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Embroidery Design: Man's

Manufacturer:
Fabrique de Saint Ruf  Search this
Artist:
Mademoiselle Montalent  Search this
Mademoiselle Anteleme  Search this
Medium:
Gouache, over graphite Support: white laid paper
Type:
embroidery & stitching
Drawing
Object Name:
Drawing
Place:
France
Made in:
France
Date:
ca. 1785
Credit Line:
Gift of Eleanor and Sarah Hewitt
Accession Number:
1920-36-75
See more items in:
Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum Collection
Drawings, Prints, and Graphic Design Department
Data Source:
Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:chndm_1920-36-75

Design for a Stained Glass Window: Grammatica

Artist:
Hans Kaspar Lang the Elder, Swiss, 1571 – 1645  Search this
Medium:
Pen and brown ink, brown wash
Type:
glasswares
Drawing
Object Name:
Drawing
Date:
1606
Credit Line:
Purchased for the Museum by the Advisory Council
Accession Number:
1911-28-129
See more items in:
Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum Collection
Drawings, Prints, and Graphic Design Department
Data Source:
Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:chndm_1911-28-129

Crevices in Minnewaski, N.Y.

Medium:
Glass
Object Name:
Slide
Type:
Slide
Date:
20th century
Credit Line:
Gift of Miss Frances Morris
Accession Number:
1945-201-152
See more items in:
Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum Collection
Drawings, Prints, and Graphic Design Department
Data Source:
Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:chndm_1945-201-152

Thomasville -- Millpond Plantation

Former owner:
Wade, Jeptha Homer  Search this
Architect:
Hubbell & Benes  Search this
Landscape architect:
Manning, Warren H.  Search this
Collection Collector:
Marchand, Richard  Search this
Extent:
5 slides (photographs)
Type:
Archival materials
Slides (photographs)
Postcards
Place:
Millpond Plantation (Thomasville, Georgia)
United States of America -- Georgia -- Thomas County -- Thomasville
General:
001: Mill Pond Plantation, Thomasville, Ga. 203795 JM Postcard circa 1907-1945.

002: The Palm Garden and House, Mill Pond Plastation. Thomasville, Ga. Hand-Colored J. E. Robinson & Co. Postcard circa 1907-1945.

003: North East Corner of House, Mill Pond Plantion. Thomasville, Ga. Hand-Colored. Postcard circa 1907-1945.

004: Inner Court, Mill Pond Plantation, Thomasville, GA. J. E. Robinson. Hand-Colored. Postcard circa 1907-1945.

005: Rose Walk near House, Mill Pond Plantation. Thomasville, Ga. Hand-Colored. Postcard circa 1907-1945.
Collection Restrictions:
Access to original images by appointment only. Researcher must submit request for appointment in writing. Certain items may be restricted and not available to researchers. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Collection Rights:
Archives of American Gardens encourages the use of its archival materials for non-commercial, educational and personal use under the fair use provision of U.S. copyright law. Use or copyright restrictions may exist. It is incumbent upon the researcher to ascertain copyright status and assume responsibility for usage. All requests for duplication and use must be submitted in writing and approved by Archives of American Gardens.
Topic:
Gardens -- Georgia -- Thomasville  Search this
Plantation houses  Search this
Formal gardens  Search this
Conservatories  Search this
Garden walks  Search this
Edging  Search this
Climbing plants  Search this
Wisteria  Search this
Palms  Search this
Lawns  Search this
Indoor gardening  Search this
Tropical plants  Search this
Pergolas  Search this
Flowering shrubs  Search this
Arbors  Search this
Roses  Search this
Architecture, Spanish  Search this
Genre/Form:
Postcards
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution, Archives of American Gardens, Richard Marchand historical postcard collection.
Identifier:
AAG.MAR, File GA146
See more items in:
Richard Marchand historical postcard collection (35mm slides)
Richard Marchand historical postcard collection (35mm slides) / Georgia
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Gardens
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aag-mar-ref1356

San Francisco Women Artists records

Creator:
San Francisco Women Artists  Search this
Names:
San Francisco Art Institute  Search this
Labaudt, Marcelle, 1892-1987  Search this
Whitney, Susan A.  Search this
Windslade, Dorothy  Search this
Extent:
15.5 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Sound recordings
Motion pictures (visual works)
Scrapbooks
Photograph albums
Date:
1925-1999
Summary:
The San Francisco Women Artists records measure 15.5 linear feet, date from 1925 to 1999, and include administrative records, correspondence, membership files, exhibition files, inventory records, printed material, twenty scrapbooks, photographs, eight photograph albums, and two motion picture film reels.
Scope and Contents:
The San Francisco Women Artists records measure 15.5 linear feet and date from 1925 to 1999. The activities of the SFWA are documented through administrative records, correspondence, membership files, exhibition files, inventory records, printed material, twenty scrapbooks, photographs, eight photograph albums, and two motion picture film reels.

Administrative records include daily journals and publicity materials, historical materials and founding documents, meeting minutes and agendas, artist council and committee meetings, and member and patron surveys. Also found within administrative records are materials on Marcelle Labaudt, SFWA Executive Secretary then Executive Director for many years, including original film footage and sound recordings for a career retrospective film project. Correspondence is with potential donors and patrons, board members, members, and artists. Membership files contain ledgers of paid memberships, lists of dropped members, membership applications and rosters, membership biographies, renewals and statistics, and membership directories.

Exhibition files contain price lists and display placards, slides and photographs, and printed materials relating to shows and exhibitions presented by various SFWA members and cooperating organizations, including the San Francisco Art Institute. Shows include "Celebration of International Women" (1991), "The Paintings of Dorothy Windslade" (1994), annual juried SFWA shows and emerging artists exhibitions (1947-circa 1994), "Art of Susan A. Whitney Exhibit and Silent Auction" (1997), and "Hands and Heart, the Art of Healing" (1997), among others.

Inventory records contain artist inventory cards noting various artwork and exhibitions. Printed material includes books, SFWA bulletins, SFWA calendars, clippings, and exhibition printed materials, such as announcements, brochures, and catalogs. Twenty scrapbooks document the SFWA through clippings, exhibition documentation, photographs, biographies, and annotations. Eight photograph albums depict exhibitions and shows, artwork and artists. Also found within photographs are slides, negatives, and loose photographs depicting works of art, gallery and receptions, and meetings.
Arrangement:
This collection is arranged as 8 series:

Series 1: Administrative Records, 1925-circa 1998 (6.5 linear feet; Boxes 1-6, FC 17-18)

Series 2: Correspondence, 1931-1998 (0.7 linear feet; Boxes 6-7)

Series 3: Membership Files, 1925-circa 1998 (1.5 linear feet; Boxes 7-8)

Series 4: Exhibition Files, 1947-circa 1998 (0.7 linear feet; Boxes 8-9)

Series 5: Inventory Records, circa 1974-circa 1985 (0.4 linear feet; Boxes 9-10)

Series 6: Printed Material, 1926-1999 (1.5 linear feet; Boxes 10-11, 16)

Series 7: Scrapbooks, 1925-circa 1990s (2.7 linear feet; Boxes 11-13, 15)

Series 8: Photographs 1970-circa 1990s (1.5 linear feet; Boxes 13-14, 16)
Biographical / Historical:
San Francisco Women Artists (SFWA) is one of California's oldest arts organizations, dating its founding to 1887 as the Sketch Club. At that time, members met monthly to share and critique one another's work and to travel together on sketching trips. After the great earthquake in 1906 destroyed the club's headquarters, the group floundered and reorganized and merged with other organizations that also included men. By 1925, however, a core group of women broke away and formed the San Francisco Society of Women Artists. The SFWA's founding mission was "... the study and furtherance of all interests common to the arts both graphic and plastic … and to support causes neglected by other art organizations in the Bay Area." Early members include Alice B. Chittenden, Helen Hyde, Matilda Lotz, Clara Taggart McChesney, M. Evelyn McCormick, Dora Williams, and Eva Almond Withrow. Other members included Marcelle Labaudt, Dorr Bothwell, Claire Falkenstein, Ruth Asawa, Nell Sinton, Imogen Cunningham, Eleanor Dickenson, Jo Hansen, Emmy Lou Packard, Eleanore Rappe, Ruth Armer, Barbara Spring, Beth Van Hoesen and Dorothy Winslade.

The Society held its first exhibition in 1926. In 1932, Frida Kahlo's painting, Frieda and Diego Rivera, was shown at the "Sixth Annual Exhibition of the San Francisco Society of Women Artists" and was the first public showing of Kahlo's work. In 1946 the organization shortened its name to the San Francisco Women Artists.

In 1976 the SFWA and exective director Marcelle Labaudt were commended in a Senate Resolution for "outstanding contributions to the cultural enhancement of the City of San Francisco." In 1983 the SFWA procured a gallery at 451 Hayes Street, which provided exhibition space for members, as well as an art rental program. In 1985 the gallery moved to 370 Hayes Street. The SFWA celebrated its centennial in 1994 with an exhibition including work of many past members.

This organization continues to host monthly themed juried shows and is dedicated to encouraging and promoting the work of women artists.
Provenance:
Pam Foley, president of the San Francisco Women Artists donated the records in 1999.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C. Research Center. Contact Reference Services for more information. Use of archival audiovisual recordings with no duplicate access copy requires advance notice.
Rights:
The San Francisco Women Artists records are owned by the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Literary rights as possessed by the donor have been dedicated to public use for research, study, and scholarship. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Occupation:
Women artists -- California -- San Francisco  Search this
Topic:
Art -- Societies, etc. -- California -- San Francisco  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Sound recordings
Motion pictures (visual works)
Scrapbooks
Photograph albums
Identifier:
AAA.sanfrawa
See more items in:
San Francisco Women Artists records
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-sanfrawa

Erle Loran papers

Creator:
Loran, Erle, 1905-1999  Search this
Names:
Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco  Search this
Friends of Ethnic Art  Search this
San Francisco Art Institute  Search this
University of California, Berkeley -- Faculty  Search this
Bearden, Romare, 1911-1988  Search this
Cézanne, Paul, 1839-1906  Search this
Dasburg, Andrew, 1887-1979  Search this
Greenberg, Clement, 1909-1994  Search this
Haley, John, 1905-1991  Search this
Hartley, Marsden, 1877-1943  Search this
Hatfield, Dalzell, 1893-1963  Search this
Hofmann, Hans, 1880-1966  Search this
Levinson, Harry  Search this
Sabean, Samuel  Search this
Schaefer, Bertha, 1895-1971  Search this
Still, Clyfford, 1904-  Search this
Wilke, Ulfert, 1907-1987  Search this
Extent:
12.6 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Watercolors
Sketches
Photographs
Writings
Date:
1912-1999
Summary:
The papers of California painter, writer, and teacher Erle Loran measure 12.6 linear feet and date from 1912 to 1991. Found are biographical materials; two linear feet of personal and professional correspondence; personal business records; writings which include extensive drafts and notes for Loran's book Cezanne's Composition; over 400 items of artwork that include watercolors, drawings, charcoal, and pastel studies; printed materials; photographs of Loran, family, and friends, and artwork; and one audio recording of a lecture by Loran on Cezanne.
Scope and Content Note:
The papers of California painter and teacher Erle Loran measure 12.6 linear feet and date from 1912 to 1991. Found are biographical materials; two linear feet of personal and professional correspondence; personal business records; writings which include extensive drafts and notes for Loran's book Cezanne's Composition; over 400 items of artwork that include watercolors, drawings, charcoal, and pastel studies; printed materials; photographs of Loran, family, and friends, and artwork; and one audio recording of a lecture by Loran on Cezanne.

Biographical materials include biographical sketches, curriculum vita, a will, notes and a notebook, and an appointment book for 1987. Also found is an anniversary invitation, a certificate from the University of California, and the Pepsi-Cola award for 1948.

