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#APeoplesJourney - A Nation's Story

Creator:
National Museum of African American History and Culture  Search this
Type:
Youtube videos
Uploaded:
2017-09-28T13:00:21Z
Topic:
African Americans  Search this
Youtube Category:
Education  Search this
See more by:
WatchNMAAHC
YouTube Channel:
WatchNMAAHC
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt_wUuSYpW4ZIo

Oral history interview with Peggie L. Hartwell, 2002 June 3 and July 10

Interviewee:
Hartwell, Peggie L., 1939-  Search this
Interviewer:
Malarcher, Patricia  Search this
Subject:
Nanette L. Laitman Documentation Project for Craft and Decorative Arts in America  Search this
Type:
Sound recordings
Interviews
Topic:
African American quilts  Search this
African American women artists -- South Carolina -- Interviews  Search this
African American quiltmakers -- South Carolina -- Interviews  Search this
Fiber artists -- South Carolina -- Interviews  Search this
Fiberwork  Search this
Textile crafts  Search this
Decorative arts  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)11503
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)237989
AAA_collcode_hartwe02
Theme:
African American
Craft
Women
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_oh_237989
Online Media:

Henry Ossawa Tanner papers, 1860s-1978, bulk bulk 1890-1937

Creator:
Tanner, Henry Ossawa, 1859-1937  Search this
Subject:
Carpenter, J.S.  Search this
Taverty, J.J.  Search this
Curtis, Atherton  Search this
Tanner, Jessie O.  Search this
Tanner, Jesse O.  Search this
Académie Julian  Search this
Art Institute of Chicago  Search this
Grand Central Art Galleries  Search this
Old American Art Club (Paris, France)  Search this
Type:
Sketches
Photographs
Topic:
Expatriate painters -- France -- Paris  Search this
Art -- Economic aspects  Search this
African American artists  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)9229
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)211424
AAA_collcode_tannhenr
Theme:
African American
American Art and Artists in a Global Context
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_211424
Online Media:

John Wilson papers, [ca.1939]-1993

Creator:
Wilson, John Woodrow, 1922-  Search this
Subject:
Douglass, Frederick  Search this
King, Martin Luther, Jr.  Search this
Trachtenberg, Alan  Search this
Type:
Drawings
Interviews
Scrapbooks
Sound recordings
Interviews
Topic:
Painting, Modern -- 20th century -- United States  Search this
Sculpture, Modern -- 20th century -- United States  Search this
African American artists -- Massachusetts -- Boston  Search this
African American artists as teachers  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)6395
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)215365
AAA_collcode_wilsjohn
Theme:
African American
Lives of American Artists
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_215365

Oral history interview with Nayland Blake, 2016 November 25-26

Interviewee:
Blake, Nayland, 1960-  Search this
Interviewer:
Fialho, Alex, 1989-  Search this
Subject:
Visual Arts and the AIDS Epidemic: An Oral History Project  Search this
ACT UP San Francisco (Organization)  Search this
Type:
Interviews
Sound recordings
Topic:
Installations (Art) -- New York -- New York  Search this
Performance artists -- New York (State) -- New York -- Interviews  Search this
African American artists  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)17406
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)384314
AAA_collcode_blake16
Theme:
African American
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_oh_384314
Online Media:

Sam Gilliam papers, 1957-1989

Creator:
Gilliam, Sam, 1933-  Search this
Subject:
Andrews, Benny  Search this
Driskell, David C.  Search this
Gilliam, Dorothy Butler  Search this
Krebs, Rockne  Search this
Mondale, Walter F.  Search this
Carl Solway Gallery  Search this
Philadelphia Museum of Art  Search this
Studio Museum in Harlem  Search this
Type:
Interviews
Photographs
Prints
Scrapbooks
Sketches
Sound recordings
Transcripts
Topic:
Art -- Study and teaching  Search this
Color-field painting -- Washington (D.C.)  Search this
Painting, Modern -- 20th century -- Washington (D.C.)  Search this
Washington Color School (Group of artists)  Search this
African American artists  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)9584
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)211785
AAA_collcode_gillsam
Theme:
Sketches & Sketchbooks
African American
Lives of American Artists
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_211785
Online Media:

