Four stories in Meskwaki (Fox) syllabary by Sam Peters and Joe Peters, with English translations by Horace Poweshiek. List of stories: "Spotted Calf" by Sam Peters, "Kochipekwaha and the ghosts that rescue him" by Sam Peters, "This is another story about the people in the times when they were Spirits" by Joe Peters, and "Man whose wife is taken by Sioux" by Joe Peters and probably Sam Peters. English translation are present for all of the stories except "Spotted Calf."
NAA MS 2020
Other Archival Materials:
See MS 2837-a for the handwritten English translation of "Spotted Calf."
William A. Smalley (1923-1997) was a missionary and anthropological linguist. This collection mainly concerns his work with Hmong scripts and the Khmu' language and contains correspondence, notes, writings, reference materials, photographs, and sound recordings.
Scope and Contents:
These papers document William A. Smalley's work and research as an anthropological linguist and missionary, two roles that were often intertwined, through his correspondence, notes, writings, reference materials, photographs, and sound recordings. Smalley's research on Hmong scripts, particularly Pahawh, and the Hmong people make up a significant portion of the collection. Noteworthy are a collection of published and unpublished manuscripts written in Pahawh script and primers and writing samples of other Hmong scripts. Aside from some letters and 1953 conference reports by Smalley and G. Linwood Barney, there is little material from his work in developing Hmong RPA. Other materials relating to RPA include a Hmong-English dictionary by Ernest E. Heimbach and a Hmong-French dictionary by Father Yves Bertrais. Also in the collection are Smalley's research on Khmu' and Thai languages and dialects and several Khmu' primers. As a missionary linguist, Smalley created guides for missionaries learning Khmu' and Vietnamese, as well as a guide to pronouncing Egyptian Arabic, all of which are in the collection. Reprints for a large portion of his articles can also be found in the collection, reflecting his interests in linguistics, anthropology, missionary work, and Southeast Asia. In addition, the collection contains drafts of his unfinished book, Liberation of an Evangelical and his work editing The Bible in Cross-Cultural Perspective by Jack Loewen. Photographs in the collection are composed mostly of 35mm slides and some prints and negatives. Most of the images are of Southeast Asia along with some photos of Africa, Haiti, New Guinea, and Hong Kong. There are also photos of Hmongs in the United States and photos for his book, Mother of Writing: the Origin and Development of a Hmong Messianic Script. The sound recordings are composed mostly of interviews he conducted for his research on Thailand, Hmongs in the United States, and the Pahawh Hmong script. Additional materials in the collection are his writings as a college student published in the Houghton Star, the school newspaper for which he also served as chief editor.
Please note that the contents of the collection and the language and terminology used reflect the context and culture of the time of its creation. As an historical document, its contents may be at odds with contemporary views and terminology and considered offensive today. The information within this collection does not reflect the views of the Smithsonian Institution or National Anthropological Archives, but is available in its original form to facilitate research.
William A. Smalley was born April 4, 1923, in Jerusalem, Palestine. His parents were American missionaries for the Christian and Missionary Alliance, working among Arabs in Jerusalem and Transjordan. In 1934, Smalley and his family moved back to the United States. In reflecting upon his upbringing, Smalley writes, "My parents were thoroughly, deeply devoted both to Christ and to the Alliance, but they drew their boundaries more widely than many." According to Smalley, "My home was intellectually more open than some Alliance homes; my upbringing was somewhat less doctrinaire." (Smalley 1991)
Smalley attended Houghton College, where he developed an interest in anthropology, which he saw as relevant to missionary work. After graduating from Houghton in 1945 with a degree in English literature, he attended the Missionary Training Institute (1945-1946) and received linguistic training in Bible translation at the Summer Institute of Linguistics (SIL) at the University of Oklahoma (1946-1947). In 1946 he also enrolled in Columbia University's graduate program in anthropology with a concentration in
linguistics. According to Smalley, he discovered his "intellectual niche" studying at SIL, while "the anthropological training at Columbia gave linguistics a broader cultural context." "I became absorbed in the challenge to understand my faith in Christ in light of all I was learning about human culture." (Smalley 1991)
In 1950, Smalley was sent to Vietnam by the Christian and Missionary Alliance. There, Smalley worked on language analysis problems in the southern region of the country. The following year, he was sent to Luang Prabang, Laos to analyze the Khmu' language and prepare language lessons for other missionaries to learn the language. While in Laos, Smalley also worked with Reverend G. Linwood Barney and Father Yves Bertrais in developing a writing system for the Hmong people. Together, they developed the Hmong Romanized Popular Alphabet (RPA), which is the most widely used Hmong writing system today.
