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John Bauer, "The Little Princess Who Went for a Walk" by Helena Nyblom and Illustrated by John Bauer, Translation by Johnson

Collection Creator:
Johnson, Ellen H.  Search this
Container:
Box 7, Folder 33
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
circa 1945
Collection Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Washington D.C. Center. Use of archival audiovisual recordings with no duplicate access copy requires advance notice. Contact Reference Services for more information.
Collection Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Collection Citation:
Ellen Hulda Johnson papers, 1872-2018, bulk 1921-1992. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Ellen Hulda Johnson papers
Ellen Hulda Johnson papers / Series 3: Writing and Research Projects / 3.1: Articles, Lectures, Presentations, Class and Research Notes
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aaa-johnelle-ref124

Textile

Medium:
Medium: cotton Technique: printed by short plate on plain weave foundation
Dimensions:
H x W: 190 × 87.5 cm (74 13/16 in. × 34 7/16 in.)
Repeat H (plate): 48 cm (18 7/8 in.)
Type:
printed, dyed & painted textiles
Textile
Made in:
Rouen area, Normandy, France
Date:
ca. 1815
Credit Line:
Bequest of Elinor Merrell
Accession Number:
1995-50-17
Restrictions & Rights:
CC0
See more items in:
Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum Collection
Textiles Department
Data Source:
Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/kq495efc5bc-95ad-4bab-8dd8-ef9166a54a2b
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:chndm_1995-50-17
Online Media:

M – T

Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1865
Collection Restrictions:
Freedmen's Bureau Digital Collection, 1865–1872, is a product of and owned by the National Museum of African American History and Culture, Smithsonian Institution. Copyright for digital images is retained by the donor, FamilySearch International; permission for commercial use of the digital images may be requested from FamilySearch International, Intellectual Property Office, at: cor-intellectualproperty@ldschurch.org.
Collection Citation:
Courtesy of the U. S. National Archives and Records Administration, FamilySearch International, and the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture.
Identifier:
NMAAHC.FB.M999, File 8.1.3
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Records of the Assistant Commissioner for the State of Tennessee, Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, 1865–1869
Records of the Assistant Commissioner for the State of Tennessee, Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, 1865–1869 / Series 8: Registered Letters Received / 8.1: Entered in Register 1
Archival Repository:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmaahc-fb-m999-ref38
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A – W

Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1868–May 1869
Collection Restrictions:
Freedmen's Bureau Digital Collection, 1865–1872, is a product of and owned by the National Museum of African American History and Culture, Smithsonian Institution. Copyright for digital images is retained by the donor, FamilySearch International; permission for commercial use of the digital images may be requested from FamilySearch International, Intellectual Property Office, at: cor-intellectualproperty@ldschurch.org.
Collection Citation:
Courtesy of the U. S. National Archives and Records Administration, FamilySearch International, and the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture.
Identifier:
NMAAHC.FB.M869, Subseries 5.6
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Records of the Assistant Commissioner for the State of South Carolina, Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, 1865–1870
Records of the Assistant Commissioner for the State of South Carolina, Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, 1865–1870 / Series 5: Unregistered Letters Received
Archival Repository:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmaahc-fb-m869-ref53
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C – F

Type:
Archival materials
Date:
May 1865–May 1866
Collection Restrictions:
Freedmen's Bureau Digital Collection, 1865–1872, is a product of and owned by the National Museum of African American History and Culture, Smithsonian Institution. Copyright for digital images is retained by the donor, FamilySearch International; permission for commercial use of the digital images may be requested from FamilySearch International, Intellectual Property Office, at: cor-intellectualproperty@ldschurch.org.
Collection Citation:
Courtesy of the U. S. National Archives and Records Administration, FamilySearch International, and the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture.
Identifier:
NMAAHC.FB.M869, File 6.2.2
See more items in:
Records of the Assistant Commissioner for the State of South Carolina, Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, 1865–1870
Records of the Assistant Commissioner for the State of South Carolina, Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, 1865–1870 / Series 6: Records Relating to Restoration of Property / 6.2: Registered Applications for Restoration of Property
Archival Repository:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmaahc-fb-m869-ref58
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A – K

Type:
Archival materials
Date:
July 1865–Oct. 1868
Collection Restrictions:
Freedmen's Bureau Digital Collection, 1865–1872, is a product of and owned by the National Museum of African American History and Culture, Smithsonian Institution. Copyright for digital images is retained by the donor, FamilySearch International; permission for commercial use of the digital images may be requested from FamilySearch International, Intellectual Property Office, at: cor-intellectualproperty@ldschurch.org.
Collection Citation:
Courtesy of the U. S. National Archives and Records Administration, FamilySearch International, and the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture.
Identifier:
NMAAHC.FB.M869, File 6.3.1
See more items in:
Records of the Assistant Commissioner for the State of South Carolina, Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, 1865–1870
Records of the Assistant Commissioner for the State of South Carolina, Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, 1865–1870 / Series 6: Records Relating to Restoration of Property / 6.3: Unregistered Applications for Restoration of Property
Archival Repository:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmaahc-fb-m869-ref63
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Register of Restoration Orders (42)

Type:
Archival materials
Date:
Dec. 1865–Feb. 1866
Collection Restrictions:
Freedmen's Bureau Digital Collection, 1865–1872, is a product of and owned by the National Museum of African American History and Culture, Smithsonian Institution. Copyright for digital images is retained by the donor, FamilySearch International; permission for commercial use of the digital images may be requested from FamilySearch International, Intellectual Property Office, at: cor-intellectualproperty@ldschurch.org.
Collection Citation:
Courtesy of the U. S. National Archives and Records Administration, FamilySearch International, and the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture.
Identifier:
NMAAHC.FB.M869, Item 6.4.5.1
See more items in:
Records of the Assistant Commissioner for the State of South Carolina, Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, 1865–1870
Records of the Assistant Commissioner for the State of South Carolina, Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, 1865–1870 / Series 6: Records Relating to Restoration of Property / 6.4: Captain A. P. Ketchum's Records / 6.4.5: Restoration Orders
Archival Repository:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmaahc-fb-m869-ref70
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Miscellaneous Reports

Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1865–1868
Collection Restrictions:
Freedmen's Bureau Digital Collection, 1865–1872, is a product of and owned by the National Museum of African American History and Culture, Smithsonian Institution. Copyright for digital images is retained by the donor, FamilySearch International; permission for commercial use of the digital images may be requested from FamilySearch International, Intellectual Property Office, at: cor-intellectualproperty@ldschurch.org.
Collection Citation:
Courtesy of the U. S. National Archives and Records Administration, FamilySearch International, and the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture.
Identifier:
NMAAHC.FB.M843, Subseries 23.1
See more items in:
Records of the Assistant Commissioner for the State of North Carolina Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, 1865–1870
Records of the Assistant Commissioner for the State of North Carolina Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, 1865–1870 / Series 23: Other Records
Archival Repository:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmaahc-fb-m843-ref128
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Vol. 1 (15)

