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Charles Murphy drawing of women carrying loads of wood on their backs, accompanied by child and dog

Creator:
Murphy, Charles (Cheyenne)  Search this
Collection Creator:
Mooney, James, 1861-1921  Search this
Collection Artist:
Murphy, Charles (Cheyenne)  Search this
Sweezy, Carl, 1881-1953  Search this
Extent:
1 Drawing (graphite, colored pencil, and ink, 23 x 29 cm.)
Culture:
Tsitsistas/Suhtai (Cheyenne)  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Plains  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Drawings
Ledger drawings
Date:
ca. 1904-1906
Local Numbers:
NAA INV 08901600

NAA MS 2531, Volume 10
Place:
United States Oklahoma Territory Cantonment.
United States Oklahoma Canton.
Album Information:
MS 2531-10 004
Genre/Form:
Ledger drawings
Collection Citation:
Manuscript 2531, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
MS 2531 James Mooney notebooks principally regarding Kiowa, Cheyenne, and Arapaho shield and tipi designs
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-ms2531-ref88

MS 2674 Four Fox texts by Mary Earle, Jim Peters, and Alfred Kiyana

Creator:
Michelson, Truman, 1879-1938  Search this
Earle, Mary  Search this
Kiyana, Alfred, 1877-1918  Search this
Peters, Jim, 1866-  Search this
Translator:
Lincoln, Harry  Search this
Extent:
222 Pages
Culture:
Fox Indians  Search this
Indians of North America -- Northeast  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Pages
Folklore
Narratives
Manuscripts
Date:
undated
Scope and Contents:
Four texts in Meskwaki (Fox) syllabic text by Mary Earle (now Mrs. C. Davenport), Jim Peters, and Alfred Kiyana. A separate notebook contains English translations from Harry Lincoln in Truman Michelson's hand. Earle authored the text on how to raise children (translation pages 36-47); Peters authored "When Wisahkeha went around with the Apayashihas" (translation pages 1-35), which was originally misattributed to Sam Peters; and Kiyana wrote Kochipekweha (ko tti be ga A) (translation pages 47-76). On the last page of the notebook of translations are notes from "Y. Bear" on teasing relatives.
Local Numbers:
NAA MS 2674
Local Note:
Title updated from "Fox texts" 4/4/2014.
Topic:
Child rearing  Search this
Marriage  Search this
Social structure  Search this
Fox language  Search this
Language and languages -- Documentation  Search this
Meskwaki; Sauk & Fox  Search this
Genre/Form:
Folklore
Narratives
Manuscripts
Citation:
Manuscript 2674, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.MS2674
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-ms2674
Online Media:

Anonymous Cheyenne drawing of warrior with shield and lance striking woman and child with saber

Depicted:
Yellow Nose, 1848-1910  Search this
Collection Artist:
Yellow Nose, 1848-1910  Search this
Collection Collector:
Voth, H. R. (Henry R.), 1855-1931  Search this
Extent:
1 Drawing (graphite, colored pencil, and ink, 19 x 31 cm.)
Culture:
Tsitsistas/Suhtai (Cheyenne)  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Plains  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Drawings
Ledger drawings
Date:
ca. 1889
Scope and Contents:
Inscription reads "Cheyenne good men," "Yellow Nose," "His Indian Name He-her-ne-[...]." Numbered page 37.
Local Numbers:
NAA INV 08704500

OPPS NEG 57,159-A

NAA MS 166032
Album Information:
MS 166032 026
Genre/Form:
Ledger drawings
Collection Citation:
Manuscript 166,032, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Book of Cheyenne drawings by Yellow Nose and anonymous artists
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-ms166032-ref26

Yellow Nose drawing of warrior with shield riding down two enemies, while another is shown in a tipi camp with a woman and child

Creator:
Yellow Nose, 1848-1910  Search this
Collection Artist:
Yellow Nose, 1848-1910  Search this
Collection Collector:
Voth, H. R. (Henry R.), 1855-1931  Search this
Extent:
1 Drawing (2 leaves, graphite, colored pencil, and ink, 19 x 31 cm.)
Culture:
Tsitsistas/Suhtai (Cheyenne)  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Plains  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Drawings
Ledger drawings
Date:
ca. 1889
Scope and Contents:
Numbered pages 76 and 77.
Local Numbers:
NAA INV 08708200

NAA INV 08708300

OPPS NEG 57,196-A

OPPS NEG 57,197-A

NAA MS 166032
Album Information:
MS 166032 052
Genre/Form:
Ledger drawings
Collection Citation:
Manuscript 166,032, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Book of Cheyenne drawings by Yellow Nose and anonymous artists
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-ms166032-ref52
Online Media:

Frederica de Laguna Papers

Creator:
McClellan, Catharine  Search this
Guédon, Marie Françoise  Search this
Swanton, John Reed, 1873-1958  Search this
Emmons, George Thornton  Search this
De Laguna, Frederica, 1906-2004  Search this
Correspondent:
Stearns, Mary Lee  Search this
Aberle, David F. (David Friend), 1918-2004  Search this
Arensberg, Conrad M. (Conrad Maynadier), 1910-1997  Search this
Baird, Melissa  Search this
Balzer, Marjorie  Search this
Bersch, Gretchen  Search this
Birket-Smith, Kaj  Search this
Black, Lydia  Search this
Boas, Franz, 1858-1942  Search this
Chowning, Ann  Search this
Clark, J. Desmond (John Desmond), 1916-2002  Search this
Codere, Helen F., 1917-2009  Search this
Collins, Henry B. (Henry Bascom), 1899-1987  Search this
Colton, Harold Sellers, 1881-1970  Search this
Conklin, Harold C., 1926-2016  Search this
Corbett, John M.  Search this
Darnell, Regna  Search this
Dauenhauer, Nora  Search this
Dauenhauer, Richard  Search this
Davenport, William  Search this
Dockstader, Frederick J.  Search this
Drucker, Philip, 1911-1982  Search this
Du Bois, Cora Alice, 1903-1991  Search this
Duff, Wilson, 1925-  Search this
Fair, Susan  Search this
Fitzhugh, William W., 1943-  Search this
Foster, George McClelland, 1913-  Search this
Garfield, Viola Edmundson, 1899-1983  Search this
Giddings, James Louis  Search this
Gjessing, Gutorm, 1906  Search this
Grinev, Andrei V.  Search this
Hanable, William S.  Search this
Hara, Hiroko, 1934-  Search this
Haury, Emil W. (Emil Walter), 1904-1992  Search this
Heizer, Robert F. (Robert Fleming), 1915-1979  Search this
Helm, June, 1924-  Search this
Herskovits, Melville J. (Melville Jean), 1895-1963  Search this
Holtved, Erik  Search this
Jenness, Diamond, 1886-1969  Search this
Kahn, Mimi  Search this
Kan, Sergei  Search this
Krauss, Michael E., 1934-  Search this
Kroeber, A. L. (Alfred Louis), 1876-1960  Search this
Larsen, Helge, 1905-1984  Search this
Leer, Jeff  Search this
Lindgren, E. J. (Ethel John), 1904-1988  Search this
Lomax, Alan, 1915-2002  Search this
Low, Jean  Search this
Mathiassen, Therkel, 1892-1967  Search this
Mead, Margaret, 1901-1978  Search this
Olson, Wallace  Search this
Rainey, Froelich G. (Froelich Gladstone), 1907-1992  Search this
Riddell, Francis A. (Francis Allen), 1921-2002  Search this
Ritchie, William A. (William Augustus), 1903-1995  Search this
Schneider, William  Search this
Schumacher, Paul J. F.  Search this
Shinkwin, Anne D.  Search this
Spier, Leslie, 1893-1961  Search this
Spiro, Melford E., 1920-2014  Search this
Underhill, Ruth, 1883-1984  Search this
VanStone, James W.  Search this
Weiner, Annette B., 1933-  Search this
Weitzner, Bella, 1891?-1988  Search this
White, Leslie A., 1900-1975  Search this
Woodbury, Natalie Ferris Sampson  Search this
Woodbury, Richard B. (Richard Benjamin), 1917-2009  Search this
Workman, Karen Wood  Search this
Workman, William B.  Search this
Names:
American Anthropological Association  Search this
Bryn Mawr College  Search this
Photographer:
Smith, Harlan Ingersoll, 1872-1940  Search this
Extent:
2 Map drawers
38 Linear feet (71 document boxes, 1 half document box, 2 manuscript folders, 4 card file boxes, 1 flat box, and 1 oversize box)
Culture:
Yakutat  Search this
Tutchone Indians  Search this
Tsimshian  Search this
Indians of North America -- Subarctic  Search this
Tlingit Indians  Search this
Tanana  Search this
Kawchottine Indians  Search this
Ahtna (Ahtena)  Search this
Athapascan Indians  Search this
Northern Athapaskan  Search this
Chugach  Search this
Eskimos -- Greenland  Search this
Indians of North America -- California  Search this
Eyak Indians  Search this
Hare Indians  Search this
Indians of North America -- Northwest Coast of North America  Search this
Ingalik Indians  Search this
Arctic peoples  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Map drawers
Manuscripts
Maps
Field notes
Correspondence
Photographs
Sound recordings
Place:
Alaska -- Archaeology
Aishihik (Yukon)
Angoon (Alaska)
Alaska -- Ethnology
Chistochina (Alaska)
Greenland
Copper River (Alaska)
Klukshu (Yukon)
Hoonah (Alaska)
Kodiak Island (Alaska)
Klukwan (Alaska)
Saint Lawrence River Valley
New Brunswick -- Archaeology
Yukon Island (Alaska)
Date:
1890-2004
bulk 1923-2004
Summary:
These papers reflect the professional and personal life of Frederica de Laguna. The collection contains correspondence, field notes, writings, newspaper clippings, writings by others, subject files, sound recordings, photographs, and maps. A significant portion of the collection consists of de Laguna's correspondence with family, friends, colleagues, and students, as well as her informants from the field. Her correspondence covers a wide range of subjects such as family, health, preparations for field work, her publications and projects, the Northwest Coast, her opinions on the state of anthropology, and politics. The field notes in the collection mainly represent de Laguna and her assistants' work in the Northern Tlingit region of Alaska from 1949 to 1954. In addition, the collection contains materials related to her work in the St. Lawrence River Valley in Ontario in 1947 and Catherine McClellan's field journal for her research in Aishihik, Yukon Territory in 1968. Most of the audio reels in the collection are field recordings made by de Laguna, McClellan, and Marie-Françoise Guédon of vocabulary and songs and speeches at potlatches and other ceremonies from 1952 to 1969. Tlingit and several Athabaskan languages including Atna, Tutochone, Upper Tanana, and Tanacross are represented in the recordings. Also in the collection are copies of John R. Swanton's Tlingit recordings and Hiroko Hara Sue's recordings among the Hare Indians. Additional materials related to de Laguna's research on the Northwest Coast include her notes on clans and tribes in Series VI: Subject Files and her notes on Tlingit vocabulary and Yakutat names specimens in Series X: Card Files. Drafts and notes for Voyage to Greenland, Travels Among the Dena, and The Tlingit Indians can be found in the collection as well as her drawings for her dissertation and materials related to her work for the Handbook of North American Indians and other publications. There is little material related to Under Mount Saint Elias except for correspondence, photocopies and negatives of plates, and grant applications for the monograph. Of special interest among de Laguna's writings is a photocopy of her historical fiction novel, The Thousand March. Other materials of special interest are copies of her talks, including her AAA presidential address, and the dissertation of Regna Darnell, a former student of de Laguna's. In addition, materials on the history of anthropology are in the collection, most of which can found with her teaching materials. Although the bulk of the collection documents de Laguna's professional years, the collection also contains newspaper articles and letters regarding her exceptional performance as a student at Bryn Mawr College and her undergraduate and graduate report cards. Only a few photographs of de Laguna can be found in the collection along with photographs of her 1929 and 1979 trips to Greenland.
Scope and Contents:
These papers reflect the professional and personal life of Frederica de Laguna. The collection contains correspondence, field notes, writings, newspaper clippings, writings by others, subject files, sound recordings, photographs, and maps.

