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Douglass' Monthly, Vol. III, No. XI

Container:
Box 1, Folder 8
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1861-04
Collection Restrictions:
Use of the materials requires an appointment. Please contact the archivist at acmarchives@si.edu.
Collection Citation:
Collection of Frederick Douglass materials, Anacostia Community Museum Archives, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Collection of Frederick Douglass' Monthly's, booklets, and other materials
Collection of Frederick Douglass' Monthly's, booklets, and other materials / Series 1: Douglass' Monthly Newspapers
Archival Repository:
Anacostia Community Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-acma-06-112-ref15
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  • View Douglass' Monthly, Vol. III, No. XI digital asset number 1

Plummer-Arnold Family papers

Creator:
Plummer-Arnold family  Search this
Names:
Plummer-Arnold family  Search this
Plummer, Henry Vinton, 1844-1905  Search this
Extent:
1.44 Linear feet (2 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Letters
Certificates
Family papers
Photographic prints
Dvds
Letters (correspondence)
Place:
United States -- Navy -- Chaplain Corps
United States -- Armed Forces -- African Americans
United States -- Army -- Cavalry, 9th
Date:
circa 1880-2005
circa 2005
bulk 1880-1955
Summary:
The collection, spanning the late 19th century to 2005 with the bulk from circa 1880 to circa 1955, measures 1.44 linear feet and documents the daily lives and activities of the Plummer-Arnold family and the military career of Henry Vinton Plummer. The collection consists of 48 color and black-and-white photographs and a framed certificate, letter, and two DVDs regarding the honorable discharge of Henry Vinton Plummer. The photographs are undated.
Scope and Contents:
The Plummer-Arnold family papers span the late 19th century to 2005, with the bulk of the material dating from circa 1880 to circa 1955. The collection contains 48 black-and-white and color photographs, one letter, one certificate, and two DVDs. The black-and-white and color photographs, mostly undated, depict the daily lives and activities of descendants of the Plummer and Arnold families. The collection also features a letter, certificate, and DVDs relating to the honorable discharge of U.S. Army chaplain Henry Vinton Plummer (1844-1905). The collection is organized into two series, Series 1: Family photographs and Series 2: Henry Vinton Plummer military service.
Biographical/Historical note:
The Plummer-Arnold family has a long and notable history. Adam Francis Plummer (1819-1905) and Emily Saunders Arnold (1815-1876) were enslaved African Americans who married in 1841. The couple was separated on different Maryland plantations for the first 22 years of their marriage. They had eighteen children, only nine of whom survived to adulthood. Their eldest son, Henry Vinton Plummer (1844-1905), escaped slavery in 1862 to become a Civil War chaplain and founder of the Bladensburg Union Burial Association. His descendents' successful battle to upgrade his 1894 dishonorable discharge from the U.S. Army is documented in this collection.

In 1862, Henry Vinton Plummer escaped from a Maryland plantation to the District of Columbia, where he joined the Union Navy as a chaplain. He was honorably discharged in 1865 and began his studies at Wayland Seminary, which educated freedmen to enter the Baptist ministry. Upon completion of his studies he became the pastor of St. Paul Baptist Church in Bladensburg, Maryland, founded by his sister, Sarah Miranda Plummer, on October 19, 1866. Henry Vinton Plummer married July Lomax of Virginia in 1867 and their marriage produced nine children.

Henry Vinton Plummer founded the Bladensburg Union Burial Association in 1870, a society that ensured that its African American members would receive a proper funeral by collecting dues and pledges. It was formed in response to a white undertaker's refusal to conduct a funeral because the family of the deceased could not afford to pay. Plummer interceded on behalf of the family and paid their debt. The Bladensburg Union Burial Association remained an active and successful organization into the 20th century.