Type:
Archival materials
Date:
July 11, 1865–Sept. 20, 1866
Collection Restrictions:
Freedmen's Bureau Digital Collection, 1865–1872, is a product of and owned by the National Museum of African American History and Culture, Smithsonian Institution. Copyright for digital images is retained by the donor, FamilySearch International; permission for commercial use of the digital images may be requested from FamilySearch International, Intellectual Property Office, at: cor-intellectualproperty@ldschurch.org.
Collection Citation:
Courtesy of the U. S. National Archives and Records Administration, FamilySearch International, and the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture.
Identifier:
NMAAHC.FB.M843, Subseries 2.3
See more items in:
Records of the Assistant Commissioner for the State of North Carolina Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, 1865–1870
Records of the Assistant Commissioner for the State of North Carolina Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, 1865–1870 / Series 2: Endorsements Sent
Archival Repository:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmaahc-fb-m843-ref13
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  • View Vol. 1 (15) digital asset number 1

Vol. 1 (1)

Type:
Archival materials
Date:
July 1865–Oct. 1866
Collection Restrictions:
Freedmen's Bureau Digital Collection, 1865–1872, is a product of and owned by the National Museum of African American History and Culture, Smithsonian Institution. Copyright for digital images is retained by the donor, FamilySearch International; permission for commercial use of the digital images may be requested from FamilySearch International, Intellectual Property Office, at: cor-intellectualproperty@ldschurch.org.
Collection Citation:
Courtesy of the U. S. National Archives and Records Administration, FamilySearch International, and the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture.
Identifier:
NMAAHC.FB.M843, Subseries 3.3
See more items in:
Records of the Assistant Commissioner for the State of North Carolina Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, 1865–1870
Records of the Assistant Commissioner for the State of North Carolina Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, 1865–1870 / Series 3: Registers of Letters Received
Archival Repository:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmaahc-fb-m843-ref22
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S – Y

Type:
Archival materials
Date:
July 1865–Oct. 1866
Collection Restrictions:
Freedmen's Bureau Digital Collection, 1865–1872, is a product of and owned by the National Museum of African American History and Culture, Smithsonian Institution. Copyright for digital images is retained by the donor, FamilySearch International; permission for commercial use of the digital images may be requested from FamilySearch International, Intellectual Property Office, at: cor-intellectualproperty@ldschurch.org.
Collection Citation:
Courtesy of the U. S. National Archives and Records Administration, FamilySearch International, and the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture.
Identifier:
NMAAHC.FB.M843, File 4.1.3
See more items in:
Records of the Assistant Commissioner for the State of North Carolina Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, 1865–1870
Records of the Assistant Commissioner for the State of North Carolina Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, 1865–1870 / Series 4: Letters Received / 4.1: Entered in Register 1
Archival Repository:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmaahc-fb-m843-ref31
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A – W

Type:
Archival materials
Date:
July–Dec. 1865
Collection Restrictions:
Freedmen's Bureau Digital Collection, 1865–1872, is a product of and owned by the National Museum of African American History and Culture, Smithsonian Institution. Copyright for digital images is retained by the donor, FamilySearch International; permission for commercial use of the digital images may be requested from FamilySearch International, Intellectual Property Office, at: cor-intellectualproperty@ldschurch.org.
Collection Citation:
Courtesy of the U. S. National Archives and Records Administration, FamilySearch International, and the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture.
Identifier:
NMAAHC.FB.M843, Item 4.5.1.1
See more items in:
Records of the Assistant Commissioner for the State of North Carolina Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, 1865–1870
Records of the Assistant Commissioner for the State of North Carolina Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, 1865–1870 / Series 4: Letters Received / 4.5: Unregistered / 4.5.1: Name Index
Archival Repository:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmaahc-fb-m843-ref44
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Telegrams Received

Type:
Archival materials
Date:
Jan. 1865–Dec. 1868
Scope and Contents:
The unbound series of telegrams received, January 1865–December 1868, is arranged chronologically, except for telegrams that duplicate those in the bound volume, the entire series has been filmed, including three telegrams in cipher.
Collection Restrictions:
Freedmen's Bureau Digital Collection, 1865–1872, is a product of and owned by the National Museum of African American History and Culture, Smithsonian Institution. Copyright for digital images is retained by the donor, FamilySearch International; permission for commercial use of the digital images may be requested from FamilySearch International, Intellectual Property Office, at: cor-intellectualproperty@ldschurch.org.
Collection Citation:
Courtesy of the U. S. National Archives and Records Administration, FamilySearch International, and the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture.
Identifier:
NMAAHC.FB.M843, Series 6
See more items in:
Records of the Assistant Commissioner for the State of North Carolina Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, 1865–1870
Archival Repository:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmaahc-fb-m843-ref51
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Circulars Received

Type:
Archival materials
Date:
May 1865–Apr. 1869
Collection Restrictions:
Freedmen's Bureau Digital Collection, 1865–1872, is a product of and owned by the National Museum of African American History and Culture, Smithsonian Institution. Copyright for digital images is retained by the donor, FamilySearch International; permission for commercial use of the digital images may be requested from FamilySearch International, Intellectual Property Office, at: cor-intellectualproperty@ldschurch.org.
Collection Citation:
Courtesy of the U. S. National Archives and Records Administration, FamilySearch International, and the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture.
Identifier:
NMAAHC.FB.M843, Subseries 8.4
See more items in:
Records of the Assistant Commissioner for the State of North Carolina Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, 1865–1870
Records of the Assistant Commissioner for the State of North Carolina Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, 1865–1870 / Series 8: Issuances
Archival Repository:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmaahc-fb-m843-ref59
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Vol. 1 (22)

Type:
Archival materials
Date:
June 28, 1865–July 12, 1867
Collection Restrictions:
Freedmen's Bureau Digital Collection, 1865–1872, is a product of and owned by the National Museum of African American History and Culture, Smithsonian Institution. Copyright for digital images is retained by the donor, FamilySearch International; permission for commercial use of the digital images may be requested from FamilySearch International, Intellectual Property Office, at: cor-intellectualproperty@ldschurch.org.
Collection Citation:
Courtesy of the U. S. National Archives and Records Administration, FamilySearch International, and the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture.
Identifier:
NMAAHC.FB.M843, File 8.5.1
See more items in:
Records of the Assistant Commissioner for the State of North Carolina Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, 1865–1870
Records of the Assistant Commissioner for the State of North Carolina Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, 1865–1870 / Series 8: Issuances / 8.5: Special Orders Issued
Archival Repository:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmaahc-fb-m843-ref61
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Labor Contracts of Freedmen