Two linear feet of correspondence is with artists, critics, galleries, and universities. Correspondents inlcude Romare Bearden, Andrew Dasburg, Clement Greenberg, John Haley, Dalzell Hatfield, Hans Hofmann, Harry Levinson (president of Permanent Pigments), Sam Sabean, Bertha Schaefer, Clyfford Still, and Ulfert Wilke. There is also correspondence with the University of California.

Personal business records include exhibition files, price and consignment lists, teaching materials, University of California Press records, and records relating to the publication of his book on Cézanne. Some of these records also document Loran's involvement with the Fine Arts Museum, Friends of Ethnic Arts, and the San Francisco Art Institute. In addition, there are records related to Loran's role in a donation of forty-five paintings by Hans Hofmann to the University Art Center. Also found are materials related to Loran's activities as an art collector including sales receipts, auction catalogs, and photographs of artwork owned by Loran.

Writings by Loran include a complete manuscript version of Cézanne's Composition along with additional notes and drafts, and numerous other short essays on Cézanne's life and art. Loran's other writings include essays about Hans Hofmann, Marsden Hartley, symbology in abstract art, and contemporary art.

Loran's career as an artist is extensively documented by four linear feet of original artwork, mostly preliminary sketches. The work demonstrates a variety of techniques including watercolor, pastel, pencil, pen, gouache, and oil sketches. Content includes landscapes, portraits, fantasy scenes, urban scenes, and rural scenes.

Printed materials include extensive newsclippings from seven decades, exhibition announcements, and exhibition catalogs. Photographs are of Loran, his second wife Clyta, the Loran family, friends and colleagues, artwork, and source materials. Also found within the papers is an audio recording on cassette of a lecture by Loran on Cézanne.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into 8 series:

Series 1: Biographical Materials, 1930s-1990s (Box 1; 0.25 linear feet)

Series 2: Correspondence, 1912-1992 (Boxes 1-3; 2.0 linear feet)

Series 3: Personal Business Records, 1930s-1992 (Box 3; 0.25 linear feet)

Series 4: Writings, 1921-1999 (Boxes 3-4; 1.25 linear feet)

Series 5: Artwork, 1920s-1980s (Boxes 4-8, 13-14; 4.3 linear feet)

Series 6: Printed Material, 1925-1999 (Boxes 8-10, 14; 2.3 linear feet)

Series 7: Photographs, 1910s-1990s (Boxes 10-12, 14; 2.5 linear feet)

Series 8: Audio Recording, 1982 (Box 12; 1 folder)
Biographical Note:
California painter, writer, and teacher Erle Loran was born on October 2, 1905 in Minneapolis, Minnesota. He attended the Minneapolis School of Art and graduated in 1926. That same year, Loran won the Paris Prize from the Chaloner Foundation which enabled him to study in France for the next three years. Here, he immersed himself into the world of Paul Cezanne. He lived for two years in Cézanne's studio, meeting many who knew Cezanne, including painter Emile Bernard, and art dealer Ambroise Vollard. This experience was critical to the development of Loran's artistic vision and his later writings and lectures about Cézanne.

In 1929, Loran returned to the United States, and published the article "Cézanne's Country" in The Arts in 1930. He then spent the early 1930s in Minnesota, after returning to Minneapolis to be treated for tuberculosis. There, Loran began to paint in a regionalist style, producing landscapes and scenes of life in rural Minnesota. In 1931, Loran was given his first one-man show at the Kraushaar Gallery in New York. During the depression, Loran began teaching art and was given painting commissions as part of the federal arts programs of the WPA.

Loran moved to California in 1937 and accepted a position as professor in the art department at the University of California, Berkeley. There he taught until retiring in 1973, serving as the department's chair in the 1950s. He established a program to invite east coast artists to teach at the university, and participants included Conrad Marca-Relli and Milton Resnick. Loran's students included Jay DeFeo, Richard Diebenkorn, and Sam Francis. In 1941 Loran began to write the synthesis of his research and interpretations about Cézanne's work, culminating in his pioneering book Cézanne's Composition published in 1943 by the University of California Press.

During this period Loran associated himself with modernist Hans Hofmann. Loran's early paintings were lyrical abstractions in primary colors; however, his style constantly changed with the times. Watercolor was Loran's medium of choice because it lent itself to his often-remote plein air locations, such as the ghost towns of California and Nevada. With John Haley and Worth Ryder he formed the "Berkeley Group," whose paintings consisted of scenes of the California and southwestern landscape painted in flat, open areas of color. During the war, painting in the open became increasingly difficult and Loran transitioned from plein-air painting to studio work. Shortly thereafter he began to focus his painting on abstraction.

Loran's artwork during the 1950s consisted primarily of abstractions based on natural forms like crystal and driftwood. In 1955, he spent six weeks studying with Hans Hofmann, whom he later called, along with Cézanne, a second "great father figure." In 1960, he was instrumental in securing a gift of forty-five paintings by Hans Hofmann for Berkeley's University Art Center. In the late 1960s, his work became a fusing of Op, Pop, and Hard Edge. From this he moved to figurative painting and later to geometric designs and symbols.

Loran continued to paint throughout the rest of his life in a variety of styles, including nudes, abstractions, and landscapes. Besides being an artist and a teacher, Loran was also a lifelong collector of ethnic art who specialized in African, Asian, Native American, and pre-Columbian tribal art. Many works from his collection are presently housed at the de Young Museum in San Francisco. Loran died in 1999 in Berkeley, at the age of 93.
Related Material:
Found in the Archives of American Art is an oral history interview with Erle Loran conducted by Herschel Chipp, June 18, 1981, and a 1981 interview with Erle and Clyta Loran in the Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco Interviews With Artists collection. Also found is a letter from Loran to Richard Wattenmaker, 1975.
Separated Material:
The Archives of American Art also holds material lent for microfilming (reel 906) including photographs of artwork by Erle Loran and two clippings of reproductions of Loran's artwork. Lent materials were returned to the lender and are not described in the collection container inventory.
Provenance:
Erle Loran lent the Archives of American Art materials for microfilming and donated papers in 1975. In 1999 Mrs. Ruth Schora-Loran, Loran's widow, donated additional material, including artworks.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment.
Rights:
The Erle Loran papers are owned by the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Literary rights as possessed by the donor have been dedicated to public use for research, study, and scholarship. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Topic:
Art, Abstract  Search this
Art teachers -- California -- Berkeley  Search this
Art -- Collectors and collecting -- California -- San Francisco Bay Area  Search this
Painters -- California -- Berkeley  Search this
Painting, Modern -- 20th century -- California -- Berkeley  Search this
Art, Modern -- 20th century  Search this
Genre/Form:
Watercolors
Sketches
Photographs
Writings
Citation:
Erle Loran Papers, 1912-1999. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.loraerle
See more items in:
Erle Loran papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-loraerle
Online Media:

Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Peace Walk and Parade

Creator:
Anacostia Community Museum  Search this
Raab, Susana (photographer)  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Place:
Anacostia (Washington, D.C.)
Date:
2018 January 15
Scope and Contents:
A man holds a banner featuring Martin Luther King Jr and the statue of Liberty during the annual Martin Luther King Jr Day Peace March and Parade in historic Anacostia.
Collection Restrictions:
Use of the materials requires an appointment. Please contact the archivist at acmarchives@si.edu.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Parades -- Washington (D.C.)  Search this
Collection Citation:
Community Documentation Photographs, Anacostia Community Museum Archives, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
ACMA.CDC.1, Item CDC_201801-013
See more items in:
Community Documentation Photographs
Community Documentation Photographs / Series 9: 2018 Images / Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Peace Walk and Parade
Archival Repository:
Anacostia Community Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-acma-cdc-1-ref53

Hassel Smith papers

Creator:
Smith, Hassel, 1915-2007  Search this
Names:
Gimpel Fils  Search this
New Arts (Art gallery)  Search this
San Francisco Art Institute -- Faculty  Search this
Anglim, Paule  Search this
Bischoff, Elmer, 1916-1991  Search this
Butterfield, Jan  Search this
Emmerich, André  Search this
Fitz Gibbon, John  Search this
Gimpel, Charles  Search this
Still, Clyfford, 1904-  Search this
Still, Patricia  Search this
Swanson, Kathryn  Search this
Thiebaud, Wayne  Search this
Wollard, Robert  Search this
Extent:
4 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Interviews
Sound recordings
Sketches
Transcripts
Christmas cards
Photographs
Date:
circa 1900-2004
bulk 1930-1995
Summary:
The papers of Southern California painter and instructor Hassel Smith measure 4 linear feet and date from circa 1900 to 2004 with the bulk of the materials dating from 1930-1995. Found within the papers are correspondence, a transcript of an interview conducted by Jan Butterfield in the 1980s, personal business files, teaching files, writings by Smith and others, sketches, printed materials, and photographs of Smith, his family and friends, and his artwork. There are audio recordings of a lecture series organized by Smith and of reviews of Smith's work. Correspondents include Paule Anglim, Elmer Bischoff, Andre Emmerich, Clyfford Still, Wayne Thiebaud, and many others.
Scope and Content Note:
The papers of Southern California painter and instructor Hassel Smith measure 4 linear feet and date from circa 1900 to 2004 with the bulk of the materials dating from 1930-1995. Found within the papers are correspondence, a transcript of an interview conducted by Jan Butterfield in the 1980s, personal business files, teaching files, writings by Smith and others, sketches, printed materials, and photographs of Smith, his family and friends, and his artwork. There are audio recordings of a lecture series organized by Smith and of reviews of Smith's work. Correspondents include Paule Anglim, Elmer Bischoff, Andre Emmerich, Clyfford Still, Wayne Thiebaud, and many others.

Biographical materials include biographical sketches, curriculum vitae, genealogical materials, ephemera, and personal appointment books from the mid to late 1970s. Also found here is a transcript of an in-depth interview of Smith conducted by Jan Butterfield in the 1980s.

There is personal and professional correspondence with Paule Anglim, Elmer Bischoff, Andre Emmerich, Charles Gimpel of Gimpel Fils, Clyfford and Patricia Still, Kathryn Swanson of the New Arts Gallery, Wayne Thiebaud, family members, and many others.

Personal business records include art sales records, exhibition checklists, conservation and condition reports, and personal finance records. Teaching materials include class schedules, student lists, and syllabi. Also found are notes on topics such as American art and literature, artistic traits and forms, illusion, and women artists.

Writings by Smith include artist statements, creative writings, his thoughts on the art market and art institutions, the San Francisco art community, and social criticism. Writings by others consist primarily of essays about Smith and his work. There are also writings by Smith's friend Robert Wollard. Artwork includes sketches, doodles, and Christmas cards done by Smith, and a handful of artwork by others.

Printed materials include clippings, exhibition announcements and catalogs, and posters. Also found here are printed materials about other artists, schools where Smith enrolled or taught, Smith's general interests, and collages and flyers by Robert Wollard. There is a printed copy of the pictorial edition of the Communist Manifesto edited by Smith and other artists.

Photographic materials are of Smith, family members, artwork, his studio, exhibition openings and other art events, and friends and colleagues. A family photograph dates from circa 1900 and negatives date from 1920. Most of the photographs date from the 1940s through the 1990s.

Sound recordings include 1 sound tape reel of the radio show, Art Review, with host John Fitz Gibbon reviewing Smith's artwork, and nine sound cassettes of student critiques overseen by Smith at the San Francisco Art Institute.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into 9 series.

Series 1: Biographical Materials, 1930-2004 (0.25 linear feet; Box 1)

Series 2: Correspondence, 1930s-2003 (1.0 linear foot; Boxes 1-2)

Series 3: Personal Business Materials, 1953-2003 (0.25 linear feet; Box 2)

Series 4: Teaching Materials, 1960s-1980s (18 folders; Box 2)

Series 5: Writings, 1940s-1994 (0.25 linear feet; Box 2)

Series 6: Artwork, 1928-1995 (8 folders; Box 2)

Series 7: Printed Materials, 1928-2003 (1.25 linear feet; Boxes 3-4)

Series 8: Photographic Materials, 1900s-2004 (0.5 linear feet; Box 4)

Series 9: Sound Recordings, 1965-1980 (10 items; Box 4)
Biographical Note:
Hassel Smith (1915-2007) was a California Bay area abstract expressionist painter, painting instructor at the California School of Fine Arts, and a lecturer at the University of California. His students included Roy De Forest, Sonia Gechtoff, and Frank Lobdell. Smith was also associated with the famed Los Angeles Ferus Gallery.