In 1884, Plummer was appointed as the first black chaplain in the 9th Calvary, one of the Buffalo Soldier units of the Regular Army. Amidst controversy, Plummer was accused of conduct unbecoming an officer and dishonorably discharged from his post in Fort Robinson, Nebraska, by a military court in 1894. In 2005, Plummer's descendants successfully petitioned the Army Board for Correction of Military Records to eradicate his dishonorable discharge. They were issued a certificate from the Army that retroactively grants Plummer the honorable discharge he was denied during his life.
Related Archival Materials note:
These Smithsonian collections and digital exhibits contain related material:

Plummer-Arnold Collection, Permanent Collection, Smithsonian Anacostia Community Museum. The Bladensburg Union Burial Association records, Anacostia Community Museum, Smithsonian Institution, gift of Reverend L. Jerome Fowler. Plummer Diary Website Project, Anacostia Community Museum, Smithsonian Institution. For a description of the preservation of the diary, see the Smithsonian blog post "A Sense of Place."

These items held by the Smithsonian are related material:

"Out of the Depths or The Triumph of the Cross" by Nellie Arnold Plummer, Gift of the descendants of Adam and Emily Plummer. Plummer Family Diary, Gift of the Descendants of Adam and Emily Plummer. United States flag Of Henry Vinton Plummer, Gift of the descendants of Adam and Emily Plummer.

These items are held outside the Smithsonian:

Interview with Reverend L. Jerome Fowler, PTIP Interview Transcripts, Center for Heritage Resource Studies, Department of Anthropology at the University of Maryland, College Park. Images of America: Riverdale Park by Donald Lynch, Tom Alderson, and Melissa Avery, Arcadia Publishing, 2011.
Provenance:
The Plummer-Arnold family papers were donated to the Anacostia Community Museum on October 14, 2004, by Reverend L. Jerome Fowler.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for unrestricted research. Use of the collection requires an appointment. Please contact the archivist to make an appointment: ACMarchives@si.edu.
Rights:
The Plummer-Arnold Family papers are the physical property of the Anacostia Community Museum. Literary and copyright belong to the author/creator or their legal heirs and assigns. For further information, and to obtain permission to publish or reproduce, contact the Museum Archives.
Topic:
Fraternal organizations  Search this
African American women  Search this
Portraits -- African American women  Search this
Race discrimination  Search this
African American families  Search this
Family reunions  Search this
Military chaplains  Search this
African American women -- Societies and clubs  Search this
Discrimination in the military  Search this
Military discharge -- United States  Search this
Racism  Search this
Genre/Form:
Letters
Certificates
Family papers
Photographic prints
DVDs
Letters (correspondence) -- 20th century.
Citation:
The Plummer-Arnold family papers, undated-2005, bulk circa 1880-1955, Anacostia Community Museum Archives, Smithsonian Institution, gift of Reverend L. Jerome Fowler.
Identifier:
ACMA.06-038
See more items in:
Plummer-Arnold Family papers
Archival Repository:
Anacostia Community Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-acma-06-038
Online Media:

Second Year No.25

Container:
Box 1
Type:
Archival materials
Text
Date:
September 1, 1934
Collection Restrictions:
Use of the materials requires an appointment. Please contact the archivist at ACMarchives@si.edu
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Anacostia Community Museum Archives, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
New Negro Opinion newspaper
New Negro Opinion newspaper / Series 1: December 1933- December 1934
Archival Repository:
Anacostia Community Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-acma-10-012-3-ref21
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  • View Second Year No.25 digital asset number 1

Second Year No.3

Container:
Box 1
Type:
Archival materials
Text
Date:
January 18, 1934
Collection Restrictions:
Use of the materials requires an appointment. Please contact the archivist at ACMarchives@si.edu
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Anacostia Community Museum Archives, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
New Negro Opinion newspaper
New Negro Opinion newspaper / Series 1: December 1933- December 1934
Archival Repository:
Anacostia Community Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-acma-10-012-3-ref7
1 Page(s) matching your search term, top most relevant are shown: View entire project in transcription center
  • View Second Year No.3 digital asset number 1