Type:
Archival materials
Date:
Aug.–Sept. 1865
Collection Restrictions:
Freedmen's Bureau Digital Collection, 1865–1872, is a product of and owned by the National Museum of African American History and Culture, Smithsonian Institution. Copyright for digital images is retained by the donor, FamilySearch International; permission for commercial use of the digital images may be requested from FamilySearch International, Intellectual Property Office, at: cor-intellectualproperty@ldschurch.org.
Collection Citation:
Courtesy of the U. S. National Archives and Records Administration, FamilySearch International, and the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture.
Identifier:
NMAAHC.FB.M826, File 8.3.5
See more items in:
Records of the Assistant Commissioner for the State of Mississippi, Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, 1865–1869
Records of the Assistant Commissioner for the State of Mississippi, Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, 1865–1869 / Series 8: Indentures, Marriages, and Labor Contracts / 8.3: Labor Contracts of Freedmen
Archival Repository:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmaahc-fb-m826-ref119
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General Orders and Circulars Issued (31)

Type:
Archival materials
Date:
June 1865–Dec. 1868
Collection Restrictions:
Freedmen's Bureau Digital Collection, 1865–1872, is a product of and owned by the National Museum of African American History and Culture, Smithsonian Institution. Copyright for digital images is retained by the donor, FamilySearch International; permission for commercial use of the digital images may be requested from FamilySearch International, Intellectual Property Office, at: cor-intellectualproperty@ldschurch.org.
Collection Citation:
Courtesy of the U. S. National Archives and Records Administration, FamilySearch International, and the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture.
Identifier:
NMAAHC.FB.M826, File 5.1.2
See more items in:
Records of the Assistant Commissioner for the State of Mississippi, Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, 1865–1869
Records of the Assistant Commissioner for the State of Mississippi, Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, 1865–1869 / Series 5: Orders and Circulars / 5.1: General Orders and Circulars Issued
Archival Repository:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmaahc-fb-m826-ref134
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Orders and Circulars Issued and Received

Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1865–1868
Scope and Contents:
The unbound series of orders and circulars received by the Assistant Commissioner, 1865–1868, is arranged by type of order, and thereunder chronologically. The series includes general orders, special orders, and circulars.
Collection Restrictions:
Freedmen's Bureau Digital Collection, 1865–1872, is a product of and owned by the National Museum of African American History and Culture, Smithsonian Institution. Copyright for digital images is retained by the donor, FamilySearch International; permission for commercial use of the digital images may be requested from FamilySearch International, Intellectual Property Office, at: cor-intellectualproperty@ldschurch.org.
Collection Citation:
Courtesy of the U. S. National Archives and Records Administration, FamilySearch International, and the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture.
Identifier:
NMAAHC.FB.M826, Subseries 5.7
See more items in:
Records of the Assistant Commissioner for the State of Mississippi, Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, 1865–1869
Records of the Assistant Commissioner for the State of Mississippi, Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, 1865–1869 / Series 5: Orders and Circulars
Archival Repository:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmaahc-fb-m826-ref73
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Records of the Field Offices for the State of Virginia, Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, 1865–1872

Extent:
197,148 Digital files
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Digital files
Date:
1865–1872
Summary:
This collection is comprised of digital surrogates previously available on the 203 rolls of microfilm described in the NARA publication M1913. These digital surrogates reproduced the records of the Virginia field offices of the Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, 1865–1872, including previously unfilmed records of the Virginia staff offices of the quartermaster and disbursing officer, and the subordinate field offices. These records consist of bound volumes and unbound records, including letters and endorsements sent and received, orders and circulars, monthly reports, and other records relating to freedmen's complaints and claims.
Historical Note:
[The following is reproduced from the original NARA descriptive pamphlet for M1913.]

HISTORY AND ORGANIZATION

The Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, also known as the Freedmen's Bureau, was established in the War Department by an act of Congress on March 3, 1865 (13 Stat. 507). The life of the Bureau was extended twice by acts of July 16, 1866 (14 Stat. 173), and July 6, 1868 (15 Stat. 83). The Bureau was responsible for the supervision and management of all matters relating to refugees and freedmen, and of lands abandoned or seized during the Civil War. In May 1865, President Andrew Johnson appointed Maj. Gen. Oliver Otis Howard as Commissioner of the Bureau, and Howard served in that position until June 30, 1872, when activities of the Bureau were terminated in accordance with an act of June 10, 1872 (17 Stat. 366). While a major part of the Bureau's early activities involved the supervision of abandoned and confiscated property, its mission was to provide relief and help freedmen become self–sufficient. Bureau officials issued rations and clothing, operated hospitals and refugee camps, and supervised labor contracts. In addition, the Bureau managed apprenticeship disputes and complaints, assisted benevolent societies in the establishment of schools, helped freedmen in legalizing marriages entered into during slavery, and provided transportation to refugees and freedmen who were attempting to reunite with their family or relocate to other parts of the country. The Bureau also helped black soldiers, sailors, and their heirs collect bounty claims, pensions, and back pay.

The act of March 3, 1865, authorized the appointment of Assistant Commissioners to aid the Commissioner in supervising the work of the Bureau in the former Confederate states, the border states, and the District of Columbia. While the work performed by Assistant Commissioners in each state was similar, the organizational structure of staff officers varied from state to state. At various times, the staff could consist of a superintendent of education, an assistant adjutant general, an assistant inspector general, a disbursing officer, a chief medical officer, a chief quartermaster, and a commissary of subsistence. Subordinate to these officers were the assistant superintendents or subassistant commissioners as they later became known, who commanded the subdistricts.

The Assistant Commissioner corresponded extensively with both his superior in the Washington Bureau headquarters and his subordinate officers in the subdistricts. Based upon reports submitted to him by the subassistant commissioners and other subordinate staff officers, he prepared reports that he sent to the Commissioner concerning Bureau activities in areas under his jurisdiction. The Assistant Commissioner also received letters from freedmen, local white citizens, state officials, and other non–Bureau personnel. These letters varied in nature from complaints to applications for jobs in the Bureau. Because the assistant adjutant general handled much of the mail for the Assistant Commissioner's office, it was often addressed to him instead of to the Assistant Commissioner.

In a circular issued by Commissioner Howard in July 1865, the Assistant Commissioners were instructed to designate one officer in each state to serve as "General Superintendents of Schools." These officials were to "take cognizance of all that is being done to educate refugees and freedmen, secure proper protection to schools and teachers, promote method and efficiency, correspond with the benevolent agencies which are supplying his field, and aid the Assistant Commissioner in making his required reports." In October 1865, a degree of centralized control was established over Bureau educational activities in the states when Rev. John W. Alvord was appointed Inspector of Finances and Schools. In January 1867, Alvord was divested of his financial responsibilities, and he was appointed General Superintendent of Education.

An act of Congress approved July 25, 1868 (15 Stat. 193), ordered that the Commissioner of the Bureau "shall, on the first day of January next, cause the said bureau to be withdrawn from the several States within which said bureau has acted and its operation shall be discontinued." Consequently, in early 1869, with the exception of the superintendents of education and the claims agents, the Assistant Commissioners and their subordinate officers were withdrawn from the states.

For the next year and a half the Bureau continued to pursue its education work and to process claims. In the summer of 1870, the superintendents of education were withdrawn from the states, and the headquarters staff was greatly reduced. From that time until the Bureau was abolished by an act of Congress approved June 10, 1872 (17 Stat. 366), effective June 30, 1872, the Bureau's functions related almost exclusively to the disposition of claims. The Bureau's records and remaining functions were then transferred to the Freedmen's Branch in the office of the Adjutant General. However, the records of this branch are among the Bureau's files.