Delegate

Published by:
MelPat Associates, American, 1965 - 1986  Search this
Created by:
C. Melvin Patrick, American, died 1985  Search this
Subject of:
Crispus Attucks, American, 1723 - 1770  Search this
Sojourner Truth, American, 1797 - 1883  Search this
Harriet Tubman, American, 1822 - 1913  Search this
Sarah C. Roberts, American, born 1844  Search this
Susan McKinney Steward, American, 1847 - 1918  Search this
Dred Scott, American, ca 1800 - 1858  Search this
Frederick Douglass, American, 1818 - 1895  Search this
Booker T. Washington, American, 1856 - 1915  Search this
George Washington Carver, American, 1860s - 1943  Search this
W.E.B. Du Bois, American, 1868 - 1963  Search this
Scott Joplin, American, 1867 - 1917  Search this
Marcus Garvey, Jamaican, 1887 - 1940  Search this
James Weldon Johnson, American, 1871 - 1938  Search this
Father Divine, American, ca. 1876 - 1965  Search this
A. Philip Randolph, American, 1889 - 1979  Search this
Adam Clayton Powell Jr., American, 1908 - 1972  Search this
Rosa Parks, American, 1913 - 2005  Search this
Medgar Evers, American, 1925 - 1963  Search this
Dr. Martin Luther King Jr., American, 1929 - 1968  Search this
President Lyndon Baines Johnson, American, 1908 - 1973  Search this
Mary McLeod Bethune, American, 1875 - 1955  Search this
National Association of Black Social Workers, American, founded 1968  Search this
Congressional Black Caucus, American, founded 1971  Search this
Prince Hall Freemasonry, founded 1784  Search this
National Newspaper Publishers Association, American, founded 1827  Search this
Chi Delta Mu Fraternity, Inc., American, founded 1913  Search this
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, American, founded 1909  Search this
Lambda Kappa Mu Sorority, Inc., American, founded 1937  Search this
Shriners International, American, founded 1870  Search this
National Pan-Hellenic Council, American, founded 1930  Search this
National Dental Association, American, founded 1913  Search this
Improved Benevolent and Protective Order of the Elks of the World, American, founded 1898  Search this
Democratic Party, American, founded 1828  Search this
Republican Party, American, founded 1854  Search this
Chi Eta Phi Sorority, Inc., American, founded 1932  Search this
Zeta Phi Beta Sorority, American, founded 1920  Search this
National Association of Negro Business and Professional Women's Clubs, Inc., American, founded 1935  Search this
National United Church Ushers Association of America, Inc., American, founded 1919  Search this
Eta Phi Beta Sorority, Inc., American, founded 1943  Search this
Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Inc., American, founded 1906  Search this
National Urban League, American, founded 1910  Search this
Sigma Gamma Rho Sorority, Inc., founded 1922  Search this
National Medical Association, American, founded 1895  Search this
Kappa Alpha Psi Fraternity, Inc., American, founded 1911  Search this
National Council of Negro Women, founded 1935  Search this
Daughters of Isis, American, founded 1910  Search this
Omega Psi Phi Fraternity, Inc., American, founded 1911  Search this
369th Veterans Association, American  Search this
Phi Beta Sigma Fraternity, American, founded 1914  Search this
Langston Hughes, American, 1902 - 1967  Search this
Paul Robeson, American, 1898 - 1976  Search this
Ezzard Mack Charles, American, 1921 - 1975  Search this
Medium:
ink on paper
Dimensions:
H x W x D: 10 13/16 × 8 7/16 × 3/8 in. (27.5 × 21.4 × 1 cm)
Type:
magazines (periodicals)
Place made:
Harlem, New York City, New York, United States, North and Central America
Date:
1976
Topic:
African American  Search this
Advertising  Search this
Associations and institutions  Search this
Business  Search this
Communities  Search this
Fraternal organizations  Search this
Fraternities  Search this
Government  Search this
HBCUs (Historically Black Colleges and Universities)  Search this
Journalism  Search this
Labor  Search this
Mass media  Search this
Men  Search this
Political organizations  Search this
Politics (Practical)  Search this
Professional organizations  Search this
Religious groups  Search this
Social life and customs  Search this
Sororities  Search this
United States--History  Search this
United States--History--1969-2001  Search this
United States--History--Colonial period  Search this
Urban life  Search this
Women  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture, Gift of Anne B. Patrick and the family of Hilda E. Stokely
Object number:
2012.167.10
Restrictions & Rights:
Public domain
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Classification:
Documents and Published Materials-Published Works
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/fd5e57ffdd9-2ab1-46da-b6e7-10757007351f
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2012.167.10
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The Negro Worker Vol. 2 No. 6

Published by:
The Negro Worker, 1928 - 1937  Search this
Edited by:
George Padmore, Trinidadian, 1903 - 1959  Search this
Subject of:
Communist International, 1919 - 1943  Search this
Medium:
ink on paper
Dimensions:
H x W: 8 7/8 x 6 5/16 in. (22.5 x 16 cm)
Type:
pamphlets
Place depicted:
Africa
Guyana, Caribbean, South America
Trinidad and Tobago, Caribbean, South America
Jamaica, Caribbean, North and Central America
Place made:
Hamburg, Germany, Europe
Date:
1932
Topic:
African American  Search this
International affairs  Search this
Labor  Search this
Mass media  Search this
Photography  Search this
Political organizations  Search this
Politics (Practical)  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture, Gift of the family of Dr. Maurice Jackson and Laura Ginsburg
Object number:
2010.55.6
Restrictions & Rights:
Unknown - Restrictions Possible
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Classification:
Documents and Published Materials-Published Works
Memorabilia and Ephemera-Political and Activist Ephemera
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/fd5dfd877c2-c600-4962-995e-594a795e9f8c
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2010.55.6
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Two girls at tent - Resurrection City, Wash, D.C. - 1968