Hassel Smith was born on April 27, 1915, in Sturgis, Michigan, settling later with his family in San Mateo, California. He attended Northwestern University with the intention of becoming a chemist, but switched his majors to English and Art History and graduated in 1936. Returning to California, Smith enrolled at the California School of Fine Arts (CSFA), and studied with the painter Maurice Sterne.

In 1937, he left school and shared housing with his adopted brother Lewis in the Haight-Ashbury district, where he maintained a studio on Steiner Street. At the same time, as a social worker for the California Relief State Administration, he worked with men on "skid row" in San Francisco. Declared 4F by the draft board, Smith served various government agencies during World War II, including the Farm Security Administration and the U.S. Forest Service. During this period, he met and married June Meyers. He later described his government service and social work as having a strong influence on his art and politics.

In 1941, Smith was awarded the Abraham Rosenberg Fellowship from the University of California, Berkeley, which allowed him to travel and paint outdoors at Angel's Camp in the Mother Lode of the Sierra foothills, along with Richard Hackett.

At the end of the war, Smith began teaching at the CSFA, joining faculty members Richard Diebenkorn, David Park, and Clyfford Still. Smith taught there until 1952. His students included Roy De Forest, Sonia Gechtoff, and Frank Lobdell. Smith continued to paint and exhibit work throughout the 1950s, and in 1958 became affiliated with the Ferus Gallery founded by Walter Hopps and Ed Kienholz. His wife June passed away in 1958. One year later, Smith remarried Donna Rafferty Harrington, and they had their son Bruce in 1960.

After an exhibition at the New Arts Gallery in Houston, London-based dealer Charles Gimpel invited Smith to exhibit his work in England. As a result of this, Smith moved to England in 1962, and spent a year living in Mousehole, a fishing village in Cornwall. He moved back to California and between 1963 to 1966 was a visiting lecturer at the University of California, Berkeley and the University of California, Los Angeles. In 1966, Smith accepted a position as Senior Lecturer at the West England College of Art in Bristol, England where he stayed until 1978. He finished his teaching career as a Principal Lecturer at the Cardiff College of Arts in Wales from 1978 to 1979.

Smith spent most of the next two decades painting and exhibiting, which included exhibitions at the Oakland Museum and the San Jose Museum of Art. In 1991, he was awarded an honorary doctorate by the San Francisco Art Institute (formerly the California School of Fine Arts). Due to failing health, Smith was forced to stop painting in 1997. Smith died in 2007 in Warminster, England, at the age of 91.
Related Material:
Also found in the Archives of American Art is an oral history interview with Hassel Smith conducted by Paul Karlstrom, September 5, 1978 and a video interview with Hassel Smith conducted by Paul Karlstrom, January 15, 1986.
Provenance:
Hassel Smith donated most of his papers in several increments between 1980 and 1998. His son Joseph donated audio recordings in 1980, and Hassel Smith's widow Donna donated additional materials in 2004.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C. Research Center. Contact Reference Services for more information.
Rights:
The Hassel Smith papers are owned by the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Literary rights as possessed by the donor have been dedicated to public use for research, study, and scholarship. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Topic:
Art -- Study and teaching  Search this
Educators -- California -- Berkeley  Search this
Artists' studios -- Photographs  Search this
Abstract expressionism  Search this
Women artists  Search this
Art -- California -- San Francisco Bay Area  Search this
Art teachers -- California -- Berkeley  Search this
Art, American  Search this
Painters -- California  Search this
Genre/Form:
Interviews
Sound recordings
Sketches
Transcripts
Christmas cards
Photographs
Citation:
Hassel Smith papers, circa 1900-2004, bulk 1930-1995. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.smithass
See more items in:
Hassel Smith papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-smithass
Online Media:

John F. Turner research material on Howard Finster

Creator:
Turner, John F.  Search this
Names:
Arient, Beth, 1946-  Search this
Arient, James, 1946-  Search this
Camp, Jeffrey Thomas, 1944-  Search this
Dickinson, Eleanor, 1931-  Search this
Esman, Rosa  Search this
Finster, Beverly  Search this
Finster, Howard, 1916-2001  Search this
Finster, Pauline  Search this
Ginsberg, Allen, 1926-  Search this
Hartigan, Lynda Roscoe  Search this
Hemphill, Herbert Waide  Search this
Jabbour, Alan  Search this
Kind, Phyllis  Search this
Kirwin, Liza  Search this
Lancaster, Clay  Search this
Nasisse, Andy S., 1946-  Search this
Nutt, Jim, 1938-  Search this
Volkerz, Willem  Search this
Extent:
6.9 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Interviews
Sound recordings
Photographs
Transcriptions
Video recordings
Date:
circa 1928-2015
bulk 1978-1990
Summary:
The John F. Turner collection of research material on visionary self-taught artist Howard Finster measures 6.9 linear feet and dates from circa 1928 to 2015, with the bulk of the materials dating from 1978 to 1990. John Turner is a California-based curator who compiled this collection in preparation for his book Howard Finster: Man of Visions (1989). Found within the collection are correspondence; numerous interviews with Finster and Finster family members, curators and historians, collectors, and artists; draft manuscripts and research notes; compiled research files on other topics; printed materials and commercial broadcast video recordings; and photographic material, including polaroids annotated by Finster. There is also one series of Howard Finster's papers that include writings by Finster, sound and video recordings of Finster exhibitions and talks by Finster related to those exhibitions, recordings of other speaking engagements, sermons, and other events, a scattering of personal business records that includes a ledger and price list of artwork, and artwork.
Scope and Contents:
The John F. Turner collection of research material on visionary self-taught artist Howard Finster measures 6.9 linear feet and dates from circa 1928 to 2015, with the bulk of the materials dating from 1978 to 1990. John Turner is a California-based curator who compiled this collection in preparation for his book Howard Finster: Man of Visions (1989). Found within the collection are correspondence; numerous interviews with Finster and Finster family members, curators and historians, collectors, and artists; draft manuscripts and research notes; compiled research files on other topics; printed materials and commercial broadcast video recordings; and photographic material, including polaroids annotated by Finster. There is also one series of Howard Finster's papers that include writings by Finster, sound and video recordings of Finster exhibitions and talks by Finster related to those exhibitions, recordings of other speaking engagements, sermons, and other events, a scattering of personal business records that includes a ledger and price list of artwork, and artwork.

Correspondence mostly consists of letters to John Turner from Howard Finster and Finster family members, folklorist Alan Jabbour, Clay Lancaster, Andy Nasisse, and others. There are also letters to Howard Finster from miscellaneous correspondents.

Numerous interviews with and about Howard Finster are found on 47 sound cassettes, and one partial transcript. In addition to interviews conducted by Turner, there are interviews with Finster conducted by Liza Kirwin and Willem Volkerz. Most of the interviews are with others about Finster, including family members, collectors, curators and art historians, and other artists. Interviewees include Jim and Beth Arient, Jeffrey Camp, Eleanor Dickinson, Rosa Esman, Beverly and Pauline Finster, Allen Ginsberg, Lynda Hartigan, Herbert Waide Hemphill, Alan Jabbour, Phyllis Kind, Jim Nutt, and others.

Writings consist of Turner's research notebooks and a typescript draft for his book Howard Finster: Man of Visions. There are some curator's statements and loose notes possibly written by others. Research files include printed material compiled by John Turner on various artists and subjects not directly related to Finster, except for bibliographies.

Papers and other materials created by Howard Finster are arranged into one separate series. These include writings; exhibition files, including video and sound recordings; personal business records; artwork, including album covers and posters; and sound recordings of Finster's public and private talks, sermons, and events. Many of the sound recordings were recorded by Finster himself.

Printed material consists of newspaper and magazine clippings about Howard Finster, exhibition catalogs, announcements, magazines, and art periodicals. There are also 2 videocassettes of commercially released television appearances and music videos.

Photographic material includes photographs, slides, negatives, and transparencies of Howard Finster and his artwork. There are images of Finster and his family, artwork, exhibitions, openings, and events. Some of the images are annotated by Finster.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged as 7 series.

Series 1: Correspondence, 1967-2005 (0.3 linear feet; Box 1)

Series 2: Interviews, 1977-circa 1989 (1.5 linear feet; Boxes 1-2)

Series 3: Writings, circa 1980-circa 1989 (0.4 linear feet; Boxes 2-3)

Series 4: Research Files, circa 1971-2015 (0.5 linear feet; Box 3)

Series 5: Howard Finster Files and Sound and Video Recordings, circa 1970-2001 (1.6 linear feet; Boxes 3-5, OV 9, 11)

Series 6: Printed Material, circa 1975-2010 (1.2 linear feet; Boxes 5-6, OV 10)

Series 7: Photographic Material, circa 1928-circa 2000 (1.4 linear feet; Boxes 6-8)
Biographical / Historical:
John F. Turner is a writer and curator who lives in California. Turner has written books on photography and folk art and is an adjunct curator at the San Francisco Craft and Folk Art Museum. He has also worked for NBC news and documented the lives of folk artists for many years.

Turner befriended visionary, self-taught artist and Baptist minister Howard Finster sometime in the late 1970s. The research material in this collection was compiled over a decade for Turner's book Howard Finster: Man of Vision (Alfred A. Knopf, 1989).
Related Materials:
The Archives of American Art also has the Barbara Shissler Nosanow materials relating to Howard Finster, circa 1981; an oral history interview with Howard Finster conducted on June 11, 1984 by Liza Kirwin; and an interview with Howard Finster conducted by James Arient and Howard Finster's own sound recordings of himself from 1981-1982.
Provenance:
The John F. Turner research material on Howard Finster was donated by John F. Turner in 1987 and 2016.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C. Research Center. Contact Reference Services for more information.

Use of archival visual recordings with no duplicate access copy requires advance notice.
Rights:
The John F. Turner research material on Howard Finster are owned by the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Literary rights as possessed by the donor have been dedicated to public use for research, study, and scholarship. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.

The U-matic videocassette of Howard Finster's exhibition opening at Braunstein Gallery (1981) requires permission from John F. Turner to reproduce for publication.
Topic:
Curators -- California  Search this
Authors -- California  Search this
Folk artists -- California  Search this
Folk art  Search this
Self-taught artists  Search this
Genre/Form:
Interviews
Sound recordings
Photographs
Transcriptions
Video recordings
Citation:
John F. Turner research material on Howard Finster, circa 1928-2015, bulk dates 1978-1990. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.turnjohn
See more items in:
John F. Turner research material on Howard Finster
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-turnjohn

Ray McKinley Music and Ephemera

Collector:
McKinley, Ray, 1910-1995 (musician, bandleader)  Search this
Names:
Dorsey, Jimmy, Orchestra  Search this
McKinley, Ray, Orchestra  Search this
Miller, Glenn, Orchestra  Search this
Extent:
19.5 Cubic feet (56 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Ephemera
Music
Scrapbooks
Clippings
Date:
1945-1994
Scope and Contents:
The Ray McKinley Music and Ephemera consists of music, scores, sideman books, photographs, correspondence, news clippings and magazine articles, business records, awards, audio and videotapes, 45 rpm commercial recordings, and miscellaneous biographical notes. The records date from the the late nineteenth century to 1996 and document the professional music career and personal life of Ray McKinley (drummer, band leader, and vocalist). The collection is organized into three series; Series 1: Music ca. 1942-1990, Series 2: Ephemera ca. 1870-1996, and Series 3: Miscellaneous ca. 1943-1993. Materials in each series are arranged either alphabetically by music title or chronologically by date.