THE FREEDMEN'S BUREAU IN VIRGINIA

ORGANIZATION

In Virginia, the Bureau's operations began in June 1865 when Assistant Commissioner Orlando Brown established his headquarters in Richmond. Brown served until May 1866, when he was succeeded by Maj. Gen. Alfred H. Terry, who remained in office until August 1866. Maj. Gen. John M. Schofield served from August 1866 to March 1867, when Orlando Brown again assumed office and served as both Assistant Commissioner and superintendent of education until May 1869.

From June 1866 to March 1867, Assistant Commissioners Terry and Schofield also served as military commanders of the Department of Virginia and its successor, the Department of the Potomac. Although the two generals created and received records in both capacities, they maintained separate sets of records for this period. Records created by Terry and Schofield while serving in their military capacities are found among the Records of United States Army Commands, 1821–1920, RG 393.

Beginning in September 1865, the Assistant Commissioner for the District of Columbia was responsible for Bureau operations in the Virginia counties of Alexandria, Fairfax, and Loudoun, and the Freedmen's Village near Arlington, VA. Bureau officers were assigned to supervise the activities of these districts. In August 1866, supervision of Loudoun County was transferred to the Assistant Commissioner for Virginia, and Alexandria and Fairfax Counties were similarly transferred in March 1867. Because officers in the above counties reported to the Assistant Commissioner of the District of Columbia, some records for Virginia are among his files.

From July 4, 1865 to April 14, 1867, the Virginia Bureau was divided into 10 districts, with an agent or superintendent in charge of each. Districts were further divided into subdistricts, each headed by an assistant superintendent. On April 15, 1867, the state was reorganized into 10 subdistricts, with a subassistant commissioner in charge of each. The subdistricts were divided further into divisions headed by assistant subassistant commissioners. Subdistrict headquarters were established at Alexandria, Fort Monroe, Fredericksburg, Gordonsville, Lynchburg, Norfolk, Petersburg, Richmond, Winchester, and Wytheville. On January 1, 1869, the 10 subdistricts were reorganized into 8 educational subdistricts, with an assistant superintendent of schools in charge of each. The heads of the various subdivisions supervised all Bureau activities, including education, in their respective areas and reported on educational matters to both the superintendent of education and the Assistant Commissioner.

ACTIVITIES

The major activities of the Freedmen's Bureau in Virginia generally resembled those conducted in other states. The Bureau issued rations and provided medical relief to both freedmen and white refugees, supervised labor contracts between planters and freedmen, administered justice, and worked with benevolent societies in the establishment of schools.

The Freedmen's Bureau's efforts to provide relief to both blacks and whites in Virginia began almost as soon as Orlando Brown assumed office as Assistant Commissioner for the state in June 1865. From late summer to early fall 1865, the Bureau issued more than 350,000 rations at a cost of nearly $33,000. By mid October 1865, however, the number of rations issued had declined from a previous 275,000 to less than 236,000. During the same period, the number of people receiving rations decreased from 16,298 to 11,622. In September 1866, with Commissioner Howard's limitation of government assistance to those persons in orphanages and hospitals, and the plan to relinquish relief efforts for the destitute to state and local government officials, the Bureau in Virginia issued rations to fewer than 5,000 individuals statewide. Because the Virginia Bureau in 1866 and 1867 was committed to reducing expenditures and providing limited relief for those in dire need, by late September 1868 a large number of freedmen in the state still remained impoverished.1

The Virginia Bureau also opened several hospitals for the sick and infirm. At various times, hospitals were established at Eastville, Drummondtown, Norfolk, Hampton, Yorktown, Petersburg, Farmville, Lynchburg, Danville, Richmond, and City Point. Under the direction of surgeon J. J. De Lamaster, 13 contract and 2 noncontract physicians provided treatment for more than 650 patients during 1865 and 1866. Two dispensaries administered more than 18,000 prescriptions for medicine. At Howard Grove Hospital near Richmond, Virginia, the Bureau opened a ward for the insane and a home for the aged and infirm. In the northern part of the state, homes were located for 139 inmates housed at an orphan asylum. By late October 1866, over 30,000 freedmen received medical aid from the Bureau in Virginia. By October 1867, that number increased to 50,000.2

The Bureau worked to make freedmen self–sufficient and to incorporate them into the new free–labor system in Virginia. Thousands of freedmen who crossed Union lines during the Civil War continued to seek support from the Freedmen's Bureau at war's end. With great demand for labor in some areas (especially in large cities) and not in others, and the Federal Government's determination to reduce dependency on government aid, the Virginia Bureau provided transportation for persons who were unable to find work in areas where they resided to locations where work was readily available. Those able–bodied freedmen who refused or did not apply for transportation would no longer receive rations. Under labor agreements approved by the Virginia Bureau, freedmen received rations (but no clothing) and wages that averaged about $9 per month. In some districts freedmen worked for a share of the crop. Often, however, with limited employment (especially during the winter months), low wages, inadequate shares of crops, and the failure of local officials to provide for the destitute, freedmen were constantly dependent upon the Bureau for subsistence.3

Safeguarding rights and securing justice for freedmen were major concerns of the Virginia Bureau. Following the Civil War, several Southern states, including Virginia, enacted a series of laws commonly known as "Black Codes" that restricted the rights and legal status of freedmen. Freedmen were often given harsh sentences for petty crimes and in some instances were unable to get their cases heard or to testify in state courts. In September 1865, Assistant Commissioner Orlando Brown established Freedmen's Bureau courts to adjudicate cases involving freedmen where the penalties did not exceed a $100 fine or three months in prison. The three–member court was composed, for the most part, of a Bureau agent, a planters' representative, and an individual selected by freedmen. In February 1866, the Virginia legislature amended laws that adversely affected the rights of freedmen, and thus by early May 1866, Bureau courts were discontinued, and both civil and criminal cases were turned over to state authorities. However, because of the failure of many local court officials to administer equal justice (especially in areas outside of large cities and towns), the Bureau in Virginia found it necessary to re–establish Bureau courts in certain areas of the state. In late May 1867, Maj. Gen. Schofield, who served as both Commander of the 1st Military District and Assistant Commissioner for Virginia, issued orders appointing military commissioners to oversee the administration of justice in Bureau subdistricts throughout Virginia, giving them exclusive jurisdiction and power to decide whether a case would be tried by a civil court or a military commission. Despite the establishment of military commissioners however, protecting the rights and securing justice for freedpeople still remained an enormous problem for the Bureau as late as the fall of 1868.4

The Freedmen's Bureau's educational activities in Virginia began with Assistant Commissioner Brown's appointment of Prof. W. H. Woodbury as Virginia's superintendent of schools for freedmen on June 20, 1865. By November, he had been replaced by Ralza Morse Manly, the assistant superintendent of schools (later education), who served until August 15, 1870, when all Bureau educational activities ceased.

