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Aiguier Head-Gear

Maker:
S. S. White Dental Manufacturing Company  Search this
Measurements:
overall: 2 1/4 in x 5 3/4 in x 5 3/4 in; 5.715 cm x 14.605 cm x 14.605 cm
Object Name:
headgear
dental device
Credit Line:
Gift of Dr. James E. Aiguier
ID Number:
MG.260892.016
Accession number:
260892
Catalog number:
260892.016
See more items in:
Medicine and Science: Medicine
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746ad-d4cf-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_1442139
Online Media:

Manilla, West Africa, 19th Century

Physical Description:
bronze (overall material)
gold/brown (overall color)
cast (overall production method/technique)
Measurements:
overall: 6 cm x 6.1 cm x 1.7 cm; 2 3/8 in x 2 13/32 in x 21/32 in
Object Name:
manilla
alternative currency
Other Terms:
Manilla; Africa; Gold Coast to Lower Niger
Place used:
Africa
Date made:
19th century
Related Publication:
Feingold, Ellen R.. Value of Money, The
Credit Line:
The Chase Manhattan Bank
ID Number:
NU.79.112.OC19
Accession number:
1979.1263
Catalog number:
79.112.OC19
Collector/donor number:
OC19
See more items in:
Work and Industry: National Numismatic Collection
West African Currency
Exhibition:
The Value of Money
Exhibition Location:
National Museum of American History
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746a9-0e14-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_1067116
Online Media:

Twisted Manilla, Nigeria

Physical Description:
black (overall color)
light green (overall color)
bronze (overall material)
cast and twisted to shape (overall production method/technique)
metal, iron (overall material)
Measurements:
overall: 28.5 cm x 16.5 cm x 3.9 cm; 11 7/32 in x 6 1/2 in x 1 17/32 in
Object Name:
Manilla, Twisted
alternative currency
Other Terms:
Manilla, Twisted; Africa; Nigeria
Place used:
Nigeria
Date made:
n.d.
Credit Line:
The Chase Manhattan Bank
ID Number:
NU.79.112.00315
Accession number:
1979.1263
Catalog number:
79.112.00315
See more items in:
Work and Industry: National Numismatic Collection
West African Currency
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746a9-0a12-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_1067093
Online Media:

Wooden school desk from Bethel Evangelical Lutheran Church and School

Created by:
Unidentified  Search this
Owned by:
Bethel Evangelical Lutheran Church and School, American, 1925 - 1936  Search this
Medium:
wood and cast iron
Dimensions:
H x W x D: 27 1/2 x 20 3/4 x 27 1/2 in. (69.9 x 52.7 x 69.9 cm)
Type:
desks
Place collected:
Camden, Wilcox County, Alabama, United States, North and Central America
Date:
1925-1963
Topic:
African American  Search this
Education  Search this
Religious groups  Search this
Segregation  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture, Gift of M. Ann Phillippi and the Dr. George M. and Betty Phillippi Family
Object number:
2013.74.6
Restrictions & Rights:
No Known Copyright Restrictions
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Classification:
Furnishings, Housewares, and Décor
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/fd562fd1dc5-4ceb-40c3-9d17-5fe7403e4cd4
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2013.74.6
Online Media:

Seat back portion for a desk from Bethel Evangelical Lutheran Church and School

Created by:
Unidentified  Search this
Owned by:
Bethel Evangelical Lutheran Church and School, American, 1925 - 1936  Search this
Medium:
wood and cast iron
Dimensions:
H x W x D: 25 x 22 x 13 1/2 in. (63.5 x 55.9 x 34.3 cm)
Type:
desks
Place collected:
Camden, Wilcox County, Alabama, United States, North and Central America
Date:
1925-1963
Topic:
African American  Search this
Education  Search this
Religious groups  Search this
Segregation  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture, Gift of M. Ann Phillippi and the Dr. George M. and Betty Phillippi Family
Object number:
2013.74.9
Restrictions & Rights:
No Known Copyright Restrictions
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Classification:
Furnishings, Housewares, and Décor
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/fd5229a08c4-2a3b-4c12-b927-e21abd9c303a
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2013.74.9
Online Media:

Materials of the mind phrenology, race, and the global history of science, 1815-1920 James Poskett

Author:
Poskett, James  Search this
Physical description:
1 online resource (1 volume)
Type:
Electronic resources
Electronic books
History
Date:
2019
Topic:
Phrenology--History  Search this
BODY, MIND & SPIRIT--General  Search this
Phrenology  Search this
Call number:
BF868 .P67 2019 (Internet)
Restrictions & Rights:
1-user
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_1147364