With the outbreak of civil war in Laos, Smalley and his wife were forced to return to the United States in 1954. He completed his dissertation on the Khmu' language and was awarded his doctorate in 1956. An abbreviated version of his dissertation was later published in 1961 as Outline of Khmu' Structure.
Over the next several years, Smalley worked primarily in Southeast Asia as a translation consultant for the American Bible Society (1954-1969) and as a regional translations coordinator (1969-1972) and translation consultant (1972-1977) with the United Bible Societies. Due to his work, he resided in Thailand from 1962 to 1967 and from 1969 to 1972. (He also lived in Thailand as a Fulbright research fellow in 1985 and 1986.) In 1977, he decided to leave the United Bible Societies after 23 years. Unable to find employment, he worked briefly at a discount toy store.
In 1978, Smalley relocated to St. Paul, Minnesota, to accept a position as professor of linguistics at Bethel University (1978-1987). In Minnesota, he unexpectedly found that thousands of Hmong refugees were also settling in the Twin Cities, which guided his research over the next decade. As an Honorary Fellow (1982-1984) with the University of Minnesota Southeast Asia Refugee Studies Program, he took part in a project studying Hmong adaptation to life in the United States, publishing "Adaptive Language Strategies of the Hmong: From Asian Mountains to American Ghettos" (1985) and "Stages of Hmong Cultural Adaptation" (1986). He also studied the different Hmong scripts that had
developed since RPA, in particular Pahawh Hmong script, which was created in 1959 in Laos by Shong Lue Yang. Smalley published two books on the script and its creator— Mother of Writing: The Origin and Development of a Hmong Messianic Script (1990) and The Life of Shong Lue Yang: Hmong "Mother of Writing" (1990), both of which he co-authored with Chia Koua Vang and Gnia Yee Yang.
In addition to his work on the Hmong, Smalley researched the different languages and dialects of Thailand, publishing Linguistic Diversity and National Unity: Language Ecology in Thailand (1994); "Thailand's Hierarchy of Multilingualism" (1988); and
"Language and Power: Evolution of Thailand's Multilingualism" (1996). As a student at Columbia University, he had also studied Comanche phonology and morphology, coauthoring with Henry Osborn "Formulae for Comanche Stem and Word Formation" (1949).
In 1955, Smalley took over editorship of Practical Anthropology (now known as Missiology), which he edited from 1955 to1968. He also served as associate editor for
Bible Translator (1957-59) and Language Sciences (1983-92).
When he retired from Bethel College in 1987, he was awarded the college's first annual Distinguished Teaching Award. In his retirement, he continued to write extensively and also edited Jacob A. Loewen's book, The Bible in Cross-Cultural Perspective, for which
he wrote an introduction.
In 1997, Smalley died of a heart attack at the age of 74.
Smalley, William. "My Pilgrimage in Mission." International Bulletin of Missionary Research 15, no. 2 (1991): 70-73.
Beckstrom, Maja. "Scholar of Hmong language praised for 'invaluable' work." St. Paul Pioneer Press, December 21, 1997: 1B, 6B.
1923 -- Born April 4 in Jerusalem, Palestine
1945 -- Earns B.A. from Houghton College in English Literature
1945-1946 -- Studies at Missionary Training Institute
1946-1947 -- Studies at Summer Institute of Linguistics at University of Oklahoma
1950 -- Serves as missionary linguist in Vietnam
1951 -- Assigned to Luang Prabang, Laos to analyze the Khmu' language and prepare language lessons for other missionaries to learn the language
1951-1953 -- Works with Reverend G. Linwood Barney and Father Yves Bertrais in developing Hmong RPA
1954-1969 -- Translation consultant for American Bible Society
1955-1968 -- Editor of Practical Anthropology (now known as Missiology)
1956 -- Receives doctorate in linguistic anthropology at Columbia University
1961 -- Publishes Outline of Khmu' Structure
1969-1972 -- Regional translations coordinator with the United Bible Societies
1972-1977 -- Translation consultant with the United Bible Societies
1978-1987 -- Professor of linguistics at Bethel College
1982-1984 -- Honorary fellow with the University of Minnesota Southeast Asia Refugee Studies Program studying Hmong adaptation to life in the United States
1985-1986 -- Fulbright Fellow studying linguistic diversity and national unity in Thailand
1990 -- Publishes Mother of Writing: The Origin and Development of a Hmong Messianic Script and The Life of Shong Lue Yang: Hmong "Mother of Writing"
1994 -- Publishes Linguistic Diversity and National Unity: Language Ecology in Thailand
1997 -- Dies of a heart attack at the age of 74 on December 16
Smalley's Pahawh Hmong project was funded by the Indochina Studies Center, Social Science Research Council. Upon the completion of the project, the Indochina Studies Center arranged for some of his Pahawh Hmong research materials to be deposited at the Library of Congress as part of the archives of programs that the center has funded. The materials deposited at the Library of Congress include photographs, sound recordings, and a collection of published and unpublished manuscripts written in Pahawh and Sayaboury script. Indices and descriptions of the materials deposited can be found in
Series 2: Hmong, Sub-series 2.2 Pahawh, "[Pahawh Hmong Project]." Not all of the materials that were sent to the Library of Congress are present in this collection and vice versa. Among the materials absent from this collection are some of the photographs, four sound recordings, and most
of the Sayaboury manuscripts.