Within six months of assuming office, Manly had more than 136 teachers instructing some 8,000 pupils. The number of teachers soon increased to more than 200, with nearly 18,000 students under instruction. During the years 1866 and 1867, freedmen schools continued to improve and expand. By the fall of 1868, there were nearly 270 schools in operation, with more than 350 teachers providing instruction for some 20,000 pupils.5 Schools assisted or maintained by the Bureau in Virginia included day schools for children, night schools for adults, and Sabbath schools. Students received instruction in such subjects as reading, writing, arithmetic, and geography. Many teachers were recruited from the North by freedmen's aid societies that included the American Missionary Association, the New York National Freedmen's Relief Association, the New England Freedmen's Aid Society, the American Baptist Home Mission Society, the Friends Freedmen's Relief Association, and the American Freedmen's Union Commission. Teachers were also recruited from among the local white and black populations.

The Bureau's educational support for freedmen schools generally involved assistance in the establishment and maintenance of schools and the examination and appointment of teachers. Bureau funds were used to pay for construction and repair of school buildings, for rental of properties used for educational purposes, and for providing teachers with transportation. Teachers' salaries were usually paid by freedmen's aid societies; however, in some situations, salaries were partially subsidized by contributions from freedmen. Whenever possible, the Bureau solicited subscriptions from freedmen for the establishment of schools, and in some cases tuition was charged.

ENDNOTES

1 Mary J. Farmer, "Because They Are Women: Gender and the Virginia Freedmen's Bureau's War on Dependency," in The Freedmen's Bureau and Reconstruction: Reconsiderations, eds. Paul A. Cimbala and Randall M. Miller, (New York: Fordham University Press, 1999), 165 – 169; Annual Reports of the Assistant Commissioners, Virginia, October 8, 1867 [pp. 4 – 7], and October 19, 1868 [pp. 12 – 14], Records of the Office of the Commissioner, Records of the Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, Record Group (RG) 105, National Archives Building (NAB), Washington, DC.

2 Senate Ex. Doc. 6, 39th Cong., 2nd Sess., Serial Vol. 1276, 163 – 164; For further details on the medical activities of the Freedmen's Bureau in Virginia, see Annual Reports of J. J. De Lamater, Surgeon and Chief, Virginia, October 25, 1866 [pp. 1 – 34], and October 1, 1867 [pp. 1 – 23], Annual Reports, Virginia, RG 105, NAB.

3 Senate Ex. Doc. 6, Serial Vol. 1276, 161 – 162; see also Annual Reports, Virginia, October 8, 1867, [pp. 4 – 8], and October 19, 1868, [pp. 12 – 14].

4 George R. Bentley, A History of the Freedmen's Bureau (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1944), 152 – 153; Senate Ex. Doc. 6, Serial Vol. 1276, 165 – 167; Annual Reports, Virginia, October 8, 1867, [p. 3], and October 19, 1868, [pp. 2 – 8].

5 Senate Ex. Doc. 6, Serial Vol. 1276, 164 – 165; Annual Reports, Virginia, October 8, 1867, [pp. 9 – 14], and October 19, 1868, [pp. 16 – 18].
Freedmen's Bureau Personnel in Virginia:
This list provides the names and dates of service of known Freedmen's Bureau personnel at selected subordinate field offices for Virginia. Additional information regarding persons assigned to various field offices might be found among the Bureau's Washington headquarters station books and rosters of military officers and civilians on duty in the states and in other appointment–related records.

ALEXANDRIA

Oct. 1863–June 1865 -- Superintendent of Contrabands A. Gladwin

July–Nov. 1865 -- Superintendent James Ferree (5th District)

Nov. 1865–Jan. 1866 -- Superintendent Henry Alvord

Jan. 1866–Mar. 1867 -- Superintendent and Subassistant Commissioner S. R. Lee

Mar. 1867–Dec. 1868 -- Superintendent and Subassistant Commissioner S. R. Lee (10th Subdistrict)

Jan.–Apr. 1869 -- Superintendent S. R. Lee (6th Educational Subdistrict of VA)

AMELIA COURTHOUSE

Oct. 1865–Aug. 1866 -- Assistant Superintendent W. F. White

Aug. 1866–Jan. 1867 -- Assistant Superintendent James Drysdale

Jan. 1867–Dec. 1868 -- Acting Subassistant Commissioner J. B. Clinton

APPOMATTOX COURTHOUSE

1868 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner Louis Neswick

ASHLAND

1865–66 -- Ed Murphy

1867–68 -- Ira Ayers

BOWLING GREEN (Caroline County)

Jan. 1866–Nov. 1867 -- Assistant Superintendent John Dwyer

Nov.–Dec. 1867 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner W. B. Pease

Jan.–Feb. 1868 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner Hector Sears (at Fredericksburg)

Feb.–Dec. 1868 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner F. S. Tukey

BOYDTON (Mecklenburg County)

Dec. 1866–Apr. 1867 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner Lt. George T. Cook (at Clarksville)

Apr.–Nov. 1867 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner Alexander D. Bailie (at Clarksville)

Nov.–Dec. 1867 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner Alexander D. Bailie

Jan.–Dec. 1868 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner George W. Graham (3rd Division, 11th Subdistrict)

BUCKINGHAM COURTHOUSE (Buckingham County)

July–Aug. 1865 -- Assistant Superintendent Lt. James P. Wogan

Sept.–Nov. 1865 -- Assistant Superintendent Lt. Paul Kolbe

Dec. 1865–Apr. 1866 -- Assistant Superintendent Lt. J. F. Dengler

May–Aug. 1866 -- Assistant Superintendent Capt. W. James Kay

Jan.–Dec. 1868 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner Charles E. Fincke (at Maysville)

BURKESVILLE (Nottoway County)

July 1866–Oct. 1867 -- Assistant Superintendent Capt. D. Jerome Connolly

Oct. 1867–Oct. 1868 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner Lt. R. G. Rutherford

CHARLOTTE COURTHOUSE (Charlotte County)

Feb.–Apr. 1866 -- Assistant Superintendent Lt. Louis Ahrens

May–June 1866 -- Assistant Superintendent Lt. Edwin Lyon

June–Sept. 1866 -- Assistant Superintendent Lt. F. A. Page

CHARLOTTESVILLE (Albemarle County)

Jan.–Mar. 1866 -- Assistant Superintendent James Joyes

June 1866–June 1867 -- Assistant Superintendent Capt. William L. Tidball

June 1867–Feb. 1868 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner Lt. A. F. Higgs

CHESTERFIELD COURTHOUSE (Chesterfield County)