A significant portion of the collection consists of de Laguna's correspondence with family, friends, colleagues, and students, as well as her informants from the field. Her correspondence covers a wide range of subjects such as family, health, preparations for field work, her publications and projects, the Northwest Coast, her opinions on the state of anthropology, and politics. Among her notable correspondents are Kaj Birket-Smith, J. Desmond Clark, Henry Collins, George Foster, Viola Garfield, Marie-Françoise Guédon, Diamond Jenness, Michael Krauss, Therkel Mathiassen, Catharine McClellan, and Wallace Olson. She also corresponded with several eminent anthropologists including Franz Boas, William Fitzhugh, J. Louis Giddings, Emil Haury, June Helm, Melville Herskovitz, Alfred Kroeber, Helge Larsen, Alan Lomax, Margaret Mead, Froelich Rainey, Leslie Spier, Ruth Underhill, James VanStone, Annette Weiner, and Leslie White.

The field notes in the collection mainly represent de Laguna and her assistants' work in the Northern Tlingit region of Alaska from 1949 to 1954. In addition, the collection contains materials related to her work in the St. Lawrence River Valley in Ontario in 1947 and Catharine McClellan's field journal for her research in Aishihik, Yukon Territory in 1968. Most of the audio reels in the collection are field recordings made by de Laguna, McClellan, and Marie-Françoise Guédon of vocabulary and songs and speeches at potlatches and other ceremonies from 1952 to 1969. Tlingit and several Athapaskan languages including Atna, Tutochone, Upper Tanana, and Tanacross are represented in the recordings. Also in the collection are copies of John R. Swanton's Tlingit recordings and Hiroko Hara's recordings among the Hare Indians. Additional materials related to de Laguna's research on the Northwest Coast include her notes on clans and tribes in Series VI: Subject Files and her notes on Tlingit vocabulary and Yakutat names specimens in Series 10: Card Files.

Drafts and notes for Voyage to Greenland, Travels Among the Dena, and The Tlingit Indians can be found in the collection as well as her drawings for her dissertation and materials related to her work for the Handbook of North American Indians and other publications. There is little material related to Under Mount Saint Elias except for correspondence, photocopies and negatives of plates, and grant applications for the monograph. Of special interest among de Laguna's writings is a photocopy of her historical fiction novel, The Thousand March.

Other materials of special interest are copies of her talks, including her AAA presidential address, and the dissertation of Regna Darnell, a former student of de Laguna's. In addition, materials on the history of anthropology are in the collection, most of which can found with her teaching materials. The collection also contains copies of photographs from the Harriman Alaska Expedition of 1899. Although the bulk of the collection documents de Laguna's professional years, the collection also contains newspaper articles and letters regarding her exceptional performance as a student at Bryn Mawr College and her undergraduate and graduate report cards. Only a few photographs of de Laguna can be found in the collection along with photographs of her 1929 and 1979 trips to Greenland.
Arrangement note:
Arranged in 12 series: (1) Correspondence, 1923-2004; (2) Field Research, 1947-1968; (3) Writings, 1926-2001; (4) Teaching, 1922-1988; (5) Professional Activities, 1939-2001; (6) Subject Files, 1890-2002; (7) Writings by Others, 1962-2000; (8) Personal, 1923-2000; (9) Photographs, 1929-1986; (10) Card Files; (11) Maps, 1928-1973; (12) Sound Recordings, 1904-1973
Biographical / Historical:
Frederica Annis Lopez de Leo de Laguna was a pioneering archaeologist and ethnographer of northwestern North America. Known as Freddy by her friends, she was one of the last students of Franz Boas. She served as first vice-president of the Society for American Archaeology (SAA) from 1949 to 1950 and as president of the American Anthropological Association (AAA) from 1966-1967. She also founded the anthropology department at Bryn Mawr College where she taught from 1938 to 1972. In 1975, she and Margaret Mead, a former classmate, were the first women to be elected to the National Academy of Sciences.

Born on October 3, 1906 in Ann Arbor, Michigan, de Laguna was the daughter of Theodore Lopez de Leo de Laguna and Grace Mead Andrus, both philosophy professors at Bryn Mawr College. Often sick as a child, de Laguna was home-schooled by her parents until she was 9. She excelled as a student at Bryn Mawr College, graduating summa cum laude with a degree in politics and economics in 1927. She was awarded the college's prestigious European fellowship, which upon the suggestion of her parents, she deferred for a year to study anthropology at Columbia University under Boas. Her parents had recently attended a lecture given by Boas and felt that anthropology would unite her interests in the social sciences and her love for the outdoors.

After a year studying at Columbia with Boas, Gladys Reichard, and Ruth Benedict, de Laguna was still uncertain whether anthropology was the field for her. Nevertheless, she followed Boas's advice to spend her year abroad studying the connection between Eskimo and Paleolithic art, which would later became the topic of her dissertation. In the summer of 1928, she gained fieldwork experience under George Grant MacCurdy visiting prehistoric sites in England, France, and Spain. In Paris, she attended lectures on prehistoric art by Abbe Breuil and received guidance from Paul Rivet and Marcelin Boule. Engaged to an Englishman she had met at Columbia University, de Laguna decided to also enroll at the London School of Economics in case she needed to earn her degree there. She took a seminar with Bronislaw Malinowski, an experience she found unpleasant and disappointing.

It was de Laguna's visit to the National Museum in Copenhagen to examine the archaeological collections from Central Eskimo that became the turning point in her life. During her visit, she met Therkel Mathiassen who invited her to be his assistant on what would be the first scientific archaeological excavation in Greenland. She sailed off with him in June 1929, intending to return early in August. Instead, she decided to stay until October to finish the excavation with Mathiassen, now convinced that her future lay in anthropology. When she returned from Greenland she broke off her engagement with her fiancé, deciding that she would not able to both fully pursue a career in anthropology and be the sort of wife she felt he deserved. Her experiences in Greenland became the subject of her 1977 memoir, Voyage to Greenland: A Personal Initiation into Anthropology.

The following year, Kaj Birket-Smith, whom de Laguna had also met in Copenhagen, agreed to let her accompany him as his research assistant on his summer expedition to Prince William Sound and Cook Inlet. When Birket-Smith fell ill and was unable to go, de Laguna was determined to continue on with the trip. She convinced the University of Pennsylvania Museum to fund her trip to Alaska to survey potential excavation sites and took as her assistant her 20 year old brother, Wallace, who became a geologist. A close family, de Laguna's brother and mother would later accompany her on other research trips.

In 1931, the University of Pennsylvania Museum hired de Laguna to catalogue Eskimo collections. They again financed her work in Cook Inlet that year as well as the following year. In 1933, she earned her PhD from Columbia and led an archaeological and ethnological expedition of the Prince William Sound with Birket-Smith. They coauthored "The Eyak Indians of the Copper River Delta, Alaska," published in 1938. In 1935, de Laguna led an archaeological and geological reconnaissance of middle and lower Yukon Valley, traveling down the Tanana River. Several decades later, the 1935 trip contributed to two of her books: Travels Among the Dena, published in 1994, and Tales From the Dena, published in 1997.

In 1935 and 1936, de Laguna worked briefly as an Associate Soil Conservationist, surveying economic and social conditions on the Pima Indian Reservation in Arizona. She later returned to Arizona during the summers to conduct research and in 1941, led a summer archaeological field school under the sponsorship of Bryn Mawr College and the Museum of Northern Arizona.

By this time, de Laguna had already published several academic articles and was also the author of three fiction books. Published in 1930, The Thousand March: Adventures of an American Boy with the Garibaldi was her historical fiction book for juveniles. She also wrote two detective novels: The Arrow Points to Murder (1937) and Fog on the Mountain (1938). The Arrow Points to Murder is set in a museum based on her experiences at the University of Pennsylvania Museum and the American Museum of National History. Fog on the Mountain is set in Cook Inlet and draws upon de Laguna's experiences in Alaska. Both detective novels helped to finance her research.