Frederick Douglass Patterson papers

Creator:
Patterson, Frederick D. (Frederick Douglass), 1901-1988  Search this
Names:
Phelps-Stokes Fund  Search this
Tuskegee Institute  Search this
United Negro College Fund  Search this
Carver, George Washington, 1864?-1943  Search this
Moton, Robert Russa, 1867-1940  Search this
Patterson, Frederick D. (Frederick Douglass), 1901-1988  Search this
Extent:
18.66 Linear feet (21 boxes)
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Diplomas
Notebooks
Articles
Manuscripts
Photographic prints
Ephemera
Scrapbooks
Newsletters
Awards
Photographs
Invitations
Legal documents
Programs
Correspondence
Clippings
Date:
1882 - 1988
Summary:
President of Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute (later Tukegee Institute; now Tuskegee University) from 1935 - 1953 and founder of the United Negro College Fund (1944). Patterson was born on October 10, 1901. Orphaned at age two, he was raised by his eldest sister, Wilhelmina (Bess), a school teacher in Texas. He studied at Iowa State College, where he received a doctorate in veterinary medicine in 1923 and a master of science degree in 1927. Five years later, he was awarded a second doctorate degree from Cornell University. Patterson taught veterinary science for four years at Virginia State College, where he was also Director of Agriculture. His tenure at Tuskegee University started in 1928 and spanned almost 25 years, first as head of the veterinary division, then as the director of the School of Agriculture and finally as Tuskegee's third president. He married Catherine Elizabeth Moton, daughter of Tuskegee University's second president, Dr. Robert R. Moton. Patterson also founded the School of Veterinary Medicine at Tuskegee in 1944, the same year he founded the United Negro College Fund (UNCF). The UNCF continues today as a critical source of annual income for a consortium of Historically Black Colleges and Universities, Tuskegee University among them.
Scope and Content note:
The Frederick Douglass Patterson Collection comprises 18.66 linear feet of correspondence, manuscripts, research material, published writings, photographs, audiovisual material, scrapbooks, diplomas, awards, and other materials chronicling the personal life and professional career of Frederick D. Patterson.

The collection is comprised of glimpses into the life of Dr. Patterson. The little correspondece that survived is located in Series 2: Career, Series 3: Correspondence, and Series 4: Organizations. Some of the correspondence takes the form of congratulatory notes from 1953 during Patterson's transfer from Tuskegee Institute to the Phelps-Stokes Fund, located in Series 2. There is also a personal note sent to Patterson's wife, Catherine Patterson, from George Washington Carver in which he describes peanut oil as a good massage oil.
Arrangement note:
The collection is arranged by series and chronologically therein:

1. Biography: This series provides insight into Patterson's family life through primary documents. It is comprised of family wills, insurance policies, and his autobiography. Sub-series are arranged alphabetically by title.

2. Career: This series contains materials from Patterson's long professional career in the field of higher education, including his tenure as present of both the Tuskegee Institute and the Phelps-Stokes Fund. Sub-series are arranged chronologically.

3. Correspondence: This series contains letters sent to Patterson (and his wife) of a personal and professional nature. Several letters relate to Patterson's personal business "Signs and Services," which was a small billboard advertising company. There are also letters from George Washington Carver. The series is arranged chronologically. 4. Organizations: This series contains material from the various foundations Patterson founded and to which he belonged, including the R.R. Moton Fund and the College Endowment Funding Plan. He is especially noted for developing the United Negro College Fund. The series is organized alphabetically by sub-series title.

5. Honors: This series contains the awards, citations, and resolutions Patterson received during his lifetime. Folders are organized chronologically. 6. Subject Files: This series comprises articles, employee vitas, and other documents collected and organized by Patterson. Among the subjects in the files are higher education, Negroes, segregation, civil rights, and employee records. There is no key to this system.

7. Photographs: The Photograph series mostly documents Patterson's tenure at Tuskegee University. The series includes images of Patterson and various other notable figures during formal functions at the university. Noteworthy personalities include George Washington Carver, Eleanor and Franklin D. Roosevelt, and President Kwame Nkrumah of Ghana.