Photograph by:
Robert Houston, American, born 1935  Search this
Subject of:
Poor People's Campaign, American, 1967 - 1968  Search this
Unidentified Child or Children  Search this
Medium:
digital
Dimensions:
H x W: 3179pixels × 2157pixels
Type:
portraits
digital images
digital media - born analog
Place captured:
Washington, District of Columbia, United States, North and Central America
Date:
May 21, 1968- June 23, 1968
Topic:
African American  Search this
Activism  Search this
Children  Search this
Civil Rights  Search this
Communities  Search this
Families  Search this
Local and regional  Search this
Photography  Search this
Resistance  Search this
Social reform  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture, Gift of Robert and Greta Houston
Object number:
2014.116.33
Restrictions & Rights:
© Robert Houston
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Portfolio/Series:
Resurrection City
Classification:
Media Arts-Photography
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/fd55ca1c6a3-0be2-41eb-bdc3-b11d2360be4c
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2014.116.33

Woman in brown dress with children - Resurrection City, Wash., D.C. - 1968

Photograph by:
Robert Houston, American, born 1935  Search this
Subject of:
Poor People's Campaign, American, 1967 - 1968  Search this
Unidentified Woman or Women  Search this
Unidentified Child or Children  Search this
Medium:
digital
Dimensions:
H x W: 3179pixels × 2157pixels
Type:
portraits
digital images
digital media - born analog
Place captured:
Washington, District of Columbia, United States, North and Central America
Date:
May 21, 1968- June 23, 1968
Topic:
African American  Search this
Activism  Search this
Children  Search this
Civil Rights  Search this
Communities  Search this
Families  Search this
Local and regional  Search this
Photography  Search this
Resistance  Search this
Social reform  Search this
Women  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture, Gift of Robert and Greta Houston
Object number:
2014.116.35
Restrictions & Rights:
© Robert Houston
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Portfolio/Series:
Resurrection City
Classification:
Media Arts-Photography
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/fd5742c7a9f-d890-4b0b-9246-c1cf2cd61345
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2014.116.35

Young girl in tent doorway - Resurrection City, Wash., D.C. - 1968

Photograph by:
Robert Houston, American, born 1935  Search this
Subject of:
Poor People's Campaign, American, 1967 - 1968  Search this
Unidentified Child or Children  Search this
Medium:
digital
Dimensions:
H x W: 3179pixels × 2157pixels
Type:
portraits
digital images
digital media - born analog
Date:
May 21, 1968- June 23, 1968
Topic:
African American  Search this
Activism  Search this
Children  Search this
Civil Rights  Search this
Communities  Search this
Families  Search this
Local and regional  Search this
Photography  Search this
Resistance  Search this
Social reform  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture, Gift of Robert and Greta Houston
Object number:
2014.116.38
Restrictions & Rights:
© Robert Houston
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Portfolio/Series:
Resurrection City
Classification:
Media Arts-Photography
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/fd5a694b591-5eed-46f7-9369-c98832a38e75
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2014.116.38

Civil Rights Demonstration, Washington, DC

Created by:
Henri Cartier-Bresson, French, 1908 - 2004  Search this
Subject of:
Unidentified Man or Men  Search this
Unidentified Woman or Women  Search this
Unidentified Child or Children  Search this
Medium:
silver and photographic gelatin on photographic paper
Dimensions:
H x W (Image): 9 5/16 x 14 1/16 in. (23.7 x 35.7 cm)
H x W (Sheet): 11 15/16 x 15 15/16 in. (30.3 x 40.5 cm)
H x W (Mat OD): 22 3/4 x 17 1/2 in. (57.8 x 44.5 cm)
Type:
gelatin silver prints
Place depicted:
Washington, District of Columbia, United States, North and Central America
Date:
ca. 1957
Topic:
African American  Search this
Activism  Search this
Civil Rights  Search this
Local and regional  Search this
Photography  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture, Gift of Azalea Software, Inc.
Object number:
2011.18.2
Restrictions & Rights:
© Henri Cartier-Bresson. Permission required for use.
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Classification:
Media Arts-Photography
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/fd5ebf357b3-9cc4-44b3-ba6e-929b0233fbc8
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2011.18.2
Online Media:

American Anti-Slavery Almanac Vol. II, No. I

Published by:
S. W. Benedict, American  Search this
Subject of:
American Anti-Slavery Society, American, 1833 - 1870  Search this
Medium:
ink on paper
Dimensions:
H x W: 7 3/8 x 4 5/8 in. (18.7 x 11.7 cm)
Type:
almanacs
Place printed:
Brooklyn, New York City, New York, United States, North and Central America
Date:
1842
Topic:
African American  Search this
Antislavery  Search this
Communication  Search this
Literature  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture
Object number:
2010.1.12
Restrictions & Rights:
Public Domain
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Classification:
Slavery and Freedom Objects
Documents and Published Materials-Published Works
Exhibition:
Making a Way Out of No Way
On View:
NMAAHC (1400 Constitution Ave NW), National Mall Location, Community/Third Floor, 3 050
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/fd58d149d38-763c-4665-8beb-ebc3b63e6c97
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2010.1.12
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The Negro Worker Vol. 2 No. 4