De Laguna began her long career at Bryn Mawr College in 1938 when she was hired as a lecturer in the sociology department to teach the first ever anthropology course at the college. By 1950, she was chairman of the joint department of Sociology and Anthropology, and in 1967, the chairman of the newly independent Anthropology Department. She was also a visiting professor at the University of Pennsylvania (1947-1949; 1972-1976) and at the University of California, Berkeley (1959-1960; 1972-1973.)

During World War II, de Laguna took a leave of absence from Bryn Mawr College to serve in the naval reserve from 1942 to 1945. As a member of WAVES (Women Accepted for Voluntary Emergency Service), she taught naval history and codes and ciphers to women midshipmen at Smith College. She took great pride in her naval service and in her later years joined the local chapter of WAVES National, an organization for former and current members of WAVES.

In 1950, de Laguna returned to Alaska to work in the Northern Tlingit region. Her ethnological and archaeological study of the Tlingit Indians brought her back several more times throughout the 1950s and led to the publication of Under Mount Saint Elias in 1972. Her comprehensive three-volume monograph is still considered the authoritative work on the Yakutat Tlingit. In 1954, de Laguna turned her focus to the Atna Indians of Copper River, returning to the area in 1958, 1960, and 1968.

De Laguna retired from Bryn Mawr College in 1972 under the college's mandatory retirement policy. Although she suffered from many ailments in her later years including macular degeneration, she remained professionally active. Five decades after her first visit to Greenland, de Laguna returned to Upernavik in 1979 to conduct ethnographic investigations. In 1985, she finished editing George Thornton Emmons' unpublished manuscript The Tlingit Indians. A project she had begun in 1955, the book was finally published in 1991. In 1986, she served as a volunteer consultant archaeologist and ethnologist for the U. S. Forest Service in Alaska. In 1994, she took part in "More than Words . . ." Laura Bliss Spann's documentary on the last Eyak speaker, Maggie Smith Jones. By 2001, de Laguna was legally blind. Nevertheless, she continued working on several projects and established the Frederica de Laguna Northern Books Press to reprint out-of-print literature and publish new scholarly works on Arctic cultures.

Over her lifetime, de Laguna received several honors including her election into the National Academy Sciences in 1976, the Distinguished Service Award from AAA in 1986, and the Lucy Wharton Drexel Medal from the University of Pennsylvania in 1999. De Laguna's work, however, was respected by not only her colleagues but also by the people she studied. In 1996, the people of Yakutat honored de Laguna with a potlatch. Her return to Yakutat was filmed by Laura Bliss Spann in her documentary Reunion at Mt St. Elias: The Return of Frederica de Laguna to Yakutat.

At the age of 98, Frederica de Laguna passed away on October 6, 2004.

Sources Consulted

Darnell, Regna. "Frederica de Laguna (1906-2004)." American Anthropologist 107.3 (2005): 554-556.

de Laguna, Frederica. Voyage to Greenland: A Personal Initiation into Anthropology. New York: W.W. Norton Co, 1977.

McClellan, Catharine. "Frederica de Laguna and the Pleasures of Anthropology." American Ethnologist 16.4 (1989): 766-785.

Olson, Wallace M. "Obituary: Frederica de Laguna (1906-2004)." Arctic 58.1 (2005): 89-90.
Related Materials:
Although this collection contains a great deal of correspondence associated with her service as president of AAA, most of her presidential records can be found in American Anthropological Association Records 1917-1972. Also at the National Anthropological Archives are her transcripts of songs sung by Yakutat Tlingit recorded in 1952 and 1954 located in MS 7056 and her notes and drawings of Dorset culture materials in the National Museum of Canada located in MS 7265. The Human Studies Film Archive has a video oral history of de Laguna conducted by Norman Markel (SC-89.10.4).

Related collections can also be found in other repositories. The University Museum of the University of Pennsylvania holds materials related to work that de Laguna carried out for the museum from the 1930s to the 1960s. Materials relating to her fieldwork in Angoon and Yakutat can be found in the Rasmuson Library of the University of Alaska, Fairbanks in the papers of Francis A. Riddell, a field assistant to de Laguna in the early 1950s. Original photographs taken in the field in Alaska were deposited in the Alaska State Library, Juneau. Both the Archive of Folk Culture at the Library of Congress and the American Philosophical Library have copies of her field recordings and notes. The American Museum of Natural History has materials related to her work editing George T. Emmons' manuscript. De Laguna's papers can also be found at the Bryn Mawr College Archives.
Provenance:
These papers were donated to the National Anthropological Archives by Frederica de Laguna.
Restrictions:
Some of the original field notes are restricted due to Frederica de Laguna's request to protect the privacy of those accused of witchcraft. The originals are restricted until 2030. Photocopies may be made with the names of the accused redacted.
Rights:
Contact repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Language and languages -- Documentation  Search this
Anthropology -- History  Search this
Genre/Form:
Manuscripts
Maps
Field notes
Correspondence
Photographs
Sound recordings
Citation:
Frederica de Laguna Papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.1998-89
See more items in:
Frederica de Laguna Papers
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-1998-89
Online Media:

Ruth Landes papers

Correspondent:
Mead, Margaret, 1901-1978  Search this
Boas, Franz, 1858-1942  Search this
Wallis, Ruth Sawtell, 1895-1978  Search this
Wagley, Charles, 1913-1991  Search this
Lopez, Salvador  Search this
Little, Kenneth  Search this
Wilson, Maggie  Search this
Whitecloud, Thomas St. Germain  Search this
Henry, Jules, 1904-1969  Search this
Hellman, Ellen  Search this
Haugen, Einar  Search this
Gough, Kathleen  Search this
Lewis, Oscar  Search this
Kaberry, Phyllis Mary, 1910-  Search this
Imes, Elmer Samuel, 1883-1941  Search this
Strong, William Duncan, 1899-1962  Search this
Steyn, Anna F.  Search this
Spier, Leslie, 1893-1961  Search this
Stefansson, Vilhjalmur, 1879-1962  Search this
Solecki, Ralph S.  Search this
Sparta, Francisco  Search this
Rubin, Joan  Search this
Rubin, Vera  Search this
Rodnick, David  Search this
Rogers, Edward S.  Search this
Ritzenthaler, Robert E. (Robert Eugene), 1911-1980  Search this
Roberts, Robert W.  Search this
Ramo, Arthur  Search this
Richards, Audrey  Search this
Preston, Richard J.  Search this
Verger, Pierre  Search this
Vennum, Thomas  Search this
Topash, Mary  Search this
Topash, Joe  Search this
Teskey, Lynn  Search this
Taylor, Beryl  Search this
Tanner, Helen Hornbeck  Search this
Densmore, Frances, 1867-1957  Search this
Quain, Buell H. (Buell Halvor), 1912-1939  Search this
Dunning, William  Search this
Douglas, William A.  Search this
Eggan, Fred, 1906-1991  Search this
Edmondson, Munro S.  Search this
Black, Mary B.  Search this
Benedict, Ruth, 1887-1948  Search this
Domengeaux, James  Search this
Feldman, Albert G.  Search this
Feder, Norman  Search this
Gacs, Ute  Search this
Franklin, John Hope  Search this
Ewers, John C. (John Canfield), 1909-1997  Search this
Erickson, Vincent O.  Search this
Falk, Minna R.  Search this
Faitlovitch, V.  Search this
Alberto Torres, Heloisa  Search this
Buck, Pearl  Search this
Bruce, Harold E.  Search this
Borri, Rina  Search this
Boggs, Stephen Taylor  Search this
Arensberg, Conrad M. (Conrad Maynadier), 1910-1997  Search this
Baldus, Herbert  Search this
Barnouw, Victor  Search this
Bateson, Mary Catherine  Search this
Lurie, Nancy Oestreich  Search this
Malherbe, E.G.  Search this
Marks, Eli S.  Search this
Masha, Louise  Search this
Maslow, Will  Search this
Masquat, Joseph M.  Search this
Mayer, Kurt B.  Search this
McWilliams, Carey  Search this
Bunche, Ralph J.  Search this
Carneiro, Edison  Search this
Chilver, E. M.  Search this
Chilver, Richard  Search this
Clifton, James A.  Search this
Colson, Elizabeth F.  Search this
Daveron, Alexander  Search this
Lowenfeld, Margaret, 1890-1973  Search this
Officer, James E.  Search this
Odum, Howard W.  Search this
Park, Alice  Search this
Paredes, Anthony  Search this
Paton, Alan  Search this
Park, George  Search this
Prado, Idabel do  Search this
Peschel, Keewaydinoquay M.  Search this
Merwe, Hendrik W. van der  Search this
Murphy, Robert Francis  Search this
Messing, Simon D.  Search this
Neumann, Anita  Search this
Nef, Evelyn Stefansson  Search this
Nocktonick, Louise  Search this
Neumann, Walter  Search this
Creator:
Landes, Ruth, 1908-1991  Search this
Names:
Columbia University Research in Contemporary Cultures  Search this
Committee on Fair Employment Practices  Search this
Fisk University  Search this
Johnson, Charles S.  Search this
Landes, Ruth, 1908-1991  Search this
Park, Robert E.  Search this
Extent:
26.5 Linear feet ((63 document boxes and 1 oversized box))
Culture:
Ojibwa Indians  Search this
African American  Search this
Santee Indians  Search this
African  Search this
Acadians  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Plains  Search this
Indians of North America -- Northeast  Search this
Jews -- American  Search this
Anishinaabe (Chippewa/Ojibwa)  Search this
Latinos -- California  Search this
Brazilians  Search this
Basques  Search this
American Indians  Search this
Dakota -- Santee  Search this
Afro-Brazilians  Search this
Africans  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Place:
Quebec -- Bilingualism
United Kingdom -- colored immigration
South Africa
Date:
1928-1992
Summary:
Most of Ruth Landes's papers relate directly or indirectly to Landes's American Indian research, her work in Brazil, and her study of bilingualism. There is also a considerable amount of material that relates to her experiences (sometimes fictionalized) at Fisk University. There is only small amount of material related to her other interests. Her collection also has material of and relating to the Brazilian folklorist and journalist Edison Carneiro. There is also noteworthy material concerning Herbert Baldus, Ruth Benedict, Elmer C. Imes, Charles S. Johnson, and Robert E. Park. There is a large amount of printed and processed materials in the collection, mainly in the form of newspaper clippings and a collection of scholarly papers.
Scope and Contents:
This collection is mainly comprised of the professional papers of Ruth Schlossberg Landes. Included are correspondence, journals, published and unpublished manuscripts of writings, research materials including field notes and reading notes, photographs, drawings, scholarly papers and publications by other scholars, and clippings from newspapers and periodicals.