Frederick Douglass Patterson papers

Creator:
Patterson, Frederick D. (Frederick Douglass), 1901-1988  Search this
Names:
Phelps-Stokes Fund  Search this
Tuskegee Institute  Search this
United Negro College Fund  Search this
Carver, George Washington, 1864?-1943  Search this
Moton, Robert Russa, 1867-1940  Search this
Patterson, Frederick D. (Frederick Douglass), 1901-1988  Search this
Extent:
18.66 Linear feet (21 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Diplomas
Notebooks
Articles
Manuscripts
Photographic prints
Ephemera
Scrapbooks
Newsletters
Awards
Photographs
Invitations
Legal documents
Programs
Correspondence
Clippings
Date:
1882 - 1988
Summary:
President of Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute (later Tukegee Institute; now Tuskegee University) from 1935 - 1953 and founder of the United Negro College Fund (1944). Patterson was born on October 10, 1901. Orphaned at age two, he was raised by his eldest sister, Wilhelmina (Bess), a school teacher in Texas. He studied at Iowa State College, where he received a doctorate in veterinary medicine in 1923 and a master of science degree in 1927. Five years later, he was awarded a second doctorate degree from Cornell University. Patterson taught veterinary science for four years at Virginia State College, where he was also Director of Agriculture. His tenure at Tuskegee University started in 1928 and spanned almost 25 years, first as head of the veterinary division, then as the director of the School of Agriculture and finally as Tuskegee's third president. He married Catherine Elizabeth Moton, daughter of Tuskegee University's second president, Dr. Robert R. Moton. Patterson also founded the School of Veterinary Medicine at Tuskegee in 1944, the same year he founded the United Negro College Fund (UNCF). The UNCF continues today as a critical source of annual income for a consortium of Historically Black Colleges and Universities, Tuskegee University among them.
Scope and Content note:
The Frederick Douglass Patterson Collection comprises 18.66 linear feet of correspondence, manuscripts, research material, published writings, photographs, audiovisual material, scrapbooks, diplomas, awards, and other materials chronicling the personal life and professional career of Frederick D. Patterson.

The collection is comprised of glimpses into the life of Dr. Patterson. The little correspondece that survived is located in Series 2: Career, Series 3: Correspondence, and Series 4: Organizations. Some of the correspondence takes the form of congratulatory notes from 1953 during Patterson's transfer from Tuskegee Institute to the Phelps-Stokes Fund, located in Series 2. There is also a personal note sent to Patterson's wife, Catherine Patterson, from George Washington Carver in which he describes peanut oil as a good massage oil.
Arrangement note:
The collection is arranged by series and chronologically therein:

1. Biography: This series provides insight into Patterson's family life through primary documents. It is comprised of family wills, insurance policies, and his autobiography. Sub-series are arranged alphabetically by title.

2. Career: This series contains materials from Patterson's long professional career in the field of higher education, including his tenure as present of both the Tuskegee Institute and the Phelps-Stokes Fund. Sub-series are arranged chronologically.

3. Correspondence: This series contains letters sent to Patterson (and his wife) of a personal and professional nature. Several letters relate to Patterson's personal business "Signs and Services," which was a small billboard advertising company. There are also letters from George Washington Carver. The series is arranged chronologically. 4. Organizations: This series contains material from the various foundations Patterson founded and to which he belonged, including the R.R. Moton Fund and the College Endowment Funding Plan. He is especially noted for developing the United Negro College Fund. The series is organized alphabetically by sub-series title.

5. Honors: This series contains the awards, citations, and resolutions Patterson received during his lifetime. Folders are organized chronologically. 6. Subject Files: This series comprises articles, employee vitas, and other documents collected and organized by Patterson. Among the subjects in the files are higher education, Negroes, segregation, civil rights, and employee records. There is no key to this system.

7. Photographs: The Photograph series mostly documents Patterson's tenure at Tuskegee University. The series includes images of Patterson and various other notable figures during formal functions at the university. Noteworthy personalities include George Washington Carver, Eleanor and Franklin D. Roosevelt, and President Kwame Nkrumah of Ghana.

8. Printed Materials: This series contains books, programs, and other documents from Patterson's personal collection. The series is organized alphabetically by author's last name.
Biographical note:
Frederick Douglass Patterson was born on October 10, 1901 to parents William and Mamie Brooks Patterson, in the Buena Vista Heights area of Anacostia in Washington, D.C. The youngest of six children, Patterson's parents died of tuberculosis before he reached the age of two years, his mother when he was eleven months old and his father a year later. Following his parents' death, the Patterson children were split up and sent to live in the homes of family and friends as stipulated in his father's last will and testament until he was seven years old, Patterson lived in the Anacostia area with a family friend he called "Aunt Julia."

When he was seven years old, Patterson's older sister Bess (a recent graduate of the Washington Conservatory of Music) decided to seek employment in Texas and took him with her. Many of their parents' family still lived in the state, which allowed Patterson the opportunity to spend months with various aunts and uncles, while his sister taught music throughout the South. After completing eighth grade, Patterson joined his sister at the Prairie View Normal School, where she taught music and directed the choir. Patterson attended the school for four years, during which time he developed an interest in veterinary medicine.