8. Printed Materials: This series contains books, programs, and other documents from Patterson's personal collection. The series is organized alphabetically by author's last name.
Biographical note:
Frederick Douglass Patterson was born on October 10, 1901 to parents William and Mamie Brooks Patterson, in the Buena Vista Heights area of Anacostia in Washington, D.C. The youngest of six children, Patterson's parents died of tuberculosis before he reached the age of two years, his mother when he was eleven months old and his father a year later. Following his parents' death, the Patterson children were split up and sent to live in the homes of family and friends as stipulated in his father's last will and testament until he was seven years old, Patterson lived in the Anacostia area with a family friend he called "Aunt Julia."

When he was seven years old, Patterson's older sister Bess (a recent graduate of the Washington Conservatory of Music) decided to seek employment in Texas and took him with her. Many of their parents' family still lived in the state, which allowed Patterson the opportunity to spend months with various aunts and uncles, while his sister taught music throughout the South. After completing eighth grade, Patterson joined his sister at the Prairie View Normal School, where she taught music and directed the choir. Patterson attended the school for four years, during which time he developed an interest in veterinary medicine.

In 1920, Patterson enrolled at Iowa State College as a veterinary student. He graduated in 1923 and moved to Columbus, Ohio, to join his brother John. While there, he took the Ohio State Board exam for Veterinary Medicine. Although he became certified, a lack of money prevented him from practicing. Four years later he received a teaching offer from Virginia State College (VSC) in Petersburg, Virginia, which afforded him the opportunity to work within his profession. While at VSC Patterson took a leave of absence and returned to Iowa, in 1926, to pursue a Master's degree in veterinary medicine.

After five years at VSC, the Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute offered Patterson a position running the veterinarian hospital and teaching veterinary science. He moved to Tuskegee, Alabama in 1928. While at Tuskegee, Patterson decided to pursue a Ph.D. in bacteriology at Cornell University. During his year and a half leave from Tuskegee, Patterson completed his coursework and wrote his dissertation. After he returned to Tuskegee, a serial killer murdered three people, including the head of the Department of Agriculture. Confronted with this tragedy, school officials quickly offered Patterson the vacant position, which he accepted in 1934.

Robert R. Moton, second president of Tuskegee, retired in 1935 and a search was soon commenced to find the next president for the school. Patterson, in the meantime, pursued more personal matters when he met and married Catherine Moton (with whom he would have a son) in June 1935. By then he was already hired to take his now, father-in-law's, position as President of Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute.

As president of Tuskegee, Patterson made several changes and many additions to the institution. He increased faculty housing for professors; integrated the Board of Trustees' meeting meals and eventually arranged for both balck and white members to eat at one table; shortened the name to Tuskegee Institute; and established the Department of Commercial Dietetics in 1935, the veterinary medicine program in 1942, and the engineering program in 1948. While many considered Patterson's changes important achievements, it was his development of the Commercial/Military Aviation Program that would bring the school distinction and fame.

Patterson first attempted to develop the aviation program in 1939. The government fostered the development of such programs by subsiding the expenses. All a university had to do was present able-bodied instructors and willing pupils. Tuskegee had both. By 1940 the United States Air Force was interested in integrating its forces. In order to do this they needed trained black pilots. Tuskegee was the perfect place to provide the needed pilots since the school was situated in an all-black environment where students could concentrate on learning to fly without having to worry about racist reactions from their fellow classmates. To accommodate this program, the Tuskegee Army Air Base was created. Tuskegee pilots flew missions throughout World War II and would later be recognized for their bravery.

An important part of Patterson's duties as president was fund-raising. By 1943 he found it increasingly difficult to find ample sources of funds to run the Institute. He came to realize Tuskegee and similar black colleges would benefit if they pooled their funding resources and asked for larger amounts of money from philanthropic individuals and organizations as a collective. Working together would cut fund-raising expenses; this in turn would leave more money for the colleges to use as they wished. Patterson named his new creation the United Negro College Fund (UNCF); it would go on to raise millions of dollars for the nation's historically black colleges. He served as the first president of the organization.