Published by:
The Negro Worker, 1928 - 1937  Search this
Edited by:
George Padmore, Trinidadian, 1903 - 1959  Search this
Subject of:
Communist International, 1919 - 1943  Search this
Medium:
ink on paper
Dimensions:
H x W: 8 5/8 x 6 in. (21.9 x 15.2 cm)
Type:
pamphlets
Place depicted:
China, Asia
South Africa, Africa
Scottsboro, Jackson County, Alabama, United States, North and Central America
Australia, Oceania
Date:
1932
Topic:
African American  Search this
International affairs  Search this
Justice  Search this
Labor  Search this
Mass media  Search this
Political organizations  Search this
Politics (Practical)  Search this
United States--History--1919-1933  Search this
Violence  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture, Gift of the family of Dr. Maurice Jackson and Laura Ginsburg
Object number:
2010.55.37
Restrictions & Rights:
No Known Copyright Restrictions
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Classification:
Documents and Published Materials-Published Works
Memorabilia and Ephemera-Political and Activist Ephemera
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/fd53754633a-9141-40b3-ab5c-edc94ee2671a
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2010.55.37
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Harlem Window, (painting)

Painter:
Hayden, Palmer 1890-1973  Search this
Medium:
Watercolor on paper
Culture:
African American  Search this
Type:
Paintings
Topic:
Cityscape--New York--New York City  Search this
Cityscape--New York--Harlem  Search this
Architecture exterior--Detail--Window  Search this
Figure group--Female & Child  Search this
Ethnic  Search this
Control number:
IAP 8F780033
Data Source:
Art Inventories Catalog, Smithsonian American Art Museums
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_ari_470386

Julian Black Scrapbooks of Joe Louis

Creator:
Black, Julian, Mrs.  Search this
Black, Julian (boxing manager)  Search this
Names:
Jacobs, Mike  Search this
Louis, Joe, 1914-1981  Search this
Roxborough, John  Search this
Extent:
109 Volumes
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Volumes
Scrapbooks
Clippings
Date:
1935-1944
Summary:
The collection consists of 109 scrapbooks of newspaper clippings assembled by Julian Black, manager of Joe Louis, heavyweight boxing champion from 1937 to 1949. They document Louis's career from 1935 to 1944.
Scope and Contents:
The collection consists of 109 scrapbooks of newspaper clippings assembled by Julian Black, manager of Joe Louis, heavyweight boxing champion from 1937 to 1949. They document Louis's career from 1935 to 1944. Louis became one of America's most celebrated sports figures both for his extraordinary boxing skills and for his role as a symbol of national pride, especially in his bouts with the German champion Max Schmeling. His national respect and international prominence stood in ironic contrast to the nation's legal and social practices of racial segregation.

Joe Louis's manager, Julian Black, assembled three sets of scrapbooks to document Louis's career. This collection consists of ninety-two volumes from Black's set, sixteen volumes from a similar but not identical set of scrapbooks assembled for Louis, and one oversize miscellaneous volume.

The third set of scrapbooks belonged to John W. Roxborough, Joe's manager or co-manager from 1933 to 1948. It is held by the Bentley Historical Library at the University of Michigan. This set contains ninety-four volumes covering the period 1935 to November 1941. Part of this collection has been microfilmed. Although the numbering of the volumes in each of the three sets is different it appears that each set has the same information.

The scrapbooks contain newspaper clippings from throughout the United States and Canada from 1935 to 1944 and articles from Ring magazine. This collection documents Joe Louis's fights from June 25, 1935, through 1944, including championship fights from June 22, 1937, through September 29, 1941. (The Steve Ketchel fight on January 11, 1937, in Buffalo is not represented. See the scrapbook volume listing at the end of this guide.)

The scrapbooks were assembled with great care using high-quality binding and paper. The clippings are neatly mounted and show great attention to detail. All clippings are identified by the name of the paper; the day of the week and the date; and the author, artist, or photographer. Clippings include full-length articles and brief sketches, cartoons, photographs, and records and statistics of the boxers. The clippings are grouped in volumes by each of Louis's fights and then arranged chronologically.

Hundreds of major and minor newspapers throughout the United States and Canada are represented in the scrapbooks. Coverage extends from very large metropolitan dailies to small-town newspapers. Among the newspapers represented are titles as diverse as: Akron Beacon Journal; Daily Colonist, Victoria, British Columbia; Shreveport Times; Tribune Tulsa; and the Worchester Daily Telegraph.

While these scrapbooks are about the Joe Louis fights, there is a wealth of material on many other people connected with boxing in this period, including all of Joe Louis's opponents, his trainer, his managers, his promoter Mike Jacobs, and most of the sports reporters and writers of the time. Anyone of any importance connected with boxing during this period can be found in the pages of these volumes. There are also retrospective articles on earlier boxers and historical fights.

The two sets of scrapbooks in this collection are numbered separately: the Julian Black Scrapbooks, Volumes 1-92; and the Joe Louis Scrapbooks, Volumes 17-20, 52-58, 61-63, and 71 and 72. Although much of the same material is found in both sets, there are sufficient differences in content and in physical condition of the volumes. The container list indicates the relationship between the two sets. The 109th volume consists of an oversize miscellaneous scrapbook of random news clippings, 1941-1944, of later Louis matches.
Arrangement:
The collection is divided into two series. Clippings arranged chronologically in scrapbooks, grouped in volumes.