Landes's field research on Candomblé in Brazil is well-represented in this collection, consisting of her field journals, writings, and photographs. Also present are Maggie Wilson's stories that were the basis for Landes's The Ojibwa Woman. Unfortunately, Landes was unable to locate her journals for her early research with the Ojibwa/Chippewa, Potawatomi, and Dakota. There are, however, field photographs of the Ojibwa/Chippewa and Potawatomi in the collection. There is also a great deal of her research on groups, especially minorities, in multilingual states with particular focus on the French of Quebec, Basques of Spain and the United States, Boers and Blacks of South Africa, the several socio-linguistic groups of Switzerland, and Acadians (Cajuns) of Louisiana. In the collection are several drafts of her unpublished manuscript on bilingualism, "Tongues that Defy the State." There is also a small amount of material about Black Jews of New York and considerable material about Landes's experience among African Americans when she taught briefly at Fisk University, including her unpublished manuscript "Now, at Athens," containing fictional and autobiographical accounts of her time at Fisk.

Reflections of other facets of Landes's professional activities are also included. Some materials concern her teaching activities, and there is also documentation of her work with the Fair Employment Practices Commission (a federal government agency during the administration of Franklin D. Roosevelt) and a similar private organization which immediately succeeded the FEPA; Gunnar Myrdal's research into the plight of African Americans ("The Negro in America"); the Research in Contemporary Cultures project at Columbia University; and the American Jewish Congress.

Among Landes's correspondents are Ruth Benedict, Franz Boas, Margaret Mead, Ralph Bunche, Herbert Baldus, Edison Carneiro, Sally Chilver, Frances Densmore, Sol Tax, Elmer S. Imes, Charles S. Johnson, Robert E. Park, and Hendrik W. van der Merwe.
Arrangement:
The collection is organized into 6 series: (1) Correspondence, 1931-1991; (2) Research Materials, circa 1930s-1990; (3) Writings, circa 1930s-1990; (4) Teaching Materials, 1935-1975, undated; (5) Biographical and Personal Files, 1928-1988; (6) Graphic Materials, 1933-1978, undated
Biographical Note:
Ruth Schlossberg Landes was born on October 8, 1908 in New York City. Her father was Joseph Schlossberg, an activist in the Yiddish labor socialist community and one of the founders of the Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America. She studied sociology at New York University (B.A. 1928) and social work at the New York School of Social Work, Columbia University (M.S.W. 1929). While in graduate school, Landes studied Black Jews in Harlem for her master's thesis, a topic that developed her interests in anthropology.

After graduating in 1929, she worked as a social worker in Harlem and married Victor Landes, a medical student and son of family friends. Their marriage ended after two years when she enrolled in the doctoral program in anthropology at Columbia against her husband's wishes. She kept his surname due to the stigma of being a divorced woman.

At Columbia, Landes studied under Franz Boas and Ruth Benedict, her main advisor. Under the guidance of Benedict, Landes moved away from further study of African Americans to focus on Native American communities. Upon Benedict's suggestion, Landes studied the social organization of the Ojibwa in Manitou Rapids in Ontario from 1932 to 1936 for her Ph.D. fieldwork. Her dissertation, Ojibwa Sociology, was published in 1937. Landes also contributed "The Ojibwa of Canada" in Cooperation and Competition among Primitive Peoples (1937), a volume edited by Margaret Mead. In 1938, Landes published Ojibwa Women (1938), a book written in collaboration with Maggie Wilson, an Ojibwa interpreter and informant.

In addition to studying the Ojibwa in Ontario, Landes also conducted fieldwork with the Chippewa of Red Lake, Minnesota in 1933, working closely with shaman or midé Will Rogers. Her book, Ojibwa Religion and the Midéwiwin (1968) was based largely on her research with Rogers and Maggie Wilson. In 1935 and 1936, she undertook fieldwork with the Santee Dakota in Minnesota and the Potawatomi in Kansas. Like Ojibwa Religion and the Midéwiwin, her books on the Santee Dakota and Potawatomi were not published until several years later—The Mystic Lake Sioux: Sociology of the Mdewakantonwan Sioux was published in 1968 while The Prairie Potawatomi was published in 1970. In between her field research in the 1930s and the publication of The Prairie Potawatomi, Landes returned to Kansas to study the Potawatomi in the 1950s and 1960s.

Landes's plan to continue her studies with the Potawatomi in 1937 changed when Benedict invited her to join a team of researchers from Columbia University in Brazil. Landes was to conduct research on Afro-Brazilians in Bahia, Brazil, while Walter Lipkind, Buell Quain, and Charles Wagley studied indigenous people in the Amazons. To prepare for her research, Landes was at Fisk University in Nashville, Tennessee in 1937 and 1938 to consult with Robert Park and Donald Pierson and to use the university's library collections of African and African American materials. During that time, Landes also held a teaching position at Fisk and lived in the non-segregated women's residence on campus. Landes later wrote "Now, at Athens," an unpublished memoir containing fictional and true accounts of her experiences at Fisk.

From 1938 to 1939, Landes conducted fieldwork on the role of Afro-Brazilian women and homosexuals in the Candomblé religion in Bahia, Brazil. Unable to move freely by herself in Brazil as a single woman, Landes was accompanied by Edison Carneiro, a Bahian journalist and folklorist. With Carneiro as her companion, Landes was allowed access to rituals and people that would have been closed off to her otherwise. Due to her association with Carneiro, a member of the Brazilian Communist Party, Landes was suspected of being a communist and was forced to leave Bahia early. Publications from her research in Brazil include "A Cult Matriarchate and Male Homosexuality" (1940) and City of Women (1947). She returned to Brazil in 1966 to study the effects of urban development in Rio de Janeiro. In 1967, a Portuguese translation of City of Women was published, a project that Carneiro had commissioned as the first director of the Ministry of Education and Culture's Special National Agency for the Protection of Folklore.

Landes returned to New York in 1939, working briefly as a researcher for Gunnar Myrdal's study of African Americans. Unable to obtain a permanent position at a university, she worked in several other short term positions throughout most of her career. During World War II, Landes was a research director for the Office of the Coordinator for Inter-American Affairs (1941) and consultant for President Franklin D. Roosevelt's Fair Employment Practices Committee on African American and Mexican American cases (1941-44). In 1945, Landes directed a program created by Pearl S. Buck and a group of interdenominational clergy to analyze pending New York anti-discrimination legislation. She moved to California the following year to work for the Los Angeles Metropolitan Welfare Council on a study of race and youth gangs. After her contract ended, she moved back to New York and was hired as a contract researcher for the American Jewish Congress (1948-50). She also participated in Columbia University's Research in Contemporary Cultures (1949-51), studying Jewish families. She coauthored with Mark Zborowski, "Hypothesis concerning the Eastern European Jewish Family." From 1951 to 1952, Landes spent a year in London, funded by a Fulbright fellowship to study colored colonial immigrants and race relations in Great Britain.

After her fellowship ended, Landes returned to the United States and held short term appointments at several universities. She taught at the William Alanson White Psychiatric Institution in New York (1953-54), the New School for Social Research in New York (1953-55), University of Kansas (1957, 1964), University of Southern California (1957-62), Columbia University (1963), Los Angeles State College (1963), and Tulane University (1964). At Claremont Graduate School, Landes helped to develop and direct the Claremont Anthropology and Education Program (1959-62).

It was not until 1965 that Landes obtained a permanent faculty position at McMaster University in Hamilton, Ontario; she was recruited for the position by Richard Slobodin. Due to Ontario's age retirement law, Landes was forced to retire in 1973 at the age of 65. She continued to teach part-time until 1977, when she became professor emerita.

Landes passed away at the age of 82 on February 11, 1991.

Sources Consulted

Cole, Sally. 2003. Ruth Landes: A Life in Anthropology. Lincoln, Nebraska: University of Nebraska Press.

Chronology

1908 October 8 -- Born Ruth Schlossberg in New York City

1928 -- B.A. in sociology, New York University

1929 -- M.S.W., New York School of Social Work, Columbia University

1929-1931 -- Social worker in Harlem Married to Victor Landes

1929-1934 -- Studied Black Jews in Harlem

1931 -- Began graduate work in anthropology at Columbia University

1932-1936 -- Studied the Ojibwa in Ontario and Minnesota (in field periodically)

1933-1940 -- Research Fellow, Columbia University

1935 Summer-Fall -- Studied the Santee Sioux (Dakota) in Minnesota

1935-1936 -- Studied the Potawatomi in Kansas

1935 -- Ph.D., Columbia University

1937 -- Instructor, Brooklyn College

1937-1938 -- Instructor, Fisk University

1938-1939 -- Studied Afro-Brazilians and Candomblé in Brazil, especially at Bahia

1939 -- Researcher on Gunnar Myrdal's study, "The Negro in America"

1941 -- Research Director, Office of Inter American Affairs, Washington, D.C.