The following reference abbreviations are used in the container list to facilitate cross-referencing of materials in different subseries:

see: look for this title or material in the following location sa: see also: additional or related material is available in the following location aka: also known as OS: oversize score OP: oversize photograph
Arrangement:
The collection is divided into three series.

Series 1: Music

Series 2: Ephemera

Series 3: Audio Visual Materials
Biographical / Historical:
Ray McKinley was born on June 18, 1910 in Fort Worth, Texas, the son of Flora Newell McKinley and Raymond Harris McKinley, Sr. McKinley, Jr. entertained himself at an early age by "drumming" on whatever was available, and he received his first drum set at age nine from a family friend. His performing career had begun even earlier, at age six, with a snare drum solo for several thousand at the Elks Circus in the North Fort Worth Coliseum. At twelve he started playing professionally with local bands and orchestras. In an April, 1986 article in Modern Drummer, McKinley commented, "I wasn't that terrific, but everyone thought I was" (see Subseries 2B: Newsclippings and Magazine Articles). Whether deserved or not, his reputation was good enough that when the Jimmy Joy Orchestra came to town and was strapped for a substitute drummer, twelve-year-old McKinley got the job.

McKinley left town for the first time on a tour with the Duncan-Marin band in 1926. While performing in a Chicago nightclub, he was caught in the crossfire of a gang shoot-out and shot in the leg. During his convalescence, he wandered the clubs and listened in on sets. He met "Benny Pollack, Benny Goodman, Glenn Miller and others" (Ray McKinley, see Subseries 2F: Biographical Materials). He left the Duncan-Marin group in 1927 for the Beasley Smith orchestra, and joined the Tracy-Brown Orchestra in 1929. He played with Milt Shaw's Detroiters for a time in 1930, followed by a stint with Dave Bernie's band. With Bernie, he made two trips to England, "where he acquired a set of neckties and a Southern accent" (McKinley, Biographical Materials).

Glenn Miller asked McKinley to join him in Smith Ballew's band in 1932, and Miller later placed McKinley and four others with the Dorsey Brothers' Orchestra. When the Dorseys split, McKinley stayed with Jimmy Dorsey, although he was heavily recruited by other band leaders, including Tommy Dorsey and Benny Goodman. He became known as a vocalist as well as drummer in Jimmy Dorsey's band, and had Bing Crosby name him "one of the ten best vocalists in the country" (All-American Band Leaders, July, 1942). In 1939, at the suggestion of booking agent Willard Alexander, McKinley joined forces with Will Bradley (formerly Wilber Schwitsenberg) to form the "Will Bradley Orchestra featuring Ray McKinley." With McKinley on vocals and drums, the band's several hits included Beat Me Daddy, Eight to the Bar, Down the Road Apiece and Celery Stalks at Midnight. McKinley left in 1942 to form his own group, The Ray McKinley Orchestra. The band was very well-recieved, but broke up after only 8 months due to external factors including the outbreak of the second World War. McKinley placed many of his players with the Tommy Dorsey Orchestra just before he was drafted.

McKinley's old association with Glenn Miller paid off when Glenn took him on for his famous Army Air Force Band. McKinley says that Glenn Miller's band "was one of the two best musical organizations I had anything to do with as a player" (Modern Drummer). The Glenn Miller Band was sent to England in June, 1944. After Miller disappeared in 1944, McKinley fronted the band until its return to the United States in 1945. At this point, McKinley handed the reins to Tex Benecke and formed a new Ray McKinley Orchestra.

McKinley's new orchestra enjoyed great success, partially due to its young talent, including that of arrangers Eddie Sauter and Deane Kincaide. McKinley's showmanship and skills as leader, vocalist, and drummer also earned the band many fans. Some of their hits included Red Silk Stockings and Green Perfume, You Came a Long Way From St. Louis, and Arizay. Unfortunately, the group's inception coincided with the end of the big band era. McKinley adjusted the size and style of the band in attempts to satisfy public demand, but he finally disbanded the group when he suffered an attack of amoebic dysentery in 1951.

After his recovery, McKinley freelanced with different bands and in radio and television, mostly accepting appearances that kept him near his home in Connecticut. His last extended stint with any band came in 1956, when Willard Alexander persuaded the Glenn Miller Estate to sponsor a New Glenn Miller Orchestra with McKinley as its leader. The band played arrangements of old Miller favorites from the original music as well as more contemporary hits. This orchestra, like McKinley's earlier ones, was very successful, performing on television and travelling all over the world. In 1966, McKinley tired of the road and "retired". For the next thirty years, McKinley again stayed close to home, playing "gigs" with various bands, working as a musical consultant for Walt Disney World in 1971, and doing some television and recordings.

McKinley is remembered as a loving family man, screwball showman, and dedicated musician. In January, 1950,InternationalMusician said that McKinley was "known in the trade as a 'drummer's drummer'--just about the highest accolade one can receive." Many of his fellow musicians attest that his clean, energetic style of drumming provided the drive behind many of the bands he played with, while his technical skill and sense of humor produced the exciting solos that made him popular with the public. According to drummer Cliff Leeman, "Unlike many of the highly technical, showman drummers, McKinley combined elements of showmanship and thoughtful, feeling performance. He never ignored his timekeeping duties" (Modern Drummer, 1986). Both on the drums and as band leader, McKinley was a bit of a clown. For instance, the "vocal" in Celery Stalks at Midnight originated when McKinley, for no particular reason, "instead of playing a two bar solo on the drums...just yelled out, 'Celery Stalks along the highway!'" (McKinley, Big Band Jump Newsletter). Still, despite his antics and the fun he obviously had while on the stand, McKinley was deadly serious about music. His thoughts on drumming are evidence of this: "Once you have the techniques down and combine them with an inherent sense of rhythim--I believe you have to be born with it--you're well on your way to becoming a good drummer. If you don't have that bone-deep rhythmic sense, or 'feel', you should be doing something else. That may sound autocratic. But that's the way it is, as far as I'm concerned"( ModernDrummer).

McKinley was married in 1937 but divorced by 1942. He then married ballet dancer Gretchen Havemann in 1943, a few months into his tenure with the Glenn Miller Band. On April 7, 1949, they had daughter for whom Gretchen coined the name Jawn. A loving, happy couple, he and Gretchen celebrated their fiftieth wedding anniversary in 1993. In 1983, he and Gretchen began spending half of their year in a home in Florida and half in Canada. He died in 1995.
Separated Materials:
Ray McKinley drumset and two band stands are located in the Division of Music History.
Provenance:
Donated by Gretchen McKinley and Jawn McKinley Neville on February 2, 1998.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Copyright restrictions. Contact the Archives Center for information.
Topic:
Big band music -- 1940-2000  Search this
Jazz musicians  Search this
Musicians  Search this
Music -- 20th century  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- 20th century
Ephemera -- 20th century
Music -- 1940-2000
Scrapbooks -- 20th century
Clippings -- 20th century
Citation:
Ray McKinley Music and Ephemera, ca 1945-1994, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0635
See more items in:
Ray McKinley Music and Ephemera
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0635
Online Media:

Solomon Adler Papers

Creator:
Adler, Solomon, 1901-1989  Search this
Extent:
4.5 Cubic feet (5 boxes, 1 oversize folder)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Printed material
Sketches
Photographs
Notes
Legal records
Drawings
Correspondence
Date:
1916-1980
bulk 1950-1966
Summary:
The papers document independent inventor Solomon Adler's work with sewing machine technology through correspondence, photographs, notes, drawings, sketches, patents, litigation records, and printed materials. The collection provides insight into both an independent inventor's process of invention and Japanese work culture during the post-World War II period.
Scope and Contents:
The papers include correspondence, photographs, notes, drawings, sketches, patents, litigation records, and printed materials, primarily documenting Adler's work with sewing machine technology. The papers provide insight into an independent inventor's process of invention and Japanese work culture during the post-World War II period.

Series 1, Personal Materials, 1920s-1950s and undated consists primarily of high school chemistry and biology notes, business cards, photographs, speeches, and writings of Sol Adler. The photographs contain one black-and-white portrait of Adler, November 1958, and two negatives of him from the nineteen teens; and one scanned copy of a photograph, circa the 1920s of Sol Adler with his children, R. Michael and Diane Zoe Adler. There is a small booklet, Agreement between Manufacturers Machine and Tool Co., Inc., and Amalgamated Machine and Instrument Local No. 475 from 1941. Adler worked for Manufacturers Machine and Tool Co., Inc.

Series 2, Inventions, is divided into two subseries: Subseries 1, Other, 1919-1980 and undated, and Subseries 2, Sewing Machines, 1938-1962 and undated. Arranged chronologically, both subseries highlight Adler's inventive work. While the primary focus of Adler's invention work was on sewing machines, his interests were broad.

Subseries 2.1, Other Inventions, 1919-1980 and undated, contains documentation in the form of drawings and sketches, photographs, correspondence, and patents. Overall, the documentation is uneven. The inventions include a dividing head (a specialized tool that allows a workpiece to be easily and precisely rotated to preset angles or circular divisions); decorative window treatment; telescoping umbrella; can opener; question/answer machine; correlating device; radio station recording device; receptacle tap; fountain pen; television projection device; combined ash tray and cigarette holder; automatic machine gun; juice blender; thermonuclear idea; apparatus for producing pile fabric; an extensible, retractable and concealable table; and textile machinery.

Only some of Adler's inventions were patented. However, many of his ideas were well documented through drawings or descriptive text. In some instances prototypes were built.

The question and answer machine, 1939, was approximately three feet by four feet and was powered by a battery, the device was intended for educational use by children and adults. It used interchangeable answer cards on a broad range of subjects and informed the user of a correct and wrong answer by lights and a buzzer.

The correlating device, 1942, was designed for automobile use, and it combined driving directions and maps on a roll of paper data mounted on the dashboard. Although patented (US Patent 2,282,843), the device was never manufactured.

The radio station recording device, 1939, was a device to maintain a record of radio stations tuned on a radio receiver during a twenty-four hour period using recording disks.

The receptacle tap (Siphon-It), 1939, was patented (US Patent 2,184,263). The Siphon-It was designed to fit any size bottle, can, or the like containing fluids without removing the bottle cap. The "tap" punctured the bottle cap and was then turned like a screw several times. It allowed the contents under pressure to not lose carbonation and be poured easily.

The combined ash tray and cigarette holder and lighter, 1951, was Adler's only design patent (US Patent Des. 163,984). Purely ornamental, the tray would light and hold a cigarette.

The automatic machine gun, 1952, was conceived of by Adler and his son R. Michael Adler. The drawings and accompanying narrative text detail a method for cooling the gun through the use of an automatically operated gas turbine centrifugal air compressor and a gun of simple design with few parts and capable of an extremely high rate of fire. Adler submitted his drawings and text to the United States Army Ordance Department at the Pentagon, but it was not manufactured.

Adler's thermonuclear fusion proposal, a technical paper written in 1960, was never realized. The paper, titled "Attempt to Utilize the Concentrated Magnetic Field Around a Pinched Plasma Column as the Focal Point for Particle Acceleration," details through text and schematics Adler's ideas about a thermonuclear reactor. Additionally, there is correspondence, journal articles, newspaper articles, and a notebook with notes from other publications and some loose drawings related to thermonuclear issues.

An apparatus for producing pile fabric (US Patent 3,309,252), was patented in 1967. The intention of the apparatus was to create a method for producing carpets and rugs in a fast, practical, and inexpensive way.

Adler's work with non-woven textiles and fabrics (see US Patent 3,250,655) is well documented through correspondence, drawings, notes, fabric samples, and photographs. Adler founded the Adler Process Corporation in the 1960s as a research and development organization specializing in the development of products for domestic and industrial uses. The corporation also built machinery for the commercial production of the products which included pile fabric (such as carpeting), non-woven fabrics, and leather-like material. A prospectus details the "Adler Process."