These papers were donated to the National Anthropological Archives by Jane Smalley.
Three tape recordings and the associated transcripts of the interviews that Smalley conducted for his research on the Pahawh Hmong script are restricted until 2040.
Access to the William A. Smalley papers requires an appointment.
Indians of North America -- Southern States Search this
Scope and Contents:
Contents: "The Magic Dogs." Chitimacha text with interlinear literal English translation and interlinear running English translation. Autograph document. 46 pages. Text with interlinear English translation . Typescript document with A. notations. 7 pages. "Story of u-st' upu." Chitimacha text. Autograph document. 1 page. Chitimacha text with interlinear English translation. Typescript document with A. notations. 1 page. English translation. Typescript document. 1 page. (A slightly different version is published in J.R. Swanton, Indian Tribes of the Lower Mississippi Valley and Adjacent Coast of the Gulf of Mexico, BAE-B 43, Washington, 1911, page 359.)
"Story of the Ill-disposed Man." Chitimacha text. Autograph document. 3 pages. Text with interlinear English translation. Typescript document with A. notations. 1 page. English translation. Typescript document with A. corrections. 1 page. (A slightly changed version is published in J.R. Swanton, Indian Tribes of the Lower Mississippi Valley and Adjacent Coast of the Gulf of Mexico, BAE-B 43, Washington, 1911, page 359.) "Wolf and Buzzard," Chitimacha text with interlinear English translation. Autograph document 2 pages. Typescript document with A. notations. Chitimacha stories in English. Autograph document. 12 pages. (A slightly different version of these stories is published in J.R. Swanton, "Some Chitimacha Myths and Beliefs," Journal of American Folk-lore, volume 30, New York, December, 1917, pages 474-478.)
Biographical / Historical:
Swanton worked with the Chitimacha in Charenton, Louisiana between 1908 and 1931, according to Bureau of American Ethnology-AR 30, page 18; AR 32, page 18; AR 38, page 4; AR 39, pages 13-14; AR 40, page 4; AR 41, page 7; and AR 48, page 5.
NAA MS 4199
Autograph document and typescript document with a. notations
Contents: 1. The Vampire (Published as "The Vampire Skeleton", 32nd A. R. page 458). 2 pages. 2. Seneca Witchcraft- 1 page. 3. Seneca Ghost Story 1/2 page. 4. Shagodyoweqgowa (False Faces), 1/2 page. 5. Medicine Men. 1 page. 6. Snake with two heads, 1 page. Published 32nd A. R. page 106. Shagodyoweqgowa. 1 page. See 32nd A. R., page 357. 8. A Seneca Witch Story. 1 page. 9. The Owl and the Two Sisters. 2 pages.
In handwriting of a scribe. Contents: "Tirumenasa and The daughters of Tsararokkiemila." 17 pages. Places: Pitt River. "Berit loses the Daughter of Taretkiemila and his own hair by dreaming of Kahit." 6 pages. Places: Mt. Shasta. "The Journey of Sedit and Poharamasherit to the land of Puidalladekiemila. 30 pages. Places: Pitt River, Lassen Butte. "Death of Suptcit and Resurrection of the Nompatits by Winispukic." 10 pages. Places: Sacramento River. "Sedit buys three barks of Nohlospatkilis." 8 pages. Place: Stillwater. "Sulaloimis at Nelwakut." 16 pages. Places: Sacramento River, Anderson. "Sedit and Kalihuri at Dekesnorton." 10 pages. Places: Sacramento River. "Tsileuherit and the Tcitiwirik Sisters." 10 pages. Places: Sacramento River, Lassens Butte. ""Kuril splits himself and becomes the Man and Woman Kukipiwit." 7 pages. Places: Redding, Rockbridge (near Shasta City). "Memtulitkiemila and Tsuratkiemila on Puimem." 9 pages. Places: Pitt River. "Pitisherit and Klakherit." 26 pages. "The Birth of Walokitila and Tumukitila." 19 pages. Places: List of geographic locations with this myth gives "Wintun name" and translation. "The visit of Puipawinmak and Tsikipatharamas to their brother Topiwaikalalti in the land of Topitcikiemila. 23 pages. Places: Sacramento River, Redding, Pitt River, McCloud River, places near Anderson, and Shasta City, Stillwater.