1941-1945 -- Representative for Negro and Mexican American Affairs, Fair Employment Practices Committee (FEPC), President Franklin D. Roosevelt Administration

1944 -- Interim Director, Committee Against Racial Discrimination, New York

1946-1947 -- Researcher, study of Mexican American youth, gangs, and families, Los Angeles Metropolitan Council

1948-1951 -- Researcher, American Jewish Congress, New York

1949-1951 -- Research consultant, study on Jewish families in New York for Research in Contemporary Cultures Project, Columbia University

1951-1952 -- Fulbright Scholar, to study colored colonial immigration into Great Britain

1953-1954 -- Lecturer, William Alanson White Psychiatric Institution, New York

1953-1955 -- Lecturer, New School for Social Research, New York

1956-1957 -- Married to Ignacio Lutero Lopez

1957 Summer -- Visiting Professor, University of Kansas

1957-1958 -- Visiting Professor, University of Southern California

1957-1965 -- Consultant, California agencies (Department of Social Work, Bureau of Mental Hygiene, Department of Education, Public Health Department) and San Francisco Police Department

1958-1959 -- Director, Geriatrics Program, Los Angeles City Health Department

1959-1962 -- Visiting Professor and Director of Anthropology and Education Program, Claremont Graduate School

1962 -- Extension Lecturer, University of California, Los Angeles and University of California, Berkeley

1963 -- Extension Lecturer, Columbia University Extension Lecturer, Los Angeles State College

1963-1965 -- Consultant, International Business Machines (IBM)

1964 January-June -- Visiting Professor, Tulane University

1964 Summer -- Field work with Potawatomi in Kansas Professor, University of Kansas

1965-1975 -- Professor at McMaster University

1966 -- Studied urban development in Rio de Janeiro

1968-1975 -- Studied bilingualism and biculturalism in Spain, Switzerland, South Africa, United States, and Canada (in Spain and the United States concentrated on Basques)

1975 -- Became part-time faculty member at McMaster University

1977 -- Professor Emerita, McMaster University

1978 -- Award of Merit from the University of Wisconsin, Green Bay

1991 February 11 -- Died in Hamilton, Ontario

1991 -- Establishment of the Ruth Landes Memorial Research Fund at Research Institute for the Study of Man (RISM)
Related Materials:
Correspondence from Ruth Landes can be found in the William Duncan Strong Papers, the Leonard Bloomfield Papers, and MS 7369. The Ruth Bunzel Papers contains a copy of a grant application by Landes.
Provenance:
These papers were donated to the National Anthropological Archives by Ruth Landes in 1991.
Restrictions:
The Ruth Landes papers are open for research. The nitrate negatives in this collection have been separated from the collection and stored offsite. Access to nitrate negatives is restricted due to preservation concerns.

Access to the Ruth Landes papers requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Language and languages -- Documentation  Search this
Midéwiwin  Search this
Bilingualism  Search this
Aging  Search this
Candomblé (Religion)  Search this
Citation:
Ruth Landes papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.1991-04
See more items in:
Ruth Landes papers
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-1991-04
Online Media:

MS 1302-a Jicarilla Apache vocabulary and notes

Creator:
Russell, Frank, 1868-1903  Search this
Informant:
Gun-si Vi-gil  Search this
Quintana, Juan  Search this
Quintana, Reuben  Search this
Extent:
143 Pages
1 Volume
Culture:
Jicarilla Apache  Search this
Indians of North America -- Southwest, New  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Pages
Volumes
Vocabulary
Date:
1898
Scope and Contents:
Vocabulary listed according to categories in Powellʼs printed outline with added information on culture, customs and religion.
Biographical / Historical:
Informants: Gunʹ -si Vigil, interpreter, educated at Santa Fe and Fort Lewis Indian schools; Juan Quintana, "authority for many names of plants and narrator of most of the animal tales and information regarding the sun;" and Reuben [Quintana], interpreter for Juan.
Local Numbers:
NAA MS 1302-a
Local Note:
Identified as Jicarilla Apache by comparison with manuscript numbers 115 and 116.
Place:
New Mexico
Topic:
Religion -- Mexico -- Apache  Search this
Culture -- Apache  Search this
Medicine feast -- pages 113-127 -- Apache  Search this
Religion -- Mexico. -- pages 129 - 132 -- Apache  Search this
Education -- pages 132 - 133 -- Apache  Search this
Marriage -- pages 133 - 135 -- Apache  Search this
Basketry -- pages 135 - 137 -- Apache  Search this
Initiation ceremony -- pages 137 - 138 -- Apache  Search this
Folklore -- page 139 -- Apache  Search this
Myths -- origin of animals -- pages 141 - 146 -- Apache  Search this
Bows and arrows -- page 146 -- Apache  Search this
Folklore -- origin of fire -- pages 149 - 150 -- Apache  Search this
Folklore -- fox and porcupine -- pages 150 - 152 -- Apache  Search this
Folklore -- horse -- page 153 -- Apache  Search this
Weaving -- pages 135 - 137 -- Apache  Search this
Beverages -- page 138 -- Apache  Search this
Hide preparation -- page 140 -- Apache  Search this
Gambling -- page 128 -- Apache  Search this
Widows -- page 128 -- Apache  Search this
Child life -- Childbirth -- page 128 -- Apache  Search this
Social organization -- page 128 -- Apache  Search this
Childlife -- child birth -- page 128 -- Apache  Search this
Medicine Lodge -- Drawing -- Apache  Search this
Language and languages -- Documentation  Search this
Genre/Form:
Vocabulary
Citation:
Manuscript 1302-a, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.MS1302A
See more items in:
MS 1302-a Jicarilla Apache vocabulary and notes
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-ms1302a

Photographs of Princess Atalie Unkalunt collection

Source:
C.H. Nash Museum at Chucalissa  Search this
Creator:
Hall, Dale, Mrs.  Search this
Former owner:
C.H. Nash Museum at Chucalissa  Search this
Names:
Curtis, Charles, 1860-1936  Search this
Thorpe, Jim, 1887-1953  Search this
Unkalunt, Princess Atalie, 1895-1954  Search this
Extent:
75 Photographic prints
Culture:
Oklahoma Cherokee  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographic prints
Studio portraits
Date:
1900-1950
Summary:
The photographs of Princess Atalie Unkalunt collection includes 75 photographic prints and postcards of Princess Atalie Unkalunt (Oklahoma Cherokee) taken by various photographers throughout her life and career. Princess Atalie Unkalunt, nee Iva J. Rider, (1895 – 1954) was a Cherokee opera singer, artist, author, and community activist.
Scope and Contents:
The bulk of the collection contains photographic prints and postcards of Princess Atalie Unkalunt (Oklahoma Cherokee) taken by various photographers throughout her life and career. Many of the photographs are undated but it is likely that most were taken between 1920 and 1950.

Included in the collection are studio portraits of Princess Atalie, both headshots and full length shots. In many of the studio shots Princess Atalie is wearing a beaded headband, or a full headdress, a hide dress and moccasins and is frequently posed with additional props. However there are a number of studio portraits where she is wearing non-native dress, often wearing a hat and stole. Princess Atalie was also photographed at the Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation, circa 1920, modeling hide dresses and moccasins from the collection (see related materials note). There are also photographs of Princess Atalie posed with groups or individuals she met throughout her career. This includes photographs with Jim Thorpe (Sac and Fox), famed Olympian and athlete; Charles Curtis (Kaw), Vice President to Herbert Hoover; the Girl Scouts of East Orange, Oklahoma; as well as several groups of unidentified children.

Of note are several postcards from Princess Atalie (signed Iva) written to her sisters from her time in the Business Women's Unit of the Y.M.C.A during WWI. There are also photographs that include a note to Atalie's sister Mary as well as a portrait of Mary that had previously been mis-identified as Atalie. In addition to photographs of Princess Atalie, there are portraits of other opera performers who were contemporaries of Princess Atalie. These include portraits of Chief Yowlachie (Yakama), a bass singer and soloist with the Seneca Orchestra; and Yma Sumac, a Peruvian-American soprano.

Known photographers and photo studios include—Albert R. Dupont, Jack Gordon, Del Ankers, Bryant E. Sherman, Albert Green Heath, Pierson Studio, Strand Studio, Chdnoff Studio, Underwood and Underwood Co., Watton Studio (Oklahoma City), Apeda Studio, Sands Studio and Roege Photo.
Arrangement:
Arranged by catalog number P23844-P23911.
Biographical / Historical:
Princess Atalie Unkalunt, nee Iva J. Rider, (1895 – 1954) was a Cherokee opera singer, artist, author, and community activist. Also known as Sunshine Rider, Atalie was born in Stilwell, Oklahoma to Thomas L. Rider (Domgeske Unkalunt), a Cherokee state senator and chairman of Indian affairs, and Josephine Pace Rider. As a child attending Indian schools, Atalie saw the need for a cultural missionary to educate the world about Native people and their place in history. She developed a gift for song at a young age and after finishing her high school studies spent time in California where she gained experience in film and then moved to Boston to begin vocal studies. After the U.S. entered World War I, Atalie joined the Business Women's Unit of the Y.M.C.A. secretly advancing her age several years in order to meet the age requirements. She served 18 months overseas working as an entertainer and secretary. Upon her return to the United States, she settled in New York City to continue her vocal studies and quickly became an acclaimed opera singer. She sang at concert venues around the country and performed at the White House.

Her desire to be a cultural missionary never wavered and she became a lecturer for the New York Board of Education where she spoke to audiences about Native American customs and songs. She broadcasted a radio program to countries in Europe singing both classical arias as well as Native songs. She founded the Society of the First Sons and Daughters of America Foundation whose mission was to recognize and promote the contributions of Native people and give them opportunities to promote their talents in the arts. In addition to her vocal talents, she was a skilled painter and designer and in 1942, she wrote and illustrated the book "The Earth Speaks", a collection of tales adapted from Cherokee legends. In the late 1940s, Atalie moved to Washington D.C. where she spent her time digging through government archival records in order to research claims due the Cherokee Indians from the United States government. Atalie passed away in 1954.
Related Materials:
Three photographs in the collection include images of objects currently in the NMAI collection. These include Princess Atalie wearing a Nimi'ipuu (Nez Perce) hide dress (NMAI 029996), a Ute beaded hide dress (NMAI 050958) and Ute mocassins (NMAI 006986) and Ethyl E. Schellbach wearing a Niuam (Comanche) beaded hide dress (NMAI 021803) and Niuam (Comanche) legging moccasins (NMAI 021132).
Provenance:
Donated by Mrs. Dale Hall to the C.H. Nash Museum (Chucalissa) in 1967. Donated by the C.H. Nash Museum (Chucalissa) to the Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation in 1978. It is unclear how Mrs. Hall came into the posesssion of the photographs though it is possible she was a friend of the family or a distant relative.
Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiphotos@si.edu. For personal or classroom use, users are invited users to download, print, photocopy, and distribute the images that are available online without prior written permission, provided that the files are not changed, the Smithsonian Institution copyright notice (where applicable) is included, and the source of the image is identified as the National Museum of the American Indian.
Topic:
Opera  Search this
Genre/Form:
Studio portraits
Photographic prints
Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Photographs of Princess Atalie Unkalunt collection, Photo Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.117
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmai-ac-117