Method and apparatus for production of pile carpeting and the like (US Patent 3,424,632, 3,592,374, and 3,655,490)

Subseries 2.2, Sewing machines, 1938-1962 and undated, consists primarily of documentation about the development of the Pacesetter sewing machine and its predecessors through correspondence, drawings and sketches, photographs, guide manuals, and promotional materials. Adler constructed skeletal aluminum models to better understand the functions and internal mechanisms of sewing machines. Between 1940 and 1948, he designed and constructed a sewing machine prototype, which he called his "Parent Machine." The Parent Machine would become known as the Pacesetter. Seven patents were awarded for the novel mechanisms contained within this prototype (US Patent 2,561,643), the most notable being for a compact sewing machine that could expand to a full-sized machine. Additional sewing machine inventions include the needleless sewing machine; a zig-zag sewing machine, and an attachment for a zig-zag sewing machine (US Patent 3,016,030).

While working as an engineer for the Brother International Corporation in Japan in the early 1950s, Adler developed the Pacesetter sewing machine. This portable machine was designed to meet the rapidly growing popularity of multiple decorative and embroidery patterns. A selector dial, which Adler called the "Wishing Dial," controlled sixteen internal cams, multiple cam selectors and followers to automatically sew thirty different basic decorative stitch patterns. Since the Pacesetter could sew both zigzag and straight stitches, varying the width and length of the basic patterns made it possible to create thousands of decorative variations. Adler introduced the Pacesetter sewing machine at the Independent Sewing Machine Dealers Show in New York, July 18, 1955.

Series 3: Brother International Corporation, 1954-1959 and undated

Started in 1908 by Kanekichi Yasui, the Yasui Sewing Machine Company manufactured and repaired sewing machines. The company was later renamed Yasui Brother Sewing Machine Company by Masayoshi Yasui, the eldest of Kanekichi's ten children, who inherited the company. The new name reflected the involvement and spirit of cooperation of other "brothers" in the Yasui family.

In 1934, the Yasui brothers liquidated the Yasui Brother Sewing Machine Company and created the Nippon Sewing Machine Company in Nagoya, Japan. Nippon emerged in response to a Japanese sewing machine market dominated by imported products, and it began mass producing industrial sewing machines. In 1941, Brother Sales, Ltd. was established as a sales outlet for the Japanese market, and in 1954 Brother International Corporation (BIC) was created as an exporting company with offices established in New York City. The company actively promoted exporting in advance of other Japanese companies.

Adler joined BIC in 1954 as a consultant for their product design and development work. This work was previously done in-house by design and engineering staff, so Adler, an American, was charting new territory. The materials in this series consist of corporate histories, and annual report, correspondence, product literature, conference materials, and notebooks maintained by Adler. The latter constitutes the bulk of the material along with the correspondence.

The "conference" materials document a meeting Adler attended, presumably in Japan in 1957. The file contains detailed notes about product marketing and production factors. A flow chart for "product coordinating factors" outlines the motivations, idea sources, management control, and execution of an idea generally.

The correspondence, 1954-1958, consists of letters and inter-company communications (memorandum), patents and drawings between Sol Adler, Max Hugel and the legal firm of, Kane, Dalsmier and Kane of New York. The correspondence relates almost exclusively to patenting matters, especially by Adler and legal matters involving Singer Sewing Manufacturing Company alleging that Brother International infringed on certain Singer-owned patents.

The notebooks of Solomon Adler, approximately 1951-1958, consists primarily of materials documenting Adler's work in Japan on sewing machines. The materials were assembled by Adler and titled "notebook." Some of the materials are three hole punched (indicating they may have been in a three-ring notebook) and are both handwritten and typescript. Also included are chronologies of his work; translations of Japanese words into English; drawings in pencil on tracing paper; sketches in pencil on scrap paper and letterhead; detailed notes about mechanisms and methods of sewing machine operation; business cards; comparative data for sewing machines; and correspondence.

Of note is the "digest" or chronology of events from 1958 to 1959 maintained by Adler to detail the alleged patent infringement of BIC on Singer Sewing machine patents. The digest also notes the value, author of a document, to whom it was sent, date, and a brief description. Adler created a ranking system for his digest, assigning different values, very important, urgent, important, and general. He also compiled a chart of competitor sewing machines by brand name. Many of the Japanese documents--patents and drawings--bear Adler's "chop" or rubber stamp with Japanese characters for his surname.

The Litigation Materials, 1952-1961 and undated, consists of documents (numbered exhibits) assembled by Adler for use in litigation against Brother International Corporation (BIC). The exhibits were used as documentary evidence in court, and the materials are primarily typescript notes and correspondence, newspaper clippings, articles, technical drawings by Adler, patents, photographs and some product literature detailing aspects of the BIC sewing machines.

In 1958, Singer Sewing Machine Company filed a lawsuit against Nippon Sewing Machine Company for patent infringement by BIC's Pacesetter and Select-O-Matic sewing machines. Adler, on behalf of Nippon, conducted extensive patent research into the allegations, working with BIC attorneys in New York as well as creating new sewing machine designs to overcome Singer's claims. In 1959, Singer filed another lawsuit alleging that Nippon was violating United States customs laws by shipping automatic zigzag sewing machines to the United States, which were alleged to infringe on Singer patents. Correspondence related to this patent infringement can be found in Series 3: Brother International Corporation.

Adler returned to the United States in April of 1959 as the representative for Nippon and the Japanese sewing machine industry to help prepare the case and act as a consultant. BIC and Singer representatives appeared before the United States Tariff Commission (USTC). Adler officially testified on behalf of BIC, explaining the three angle cam structure difference between the Singer #401 sewing machine and imported Japanese sewing machines. Adler's testimony was successful, and with patent problems resolved, Adler resigned from BIC in July of 1959 and commenced a long negotiation with the company for financial compensation for his invention work.

Series 5, Publications, 1953-1967, consists of select issues of theNew Japan Sewing Machine News, which followed developments in the Japanese sewing machine industry and other publications featuring articles and brief pieces about sewing machines in general.

References

(http://welcome.brother.com/hk-en/about-us/history.html last accessed on March 24, 2011)
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into four series.

Series 1: Personal Materials, 1920-1950s and undated

Series 2: Inventions, 1938-1980

Subseries 1: Other, 1938-1980

Subseries 2: Sewing, 1938-1962 and undated

Series 3: Brother International Corporation, 1952-1961

Series 4: Publications, 1953-1967
Biographical / Historical:
Solomon "Sol" Adler is probably best known for his sewing machine inventions, but his portfolio of work also includes ideas and patents for a fountain pen, a window treatment, a receptacle tap, a telescoping umbrella, an ashtray, a retractable table, and jewelry designs. Adler wrote fiction as well (mostly short stories) that reflected his experiences during the early 1900s in New York City. He filled pages with themes on social protest, radicalism, mobs, unions, poverty, and sweatshop operators. In 1958 Adler wrote about theories of nuclear physics, noting, "Indeed a very bold attempt and definitely a long way from sewing machines." Adler's flow of ideas was constant, and he sought to express them constantly.

Sol Adler was born on July 8, 1901, [Russian?] on the Lower East Side of Manhattan, one of Isaac and Mindel Adler's five children. Isaac was a tailor, so sewing machines were part of Sol's life from the beginning. As a young man, Adler apprenticed in machine shops, honing his skills until he became an expert machinist and toolmaker; these skills eventually allowed him to build the machines he visualized. Adler's design drawings show his precision as a draftsman and engineer (he attended the City College of New York) and provide good insight into the drawing abilities that he later used in preparing patent drawings. Adler also enjoyed metalworking. His home workshop boasted a geared lathe, tilling head machine, drill press, bench grinder, and an assorted hand tools.

Adler's work on sewing machines began in the late 1930s with tinkering with his sister-in-law Bess's treadle-operated Singer machine. Bess wanted a lightweight, motorized sewing machine that had enough space between the frame and the needle for large projects such as quilts. Using his own basement machine shop, Adler began building simple frameworks for sewing machines to understand better the relationships between the parts and their functions. Adler's first sewing machine (which he dubbed the "parent machine") earned U.S. Patent 2,561,643, issued in 1951. The machine was a full-size home machine, with a concealed motor and power cord that could also expand into a commercial-size machine. Six subsequent patents for subassemblies were derived from the "parent machine" over the next several years.

During the Second World War, Adler worked for Manufacturing Methods Technology (MM&T) as a development engineer and experimental machine shop supervisor.

Analyzing the evolving U.S. domestic sewing machine market gave Adler ideas for further inventions, refining the machines and adding new features. Unfortunately, success was elusive; his machine with zigzag and straight-stitch capability was rejected by several U.S. and European sewing machine manufacturers. But in 1954, Adler met Max Hugel, president of the Asiatic Commerce Corporation of New York, later known as Brother International Corporation (BIC), a subsidiary of the Nippon Company. Nippon wanted to solve certain design and operational problems it was having in developing a zigzag sewing machine for sale in the United States. Adler joined BIC, moved to Japan, and succeeded in helping correct the design issues. Adler named the machine the "Select-O-Matic" because by turning a few knobs, an operator could select one of the six patterns that the machine produced.

Adler stayed with BIC until 1959, and worked on a variety of sewing machines, including an automatic zigzag machine and the versatile "Pacesetter," which was unveiled in the United States to great acclaim at the Sewing Machine Show in New York City on July 18, 1955 (a version of the Pacesetter is still sold by Brother). Additionally, he worked on a line of industrial and domestic sewing machines, home washing machines, home knitting machines, and other small appliances. Adler earned several Japanese patents for his work.

Among Adler's writings is a pronouncement of his passion for invention: "When an idea is conceived by an inventor, it never leaves him in peace, it possesses him day and night until it is expressed, after which he enjoys a sense of relief and accomplishment."

Adler married Fay (neé Kagan) in 1928. They had two children, Ralph Michael Adler and Diane Zoe Adler. Adler died on May 31, 1989 at the age of 88.

Issued United States Patents:

Receptacle tap (2,184,263)

Correlating device (2,284,843)

Sewing machine (2,561,643)

Sewing machine feed (2,473,934)

Bobbin winder for sewing machine (2,455,638)

Extension leaf for sewing machines (2,464,838)

Sewing machine feed (2,473,934)

Threading device (2,516,171)

Sewing machine pressure bar (2,554,970)

Sewing machine needle bar operating mechanism (2,554,971)

Sewing machine (2,561,643)

Sewing machine (2,709,978)

Attachment for zigzag sewing machines (3,016,030)

Sewing machine (3,053,207) assigned to Nippon Sewing Machine Manufacturing Company

Sewing machine (3,055,325) assigned to Nippon Sewing Machine Manufacturing Company

Method and apparatus for making non-woven fabric (3,236,711)assigned to Adler Process Corporation

Method for producing non-woven fabric (3,250,655)

Method and apparatus for producing pile fabric (3,309,252) assigned to Adler Process Corporation

Method and apparatus for production of pile fabric and the like (3,424,632) assigned to Adler Process Corporation

Combined ashtray, cigarette holder and lighter (Des. 163,984)
Separated Materials:
The Division of Home and Community Life holds artifacts related to this collection, including several sewing machine prototypes, the Siphon-It and the combination ashtray, lighter and cigarette holder. See Accession numbers: 2009.0118 and 2009.0114.
Provenance:
The collection was donated by R. Michael Adler and Diane Zoe Adler, September, 2009. Additonal materials were donated by R. Michael Adler in 2012.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Sewing machines  Search this
Inventors  Search this
Genre/Form:
Printed material
Sketches
Photographs -- 20th century
Notes
Legal records
Drawings -- 20th century
Correspondence
Citation:
Solomon Adler Papers, dates, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1157
See more items in:
Solomon Adler Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1157
Online Media:

Arthur C. Clarke Collection of Sri Lanka

Creator:
Clarke, Arthur C., Sir (Arthur Charles), 1917-2008  Search this
Extent:
95.02 Cubic feet (188 legal size boxes; 5 15 x 12 x 3 flat boxes; 1 16 x 20 x 3 flat box; 4 12 x 8 x 5 shoeboxes)
88.55 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Date:
1932-2012
bulk 1950-2008
Summary:
Sir Arthur C. Clarke is one of the preeminent science-fiction writers of the 20th century.
Scope and Contents:
Contains personal and business correspondence, manuscripts of most of Clarke's fiction works in various draft states, short stories, articles, addresses, speeches, movie outlines, Apollo 11 broadcast material, datebooks & notebooks, reference materials, business cards of visitors & contacts, photos & slides. There is some material by people other than the creator such as manuscripts and film/TV scripts.

