more post:
Smithsonian Article Database
Data Source:
Smithsonian Magazine
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:posts_b6611f2df99a76c7aa0964042e69accf

An Act Making appropriations for the Executive Office and sundry independent executive bureaus, boards, commissions, and offices for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1927, and for other purposes

Author:
69th Congress, Sess. 1, 1926  Search this
Subject:
American Historical Association  Search this
Astrophysical Observatory  Search this
Smithsonian Institution Bureau of American Ethnology  Search this
International Catalogue of Scientific Literature  Search this
National Gallery of Art of the Smithsonian  Search this
United States National Museum  Search this
Smithsonian American Art Museum  Search this
Physical description:
Number of pages: 4; Page Numbers: 305, 315-17
Type:
Public Law
Place:
North America
Hawaii
Date:
1927
04/22/1926
Topic:
Ethnology  Search this
Expenditures, Public  Search this
Archaeology  Search this
Art museums  Search this
Bookbinding  Search this
Books  Search this
Buildings--Repair and reconstruction  Search this
Electricity  Search this
Excavations (Archaeology)  Search this
Exhibitions  Search this
Scientific expeditions  Search this
Finance  Search this
Heating  Search this
International exchanges  Search this
Lighting  Search this
Museum finance  Search this
Museum publications  Search this
Museums--Furniture, equipment, etc  Search this
Periodicals  Search this
Postage stamps  Search this
Postcard  Search this
Preservation of materials  Search this
Printing  Search this
Research  Search this
Sheds  Search this
Surveying  Search this
Telegraph  Search this
Telephone  Search this
Travel  Search this
Publisher:
Washington, D.C.: US Government Printing Office
Data Source:
Smithsonian Archives - History Div
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sic_4336

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