July 1865 -- Assistant Superintendent Lt. Henry Eisenhill

Aug. 1865 -- Assistant Superintendent Lt. John H. Kendall

Aug.–Oct. 1865 -- Assistant Superintendent Lt. William Taylor

Oct.–Nov. 1865 -- Assistant Superintendent Capt. William Kedlich

Dec. 1865–Jan. 1866 -- Assistant Superintendent Lt. Dennis M. Carroll

Jan. 1866 -- Assistant Superintendent Col. James M. Powell

Jan.–Mar. 1866 -- Assistant Superintendent Lt. W. James Kay

CHRISTIANBURG (Montgomery County)

May 1866–Dec. 1868 -- Assistant Superintendent Lt. C. S. Schaeffer (8th District of VA)

CITY POINT (Prince George County)

July 1865 -- Assistant Superintendent Lt. John E. Herriot

Aug. 1865 -- Assistant Superintendent Capt. William Hedges

Sept. 1865–Apr. 1866 -- Assistant Superintendent R. P. Clayton

May–July 1866 -- Assistant Superintendent Lt. Charles H. Bird

Aug. 1866–Jan. 1867 -- Assistant Superintendent Lt. J. Arnold Yeckley

CULPEPER COURTHOUSE (Culpeper County)

Oct.–Nov. 1865 -- Assistant Superintendent Capt. Earl Pierce

Dec. 1865–July 1866 -- Assistant Superintendent Lt. W. S. Chase

Aug. 1866–Dec. 1868 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner Lt. W. MacNulty

CULPEPER

Jan.–Mar. 1869 -- Assistant Superintendent William R. Morse (4th Education Subdistrict)

CUMBERLAND COURTHOUSE (Cumberland County)

July–Aug. 1865 -- Assistant Superintendent Lt. Curtis McCornish

May–Oct. 1865 -- Provost Marshall Capt. Oscar Fleichman

Oct.–Nov. 1865 -- Provost Marshall Lt. E. Steinmann Capt. D.

Dec. 1865–Feb. 1866 -- Provost Marshall Jerome Connolly

DANVILLE (Pittsylvania County)

Aug. 1865 -- Assistant Superintendent Capt. Moses Smith

Aug.–Oct. 1865 -- Assistant Superintendent Capt. P. J. Hawk

Dec. 1865–Nov. 1866 -- Assistant Superintendent Capt. J. F. Wilcox

Nov. 1866–July 1867 -- Assistant Superintendent Col. G. B. Carse

July 1867–June 1868 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner Lt. Andrew Mahoney

June–Dec. 1868 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner William Leahey (at Pittsylvania Courthouse)

DRUMMONDTOWN

Dec. 1865–Feb. 1866 -- Assistant Superintendent Lt. Charles W. Hite

Mar.–Sept. 1866 -- Assistant Superintendent Maj. George H. French

Oct. 1866–Feb. 1867 -- Assistant Superintendent Lt. Ed. Murphy

Feb.–Nov. 1867 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner Maj. George P. Sherwood

Nov. 1867–May 1868 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner Maj. George P. Sherwood (at Eastville)

May–Aug. 1868 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner M. S. Reed (at Eastville)

Aug.–Dec. 1868 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner D. B. White (at Eastville)

FAIRFAX COURTHOUSE (Fairfax County)

Aug.–Sept. 1865 -- Assistant Superintendent Capt. George A. Armes

Sept. 1865–Feb. 1866 -- Assistant Superintendent Lt. Sidney B. Smith (at Vienna)

Mar. 1866 -- Assistant Superintendent Capt. J. O. Ross (at Vienna)

Nov. 1866–Mar. 1867 -- Assistant Superintendent O. E. Hine

Apr.–Aug. 1867 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner Lt. William Shields (at Falls Church)

Aug. 1867–Apr. 1868 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner Lt. W. S. Chase (at Falls Church)

Apr.–Oct. 1868 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner Lt. W. S. Chase (at Manassas)

Oct.–Dec. 1868 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner John Raeburn

FARMVILLE

Sept.–Nov. 1865 -- Assistant Superintendent Lt. W. H. Lea

Nov. 1865–Jan. 1866 -- Assistant Superintendent Capt. R. C. Horner

Feb.–Apr. 1866 -- Assistant Superintendent Capt. D. Jerome Connolly

May 1866–Apr. 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner Maj. John W. Jordan

Apr.–Dec. 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner Thomas P. Jackson

Apr.–Aug. 1868 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner Thomas Leahey (at Farmville 1st Division, 11th Subdistrict)

Aug.–Dec. 1868 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner Thomas Leahey (at Marysville 1st Division, 11th Subdistrict)

FREDERICKSBURG

Aug.–Nov. 1865 -- Superintendent Capt. D. W. Bohonon (10th District)

Dec. 1865–July 1866 -- Superintendent Maj. James Johnson (10th District)

July 1866–Dec. 1868 -- Superintendent Maj. James Johnson (6th District)

July 1866–Apr. 1867 -- Assistant Superintendent Hector Sears (for Stafford and King George Counties)

Apr. 1867–Dec. 1868 -- Assistant Superintendent Hector Sears (for Stafford, King George, and Spotsylvania Counties)

GOOCHLAND

Dec. 1865–Jan. 1868 -- Assistant Superintendent J. T. Wilson

Jan.–Dec. 1868 -- Assistant Superintendent E. C. Morse

GORDONSVILLE

Aug. 1865–June 1866 -- Superintendent Capt. T. Frank Crandon (4th District)

June 1866–Dec. 1868 -- Superintendent Maj. William R. Morse (4th District)

HALIFAX COURTHOUSE

Nov. 1867–Feb. 1868 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner Lt. David P. Scott (4th Subdivision, 11th District)

Feb.–May 1868 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner William Nutt (4th Subdivision, 11th District)

May–Dec. 1868 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner W. H. H. Stowell (4th Subdivision, 11th District)

HEATHSVILLE

May 1866–Apr. 1868 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner E. W. Busby (5th Division, 6th Subdistrict)

Apr.–Dec. 1868 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner Haskell (5th Division, 6th Subdistrict)

JERUSALEM (Southampton County)

May 1866–Jan. 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner Lt. A. G. Deacon (4th Division, 1st Subdistrict)

Jan.–Sept. 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner Mortimer Moulden (4th Division, 1st Subdistrict)

Sept.–Oct. 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner C. S. Schaeffer (4th Division, 1st Subdistrict)

Oct.–Dec. 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner Mortimer Moulden (4th Division, 1st Subdistrict)

KING WILLIAM COURTHOUSE

Feb.–June 1866 -- Assistant Superintendent Lt. John C. Chance (3rd Division, 3rd Subdistrict)

June 1866–July 1867 -- Assistant Superintendent Col. Frank Butts (3rd Division, 3rd Subdistrict)

July 1867–Dec. 1868 -- Assistant Superintendent C. P. Goodyear (3rd Division, 3rd Subdistrict)

LEESBURG (Loudoun County)

Mar. 1866–May 1868 -- Lt. Sydney B. Smith (3rd Division, 10th Subdistrict)

May–July 1868 -- Lt. Sydney B. Smith (at Warrenton)

July–Oct. 1868 -- Lt. Sydney B. Smith (at Middleburg)