This collection also includes audio-visual material. Please contact the Media Archivist for access.
Arrangement:
Series were based on the creator's original arrangement of material.

Arranged into 7 Series:

Series 1: Correspondence

Series 2: Original Writing

2.1: "Clarkives"

2.2: Non-"Clarkives"

2.3: Articles, Short Stories

2.4: Lectures, Speeches

Series 3: Media & Publicity

Series 4: Awards & Tributes

Series 5: Manuscripts written by others relating to Clarke's Literary Works

Series 6: Miscellaneous

Series 7: Images

7.1: Photos

7.2: Slide Albums
Biographical / Historical:
Born on December 16, 1917, in Minehead, England, Arthur Charles Clarke became obsessed with science fiction and astronomy at a young age. He was the eldest of four children born into a farming family, however he would become, with his brother Fred Clarke acting as a business associate, one of the leading names in science fiction.

During World War II Clarke served as a radar instructor and in his free time became one of the early members of the British Interplanetary Society. In 1945, Clarke made one of his earliest predictions (he called them "extrapolations") when he came up with the idea of communication satellites. He became known for this uncanny prescience which is seen in so much of his work.

In 1948 Clarke graduated from King's College, London with honors in math and physics. By 1951, Clarke had gained respect as both a fiction and non-fiction writer with Interplanatary Flight and Prelude to Space, respectively.

In 1956, Clarke emigrated to Sri Lanka, then known as Ceylon, where he could indulge a new obsession - skin diving. He remained in Sri Lanka for the rest of his life, creating a diving company and funding many science education programs in the country.

Perhaps Clarke's most recognizable feat came when he was able to work with Stanly Kubrick over a course of 4 years in order to create the book and film 2001: A Space Odyssey which was loosely based on the earlier Clarke story "The Sentinel."

Clarke accomplished an amazing amount of writing, speaking tours, TV appearances and humantarian work despite suffering from post-polio syndrome for decades. He won numerous awards, mostly for his science fiction but also for popularizing science. He was knighted in 1998. He died, age 90, March 19, 2008.
Provenance:
Arthur C. Clarke Trust, gift, 2014
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Rights:
Permissions Requests
Topic:
Underwater archaeology -- 1960's  Search this
nonfiction novels  Search this
Interplanetary voyages  Search this
Artificial satellites  Search this
Manned space flight  Search this
Apollo 11 Flight  Search this
Astronautics  Search this
Science fiction  Search this
Citation:
Arthur C. Clarke Collection of Sri Lanka, Acc. 2015-0010, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.2015.0010
See more items in:
Arthur C. Clarke Collection of Sri Lanka
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-2015-0010
Online Media:

The Garden Club of America collection

Creator:
Garden Club of America  Search this
Names:
New York Flower Show  Search this
Extent:
37,000 Slides (35mm slides)
33 Linear feet ((garden files))
3,000 lantern slides
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Slides
Lantern slides
Plans (drawings)
Brochures
Articles
Correspondence
Clippings
Slides (photographs)
Date:
circa 1920-present
Summary:
This collection contains over 37,000 35mm slides, 3,000 glass lantern slides and garden files that may include descriptive information, photocopied articles (from journals, newspapers, or books), planting lists, correspondence, brochures, landscape plans and drawings. Garden files were compiled by Garden Club of America (GCA) members for most of the gardens included in the collection. Some gardens have been photographed over the course of several decades; others only have images from a single point in time. In addition to images of American gardens, there are glass lantern slides of the New York Flower Show (1941-1951) and trips that GCA members took to other countries, including Mexico (1937), Italy, Spain, Japan (1935), France (1936), England (1929), and Scotland.

A number of the slides are copies of historic images from outside repositories including horticultural and historical societies or from horticultural books and publications. The GCA made a concerted effort in the mid-1980s to acquire these images in order to increase its documentation of American garden history. Because of copyright considerations, use of these particular images may be restricted.
Biographical/Historical note:
The Garden Club of America was established in 1913 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, when the Garden Club of Philadelphia and eleven other garden clubs met to create a national garden club. Its purpose is to foster the knowledge and love of gardening and to restore and protect the quality of the environment through educational programs and gardening and conservation efforts. The GCA was incorporated in Delaware in 1923, with its headquarters established in New York City. Today, local clubs are organized under twelve regional zones. The GCA continues its tradition of hosting flower shows and publishing material related to gardening in the United States.

The GCA's glass lantern slides were used by The GCA for presentations and lectures about notable gardens throughout the United States dating back to colonial times. An effort was made in the late 1980s, in preparation of the 75th anniversary of the Garden Club of America's founding, to collect the disbursed slides. These slides were to eventually form the Slide Library of Notable American Parks and Gardens. The informational value of this collection is extensive since a number of images of the more than 4,500 gardens represented show garden designs that have changed over time or no longer exist. While the majority of images document a range of designed upper and upper-middle class gardens throughout the U.S., the scope of the collection is expanding as volunteers photograph and document contemporary gardens including community and vernacular gardens.

The gardens illustrate the design work of dozens of landscape architects including Marian Coffin, Beatrix Farrand, Lawrence Halprin, Hare & Hare, Umberto Innocenti, Gertrude Jekyll, Jens Jensen, Warren Manning, the Olmsted Brothers, Charles Platt, Ellen Biddle Shipman, and Fletcher Steele. Because of their proximity to the gardens, works of notable architects and sculptors may also be featured in the images.
Restrictions:
Access to original images by appointment only. Researcher must submit request for appointment in writing. Certain items may be restricted and not available to researchers. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Rights:
Archives of American Gardens encourages the use of its archival materials for non-commercial, educational and personal use under the fair use provision of U.S. copyright law. Use or copyright restrictions may exist. It is incumbent upon the researcher to ascertain copyright status and assume responsibility for usage. All requests for duplication and use must be submitted in writing and approved by Archives of American Gardens.
Topic:
Gardens -- France  Search this
Gardens -- Italy  Search this
Gardens -- Japan  Search this
Gardens -- Mexico  Search this
Flower shows  Search this
Gardening -- United States -- societies, etc  Search this
Gardens -- England  Search this
Landscape architecture  Search this
Gardens -- United States  Search this
Gardens -- Spain  Search this
Gardens -- Scotland  Search this
Genre/Form:
Plans (drawings)
Brochures
Articles
Correspondence
Clippings
Lantern slides
Slides (photographs)
Citation:
Smithsonian Institution, Archives of American Gardens, The Garden Club of America collection.
Identifier:
AAG.GCA
See more items in:
The Garden Club of America collection
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Gardens
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aag-gca
Online Media:

Oral history interview with William Morris

Interviewee:
Morris, William, 1957-  Search this
Interviewer:
Riedel, Mija, 1958-  Search this
Creator:
Nanette L. Laitman Documentation Project for Craft and Decorative Arts in America  Search this
Names:
California State University, Chico -- Students  Search this
Central Washington University -- Students  Search this
Nanette L. Laitman Documentation Project for Craft and Decorative Arts in America  Search this
Pilchuck Glass Center (Stanwood, Wash.)  Search this
San Carlos Borromeo Basilica (Carmel, Calif.)  Search this
Benaroya, Jack, 1921-2012  Search this
Benaroya, Rebecca  Search this
Campbell, Joseph, 1904-1987  Search this
Carpenter, James, 1949-  Search this
Chihuly, Dale, 1941-  Search this
Demarco, Ricky  Search this
Graves, Nancy Stevenson, 1940-1995  Search this
Hauberg, John H. (John Henry), 1916-  Search this
Hydman-Vallien, Ulrica, 1938-2018  Search this
Jung, C. G. (Carl Gustav), 1875-1961  Search this
Karan, Donna, 1948-  Search this
Kirkpatrick, Joey  Search this
Libenský, Stanislav, 1921-2002  Search this
Lipofsky, Marvin, 1938-2016  Search this
Lipski, Donald, 1947-  Search this
Mace, Flora, 1949-  Search this
Marioni, Dante, 1964-  Search this
Moore, Benjamin P.  Search this
Oppenheim, Dennis, 1938-2011  Search this
Pfaff, Judy, 1946-  Search this
Saxe, Dorothy  Search this
Saxe, George  Search this
Scanga, Italo, 1932-2001  Search this
Seguso, Livio, 1930-  Search this
Signoretto, Pino, 1944-  Search this
Smith, Kiki, 1954-  Search this
Stroemple, George R.  Search this
Tagliapietra, Lino  Search this
Vallien, Bertil, 1938-  Search this
Extent:
7 Items (Sound recording: 7 wav files (5 hr., 5min.), digital)
105 Pages (Transcript)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Pages
Interviews
Sound recordings
Place:
British Isles -- Description and Travel
Date:
2009 July 13-14
Scope and Contents:
An interview of William Morris conducted 2009 July 13-14, by Mija Riedel, for the Archives of American Art's Nanette L. Laitman Documentation Project for Craft and Decorative Arts in America, at Morris' home, in Stanwood, Washington.
William Morris speaks of his decision to stop working in glass in 2005; his deep connection to the natural world; working now with stone; the longstanding theme of man and nature in his work; his influence on the studio glass movement; use of installations; relationship to the greater art world; Cache [1993]; the importance of working in a team, particularly with Jon Ormbrek; studio practice and philosophy of working in the studio; series Man Adorned and first use of the human form; how his work evolves artistically; the influence of his travels on his work and his particular affinity for Mesoamerican culture; the process of choosing his subjects; growing up in Carmel, California, and frequenting the museum at the Carmel Mission Basilica; his early fascination with Native American artifacts and history in the museum; childhood spent hiking in the hills around Carmel and youth spent camping and rock-climbing; art instruction during childhood; ceramics work in high school; introduction to ideas of Carl Jung and Joseph Campbell by his high school teacher, Lloyd Baskerville; undergraduate work at California State University, Chico, working with Vernon Patrick; first experience with glass in high school, through the Fort Ord military base crafts department; brief studies at Central Washington University in Ellensburg, Washington; arriving at Pilchuck Glass School, Stanwood, Washington, in 1977 as a shop assistant/maintenance person; his first encounter with Dale Chihuly; 10 years as Chihuly's main assistant and de facto apprenticeship; his greater overall technical education at Pilchuck; the development of his own team as he continued to work with Chihuly; working with Chihuly and Italo Scanga; the synergy of working in a group and artistic cross-pollination at Pilchuck; the influence and mentorship of Judy Pfaff; working with Italian glass masters at Pilchuck; the influence of Pino Signoretto; his trip with Chihuly to the British Isles, which inspired his series Stone Vessels and series Standing Stones in the mid-1980s; his practice of working in series; series Petroglyph Vessels, and the beginning of narrative in his work; the importance of naiveté, experimentation, and a "confidence in innocence"; series Artifacts; the influence of Donald Lipski on Morris' installations; series Burial Urns and series Burial Rafts; series Canopic Jars; commissions for George Stroemple; the genesis of the series Rhyton; the transcendental/mythic qualities in his work; series Crow and Raven; more discussion of series Man Adorned; series Rattles; collaboration with fashion designer Donna Karan; the importance of glass as a material, and the importance of "play"; the value of an apprentice-type program; his work in bronze and with Nancy Graves; series Cinerary Urns and coming to terms with the deaths of close friends; series Mazorca; series Idolo and Idolito; series Native Species (2006); series Fish Traps; more discussion of his decision to leave glassworking; documentary film Creative Nature, 2008; "Myth, Object, and the Animal" exhibition; the adventurous spirit of the American studio glass movement, particularly in the early years; his preference for short workshops rather than longer teaching sessions; the aesthetic continuity of his work throughout his career; his appreciation of the community of collectors of glass art. He also recalls Ken Wiese, Robert and Terrie Kvenild, Bertil and Ulrica Vallien, Gary Galbraith, Stan Price, Dennis Oppenheim, Kiki Smith, Dante Marioni, Livio Seguso, Marvin Lipofsky, Benjamin Moore, Jamie Carpenter, Checco Ongaro, Lino Tagliapietra, Ricky DeMarco, Flora Mace, Joey Kirkpatrick, Trumaine Mason, Karen Willenbrink, Ross Richmond, Randy Walker, John Hauberg, Stanislav Libenský, Graham Graham, Charlie Cowles, George and Dorothy Saxe, and Jack and Rebecca Benaroya.
Biographical / Historical:
William Morris (1957- ) is a glass artist in Stanwood, Washington.
General:
Originally recorded on 3 sound discs. Reformatted in 2010 as 7 digital wav files. Duration is 5 hr., 5 min.
Provenance:
This interview is part of the Archives of American Art Oral History Program, started in 1958 to document the history of the visual arts in the United States, primarily through interviews with artists, historians, dealers, critics and administrators.
Restrictions:
Transcript available on the Archives of American Art website.
Topic:
Art -- Study and teaching  Search this
Ceramics -- Study and teaching  Search this
Glass artists -- Washington (State) -- Interviews  Search this
Sculptors -- Washington (State) -- Interviews  Search this
Genre/Form:
Interviews
Sound recordings
Identifier:
AAA.morris09
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-morris09