During the fifteen years Patterson served as president of Tuskegee, he hosted many famous personalities, including W.E.B. DuBois, Mary McLeod Bethune, Eleanor Roosevelt, Duke Ellington, Paul Robeson, Pearl Buck, and Andre Segovia. He developed a lasting relationship with George Washington Carver, who had been a professor with Tuskegee since the days of Booker T. Washington.

Patterson served on many organizational boards in addition to his educational work. His involvement with the Phelps-Stokes Fund would ultimately lead Patterson to leave his beloved Tuskegee Institute to apply his educational philosophies on a broader scale. In 1953 the Fund approached Patterson and offered him the presidency of the organization. Patterson, feeling he needed a change, accepted the offer. He resigned from Tuskegee that same year and moved to New York to begin a new life.

Organized in 1911, the Phelps-Stokes Fund supported African, African American, and Native American education and worked on solving housing problems in New York City. Patterson's interest in African education began before he joined Phelps-Stokes. In 1950 the World Bank/International Bank Commission to Nigeria hired him to "evaluate the resources of Nigeria and…to study the educational programs and the organizational structure of advanced education." Through his work with the Fund he continued his efforts to improve the educational opportunities for Africans and help them move beyond colonialism. Patterson traveled extensively throughout the west coast of Africa in support of these goals.

In addition to forming the UNCF, Patterson created two other organizations (the Robert R. Moton Institute and the College Endowment Funding Plan), during the mid 1960s and 1970s. Each was designed to improve funding efforts for historically black colleges. The Robert R. Moton institute began as an off-shoot of the Phelps-Stokes as a site for conferences to address the Fund's primary concerns. Patterson's idea for the Institute came from a desire to put to use a piece of property inherited after Moton's death. Empathy with the frustrations of college presidents regarding the restricted funding for institutional expenses led Patterson to create the College Endowment Funding Plan. The Endowment was designed to alleviate this situation by providing matching funds to eligible colleges. The Endowment made its first payment in 1978. Unfortunately, by the 1980s, the Moton Institute lost most of its government funding due to federal cutbacks. This resulted in reductions to the Institute's programming.

It was not until Patterson was well into his eighties that he began to retire from his life of public service. On June 23, 1987, President Ronald Reagan presented Dr. Patterson with the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the highest possible honor that can be bestowed upon a civilian, for his service in higher education and his role in creating funding sources for the nation's historically black colleges. A year later Frederick Douglass Patterson died at the age of eighty-seven.

Honorary Degrees

undated -- Xavier University

1941 -- Virginia State College

1941 -- Wilberforce University

1953 -- Morehouse College

1956 -- Tuskegee Institute

1961 -- New York University

1966 -- Edward Waters College

1967 -- Atlanta University

1969 -- Franklin and Marshall College

1970 -- Virginia Union University

1975 -- Bishop College

1977 -- St. Augustine's College

1982 -- Brooklyn College of the City University of New York

1984 -- Stillman College

1985 -- Payne College

Distinctions

undated -- Association for the Study of Negro Life and History Carter

undated -- The Southern Education Foundation, Inc. Distinguished Service Citation

undated -- The United Negro College Fund (UNCF) and Texas Association of Developing Colleges Annual Leadership Awards

1950 -- Christian Education department, African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church, Inc. Citation for Distinguished Service

1953 -- Bethune-Cookman College, the Mary McLeod Bethune Medallion

1953 -- John A. Andrew Clinical Society at Tuskegee Institute, Citation for Distinguished Service in the Cause of Humanity

1953 -- Tuskegee Institute, Certificate of Appreciation for 25 Years of Service

1957 -- Phi Beta Sigma Fraternity, Inc. Beta Lamda Sigma Chapter, Bigger and Better Business Award

1960 -- National Alumni Council of the UNCF, Inc. Award

1963 -- National Business League, Booker T. Washington Award

1965 -- Booker T. Washington Business Association, Certificate of Acknowledgement

1970 -- Moton Conference Center Award

1970 -- Tuskegee National Alumni Association, R.R. Moton Award

1972 -- American College Public Relations Association, 1972 Award for Distinguished Service to Higher Education