MS 1043 Observations on the Indians of the Colorado River, California, by George Gibbs; Accompanying vocabularies of the Yuma and Mohave tribes

Creator:
Gibbs, George, 1815-1873  Search this
Informant:
Milhau, John J.  Search this
Oatman, Olive Ann  Search this
Mowry, Sylvester, 1830-1871  Search this
Extent:
22 Pages
Culture:
Quechan (Yuma/Cuchan)  Search this
Mohave Indians  Search this
Indians of North America -- Southwest, New  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Pages
Maps
Date:
1856
Scope and Contents:
Includes Gibbs' draft of the same, 3 pages. "Map of the Indian Tribes in the neighborhood of Fort Yuma, Cal.," document 1 page. "Notes on the Indians of the Colorado," by Lieutenant Sylvester Mowry, Third Artillery. Fort Yuma, Calif. March 23, 1856. Autograph document signed. 10 pages including note of transmittal on page 8. (21 pages, total)
Gibbs states that his paper is based on data received from Milhau and Mowry; the latter in turn obtained data from Olive Oatman, Apache captive, 1851-55.
Local Numbers:
NAA MS 1043
Local Note:
manuscript document
Other Title:
Notes on the Indians of the Colorado
Topic:
Yuma Indians  Search this
Genre/Form:
Maps
Citation:
Manuscript 1043, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.MS1043
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-ms1043
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Online Media:

Phillip Walker papers

Creator:
Walker, Phillip L., 1947-2009  Search this
Extent:
34.75 Linear feet (71 boxes, 1 map-folder)
Culture:
Chumash  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Field notes
Manuscripts
Place:
Santa Barbara (Calif.)
Channel Islands (Calif.)
Date:
1969-2008, undated
Summary:
The Phillip Walker papers document his research and professional activities from 1969-2008 and primarily deal with his bioarchaeological research in California and his studies of primate feeding behavior and dentition. His involvement in issues surrounding the repatriation of Native American human remains, forensic work for public agencies dealing with human remains, and writings are also represented. The collection consists of research and project files, raw data and analysis, graphs and illustrations, photographs, and dental impressions.
Scope and Contents:
The Phillip Walker papers document his research and professional activities from 1969-2008 and undated and primarily deal with with his bioarchaeological research in California and his studies of primate feeding behavior and dentition. The collection consists of research and project files, raw data and analysis, graphs and illustrations, photographs, x-rays, and dental impressions.

Material documenting his involvement in issues surrounding the repatriation of human skeletal remains, forensic work for public agencies, and writings are also represented. There is limited material regarding the courses he taught at the University of California, Santa Barbara and his other research on pinniped butchering methods, an archaeological project in Mosfell, Iceland, and a project in the Aral Sea region.
Arrangement:
This collection is arranged in 7 series: Series 1. California projects and research, 1969-2003, undated; Series 2. Primate research, 1970-1988, 1997, undated; Series 3. Forensic work, 1980-2003, undated; Series 4. Repatriation work, 1987-1999; Series 5. Writings and academic material, 1974-2008, undated; Series 6. Other research, 1976-circa 2008, undated; Series 7. Slides, 1969-1998, undated.
Biographical Note:
Phillip L. Walker was a leading physical anthropologist and bioarchaeologist and a professor of anthropology at the University of California, Santa Barbara (UCSB). Born in 1947 in Elkhart, Indiana, Walker graduated from the University of Chicago in 1973 with a Ph.D. in Anthropology. His doctoral work focused on the feeding behavior of great apes and included field work at the Yerkes Regional Primate Center in Atlanta, Georgia. In 1975, he completed field work in Guatemala studying the behavior of free-ranging New World monkeys.

Walker began teaching at UCSB in 1974 and became fascinated with the "enormous archaeological heritage of the Santa Barbara Channel Islands region, and the native peoples who occupied it." He started a research program on the bioarchaeology of the region and collaborated with other scholars as well as the Chumash community in the region. He "struck up a positive dialog with the Chumash tribe, developed friendships, and pioneered the notion that the living descendant community is a crucial player in research and learning about the past."

In the late 1980s and early 1990s Walker was active in the development and implementation of the Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act (NAGPRA). He was a founding member of the U.S. Department of the Interior's NAGPRA review committee and the Smithsonian Institution's Native American Repatriation Review Committee.

In the late 1990s Walker was instrumental in launching the Global History of Health Project which focused on the investigation of regional and continental patterns of health and lifestyle through the study of human remains. In addition, he was the co-director of an archaeological project excavating a Viking settlement in Mosfell, Iceland and volunteered his forensic services to public agencies in California and Nevada.

Over the course of his career Walker authored more than 200 scholarly articles and reports. He died in 2009 at his home in Goleta, CA.

Source consulted: Larsen, Clark Spencer and Patricia M. Lambert. 2009. "Obituary: Phillip Lee Walker, 22 July 1947- 6 February 2009." American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 141:1-2

Chronology

1947 -- Born on July 22 in Elkhart, Indiana

Summer 1966 -- Archaeological fieldwork, Atlas, Illinois (Director, field laboratories in Human Osteology)

September 1969 -- Archaeological fieldwork, Northwestern Hudson Bay Tule Expedition, Northwest Territories, Canada

1970 -- B.A. Indiana University (Anthropology, minor in Zoology)

Summer 1970 -- Dental anthropological fieldwork, International Biological Program (Eskimo villages in Northern Alaska)

March 1971 -- Dental anthropological fieldwork, Gila River Indian Reservation (Pima), Arizona

1971 -- M.A. University of Chicago (Anthropology)

Summer 1971, Spring 1973 -- Primate Behavioral Research, Yerkes Regional Primate Center, Atlanta, Georgia

1973 -- Ph.D. University of Chicago (Anthropology)

1974 -- Lecturer, University of California, Davis

1974-2009 -- Professor, University of California, Santa Barbara

Summer 1975 -- Field study of the behavior of free-ranging New World monkeys in Guatemala

Summer 1982 -- Archaeological fieldwork, San Miguel Island

1991-1992 -- Chairman, Society for American Archaeology Task Force on Repatriation

1992-1997 -- Member, Department of the Interior Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act Review Committee

Summer 1995 -- Archaeological fieldwork, Mosfell, Iceland

Fall 1996 -- Archaeological fieldwork, San Miguel Island

1998-2002 -- Advisor then Co-Chair, Society for American Archaeology Task Force on Repatriation

Summer 1999 -- Archaeological fieldwork, Mosfell, Iceland

2000-2002 -- Vice President, American Association of Physical Anthropologists

August 2000 -- Cemetery excavation, Vandenberg Air Force Base

August 2001 -- Cemetery excavation, Chatsworth, CA

Summer 2001-2007 -- Cemetery excavation, Mosfell, Iceland

2003-2005 -- President, American Association of Physical Anthropologists

2003-2009 -- Fellow, American Association for the Advancement of Science

Summer 2006 -- Archaeological excavations, San Miguel Island

2009 -- Died on February 6 in Goleta, CA
Separated Materials:
Seven rolls of 16mm film (100' each), 3 rolls of Super 8mm film (50' each), and one small roll of Super 8mm film of primate behavior were transferred to the Human Studies Film Archive (accession number 2014-013).
Provenance:
These papers were donated to the National Anthropological Archives by Phillip Walker's wife, Cynthia Brock, in 2014.
Restrictions:
The Phillip Walker papers are open for research.

Requests to view forensic files are subject to review by the NAA. Forensic files can only be viewed in the National Anthropological Archives reading room. No copies are permitted unless permission is granted by the agency the report was written for.

Access to the Phillip Walker papers requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Archaeology  Search this
Anthropologists -- United States  Search this
Forensic anthropology  Search this
Physical anthropology  Search this
Primates  Search this
Pinnipedia  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Field notes
Manuscripts
Citation:
Phillip Walker papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.2014-08
See more items in:
Phillip Walker papers
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-2014-08

Corcoran Gallery of Art collection of Joseph K. Dixon Wanamaker Expedition photographs

Creator:
Dixon, Joseph K. (Joseph Kossuth)  Search this
Rodman Wanamaker Expedition  Search this
Wanamaker, Rodman, 1863-1928  Search this
Extent:
0.25 Linear feet
3 Gelatin silver prints
Culture:
Havasupai (Coconino)  Search this
Nespelem  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Gelatin silver prints
Date:
circa 1913
Summary:
This collection contains 3 gelatin silver prints shot by Joseph K. Dixon as part of the Wanamaker Expedition circa 1913.
Scope and Contents:
This collection contains 3 gelatin silver prints shot by Joseph K. Dixon as part of the Wanamaker Expedition circa 1913 and printed by Palm Press of Boston, MA in 1987.
Arrangement:
This collection is arranged in 1 oversize box.
Biographical / Historical:
Rodman Wanamaker (1863-1928) was the sole surviving heir of Philadelphia-based department store magnate, John Wanamaker. Rodman, among his other philanthropic endeavors with the arts, believed that Native Americans were a "noble, though vanishing race," whose lives needed to be recorded before they disappeared. Because of this belief, he funded three expeditions (1908-1913) to "perpetuate the life stories of the first Americans." In addition, he also strove, and ultimately failed, to create a National Indian Memorial to be situated in New York City which would rival the Statue of Liberty.