Jackson Pollock and Lee Krasner papers

Creator:
Pollock, Jackson, 1912-1956  Search this
Krasner, Lee, 1908-1984  Search this
Names:
Betty Parsons Gallery  Search this
Martha Jackson Gallery  Search this
Benton, Thomas Hart, 1889-1975  Search this
Brooks, James, 1906-1992  Search this
Burkhardt, Rudy  Search this
Cavaliere, Barbara  Search this
Davis, Bill  Search this
De Kooning, Willem, 1904-1997  Search this
Dehner, Dorothy, 1901-1994  Search this
Eames, Ray  Search this
Forge, Andrew  Search this
Friedman, B. H. (Bernard Harper), 1926-  Search this
Glaser, Jane R.  Search this
Gray, Cleve  Search this
Greenberg, Clement, 1909-1994  Search this
Gruen, John  Search this
Holmes, Doloris  Search this
Isaacs, Reginald R., 1911-  Search this
Janis, Sidney, 1896-  Search this
Johnson, Philip, 1906-2005  Search this
Kadish, Reuben, 1913-1992  Search this
Maddox, Charles  Search this
Matter, Mercedes  Search this
McCoy, Sanford, Mrs.  Search this
Miller, Daniel  Search this
Miller, Robert, 1932 Apr. 17-  Search this
Motherwell, Robert  Search this
Namuth, Hans  Search this
Ossorio, Alfonso, 1916-1990  Search this
Pollock, Charles C.  Search this
Pollock, Jackson, 1912-1956 -- Photographs  Search this
Rose, Barbara  Search this
Rouche, Burton  Search this
Smith, Tony, 1912-  Search this
Still, Clyfford, 1904-  Search this
Valliere, James  Search this
Wasserman, Tamara E.  Search this
Wright, William  Search this
Zogbaum, Wilfrid, 1915-1965  Search this
Extent:
16.1 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Motion pictures (visual works)
Video recordings
Photographs
Interviews
Sound recordings
Scrapbooks
Sketchbooks
Transcripts
Date:
circa 1914-1984
bulk 1942-1984
Summary:
The papers of abstract expressionist painters Jackson Pollock and wife Lee Krasner measure 16.1 linear feet and date from circa 1914 to 1984, with the bulk of the material dating from 1942 to 1984. The collection documents their personal and professional lives, as well as the legacy of Jackson Pollock's work after his death. Found are biographical material, correspondence, writings by Krasner and others, research material, business and financial records, printed material, scrapbooks, artwork by others, photographs, interview transcripts, audio and video recordings, and motion picture film.
Scope and Content Note:
The papers of abstract expressionist painters Jackson Pollock and wife Lee Krasner measure 16.1 linear feet and date from circa 1914 to 1984, with the bulk of the material dating from 1942 to 1984. The collection documents their personal and professional lives, as well as the legacy of Jackson Pollock's work after his death. Found are biographical material, correspondence, writings by Krasner and others, research material, business and financial records, printed material, scrapbooks, artwork by others, photographs, interview transcripts, audio and video recordings, and motion picture film.

The collection is divided into two series, the first of which focuses on Pollock and includes his scattered papers dating from circa 1914 to his death in 1956, as well as Krasner's papers dating from his death to 1984 about managing Pollock's legacy. This series includes biographical materials, including transcripts and audio recordings of an interview with William Wright in 1949; Pollock's and Krasner's correspondence with Thomas Hart Benton, Betty Parsons Gallery, Bill Davis, B. H. Friedman, Reginald Isaacs, Sidney Janis, Violet De Lazlo, Martha Jackson Gallery, Alfonso Ossorio, Tony Smith, and Clyfford Still, and with one another; Krasner's correspondence concerning Pollock's estate and artwork after his death; numerous writings about Pollock, including an original draft of Bryan Robertson's biography and an essay by Clement Greenberg.

James Valliere extensive research files on Pollock for a never-published biography were given to Krasner and filed in Series 1. These include scattered correspondence with Lee Krasner, and Pollock's family and friends, including Charles Pollock, Thomas Hart Benton, and Robert Motherwell. There are also transcripts of interviews Valliere conducted with Pollock's friends and colleagues, including James Brooks, Dorothy Dehner, Clement Greenberg, Reuben Kadish, Lee Krasner, Charles Maddox, Mrs. Sanford McCoy, Daniel T. Miller, Robert Miller, and Tony Smith. The original audio reels and duplicates exist for many and are filed here. Additional interviews were conducted with Willem de Kooning, Alfonso Ossorio, and Burton Rouche, but not transcribed - these are filed in Series 1.10, Audio Recordings and Motion Picture Film.

Also found in Series 1 are scattered business records documenting Krasner's handling of Pollock's estate and legacy; printed materials relating to Pollock, including published biographies, exhibition catalogs, and clippings; two scrapbooks; and a sketchbook by an unidentified artist. Numerous photographs of Pollock include childhood and family photographs, photographs of Pollock in his studio by Hans Namuth, Rudy Burckhardt, and Herbert Matter, photographs of Pollock with Lee Krasner, and exhibition photographs. Audio recordings and motion film in Series 1 include a 1964 16mm film about Pollock (VHS copies are available) and reel-to-reel recordings of untranscribed interviews of Pollock's friends and colleagues by James Valliere, including interviews with Willem de Kooning and Alfonso Ossorio. Additional transcribed interviews are filed in subseries 1.4.

Lee Krasner's papers documenting her own career are arranged in Series 2 and date from 1927-1984. Biographical materials include resumes and awards, school documents, family documentation, and exhibition lists. Her correspondence with artist friends and art colleagues is extensive and includes many letters from artists such as Philip Johnson, Ray Eames, Cleve Gray, and Hans Namuth. She also maintained correspondence with many art historians and critics, curators, gallery owners, collectors, arts-related and social organizations, admirers, and family members.

There are thirteen transcripts of interviews with Krasner by Bruce Glaser, Barbara Cavaliere, Andrew Forge, Emily Wasserman, Barbara Rose, and others. The original audio recordings for these transcripts are filed in series 2.10, along with other audio recordings for which there are no transcripts, including interviews by John Gruen, Delores Holmes, Mercedes Matter, the Martha Dean Radio Show, NBC Today Show, and WQXR radio. There are also audio recordings of Krasner's lectures in series 2.10.

Krasner's papers also include writings and reminiscences by Krasner; writings about Krasner; printed materials such as exhibition catalogs and clippings; and one scrapbook containing clippings and photographs. Numerous photographs are of Krasner, including portrait photographs taken by Hans Namuth; of Krasner with Jackson Pollock and family and friends, and of her exhibitions and artwork.

Users should note that Pollock's and Krasner's papers contain similar types of material that often overlap in subject matter, especially among the correspondence and photographs.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into 2 series:

Series 1: Jackson Pollock papers and Lee Krasner papers about Jackson Pollock, circa 1914-1984 (Box 1-7, 16, OV 18, FC 19-22; 7.4 linear feet)

Series 2: Lee Krasner papers, circa 1927-1984 (Box 7-15, 17; 8.6 linear feet)
Biographical Note:
Jackson Pollock was born in 1912, in Cody, Wyoming, the youngest of five sons. His family moved several times during his childhood, finally settling in Los Angeles. In 1930 he joined his older brother, Charles, in New York City, and studied with Regionalist painter Thomas Hart Benton at the Art Students League of New York. Pollock worked during the 1930s for the Works Progress Administration's Federal Art Project. During 1936 he worked in artist David Alfaro Siqueiros's Experimental Workshop. In 1938 he began psychiatric treatment for alcoholism, and his artwork was greatly influenced by Jungian analysis and the exploration of unconscious symbolism.

In 1943 Pollock had his first one-man exhibition at Peggy Guggenheim's New York gallery, Art of this Century, and continued to exhibit there over the next several years. A major turning point in Pollock's life and art was in 1945 when he married fellow artist Lee Krasner and moved to East Hampton, Long Island. There he developed his mature painting style, and became famous for his abstract pouring technique on large canvases. The height of his creativity spanned from 1947 to 1952, and his work was promoted by art critic Clement Greenberg. Along with other abstract expressionists including Hans Hofmann, Alfonso Ossorio, and Barnett Newman, he joined the Betty Parsons Gallery in 1947. He had his most successful one-man show in 1950 which was widely publicized and praised. This exhibition, combined with a 1949 feature article in LIFE magazine, made Pollock an American celebrity.

In 1952 Pollock moved his work to Sidney Janis Gallery and returned to earlier motifs in a search for new breakthroughs. The last few years of his life he suffered from mental and physical health problems, and in August, 1956 he died in a car accident. His wife, Lee Krasner, oversaw his estate and worked with many museums, including the Museum of Modern Art, on Pollock retrospective exhibitions.

Lee Krasner was born Lenore Krassner in 1908 in Brooklyn, New York to Russian immigrant parents. In 1926 she was admitted to the Women's Art School of The Cooper Union, and in 1928 she attended the Art Students League. After graduating from The Cooper Union in 1929, she attended the National Academy of Design until 1932. After briefly attending City College and Greenwich House, she worked for the Public Works of Art Project and the Temporary Emergency Relief Administration, and finally became an assistant in 1935 on the WPA Federal Art Project, Mural Division. From 1937 to 1940 she studied at the Hans Hofmann School of Fine Arts and began exhibiting with the American Abstract Artists group.

In 1942 Krasner met Pollock as they were both preparing to exhibit work in the same show. Although they married and she became immersed in his career, she continued to exhibit her own work with other abstract artists and from 1946 to 1949 worked on the Little Image painting series. In 1953 she began working on collages, a medium she would come back to again later in her career. After Pollock's death her work was greatly influence by her sadness and anger, creating a visible evolution of her style.