LEXINGTON

Sept. 1865–Feb. 1866 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner C. Jerome Tubbs

Feb.–Nov. 1866 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner G. Carse

Dec. 1866–Jan. 1868 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner J. W. Sharp

Jan.–Sept. 1868 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner Douglas Frazer

Sept.–Dec. 1868 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner Jno. W. Jordan

LIBERTY

Oct. 1865–Apr. 1868 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner B. T. Shaum

Apr.– Dec. 1868 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner J. F. Wilcox

LOUISA COURTHOUSE

July 1865–Aug. 1866 -- Assistant Superintendent Capt. R. McMurray

Nov. 1865–July 1866 -- Assistant Superintendent Capt. James Ashworth

July–Nov. 1866 -- Assistant Superintendent Lt. Jacob Roth

Jan. 1867–Dec. 1868 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner Maj. M. S. Hopkins (at Gordonsville)

LUNENBURG COURTHOUSE

Sept. 1865 -- Assistant Superintendent Lt. Alexander Blackman

Oct. 1865 -- Assistant Superintendent Capt. Richard M. Homer

Nov. 1865–Jan. 1866 -- Assistant Superintendent Lt. H. Treher

Jan.–July 1866 -- Assistant Superintendent Lt. J. Arnold Yeckley

Apr.–July 1868 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner W. H. Stowell

July–Dec. 1868 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner William Austin

LYNCHBURG

Nov. 1865–Apr. 1867 -- Superintendent R. S. Lacey (7th District of VA)

Apr. 1867–Jan. 1868 -- Agent R. S. Lacey

Jan–Dec. 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner R. S. Lacey (7th Subdistrict of VA)

Jan.–Mar. 1869 -- Assistant Superintendent of Schools R. S. Lacey

Dec. 1865–Jan. 1867 -- Assistant Superintendent Lt. J. P. Wodell (4th Subdistrict, 7th District)

Jan. 1867–Jan. 1868 -- Assistant Superintendent Lt. Louis W. Stevenson (1st Division, 7th District)

Jan.–Sept. 1868 -- Assistant Superintendent J. F. Wilson (1st Division)

May–Aug. 1866 -- Assistant Superintendent Lt. W. F. DeKnight (Subdistrict of Amherst County)

June–Sept. 1868 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner Lt. L. A. Nesmith (1st and 6th Divisions, 7th District)

MADISON COURTHOUSE

Feb.–Nov. 1867 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner Capt. Samuel W. Carpenter

Feb.–Dec. 1868 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner William Crea

MANCHESTER

Oct. 1865–Mar. 1866 -- Assistant Superintendent Lt. L. Hoysradt

Apr.–Oct. 1866 -- Assistant Superintendent Lt. T. W. Lord

July–Dec. 1868 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner Samuel F. Maddox

MARION

Apr.–Aug. 1866 -- Assistant Superintendent Lt. B. E. Hess

MATTHEWS COURTHOUSE

Apr. 1866–Mar. 1867 -- Assistant Superintendent E. A. Chandler

Apr.–July 1867 -- Assistant Superintendent F. K. Smith

July–Aug. 1867 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner E. R. Williams

Aug. 1867–Jan. 1868 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner E. A. Chandler

Jan.–Dec. 1868 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner Thomas Rice

FORT MONROE

Sept. 1865–July 1866 -- Superintendent C. B. Wilder (9th District)

July–Sept. 1866 -- Superintendent C. B. Wilder (5th District)

Sept. 1866–Apr. 1867 -- Superintendent S. L. Armstrong (5th District)

Apr. 1867–Jan. 1868 -- Agent S. L. Armstrong (5th District)

Jan.–Sept. 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner S. L. Armstrong (5th District)

Sept.–Dec. 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner S. L. Armstrong (at Hampton)

Jan.–Apr. 1869 -- Superintendent S. L. Armstrong (1st Education Subdistrict, Hampton)

NEW KENT COURTHOUSE

Mar.–Apr. 1866 -- Superintendent A. M. Brooks (at Barhamsville)

Apr. 1866–Dec. 1867 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner A. M. Brooks

Dec. 1867–June 1868 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner William H. Sloan

May–Aug. 1868 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner E. G. Townsend

NORFOLK

Mar.–June 1865 -- Assistant Superintendent for Negro Affairs, Fort Monroe C. H. Beirne

June–Sept. 1865 -- Superintendent A. S. Flagg (1st District, Fort Monroe)

Sept. 1865–June 1866 -- Superintendent A. S. Flagg (1st District, Norfolk)

June 1866–Mar. 1867 -- Superintendent William P. Austin

Mar. 1867–Jan. 1869 -- Subassistant Commissioner J. H. Remington

June–Aug. 1865 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner Lt. John H. Keatley

Aug. 1865–May 1866 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner Charles E. Johnston

Feb.–Nov. 1867 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner Edward Murphy

ORANGE COURTHOUSE

July–Sept. 1865 -- Assistant Superintendent M. C. Harris

Sept.–Oct. 1865 -- Assistant Superintendent H. C. Buckman

Oct. 1865–Aug. 1866 -- Assistant Superintendent John W. Barnes

Sept.–Oct. 1866 -- Assistant Superintendent W. A. MacNulty

PALMYRA

Aug–Nov. 1865 -- Assistant Superintendent Lt. C. E. Minor (at Columbia)

Dec. 1865 -- Assistant Superintendent Capt. N. R. Bunker (at Columbia)

Jan–Oct. 1866 -- Assistant Superintendent E. G. Budd

PETERSBURG

July–Aug. 1865 -- Superintendent Stuart Barnes (District of the Nottoway)

Aug. 1865–Sept. 1867 -- Superintendent Stuart Barnes (2nd District)

Sept. 1866–Sept. 1867 -- Subassistant Commissioner J. R. Stone

Sept.–Oct. 1867 -- Subassistant Commissioner James A. Bates

Oct. 1867–Dec. 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner J. R. Stone

July 1865–Nov. 1865 -- Assistant Superintendent Capt. E. H. Tobey

Dec. 1866–Jan. 1867 -- Assistant Superintendent Lt. J. A. Yeckley

Nov.–Dec. 1867 -- Assistant Superintendent Capt. J. L. Johnston

Dec. 1867–July 1868 -- Assistant Superintendent Lt. H. K. W. Ayres

PRINCESS ANNE

Sept. 1865–May 1866 -- Assistant Superintendent Thomas P. Jackson (at Norfolk)

May 1866–July 1867 -- Assistant Superintendent Morton Havens

July 1867–Jan. 1868 -- Assistant Superintendent Morton Havens

Jan.–Dec. 1868 -- Assistant Superintendent James Croft

RICHMOND

Apr.–June 1865 -- Quartermaster H. S. Merrell

June–Nov. 1865 -- Superintendent H. S. Merrell (District of Henrico)

Nov. 1865–June 1866 -- Superintendent H. S. Merrell (3rd District)