Series 1: Julian Black Volumes, 1935-1941

Series 2: Joe Louis Volumes, 1936-1940
Biographical note:
Joe Louis Barrow, the seventh child of Monroe and Lily Barrow, was born May 13, 1914 in a cabin in the cotton fields of Lexington, Alabama. While Joe was still a young boy, his father suffered a mental breakdown and later died in the Searcy State Hospital near mobile, Alabama. His mother later married Pat Brooks, a widower with many children of his own, and the combined family moved to Detroit when Joe was ten.

After an introduction to boxing and lessons by his friend Thurston McKinney, Joe tried his luck at competition. The Brewster East Side Gymnasium became a second home for him. At sixteen he entered his first amateur tournament.

Joe Louis was an outstanding amateur. He lost only four decisions in fifty-four fights, and forty-one of his wins were by a knockout. Joe fought his last amateur fight on April 13, 1934, in St. Louis.

John Roxborough had encouraged Louis as an amateur and became his manager when Joe turned pro. Roxborough hired Jack Blackburn, a boxer himself, to coach and train the young Joe Louis. At this time Roxborough also teamed up with Julian Black of Chicago in a business venture that carried over into the management of Joe Louis.

Joe's professional debut took place in Bacon's Arena in Chicago on July 4, 1934. He decisively defeated Jack Kracken for a fifty-dollar purse. Only four of his first twenty-seven foes lasted all fifteen rounds.

As Joe Louis worked his way up the ladder as a contender for the heavyweight championship he acquired the nickname the "Brown Bomber." On May 14, 1935, one day after his twenty-first birthday, the young pugilist signed a ten-year contract with Julian Black. The contract stipulated that fifty percent of Joe Louis's gross earnings from boxing contests, exhibitions, movies, and radio would go to Julian Black. Jack Blackburn, the trainer, was paid from Joe's portion of the money. John Roxborough, the other manager, claimed "to have a contract for twenty-five percent of Louis's gross earnings for an indefinite period."

The newly organized 20th Century Sporting Club, with Mike Jacobs as promoter, operated in competition with Madison Square Garden. The club signed the promising young boxer to an exclusive contract. Joe's first appearance in a New York ring took place at Yankee Stadium on June 25, 1935, against Primo Carnera. Joe KO'd Carnera in the sixth round. On September 24, 1935, also at Yankee Stadium, Joe knocked out Max Baer in the fourth round.

After winning twenty-seven straight fights, including twenty-three KO's, Louis was the heir apparent to James J. Braddock's heavyweight title. On June 19, 1936 he battled max Schmeling, the former champ who was considered washed up. Schmeling surprised everyone by punishing and then finishing Louis off with a twelfth-round knockout.

A year later, in his thirty-sixth professional fight, Joe Louis won the heavyweight crown at twenty three years of age by defeating Jim Braddock in Chicago in eight rounds. Braddock fought Louis to avoid a fight with Max Schmeling and the possible loss of the title to a German. Braddock, however, insisted on a percentage of Louis's future purses. It is generally believed he received ten percent of all Joe's earnings over a period of fifteen years.

After defeating two easy opponents, Louis met max Schmeling in a dramatic rematch on June 22, 1938. Like Jesse Owens in the Berlin Olympic Games, Louis symbolized American democracy versus an increasingly menacing Nazi Germany. The irony of a black hero representing a racially segregated society in a symbolic battle between freedom and oppression was not lost on all Americans and, although Louis himself was not a political activist, his example added fuel to the movement for racial equality and civil rights. Louis defeated Schmeling in two minutes and four seconds of the first round.

In the following years promoter Jacobs searched for opponents for Louis. After defeating five former champions - Carnera, Baer, Sharkey, Braddock, and Schmeling-the pickings were slim. on January 25, 1939, Joe "squared-off" with the first Black to fight him professionally -- John Henry Lewis (great-great nephew of Tom Molineaux, the first of America's Black heavyweight champions). Lewis was the light-heavyweight champion of the world and a natural 175 "pounder." He and Joe were close personal friends outside of the ring. Nevertheless, Joe totally outclassed Lewis in the ring.

Joe Louis defended his title twenty times before World War II interrupted his career. He was eventually classified 1-A and inducted into the Army. During the winter of 1941-1942 he staged bouts for the Navy and Army. The service relief fund received $75,000 from the purse of each fight. While in the service the Brown Bomber traveled extensively, giving boxing exhibitions and refereeing bouts. For his service on behalf of the armed forces, he received a citation from the United States government.

Louis retired an undefeated champion March 1, 1949. He came out of retirement and lost a fifteen-round decision to Ezzard Charles on September 27, 1950 at Yankee Stadium. He won eight more fights from the end of 1950 until the fall of 1951. However, on October 26, 1951, Louis lost by a knockout in the eighth round to Rocky Marciano. He retired for good after this comeback attempt. For many years after he retired, Joe had income tax problems and other financial problem. He also underwent a brief stay in a Denver psychiatric hospital. Joe Louis died in 1981.
Joe Louis Heavyweight Championship Fights, 1937-1950:
1937 June 22 -- Joe Louis knocked out James J. Braddock, 8 rounds, Chicago.