For the rest of her career, Krasner consistently exhibited her work in both group and solo exhibitions. She had her first retrospective at Whitechapel Gallery, London, in 1965, and in 1966, she joined Marlborough Gallery, New York which represented Pollock's work as well. In the 1970s and early 1980s Krasner won many awards for her achievement in the visual arts, including the Augustus St. Gaudens Medal and the Chevalier de l'Ordre des Arts et des Lettres. She returned to the medium of collage, and in 1976 joined the Pace Gallery, New York. In 1981 she joined the Robert Miller Gallery, New York. Lee Krasner continued creating art until her death in 1984.
Related Material:
Found in the Archives of American Art are the Charles Pollock Papers, 1902-1990, which includes correspondence, photographs, and other files relating to his brother, Jackson Pollock. Other resources in the Archives are oral history interviews with Lee Krasner, including a series of interviews conducted by Dorothy Seckler between 1964 and 1968, and interviews conducted by Barbara Rose in 1966 and Doloris Holmes in 1972.
Provenance:
The papers of Jackson Pollock were donated in 1983 by Lee Krasner through Eugene V. Thaw shortly before her death. Additional material about Pollock and the papers of Lee Krasner were donated in 1985 by Eugene V. Thaw, executor of Lee Krasner's estate.
Restrictions:
The collection has been digitized and is available online via AAA's website.
Rights:
The Jackson Pollock and Lee Krasner papers are owned by the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Literary rights as possessed by the donor have been dedicated to public use for research, study, and scholarship. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Topic:
Art -- Economic aspects  Search this
Abstract expressionism  Search this
Painters -- New York (State)  Search this
Genre/Form:
Motion pictures (visual works)
Video recordings
Photographs
Interviews
Sound recordings
Scrapbooks
Sketchbooks
Transcripts
Citation:
Jackson Pollock and Lee Krasner papers, circa 1914-1984. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.polljack
See more items in:
Jackson Pollock and Lee Krasner papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-polljack
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Online Media:

Oral history interview with Julie Ault

Interviewee:
Ault, Julie  Search this
Interviewer:
Kerr, Theodore  Search this
Names:
Group Material (Firm : New York, N.Y.)  Search this
National Endowment for the Arts  Search this
Visual Arts and the AIDS Epidemic: An Oral History Project  Search this
Alderfer, Hannah  Search this
Alexander, Vikky, 1959-  Search this
Ashford, Doug  Search this
Beck, Martin, 1962-  Search this
Blake, Nayland, 1960-  Search this
Brennan, Patrick  Search this
Evans, Steven, (Curator)  Search this
Garrels, Gary.  Search this
Gonzalez-Torres, Felix, 1957-1996  Search this
Hawkins, Yolanda  Search this
Kalin, Tom  Search this
Klein, Jochen, 1967-1997  Search this
Lindell, John  Search this
Locks, Sabrina  Search this
Maharaj, Sarat (Sarat Chandra), 1952-  Search this
McCarty, Marlene, 1957-  Search this
McLaughlin, Mundy  Search this
Meyer, Richard, 1966-  Search this
Miller-Keller, Andrea  Search this
Moffett, Donald, 1955-  Search this
Nelson, Marybeth  Search this
Olander, William  Search this
Pasternak, Anne, 1964-  Search this
Phillips, Lisa, 1954-  Search this
Ramspacher, Karen  Search this
Rinder, Lawrence  Search this
Rollins, Tim, 1955-  Search this
Sandqvist, Gertrud  Search this
Serrano, Andres, 1950-  Search this
Staniszewski, Mary Anne  Search this
Szypula, Peter  Search this
Tucker, Marcia  Search this
Wagner, Frank  Search this
Wright, Charles  Search this
Extent:
6 Items (sound files (6 hr., 3 min.) Audio, digital, wav)
90 Pages (Transcript)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Pages
Sound recordings
Interviews
Place:
New York (N.Y.) -- Description and Travel
Washington (D.C.) -- Description and Travel
Date:
2017 November 14-16
Scope and Contents:
An interview with Julie Ault conducted 2017 November 14 and 16, by Theodore Kerr, for the Archives of American Art's Visual Arts and the AIDS Epidemic: An Oral History Project, at a studio in Brooklyn, New York.
Ault speaks of the nature of memory and giving an oral history; her skepticism of linear narratives; leaving rural Maine for Washington, DC at age 17; her family history; her interest in popular culture and commercial culture as a teenager; disco and nightclubs in Washington and New York in the late 1970's; working a variety of day jobs in New York, including a telephone answering service; meeting Tim Rollins for the first time in Maine; her interest in conversation; her relationship to questions; the formation of Group Material in 1979; her relationship with Andres Serrano; Group Material's collaborative dynamic, and its effect on her personal development; the complexities of trying to write or tell history; the shifting configurations and contexts of Group Material over 17 years of activity; mounting, and thinking critically about, individual exhibitions after Group Material; the first AIDS Timeline in 1989; the ephemerality of the Timeline; book projects as a means of depositing personal memories; her first memories of the AIDS crisis beginning in 1983; Group Material's Democracy and AIDS series at Dia in 1988; investigating the tension between art and activism in the context of HIV/AIDS; Karen Ramspacher's entry and contributions to Group Material; the initial decision to employ the form of a timeline and four arenas of research; different audience relationships and reactions to the Timeline; the collaborative process of creating the Timeline; losing NEA funding after the Timeline, amid the early '90s culture wars; Group Material's second exhibition of AIDS Timeline in 1990; her friendship with Felix Gonzalez-Torres; Group Material's third exhibition of AIDS Timeline in 1991; the Macho Man, Tell It To My Heart exhibition; and an acknowledgement of topics that could not be covered in the interview. Ault also recalls Doug Ashford, Vikky Alexander, Yolanda Hawkins, Mundy McLaughlin, Sarat Maharaj, Gertrud Sandqvist, Marybeth Nelson, Patrick Brennan, Hannah Alderfer, Peter Szypula, Sabrina Locks, Larry Rinder, Richard Meyer, Bill Olander, Marcia Tucker, Gary Garrels, Charles Wright, Frank Wagner, Martin Beck, Nayland Blake, Anne Pasternak, Mary Anne Staniszewski, John Lindell, Tom Kalin, Donald Moffett, Marlene McCarty, Jochen Klein, Lisa Phillips, Andrea Miller-Keller, Steven Evans, and others.
Biographical / Historical:
Julie Ault (1957- ) is an artist, writer, and curator in New York, New York. Theodore Kerr (1979- ) is a writer and organizer in New York, New York.
Provenance:
This interview is part of the Archives of American Art Oral History Program, started in 1958 to document the history of the visual arts in the United States, primarily through interviews with artists, historians, dealers, critics and administrators.
Occupation:
Political activists  Search this
Topic:
AIDS (Disease)  Search this
AIDS (Disease) and the arts  Search this
Art -- Political aspects  Search this
Authors -- New York (State) -- New York -- Interviews  Search this
Curators -- New York (State) -- New York -- Interviews  Search this
History -- Philosophy  Search this
Oral history  Search this
Women artists -- New York (State) -- New York -- Interviews  Search this
Genre/Form:
Sound recordings
Interviews
Identifier:
AAA.ault17
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-ault17

Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Publishing

Creator:
Warshaw, Isadore, 1900-1969  Search this
Extent:
6.07 Cubic feet (consisting of 13 boxes, 1 folder, 4 oversize folders, 6 map case folders.)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Business ephemera
Ephemera
Date:
circa 1800-1966
Summary:
A New York bookseller, Warshaw assembled this collection over nearly fifty years. The Warshaw Collection of Business Americana: Publishing forms part of the Warshaw Collection of Business Americana, Subseries 1.1: Subject Categories. The Subject Categories subseries is divided into 470 subject categories based on those created by Mr. Warshaw. These subject categories include topical subjects, types or forms of material, people, organizations, historical events, and other categories. An overview to the entire Warshaw collection is available here: Warshaw Collection of Business Americana
Scope and Contents:
Publishing covers several related aspects of printing including the physical production, the commercial and retail part of the industry, and the broader concept of publishing. This overlaps with subscription services, bookselling, stationary, photography, book binding, type and typesetting, and the paper industry amongst others.
This subject category- Publishing- consists primarily of catalogues, invoices, receipts, circulars, subscription information, advertising materials, and correspondence relating to publishers and booksellers. The bulk of the material dates from the second half of the 19th century and is from businesses located in the northeastern United States; there are a few items from Canada and Europe. Many businesses referred to themselves as both booksellers and publishers. Some of these companies also sold stationery and other writing materials, art supplies, and gift items. William J. Hamersley of Hartford Connecticut was such a bookseller and a substantial amount of material from his business is part of this collection.

Such major publishing companies as Bobbs-Merrill, R.R. Bowker, Curtis, Dodd-Meade, Dou-bleday, Harper Brothers, Houghton-Mifflin, Lippincott, MacMillan, G.P. Putnam, The Roycrofters, Scribner, and Street and Smith are represented in this collection. Some are book publishers, others published periodicals, and some published both books and magazines. However, the great majority of the businesses represented in this collection served a local market. The publications in this collection are concerned with the business of publishing and bookselling. Among the oversized materials are a number of large and graphic advertising posters.

Publishers and Booksellers includes catalogues, invoices, receipts, circulars, subscription information, advertising, and correspondence from publishers and booksellers. Materials are arranged in alphabetical order by the name of the company.

William J. Hamersley Papers includes information about William J. Hamersley (1808-1876) a prominent bookseller in Hartford, Connecticut and is divided into two subseries. According to Geer's Hartford City Directory for 1858-9 his store was located at 23 Main Street. Mr. Hamersley was also the editor of The Hartford Independent Press and served twice as Hartford's mayor. His son William Hamersley became a prominent attorney and jurist. Both men were friends of Mark Twain. Subseries one consists primarily of invoices and receipts from publishers and booksellers that Hamersley did business with, listed alphabetically. The materials date from about 1850 to 1860. Subseries 2 consist of business expense records and miscellaneous business materials; also present are miscellaneous household expenses. These are for food and provisions, home repair and decoration as well as board for his sons, possibly at school. Also included are lists of medical supplies ordered by Dr. Andrew Hamersley. His relationship to William J. Hamersley is unknown.

Publications relating to Publishing consists of periodicals pertaining to new books and literature, business aspects of publishing and bookselling, and printing technology. An article about plagiarism, a biography, and a publication by the New York Public Library are also included.

Miscellaneous Materials Relating to Publishing consists of agent circulars, correspondence, import/export documents, etc. and is arranged by type of material.
Materials in the Archives Center:
Archives Center Collection of Business Americana (AC0404)
Forms Part Of:
Forms part of the Warshaw Collection of Business Americana.

Series 1: Business Ephemera

Series 2: Other Collection Divisions

Series 3: Isadore Warshaw Personal Papers

Series 4: Photographic Reference Material
Provenance:
Publishing is a portion of the Business Ephemera Series of the Warshaw Collection of Business Americana, Accession AC0060 purchased from Isadore Warshaw in 1967. Warshaw continued to accumulate similar material until his death, which was donated in 1971 by his widow, Augusta. For a period after acquisition, related materials from other sources (of mixed provenance) were added to the collection so there may be content produced or published after Warshaw's death in 1969. This practice has since ceased.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Some items may be restricted due to fragile condition.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Genre/Form:
Business ephemera
Ephemera
Citation:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Publishing, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0060.S01.01.Publishing
See more items in:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Publishing
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0060-s01-01-publishing

Mom's the Word with Artist Tyler Fuqua

Creator:
Smithsonian American Art Museum  Search this
Type:
Blog posts
Smithsonian staff publications
Conversations and talks
Blog posts
Published Date:
Fri, 10 May 2019 11:14:08 -0400
Topic:
Art  Search this
See more posts:
Eye Level Blog
Data Source:
Smithsonian American Art Museum
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:posts_029ffe161bdb2c424efbab07cd2cbfec

Behind the Screens: Chiura Obata

Creator:
Smithsonian American Art Museum  Search this
Type:
Blog posts
Smithsonian staff publications
Blog posts
Published Date:
Tue, 26 Nov 2019 10:46:10 -0500
Topic:
Art  Search this
See more posts:
Eye Level Blog
Data Source:
Smithsonian American Art Museum
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:posts_2e443e74a9e438641148643ea4a0ed25

Hips Don't Lie: The American Incognitum

Creator:
Smithsonian American Art Museum  Search this
Type:
Blog posts
Smithsonian staff publications
Blog posts
Published Date:
Fri, 24 Apr 2020 14:31:46 -0400
Topic:
Art  Search this
See more posts:
Eye Level Blog
Data Source:
Smithsonian American Art Museum
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:posts_6a777150fa92ed5769f79fddeb8fee6b

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