1972 -- UNCF F.D. Patterson 71st Birthday Award

1975 -- National Business League, Booker T. Washington Symbol of Service Award

1976 -- Phelps-Stokes Fund, Continuous Creative and Courageous Leadership in the Cause of Higher Education for Blacks

1977 -- Yale Alumni Associates of Afro-America, Distinguished Service Award

1979 -- Alpha Phi Alpha Education Foundation Inc., Distinguished Educator Award

1979 -- Tuskegee Institute Alumni Association Philadelphia Charter Award

1980 -- The Iowa State University Alumni Association, Distinguished Achievement Citation

1980 -- Gary Branch NAACP Life Membership Fight for Freedom Dinner 1980, Roy Wilkins Award

1980 -- State of Alabama Certificate of Appreciation

1982 -- St. Luke's United Methodist Church Achievement Award

1983 -- Tuskegee Airmen, Inc., Distinguished Service Award

1984 -- Booker T. Washington Foundation, Booker T. Washington Distinguished Service Award

1984 -- The Ohio State University Office of Minority Affairs, Distinguished Humanitarian and Service Award

1985 -- Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Inc, Eta Zeta Lamda Chapter Civic Award

1985 -- United States, Private Sector Initiative Commendation

1987 -- Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Inc of New York State, Founders Day Award

1987 -- Presidential Medal of Freedom

1987 -- Brag Business Achievement Award

1987 -- Phelps-Stokes Fund, Aggrey Medal

Public Service

1941-1971 -- Southern Educational Foundation, Inc., Board Member

1943-1988 -- United Negro College Fund, Founder, President, and Member

1960s-1988 -- Robert R. Moton Memorial Institute, Founder

1970s-1988 -- The College Endowment Funding Plan, Founder

undated -- American National Red Cross, Board of Governors Member

undated -- Boys Scouts of America, National Council Member

undated -- Citizens Committee for the Hoover Report on Reorganization of Federal Government, Board Member

undated -- Institute of International Education, Advisory committee Member

undated -- National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, Life Member

undated -- National Business League, President and Board Member

undated -- National Urban League, National Committee Member

undated -- Phelps-Stokes Fund, Board of Trustees Member

undated -- President's Commission on Higher Education for Negroes

undated -- Southern Regional Education, Board of Control Member
Related Materials:
Additional biographical materials in the Dale/Patterson Collection of the Anacostia Community Museum Archives.

This collection contains artifacts catalogued in the ACM Objects Collection.
Provenance:
The Frederick Douglass Patterson papers were donated to the Anacostia Community Museum in 2001 by Frederick Douglass Patterson, Jr.
Restrictions:
Use of the materials requires an appointment. Please contact the archivist to make an appointment: ACMarchives@si.edu.
Rights:
The Frederick Douglass Patterson papers are the physical property of the Anacostia Community Museum. Literary and copyright belong to the author/creator or their legal heirs and assigns. Rights to work produced during the normal course of Museum business resides with the Anacostia Community Museum. For further information, and to obtain permission to publish or reproduce, contact the Museum Archives.
Topic:
Universities and colleges -- Administration  Search this
African Americans -- Education (Higher)  Search this
African American universities and colleges  Search this
Genre/Form:
Diplomas
Notebooks
Articles
Manuscripts
Photographic prints
Ephemera
Scrapbooks
Newsletters
Awards
Photographs
Invitations
Legal documents
Programs
Correspondence
Clippings
Citation:
Frederick Douglass Patterson papers, Anacostia Community Museum Archives, Smithsonian Institution, gift of Frederick Douglass Patterson, Jr.
Identifier:
ACMA.06-010
See more items in:
Frederick Douglass Patterson papers
Archival Repository:
Anacostia Community Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-acma-06-010
2 Page(s) matching your search term, top most relevant are shown: View entire project in transcription center
  • View Frederick Douglass Patterson papers digital asset number 1
  • View Frederick Douglass Patterson papers digital asset number 2
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