June–Nov. 1866 -- Superintendent John A. McDonnell (3rd District)

Apr.–May 1867 -- Superintendent John A. Bates (3rd District)

Apr.–May 1867 -- Subassistant Commissioner John A. Bates

May 1867–Dec. 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner Paul R. Hambrick

Jan.–Apr. 1869 -- Assistant Superintendent of Schools Paul R. Hambrick

Dec. 1865–Feb. 1866 -- Assistant Superintendent E. B. Townsend (Subdistrict of Richmond)

Mar.–Apr. 1866 -- Assistant Superintendent T. W. Lord

Apr. 1866–Dec. 1868 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner Benjamin C. Cook

ROCKY MOUNT

Jan.–June 1866 -- Assistant Superintendent James Warden

Aug. 1866–Apr. 1867 -- Assistant Superintendent William F. DeKnight (Subdistrict No. 3, 7th District)

Apr.–July 1867 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner William F. DeKnight

July–Oct. 1867 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner William F. DeKnight (Subdistrict No. 3, 7th District)

Oct.–Dec. 1867 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner Newton Whitten (4th Division, 7th Subdistrict)

Dec. 1867–June 1868 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner Augustus R. Egbert

SMITHFIELD

May 1865–Mar. 1866 -- Assistant Superintendent Lt. L. W. L. McDaniels

Mar.–May 1866 -- Assistant Superintendent Lt. A. G. Deacon

STAUNTON

Mar.–May 1866 -- Assistant Superintendent Lt. George W. Cook (at Harrisburg)

May–Dec. 1866 -- Assistant Superintendent Lt. George W. Cook (Subdistrict No. 10, 7th District, at Staunton)

Dec. 1866–Apr. 1867 -- Assistant Superintendent Frederick S. Tukey (Subdistrict of Augusta and Highland)

Apr. 1867–Mar. 1868 -- Assistant Superintendent Thomas P. Jackson (4th Division, 9th Subdistrict)

Mar.–Sept. 1868 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner John W. Jordan

Sept.–Dec. 1868 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner Roswell Waldo

SUFFOLK

Dec. 1866–Nov. 1867 -- Agent John W. Barnes (3rd Division, 1st Subdistrict)

Nov. 1867–July 1868 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner Lt. George W. Fleming

July–Dec. 1868 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner George W. Black

TAPPAHANNOCK

July–Oct. 1865 -- Provost Marshall Edgar B. Le Gro (at Warsaw)

Nov.–Dec. 1865 -- Provost Marshall Edgar B. Le Gro

Feb. 1866–Dec. 1868 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner Lt. Watson R. Wentworth (3rd Division, 6th Subdistrict from April 1867)

WARRENTON

July 1866–Aug. 1867 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner Lt. W. S. Chase

Aug. 1867–Jan. 1868 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner Capt. E. B. Gates (4th Division, 10th Subdistrict)

Jan.–Apr. 1868 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner Morton Havens (4th Division, 10th Subdistrict)

May–July 1868 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner Lt. Sydney B. Smith (See Leesburg, VA)

WARSAW

Jan.–Dec. 1867 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner Henry W. Ayres (4th Division, 6th Subdistrict from April 1867)

Jan. 1868 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner William B. Pease

Feb.–Mar. 1868 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner C. G. McClelland

Apr.–Dec. 1868 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner E. W. Busby

WAVERLY

Dec. 1866–Mar. 1868 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner W. F. Wilcox (2nd Division, 2nd Subdistict from April 1867)

Apr.–July 1868 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner P. M. McLaughlin

WILSON'S LANDING

Feb.–June 1866 -- Assistant Superintendent J. H. Remington

July–Sept. 1866 -- Assistant Superintendent Lt. Edward Murphy

WINCHESTER

Aug.–Sept. 1865 -- Superintendent Capt. H. Stover How (6th District, at Staunton)

Oct. 1865–May 1866 -- Superintendent Capt. H. Stover How (6th District)

May–Sept. 1866 -- Superintendent J. H. Remington (6th District)

Sept.–Nov. 1866 -- Superintendent J. H. Remington (9th District)

Dec. 1866–Dec. 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner John A. McDonnel (9th District)

Dec. 1865–Apr. 1866 -- Assistant Superintendent John P. How

Apr. 1866–Oct. 1867 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner Capt. Gilbert R. Chandler (1st Division, 9th District)

WOODSTOCK

Mar. 1866–July 1868 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner J. H. Hall (3rd Division, 9th District)

July–Aug. 1868 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner W. Lyreel

Aug.–Dec. 1868 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner Watkins James

WYTHEVILLE

Oct. 1865–June 1866 -- Superintendent B. C. Carter (8th District)

June–Dec. 1866 -- Superintendent George P. Sherwood (8th District)

Dec. 1866–Feb. 1867 -- Superintendent J. H. Remington (8th District)

Mar.–Aug. 1867 -- Superintendent William P. Austin (8th District)

Mar.–Aug. 1867 -- Superintendent H. G. Thomas (8th District)

Jan.–Mar. 1869 -- Assistant Superintendent of Schools H. G. Thomas (at Salem)

YORKTOWN

Jan. 1866–May 1868 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner F. A. Massey (3rd Division, 5th District)

Aug.–Dec. 1868 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner Henry K. Ayers (3rd Division, 5th District)
Related Archival Materials note:
See also Freedmen's Bureau Digital Collection
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Freedmen's Bureau Digital Collection, 1865–1872, is a product of and owned by the National Museum of African American History and Culture, Smithsonian Institution. Copyright for digital images is retained by the donor, FamilySearch International; permission for commercial use of the digital images may be requested from FamilySearch International, Intellectual Property Office, at: cor-intellectualproperty@ldschurch.org.
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Citation:
Courtesy of the U. S. National Archives and Records Administration, FamilySearch International, and the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture.
Identifier:
NMAAHC.FB.M1913
See more items in:
Records of the Field Offices for the State of Virginia, Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, 1865–1872
Archival Repository:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmaahc-fb-m1913
Online Media:

Norfolk (Assistant Superintendent, See Princess Anne)

Type:
Archival materials
Collection Restrictions:
Freedmen's Bureau Digital Collection, 1865–1872, is a product of and owned by the National Museum of African American History and Culture, Smithsonian Institution. Copyright for digital images is retained by the donor, FamilySearch International; permission for commercial use of the digital images may be requested from FamilySearch International, Intellectual Property Office, at: cor-intellectualproperty@ldschurch.org.
Collection Citation:
Courtesy of the U. S. National Archives and Records Administration, FamilySearch International, and the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture.
Identifier:
NMAAHC.FB.M1913, Subseries 3.71
See more items in:
Records of the Field Offices for the State of Virginia, Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, 1865–1872
Records of the Field Offices for the State of Virginia, Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, 1865–1872 / Series 3: Subordinate Field Offices
Archival Repository:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmaahc-fb-m1913-ref1213

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