1937 August 30 -- Joe Louis defeated TOUT Farr, 15 rounds, decision, New York City.

1937 August 30 -- Joe Louis defeated TOUT Farr, 15 rounds, decision, New York City.

1938 February 23 -- Joe Louis knocked Out Nathan Mann, 3 rounds, New York City.

1938 April 1 -- Joe Louis knocked out Harry Thomas, 5 rounds, New York city.

1938 June 22 -- Joe Louis knocked out Max Schmeling, one round,, New York City.

1939 January 25 -- Joe Louis knocked out John H. Lewis, one round, New York City.

1939 April 17 -- Joe Louis knocked out Jack Roper, one round, Los Angeles.

1939 June 28 -- Joe Louis knocked out Tony Galento, 4 rounds, New York city.

1939 September 30 -- Joe Louis knocked out Bob Pastor, 11 rounds, Detroit, Michigan.

1940 February 9 -- Joe Louis defeated Arturo Godoy, 15 rounds,decision, New York City.

1940 March 29 -- Joe Louis knocked out John Paychek, 2 rounds, New York city.

1940 June 20 -- Joe Louis knocked out Arturo Godoy, 8 rounds, New York city.

1940 Decenber 16 -- Joe Louis knocked out Al McCoy, 6 rounds, Boston.

1941 January 31 -- Joe Louis knocked Out Red Burman, 5 rounds, New York city.

1941 February 17 -- Joe Louis knocked out Gus Dorazio, 2 rounds, Philadelphia.

1941 March 21 -- Joe Louis knocked out Abe Simon, 13 rounds, Detroit, Michigan.

1941 April 8 -- Joe Louis knocked out Tony musto, 9 rounds, St. Louis, Misssouri.

1941 May 23 -- Joe Louis beat Buddy Baer, 7 rounds, Washington, D.C., on a disqualification.

1941 June 18 -- Joe Louis knocked out Billy Conn, 13 rounds, New York city.

1941 September 29 -- Joe Louis knocked out Lou Nova, 6 rounds, New York city.

1942 January 9 -- Joe Louis knocked out Buddy Baer, one round,, New York City.

1942 March 27 -- Joe Louis knocked out Abe Simon, 6 rounds, New York city.

1946 June 19 -- Joe Louis knocked out Billy Conn, 8 rounds, New York city.

1946 September 13 -- Joe Louis knocked out Tami Mauriello, one round, New York City.

1947 December 5 -- Joe Louis defeated Joe Walcott in a 15-round bout by a split decision, New York city.

1948 June 25 -- Joe Louis knocked out Joe Walcott 11 rounds, New York city.

1950 September 27 -- Ezzard Charles defeated Joe Louis in latter's attempted comeback, 15 rounds, New York City.
Provenance:
This collection was donated by Mrs. Julian Black in two installments to the Division of Community Life (now the Division of Home and Community Life), National Museum of American History: twenty-two volumes in 1976 and eighty-seven volumes in 1977.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research. Use of microfiche and microfilm recommended. Some original volumes are fragile.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
African American athletes  Search this
Boxers (Sports) -- 1930-1950  Search this
Sports -- 1930-1950  Search this
Boxing  Search this
Genre/Form:
Scrapbooks -- 20th century
Clippings -- 1930-1950
Citation:
Julian Black Scrapbooks of Joe Louis, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0002
See more items in:
Julian Black Scrapbooks of Joe Louis
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0002
Online Media:

Oral history interview with Peggie L. Hartwell

Interviewee:
Hartwell, Peggie L., 1939-  Search this
Interviewer:
Malarcher, Patricia  Search this
Creator:
Nanette L. Laitman Documentation Project for Craft and Decorative Arts in America  Search this
Names:
Nanette L. Laitman Documentation Project for Craft and Decorative Arts in America  Search this
Extent:
80 Pages (Transcript)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Pages
Sound recordings
Interviews
Date:
2002 June 3 and July 10
Scope and Contents:
An interview of Peggie Hartwell conducted 2002 June 3-July 10, by Patricia Malarcher, for the Archives of American Art's Nanette L. Laitman Documentation Project for Craft and Decorative Arts in America, in the artist's apartment, on Central Park West, New York, N.Y.
Hartwell speaks of growing up on a farm with her extended family in Springfield, S.C.; female quiltmakers and male storytellers in her family; drawing in sand as a child; her mother's move to Brooklyn; joining her mother and father in New York; growing up in Brooklyn; her awareness of the many cultures in New York and being surrounded by art, including her mother's crocheting and her father's a cappella group; taking tap dancing lessons; experimenting with art in public school; working at various factory jobs after high school until "reconnecting" with art; studying with dancer Syvilla Fort at the Katherine Dunham School of Dance in New York; Fort encouraging her to draw on the studio walls and sew costumes; touring internationally with the theater group Harlem Rhythm USA from 1965 to 1972; her return to the U.S. and receiving a theater degree at Queens College; working at an insurance company to support her art; exhibiting her black and white, pen-and-ink drawings; the narratives and "oral histories" in her quilts; the meaning of various fabrics and colors; participating in "quilting communities" such as the Women of Color Quilters Network, Empire Quilters, and the American Quilter's Society; her lectures, workshops, and residencies; working with children;narratives inspired by childhood memories; her move back to South Carolina; themes in her quilts and "quilting styles" (improvisational, traditional, contemporary, and African American); serving on the board of the New York Chapter of the Women of Color Quilters Network; and planning the exhibition "Threads of Faith" for the New York Bible Association. She also comments on John Cage, Cuesta Benberry, Asadata Dafora, Francelise Dawkins, Carolyn Mazloomi, Edjohnetta Miller, Arthur Mitchell, Harriet Powers, Faith Ringgold, Marie Wilson, and others.
Biographical / Historical:
Peggie L. Hartwell (1939- ) is a quiltmaker of Summerville, S.C. Patricia Malarcher is a fiber artist.
General:
Originally recorded on 4 sound cassettes. Reformatted in 2010 as 8 digital wav files. Duration is 3 hr., 50 min.
Provenance:
This interview is part of the Archives of American Art Oral History Program, started in 1958 to document the history of the visual arts in the United States, primarily through interviews with artists, historians, dealers, critics and administrators.
Restrictions:
Transcript available on the Archives of American Art website.
Topic:
African American quilts  Search this
African American women artists -- South Carolina -- Interviews  Search this
African American quiltmakers -- South Carolina -- Interviews  Search this
Fiber artists -- South Carolina -- Interviews  Search this
Fiberwork  Search this
Textile crafts  Search this
Decorative arts  Search this
Genre/Form:
Sound recordings
Interviews
Identifier:
AAA.hartwe02
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-hartwe02