"Hlutcustcinaila and Nopyarhpak's daughters." 27 pages. Places: McCloud River. Sedit "wolf" (coyote) in Wintun.--Curtin, Wintun vocabulary. Manuscript #841, recorded 1888-1889, Shasta County, California.
NAA MS 3535
These myths have been catalogued for many years as "California myths" on the basis of place-names, but have not been more specifically identified. However, three stories mention Sedit, "wolf" (or "Coyote") in Wintun (see Curtin, Manuscript Number 841, Wintun vocabulary recorded 1888-89, Shasta County, California); and one story gives the "Wintun name" in a list of geographic locations. Presumably all of the stories are Wintun.--MCB, 5/66
Tirumenasa and The daughters of Tsararokkiemila
Berit loses the Daughter of Taretkiemila and his own hair by dreaming of Kahit
The Journey of Sedit and Poharamasherit to the land of Puidalladekiemila
Death of Suptcit and Resurrection of the Nompatits by Winispukic
Sedit buys three barks of Nohlospatkilis
Sulaloimis at Nelwakut
Sedit and Kalihuri at Dekesnorton
Tsileuherit and the Tcitiwirik Sisters
Kuril splits himself and becomes the Man and Woman Kukipiwit
Memtulitkiemila and Tsuratkiemila on Puimem
Pitisherit and Klakherit
The Birth of Walokitila and Tumukitila
The visit of Puipawinmak and Tsikipatharamas to their brother Topiwaikalalti in the land of Topitcikiemila
August 17-27 . 3 pages. Found in J. W. Powell's 1869 journal (Manuscript 1795a). Written in pencil on 3 torn-out leaves similar to those in the notebooks used by Powell for his journal. Believed to be a fragment of Sumner's original notes. July 5- August 31, 1869. 22 leaves and pages. Typed copy made from handwritten copy believed to have been made by Sumner from his original notes. Stanton, Robert Brewster to William H. Holmes, Washington, D. C. New York City, March 23, 1907. 1 page Typed letter signed. Acknowledges receipt of copy of Sumner's journal, which he recognises as being in Sumner's hand and signed by him. [No previous correspondence in Smithsonian Institution files, June, 1954.]
NAA MS 4419
Manuscript 4419, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
National Anthropological Archives
8 Page(s) matching your search term, top most relevant are shown: View entire project in transcription center
Southern Cheyenne personal narratives and stories in English collected by Truman Michelson in Oklahoma. The stories were handwritten by Mack Haag and another person. Contents include: "Medicine Woman. 55 years old. Cheyenne" (written by Mack Haag.), 37 pages; "The Unknow[n] Greyhound" (writer unidentified.), 7 pages; "Plum Man" (writer unidentified), 2 pages; The Stuff[ed] Bear" 3 pages; "The Spider and the Rat" (writer unidentified), 5 pages; "Tipi Decorator. White Buffalo [daugther of Black Kettle]. 43 years old. Cheyenne" (writer unidentified), 17 pages; "The Beaded back tipi" (writer unidentified), 8 pages; "Lame Bull. True Story" (writer unidentified), 4 pages; "The Buffalo Robe" (writer unidentified), 4 pages; and "Slow Bull. (Cheyenne age 60). 1931" (written by Mack Haag), 9 pages.
Truman Michelson's anthropometric measurements of 23 Southern Cheyennes and a personal narrative by Mack Haag, also a Southern Cheyenne. The anthropometric data include tables of measurements and standard deviations. Haag's text, handwritten by him in English, is about consulting a Cheyenne medicine man and courtship and marriage customs. Includes occasional notes by Michelson.
NAA MS 3337
Title changed from "Anthropometrical data on 23 Southern Cheyennes, with tables of measurements and standard deviations Summer, 1931" 4/3/2014.
Notebook containing story by Cookie, an Inuit man, handwritten in Inuit syllabary. The story, collected by Truman Michelson at Great Whale River in Quebec, Canada, is of Tunnies, a brother and sister that lived with the Inuit.
NAA MS 3393
Other Archival Materials:
See Manuscript 3396 for an English translation of the story.