Joseph K. Dixon (1858-1926) was born in New York, and received a bachelor of divinity degree from the Rochester Theological Seminary before becoming a lecturer for the Eastman Kodak photographic company in 1904. Two years later he was hired to work in Wanamaker's department store, and by 1908 he was chosen to lead the three Wanamaker expeditions (1908-1913) to document the lives and cultures of Native peoples of the United States. For the remainder of his life, Dixon frequently lectured on and continued to photograph the lives of Native Americans.
Provenance:
Gift from the Trustees of the Corcoran Gallery of Art (In the Collection of the Corcoran Gallery of Art, Gift of the Eastman Kodak Company).
Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiphotos@si.edu. For personal or classroom use, users are invited to download, print, photocopy, and distribute the images that are available online without prior written permission, provided that the files are not modified in any way, the Smithsonian Institution copyright notice (where applicable) is included, and the source of the image is identified as the National Museum of the American Indian. For more information please see the Smithsonian's Terms of Use and NMAI Archive Center's Digital Image request website.
Topic:
Photographs  Search this
Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Corcoran Gallery of Art collection of Joseph K. Dixon Wanamaker Expedition photographs, Box and Folder Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.309
See more items in:
Corcoran Gallery of Art collection of Joseph K. Dixon Wanamaker Expedition photographs
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmai-ac-309
Online Media:

Havasupai Mother and Child, Arizona

Collection Creator:
Dixon, Joseph K. (Joseph Kossuth)  Search this
Rodman Wanamaker Expedition  Search this
Wanamaker, Rodman, 1863-1928  Search this
Extent:
1 Gelatin silver print
Container:
Oversize 1
Culture:
Havasupai (Coconino)  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Gelatin silver prints
Date:
circa 1913
Scope and Contents:
This gelatin silver photograph depicts a woman [Havasupai (Coconino)] holding a baby in a woven cradleboard.
Collection Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Collection Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiphotos@si.edu. For personal or classroom use, users are invited to download, print, photocopy, and distribute the images that are available online without prior written permission, provided that the files are not modified in any way, the Smithsonian Institution copyright notice (where applicable) is included, and the source of the image is identified as the National Museum of the American Indian. For more information please see the Smithsonian's Terms of Use and NMAI Archive Center's Digital Image request website.
Collection Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Corcoran Gallery of Art collection of Joseph K. Dixon Wanamaker Expedition photographs, Box and Folder Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Corcoran Gallery of Art collection of Joseph K. Dixon Wanamaker Expedition photographs
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmai-ac-309-ref1

Mary Roberts Rinehart photographs of Glacier National Park

Photographer:
Rinehart, Mary Roberts, 1876-1958  Search this
Extent:
107 Gelatin silver prints
0.25 Cubic feet
Culture:
Pikuni (Piegan) [Blackfeet Nation, Browning, Montana]  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Gelatin silver prints
Photographs
Place:
Glacier National Park (Mont.)
Date:
1916
Summary:
This collection contains 107 gelatin silver photographs depicting mystery novelist Mary Roberts Rinehart and her family's travels around Glacier National Park in Montana during the summer of 1916.
Scope and Contents:
P20639- P20762, P21187-P21191

This collection contains 107 gelatin silver photographs depicting mystery novelist Mary Roberts Rinehart and her family's travels around Glacier National Park in Montana during the summer of 1916. The bulk of the photographs were shot by Mary herself. Rinehart wrote about this trip in her 1917 book, Through Glacier Park.

The photographs in the collection depict candid and staged outdoor portraits of Pikuni (Piegan) [Blackfeet Nation, Browning, Montana] peoples and scenes of community gatherings. Chief Eagle Child and Chief Two Guns White Calf are included in photographs. Other chiefs and leaders that may also be depicted include Medicine Owl; Curly Bear; Big Spring; Bird Plume; Wolf Plume; Bird Rattler; Bill Schute; Stabs-By-Mistake; Mad Plume; and Many Tail-Feathers. Mary Roberts Rinehart was adopted by the Blackfeet tribe and given the name Pi-ta-mak-an (Running Eagle).

Rinehart's family are featured in the photographs including her husband Dr. Stanley Marshall Rinehart, her eldest son Stanley Marshall Rinehart, Jr. (b. 1897), her middle son Alan Gillespie Rinehart (1900-1982) and her youngest son Frederick "Ted" Roberts Rinehart (b. 1902).

The collection also includes depictions of Ralph Radnor Earle (1875-1958) during his trip through National Parks. According to February 3, 1917 issue of Moving Image Picture World, Earle traveled via automobile in the summer of 1916 filming moving image footage of the National Parks, including Glacier National Park. Ernest Thompson Seton (1860-1946)- a founding member of Boy Scouts of America and author of the Boy Scout Handbook- is featured in some photographs as well.
Arrangement:
Arranged by catalog number. 
Biographical / Historical:
Mary Roberts Rinehart (née Mary Ella Roberts) was born in 1876 and raised in Allegheny City, Pennsylvania, now the North Side of Pittsburgh. Mary and her parents, Thomas (Tom) and Cornelia Roberts, lived with Tom's mother and siblings until Mary's sister Olive was born. At 17, Rinehart enrolled in the Pittsburgh Homeopathic School for Nurses. She drew on her experiences nursing patients in the Pittsburgh Homeopathic Hospital in some of her writing. In 1896, shortly after her graduation from nursing school, she married Stanley Marshall Rinehart, a young doctor. In their house in Allegheny City, Mary Roberts Rinehart managed the household, assisted with Dr. Rinehart's medical practice, and began raising their family of three sons: Stanley Marshall Rinehart Jr., born 1897, Alan Gillespie Rinehart, born 1900, and Frederick "Ted" Roberts Rinehart, born 1902.

In the early 1900's, Rinehart began writing in earnest as a way to contribute to the family's income. The poems and short stories of her early career were published in magazines such as Munsey's Magazine and The All-Story. Her first book, The Circular Staircase, was published in 1908. As her popularity grew so did the family's income, and they moved to a large house in Glen Osborne, Pennsylvania around 1912. In early 1915, Rinehart asked her Saturday Evening Post editor to send her to Europe to report on World War I prior to U.S. involvement. Rinehart toured the Belgian front and interviewed Albert I, King of the Belgians, and Queen Mary of England at a time when very few journalists were granted such access. Rinehart returned to Europe in 1918 to report on the war to the War Department and was in Paris on November 11 when the armistice ended the war.

The Rineharts moved to Washington, D.C. during the winter of 1921-22 when Dr. Rinehart accepted a position with the Veterans' Bureau. There, Rinehart continued to write and also became involved in Washington society, hosting and being hosted by presidents, senators, and ambassadors. In summer the family traveled to their cabin at Eatons' Ranch in Wyoming, a part of the country that Mary fell in love with after being invited to join a horse packing expedition out west in 1916. In 1929 her sons Stan and Ted, along with John Farrar, launched Farrar & Rinehart Publishing Company, which would publish many of her works. Dr. Rinehart died in 1931 after a period of poor health. A few years later, Rinehart relocated to New York City, where she would be closer to her sons and their growing families. In 1937 she purchased a large house in Bar Harbor, Maine, and spent summers there until 1947 when her house burned down in a large fire. Rinehart died in 1958 in New York City at the age of 83. She experienced several episodes of poor health during her life, including breast cancer and coronary thrombosis. Despite this, she lived an active, busy life filled with writing, travel, family, and other pursuits.

More detailed information about Mary Roberts Rinehart's life can be found in her autobiography My Story, published in 1931, and My Story: A New Edition and Seventeen New Years (1948), as well as in Improbable Fiction: The Life of Mary Roberts Rinehart by Jan Cohn (1980).

[Biographical note written by the University of Pittsburgh]
Related Materials:
The University of Pittsburgh holds a collection of Mary Robers Rinehart Papers.
Separated Materials:
The Rinehart family also donated a set of Diné (Navajo) jewelry to NMAI: Object catalog numbers 230710 – 230715.
Provenance:
Gift of Mr. Stanley Rinehart, Jr., 1961.
Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archives Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archives Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiphotos@si.edu. For personal or classroom use, users are invited to download, print, photocopy, and distribute the images that are available online without prior written permission, provided that the files are not modified in any way, the Smithsonian Institution copyright notice (where applicable) is included, and the source of the image is identified as the National Museum of the American Indian. For more information please see the Smithsonian's Terms of Use and NMAI Archive Center's Digital Image request website.
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Mary Roberts Rinehart photographs of Glacier National Park, image #, NMAI.AC.329; National Museum of the American Indian Archives Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.329
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmai-ac-329

Chaticks Si Chaticks (Pawnee) women and children

Collection Creator:
Croft, Thomas  Search this
Extent:
1 Cabinet photograph
Container:
Photo-folder 3
Culture:
Chaticks Si Chaticks (Pawnee)  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Cabinet photographs
Date:
1890
Scope and Contents:
Cabinet Card photograph of several Chaticks Si Chaticks (Pawnee) women and children. Individuals believed to be (from left to right): Lizzie Leading Fox, Kate Sky Seeing, Clara Ricketts holding Ben Gover, and Stah-kah Coons with unidentified child. Photographed by Thomas Croft.
Collection Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archives Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Collection Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archives Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiphotos@si.edu. For personal or classroom use, users are invited to download, print, photocopy, and distribute the images that are available online without prior written permission, provided that the files are not modified in any way, the Smithsonian Institution copyright notice (where applicable) is included, and the source of the image is identified as the National Museum of the American Indian. For more information please see the Smithsonian's Terms of Use and NMAI Archive Center's Digital Image request website.
Collection Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Thomas Croft cabinet cards, NMAI.AC.350; National Museum of the American Indian Archives Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.350, Item P26740
See more items in:
Thomas Croft cabinet cards
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmai-ac-350-ref13

Unidentified Niuam (Comanche) woman and child

Collection Creator:
Croft, Thomas  Search this
Extent:
1 Cabinet photograph
Container:
Photo-folder 1
Culture:
Niuam (Comanche)  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Cabinet photographs
Date:
circa 1890
Scope and Contents:
Portrait photograph of an unidentified Niuam (Comanche) woman and child. Photographed in the field by Thomas Croft.
Collection Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archives Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Collection Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archives Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiphotos@si.edu. For personal or classroom use, users are invited to download, print, photocopy, and distribute the images that are available online without prior written permission, provided that the files are not modified in any way, the Smithsonian Institution copyright notice (where applicable) is included, and the source of the image is identified as the National Museum of the American Indian. For more information please see the Smithsonian's Terms of Use and NMAI Archive Center's Digital Image request website.
Collection Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Thomas Croft cabinet cards, NMAI.AC.350; National Museum of the American Indian Archives Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.350, Item P26733
See more items in:
Thomas Croft cabinet cards
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmai-ac-350-ref5

William Bull collotypes of Blackfeet Chiefs

Photographer:
Bull, William, 1878-1942  Search this
Publisher:
Albertype Co.  Search this
Names:
Great Northern Railway Company  Search this
Extent:
12 Photomechanical prints (collotypes (Albertypes))
Culture:
Pikuni (Piegan) [Blackfeet Nation, Browning, Montana]  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photomechanical prints
Place:
Glacier National Park (Mont.)
Date:
approximately 1915
Summary:
This collection includes 12 portraits photographed by William Bull of Chiefs from the Pikuni (Piegan) [Blackfeet Nation] shot in Glacier National Park, Montana, around 1915. The collotypes (photomechanical prints) were hand-colored and published by the Albertype company of Brooklyn, New York.
Scope and Contents:
This collection includes 12 colored photomechanical prints of Blackfeet Chiefs originally shot by William Bull around 1915. The original photographs were reproduced as collotypes (Albertypes) by the Albertype Company and used as promotional materials for the newly created Glacier National Park and Glacier Park Hotel in Montana. The images include portraits of Chief Two Guns White Calf, Chief Curly Bear, Chief Eagle Calf, Chief Many Tail Feathers, Chief Big Spring, Chief White Dog, Chief Eagle Ribs, Chief Bird Rattler, Chief Lazy Boy, Chief Bull Calf, Chief Eagle Child and Chief Wades-in-the-Water.