Oral history interview with Lyle Ashton Harris

Interviewee:
Harris, Lyle Ashton, 1965-  Search this
Interviewer:
Fialho, Alex, 1989-  Search this
Names:
American Academy in Rome -- Students  Search this
California Institute of the Arts -- Students  Search this
Visual Arts and the AIDS Epidemic: An Oral History Project  Search this
Wesleyan University (Middletown, Conn.) -- Students  Search this
Whitney Museum of American Art  Search this
Baker, Houston A., Jr., 1943-  Search this
Barton, Nancy, (Artist)  Search this
Basquiat, Jean-Michel, 1960-1988  Search this
Butler, Cornelia H.  Search this
Carby, Hazel V.  Search this
Collier, Jim  Search this
Gates, Henry Louis, Jr.  Search this
Geer, Tommy  Search this
Goldin, Nan, 1953-  Search this
Gonzalez-Torres, Felix, 1957-1996  Search this
Gray, Todd, 1954-  Search this
Grayson, John, 1943-  Search this
Hemphill, Essex  Search this
Julien, Isaac  Search this
Lord, Catherine, 1949-  Search this
Mapplethorpe, Robert  Search this
Mays, Vickie M.  Search this
O'Dench, Ellen  Search this
O'Meally, Jackie  Search this
O'Meally, Robert G., 1948-  Search this
Riggs, Marlon T.  Search this
Seeley, J.  Search this
Sekula, Allan  Search this
Tate, Greg  Search this
Tilton, Jack  Search this
Watson, Simon  Search this
Wilson, Millie  Search this
Woodman, Francesca, 1958-1981  Search this
Extent:
6 Items (Sound recording: 6 sound files (8 hr., 6 min.), digital, wav)
95 Pages (Transcript)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Pages
Interviews
Sound recordings
Place:
England -- London -- Description and Travel
Ghana -- Description and Travel
Netherlands -- Amsterdam -- Description and Travel
New York (N.Y.) -- Description and Travel
Tanzania -- Description and Travel
Date:
2017 March 27-29
Scope and Contents:
An interview with Lyle Ashton Harris, conducted 2017 March 27 and 29, by Alex Fialho, for the Archives of American Art's Visual Arts and the AIDS Epidemic: An Oral History Project, at Harris's studio and home in New York, New York.
Harris speaks of his childhood in the Bronx; his family's influence on his race-consciousness; living in Tanzania for two years as a child and the effects on his understanding of race and sexuality; his grandfather's extensive photographic archive; contact with the South African diaspora through his step-father; attending Wesleyan University; formative experiences in London, Amsterdam, and New York in the mid-1980s; his education and development as a photographer; attending CalArts and encountering West Coast AIDS activism; encountering systemic racism in Los Angeles; close friendships with Marlon Riggs and Essex Hemphill; exhibitions of his work in New York in the early 1990s; the production of his Ektachrome Archive and his impulse to photograph daily life; his work on the Black Community AIDS Research and Education (Black C.A.R.E.) project in Los Angeles; participating in the Whitney Museum's Independent Study Program; being diagnosed with HIV and remaining asymptomatic; attending the Dia Black Popular Culture Conference in 1992; photographing and mounting "The Good Life" in 1994 and "The Watering Hole" in 1996; issues of blackness and queerness in his photographic work; his residency at the American Academy in Rome in 2000; moving to Accra, Ghana for seven years in 2005; his pedagogy as an art professor; his thoughts on the lack of voices of color in the Visual Arts and the AIDS Epidemic Oral History Project and in the larger power structures of the art world; and his hope that his artistic legacy will be evaluated in its proper context. Harris also recalls Jackie and Robert O'Meally, Jay Seeley, Ellen O'Dench, Francesca Woodman, Jean-Michel Basquiat, Jim Collier, Robert Mapplethorpe, Allan Sekula, Hazel Carby, Isaac Julien, Catherine Lord, Millie Wilson, Todd Gray, John Grayson, Tommy Gear, Marlon Riggs, Essex Hemphill, Felix Gonzalez-Torres, Nancy Barton, Vickie Mays, Connie Butler, Greg Tate, Henry Louis Gates, Houston Baker, Nan Goldin, Jack Tilton, Simon Watson, and others.
Biographical / Historical:
Lyle Ashton Harris (1965- ) is an artist who works in video, photography, and performance in New York, New York. Alex Fialho (1989- ) is a curator and arts writer and works as Programs Director for Visual AIDS in New York, New York.
Provenance:
This interview is part of the Archives of American Art Oral History Program, started in 1958 to document the history of the visual arts in the United States, primarily through interviews with artists, historians, dealers, critics and administrators.
Topic:
African American artists -- New York (State) -- New York -- Interviews  Search this
AIDS activists  Search this
AIDS (Disease) and art  Search this
Art -- Study and teaching  Search this
Gay artists -- New York (State) -- New York -- Interviews  Search this
Performance artists -- New York (State) -- New York -- Interviews  Search this
Photographers -- New York (State) -- New York -- Interviews  Search this
Photography -- Study and teaching  Search this
Racism  Search this
Video artists -- New York (State) -- New York -- Interviews  Search this
Genre/Form:
Interviews
Sound recordings
Identifier:
AAA.harris17
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-harris17