Handwritten Arapaho linguistic and ethnological notes and texts from Truman Michelson's fieldwork in Concho, Oklahoma, during the summer of 1928. These notes are primarily from Michelson's work with Cleaver Warden. Max Van Horn and Mike [possibly Mack?] Haag, two Cheyenne men from Calumet, Oklahoma, may have also provided some information. Michelson's notes include vocabulary and information regarding military societies. The Arapaho texts contain interlineal English translations.
NAA MS 3087
Title changed from "Linguistics and ethnology Summer 1928" 5/21/2014.
Narrative of Coyote, a 72 year old Southern Cheyenne man, handwritten in English by Truman Michelson and Mack Haag, also a Southern Cheyenne. The text includes a recounting of the history of the Cheyenne and stories from Coyote's life. Topics include skirmishes with U.S. soldiers, the construction of tipis, hunting, relations between men and women, and his observations of a Sioux Sun Dance at a Brule camp. Although the Bureau of American Ethnology catalog card indicates that this text was collected at the Northern Cheyenne Reservation in Montana, it is likely incorrect. The notes are dated June, during which time Michelson was in Oklahoma working with the Southern Cheyenne (Explorations and field work of the Smithsonian Institution, 1932).
Three notebooks containing stories handwritten in Kickapoo by Joseph Murdock, a Mexican Kickapoo residing in Oklahoma. There are a few titles and notes written in English. The following is a list of the titles, translated into English. The list may not reflect the physical arrangement of the stories.
Contents: Where the people had a town and the chief had a son; Apparently something on Mide and Wabano; A story of where the people had a town and the man moved; A witch causes death; Hog (the end is very much like the last story in Jones' Kickapoo text and the so-called Meskwaki "Tiger" story from Jack Bullard); An old woman kills her daughter-in-law as she fell in love with her son-in-law (very much like Jones' Fox story. The ending is slightly different); What happened to a woman who hated her son-in-law (much the same as Jones' Fox story "How a girl hated the man who stayed with her parents; the bull frog episode appears in both); Skunk and opossum (almost exactly the same as Jones' Kickapoo story; ending is different); Raccoon tries to steal chickens and is caught by a Frenchman; story something like Wissler's "Split Feather" (the end is like one of Jones' Fox stories); V-dentata; a story almost like Jones' story of the man who married many women (the louse episode occured in both); Wisake and the "Flag"; story that begins like the bear lover, goes on almost like Jones' Kickapoo story (it is closer to the Apaiyashihagi story); The determination of paternity by passing ? the baby; Potiphar's wife (ending different from Jones' Kickapoo); a variant of Jones' Boy and the giant (the mayor's daughter episode is lacking and the ending is different); Snapping turtle on the war path; Snapping turtle runs a race with Black Hawk; White Blooms (a new story); Why Kickapoos did not eat Blackhawk, and the youth who fasted all month; (names of some Kickapoo months; A man lives with his son-in-law; An old man wishes his daughter to marry ("control of goods" under the "control of game"; some European elements); Story of Tootca (= grub worm) Lesbian; Ten men who were brothers together; (on last page apparently a summary of titles of stories running backward one page).
NAA MS 3189
Title changed from "Legends summer, 1930" 5/22/2014.
Notes and texts collected by Truman Michelson during his field work among the Piegan Blackfoot in Montana in 1910. The materials consist primarily of stories in English and ethnographic notes covering topics such as Crazy Dog society, Sun Dance, and other ceremonies and societies. There are also notes on Piegan vocabulary and Chippewa Sun Dance and Medicine Dance. Michelson obtained information from various people, including David Duvall, who also served as an interpreter; Mountain Chief; George Pablo; Little Young Man; Norah Thomas; James Vielle; and Julie White Swan.
NAA MS 2827
Title changed from "Field notes concerning Piegan Blackfoot ethnography, including ceremonials and societies, with some linguistic notes June-July, 1910" 5/13/2014.
Menominee linguistic notes and texts from Truman Michelson's fieldwork among the Menominee in Wisconsin in 1910. He obtained texts and Menominee names for various tribes from Judge Peroute, a priest of the Grand Medicine Society. Captain John V. Satterlee of the Indian Police at Keshena served as interpreter and also provided Michelson with linguistic information, such as vocabulary.
Two handwritten Meskwaki (Fox) syllabic texts with English translations collected by Truman Michelson in Tama, Iowa. Jim Peters and Sam Peters wrote "Old man who could run fast." An unidentified writer authored "One Indian." Both were translated into English by Ida Poweshiek in 1929. The Meskwaki texts are undated.
NAA MS 2789
Title changed from "An old woman who ran fast Legend" 4/30/2014.