Catalog numbers P11489-P11500.
Arrangement:
Arranged by catalog number.
Biographical / Historical:
William Bull was born in Menomonie, Wisconsin in December 1878. By 1910 Bull had married Llillian Lillibridge and the couple had three sons and were operating photographic studios in the Twin Cities area in Minnesota. Between 1910-1930 Bull was employed by Brown's Photo Craft Studio and by Buckbee Mears Company. Around 1915, Bull was hired by the Great Northern Railway company to create promotional materials for the newly established Glacier National Park in Montana. Bull continued working until his death in 1942.
Provenance:
Unknown source, circa 1935.
Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archives Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archives Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiphotos@si.edu. For personal or classroom use, users are invited to download, print, photocopy, and distribute the images that are available online without prior written permission, provided that the files are not modified in any way, the Smithsonian Institution copyright notice (where applicable) is included, and the source of the image is identified as the National Museum of the American Indian. For more information please see the Smithsonian's Terms of Use and NMAI Archive Center's Digital Image request website.
Topic:
Indians of North America -- Montana  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photomechanical prints
Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known) William Bull collotypes of Blackfeet Chiefs, image #, NMAI.AC.404. National Museum of the American Indian Archives Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.404
See more items in:
William Bull collotypes of Blackfeet Chiefs
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmai-ac-404
Online Media:

Chief Eagle Child

Collection Photographer:
Bull, William, 1878-1942  Search this
Collection Publisher:
Albertype Co.  Search this
Extent:
1 Photomechanical print
Container:
Photo-folder 2
Culture:
Pikuni (Piegan) [Blackfeet Nation, Browning, Montana]  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Prints
Photomechanical prints
Date:
circa 1915
Scope and Contents:
Portrait of Chief Eagle Child (Pikuni (Piegan) [Blackfeet Nation]). Part of a series of twelve hand colored collotypes (Albertypes) made in Glacier National Park, Montana.
Collection Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archives Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Collection Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archives Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiphotos@si.edu. For personal or classroom use, users are invited to download, print, photocopy, and distribute the images that are available online without prior written permission, provided that the files are not modified in any way, the Smithsonian Institution copyright notice (where applicable) is included, and the source of the image is identified as the National Museum of the American Indian. For more information please see the Smithsonian's Terms of Use and NMAI Archive Center's Digital Image request website.
Collection Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known) William Bull collotypes of Blackfeet Chiefs, image #, NMAI.AC.404. National Museum of the American Indian Archives Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.404, Item P11499
See more items in:
William Bull collotypes of Blackfeet Chiefs
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmai-ac-404-ref11

St. Bernard Mission School photographs

Creator:
St. Bernard Indian Residential School (Grouard, Alta.)  Search this
Extent:
0.01 Linear feet
5 Photographic prints
Culture:
Cree  Search this
Plains Cree (Prairie Cree)  Search this
Cree Metis  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographic prints
Place:
Grouard (Alta.)
Date:
circa 1925-1935
Summary:
This collection contains 5 gelatin silver prints depicting students and teachers at the St. Bernard Mission School (also known as the St. Bernard Indian Residential School) in Grouard, Alberta, Canada, circa 1925-1935.
Scope and Contents:
This collection contains 5 gelatin silver prints depicting students and teachers at the St. Bernard Mission School (also known as the St. Bernard Indian Residential School) in Grouard, Alberta, Canada. The photographs, shot by an unidentified photographer, depict student classes, activities, and teachers circa 1925-1935. One photograph also depicts a nurse and child at St. Theresa Hospital in Ft. Vermilion in Alberta, Canada. The students are most likely from the Plains Cree First Nations Indigenous community in Canada.
Biographical / Historical:
Founded in 1872, the St. Bernard Mission was located at Lesser Slave Lake in Alberta, Canada near the Hudson's Bay Company trading post. The Catholic mission run by the Missionary Oblates of Mary Immaculate worked with the Plains Cree and Cree Metis Indigenous communities in the region. By 1900, the mission ran the St. Bernard Mission School (also known as the St. Bernard Residential School), a residence for nuns, and a farming operation at Grouard, Alberta, Canada. The school closed its doors in 1962.
Provenance:
Donated by Patricia Krehbiel in 2017 and 2018.
Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiphotos@si.edu. For personal or classroom use, users are invited to download, print, photocopy, and distribute the images that are available online without prior written permission, provided that the files are not modified in any way, the Smithsonian Institution copyright notice (where applicable) is included, and the source of the image is identified as the National Museum of the American Indian. For more information please see the Smithsonian's Terms of Use and NMAI Archive Center's Digital Image request website.
Topic:
Indians of North America -- Canada  Search this
Indians of North America -- Education  Search this
Off-reservation boarding schools -- Photographs  Search this
Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); St. Bernard Mission School photographs; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.125
See more items in:
St. Bernard Mission School photographs
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmai-ac-125
Online Media:

George C. Coudert photographs from Brazil

Photographer:
Coudert, George C.  Search this
Extent:
14 Negatives (photographic)
Culture:
Tenharim  Search this
Parintintín (Parintintin)  Search this
Indians of South America -- Brazil  Search this
Amazonia  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Negatives (photographic)
Place:
Amazonas (Brazil)
Date:
1924
Summary:
Photographs made by George C. Coudert among the Tenharim and Parintintín (Parintintin) communities in Brazil during a 1924 expedition.
Scope and Contents:
This collection includes 14 negatives shot by George Coudert among the Tenharim and Parintintín (Parintintin) communities along the Rio dos Marmelos in the Amazonas State in Brazil. These were made during an expedition to collect rare bird specimens on behalf of the Zoological Gardens of Philadelphia. According to his original negative sleeves, the expedition stayed six days in the Madeira region to study the indigenous people in the area. Images include portraits of Tenharim and Parintintín (Parintintin) men, women, and children, often posed in groups outside of dwellings and along the river. The photographs were made in 1924 and were likely shot on nitrate. The negatives were transferred to safety film (acetate) in the 1960s when the Museum of the American Indian, Heye foundation conducted a large scale photograph conservation project. Contact prints were also made at this time.
Catalog numbers: N09121-N09134
Arrangement:
Arranged by catalog number.
Biographical / Historical:
George C. Coudert (1884-1955) was a photographer and cinematographer. Born in France, Coudert moved to the United States as a young child and attended school in Newark, New Jersey. Thought he started his career as a photographer, he moved into film and worked as cinematographer for most of his career. In the 1920's, Coudert went on several expeditions to South America serving as the photographer. In 1924 he travelled to Brazil on a rare bird catching expedition for the Zoological Gardens of Philadelphia, along with Joseph McGoldrick, Rudolphe Meyer De Schauensee, Henry Norris and Alec Eesso. Eventually, Coudert moved to California where he lived out the rest of his life.
Provenance:
It is still unclear how this collection came to the Museum of the American Indian, though it was likely a donation around 1924-1925 based on the catalog numbers.
Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Thursday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu). Some images restricted for cultural sensitivity.
Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiphotos@si.edu. For personal or classroom use, users are invited users to download, print, photocopy, and distribute the images that are available online without prior written permission, provided that the files are not changed, the Smithsonian Institution copyright notice (where applicable) is included, and the source of the image is identified as the National Museum of the American Indian.
Topic:
Photographs  Search this
Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); George C. Coudert photographs from Brazil, Item Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.133
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmai-ac-133

Child on horseback

Collection Photographer:
Miller, Fred E., 1868-1936  Search this
Extent:
1 Glass plate negative
Container:
Box 245 (glass plate negatives)
Culture:
Apsáalooke (Crow/Absaroke)  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Negatives
Glass plate negatives
Date:
circa 1898-1912
Scope and Contents:
Outdoor portrait of a Apsáalooke (Crow/Absaroke) child on horseback holding an umbrella. Photograph shot by Fred E. Miller circa 1898-1910 on the Apsáalooke (Crow/Absaroke) Reservation in Montana.
Collection Restrictions:
Access is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment.
Collection Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiphotos@si.edu. For personal or classroom use, users are invited to download, print, photocopy, and distribute the images that are available online without prior written permission, provided that the files are not modified in any way, the Smithsonian Institution copyright notice (where applicable) is included, and the source of the image is identified as the National Museum of the American Indian. For more information please see the Smithsonian's Terms of Use and NMAI Archive Center's Digital Image request website.
Some photographs in this collection are RESTRICTED due to Cultural Sensitivity.
Collection Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Fred E. Miller photograph collection, NMAI.AC.108, Catalog #. National Museum of the American Indian Archives, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.108, Item N13685
See more items in:
Fred E. Miller photograph collection
Fred E. Miller photograph collection / Series 1: Portraits and daily life
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmai-ac-108-ref541

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