Oral history interview with Herbert Gentry

Interviewee:
Gentry, Herbert, 1919-2003  Search this
Interviewer:
Kirwin, Liza  Search this
Names:
Cobra (Association)  Search this
Bearden, Romare, 1911-1988  Search this
Delaney, Beauford, 1901-  Search this
Extent:
2 Sound cassettes (Sound recording)
31 Pages (Transcript)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Sound cassettes
Pages
Interviews
Sound recordings
Date:
1991 May 23
Scope and Contents:
An interview of Herbert Gentry conducted 1991 May 23, by Liza Kirwin, for the Archives of American Art.
Gentry recalls his childhood in Harlem; musicians he met and was influenced by, including Duke Ellington and Count Bassie; studies at New York University and at the Ecole des Hautes Etudes and L'Academie de la Grand Chaumiere under the G.I. Bill; his jazz club/gallery in Montparnasse; friendships with Romare Bearden and Beauford Delaney; early exhibitions; his marriages; identification with the artist's group COBRA; and studios in Sweden and New York.
Biographical / Historical:
Herbert Gentry (1919-2003) was a painter from New York, N.Y., and Malmo, Sweden. Gentry was born in Pittsburgh, Pa., and moved to Harlem as a young child. After serving in WWII, he went to Paris to study painting. In 1948 he opened a club and gallery in Montparnasse that featured jazz and art. Gentry moved to Sweden in 1959 but kept his studio in Paris, and beginning in 1972, New York City.
Provenance:
These interviews are part of the Archives of American Art Oral History Program, started in 1958 to document the history of the visual arts in the United States, primarily through interviews with artists, historians, dealers, critics and administrators.
Restrictions:
Transcript available on the Archives of American Art website.
Topic:
Painting, Modern -- 20th century -- United States  Search this
Art and music  Search this
Painting, Modern -- 20th century -- France  Search this
African American artists -- France -- Paris -- Interviews  Search this
African American artists -- New York (State) -- N.Y. -- Interviews  Search this
Painters -- New York (State) -- New York -- Interviews  Search this
Function:
Art Schools -- France -- Paris
Genre/Form:
Interviews
Sound recordings
Identifier:
AAA.gentry91
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-gentry91

Oral history interview with Walter Clemmons

Interviewee:
Clemmons, Walter, 1956-  Search this
Interviewer:
Lindsey, Jack  Search this
Extent:
65 Pages (Transcript)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Pages
Sound recordings
Interviews
Date:
1990 July 26
Scope and Contents:
An interview of Walter Clemmons conducted 1990 July 26, by Jack Lindsey for the Archives of American Art Philadelphia Project.
Clemmons speaks about the development of his wire art beginning with his work as a child; individual pieces created throughout his career including subjects and their sources; technical issues such as materials and methods; and his exhibition history.
Biographical / Historical:
Walter Clemmons (1956- ) is a sculptor from Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
General:
Originally recorded on 1 sound cassette. Reformatted in 2010 as 2 digital wav files. Duration is 1 hr., 27 min.
Provenance:
This interview is part of the Archives' Oral History Program, started in 1958 to document the history of the visual arts in the United States, primarily through interviews with artists, historians, dealers, critics and others.
Restrictions:
Transcript: Patrons must use microfilm copy.
Topic:
African American artists -- Interviews  Search this
Art, American  Search this
Sculpture -- Technique -- Pennsylvania -- Philadelphia  Search this
Folk artists -- Pennsylvania -- Philadelphia -- Interviews  Search this
Sculptors -- Pennsylvania -- Philadelphia -- Interviews  Search this
Genre/Form:
Sound recordings
Interviews
Identifier:
AAA.clemmo90
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-clemmo90

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