In 1920, Patterson enrolled at Iowa State College as a veterinary student. He graduated in 1923 and moved to Columbus, Ohio, to join his brother John. While there, he took the Ohio State Board exam for Veterinary Medicine. Although he became certified, a lack of money prevented him from practicing. Four years later he received a teaching offer from Virginia State College (VSC) in Petersburg, Virginia, which afforded him the opportunity to work within his profession. While at VSC Patterson took a leave of absence and returned to Iowa, in 1926, to pursue a Master's degree in veterinary medicine.

After five years at VSC, the Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute offered Patterson a position running the veterinarian hospital and teaching veterinary science. He moved to Tuskegee, Alabama in 1928. While at Tuskegee, Patterson decided to pursue a Ph.D. in bacteriology at Cornell University. During his year and a half leave from Tuskegee, Patterson completed his coursework and wrote his dissertation. After he returned to Tuskegee, a serial killer murdered three people, including the head of the Department of Agriculture. Confronted with this tragedy, school officials quickly offered Patterson the vacant position, which he accepted in 1934.

Robert R. Moton, second president of Tuskegee, retired in 1935 and a search was soon commenced to find the next president for the school. Patterson, in the meantime, pursued more personal matters when he met and married Catherine Moton (with whom he would have a son) in June 1935. By then he was already hired to take his now, father-in-law's, position as President of Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute.

As president of Tuskegee, Patterson made several changes and many additions to the institution. He increased faculty housing for professors; integrated the Board of Trustees' meeting meals and eventually arranged for both balck and white members to eat at one table; shortened the name to Tuskegee Institute; and established the Department of Commercial Dietetics in 1935, the veterinary medicine program in 1942, and the engineering program in 1948. While many considered Patterson's changes important achievements, it was his development of the Commercial/Military Aviation Program that would bring the school distinction and fame.

Patterson first attempted to develop the aviation program in 1939. The government fostered the development of such programs by subsiding the expenses. All a university had to do was present able-bodied instructors and willing pupils. Tuskegee had both. By 1940 the United States Air Force was interested in integrating its forces. In order to do this they needed trained black pilots. Tuskegee was the perfect place to provide the needed pilots since the school was situated in an all-black environment where students could concentrate on learning to fly without having to worry about racist reactions from their fellow classmates. To accommodate this program, the Tuskegee Army Air Base was created. Tuskegee pilots flew missions throughout World War II and would later be recognized for their bravery.

An important part of Patterson's duties as president was fund-raising. By 1943 he found it increasingly difficult to find ample sources of funds to run the Institute. He came to realize Tuskegee and similar black colleges would benefit if they pooled their funding resources and asked for larger amounts of money from philanthropic individuals and organizations as a collective. Working together would cut fund-raising expenses; this in turn would leave more money for the colleges to use as they wished. Patterson named his new creation the United Negro College Fund (UNCF); it would go on to raise millions of dollars for the nation's historically black colleges. He served as the first president of the organization.

During the fifteen years Patterson served as president of Tuskegee, he hosted many famous personalities, including W.E.B. DuBois, Mary McLeod Bethune, Eleanor Roosevelt, Duke Ellington, Paul Robeson, Pearl Buck, and Andre Segovia. He developed a lasting relationship with George Washington Carver, who had been a professor with Tuskegee since the days of Booker T. Washington.

Patterson served on many organizational boards in addition to his educational work. His involvement with the Phelps-Stokes Fund would ultimately lead Patterson to leave his beloved Tuskegee Institute to apply his educational philosophies on a broader scale. In 1953 the Fund approached Patterson and offered him the presidency of the organization. Patterson, feeling he needed a change, accepted the offer. He resigned from Tuskegee that same year and moved to New York to begin a new life.

Organized in 1911, the Phelps-Stokes Fund supported African, African American, and Native American education and worked on solving housing problems in New York City. Patterson's interest in African education began before he joined Phelps-Stokes. In 1950 the World Bank/International Bank Commission to Nigeria hired him to "evaluate the resources of Nigeria and…to study the educational programs and the organizational structure of advanced education." Through his work with the Fund he continued his efforts to improve the educational opportunities for Africans and help them move beyond colonialism. Patterson traveled extensively throughout the west coast of Africa in support of these goals.

In addition to forming the UNCF, Patterson created two other organizations (the Robert R. Moton Institute and the College Endowment Funding Plan), during the mid 1960s and 1970s. Each was designed to improve funding efforts for historically black colleges. The Robert R. Moton institute began as an off-shoot of the Phelps-Stokes as a site for conferences to address the Fund's primary concerns. Patterson's idea for the Institute came from a desire to put to use a piece of property inherited after Moton's death. Empathy with the frustrations of college presidents regarding the restricted funding for institutional expenses led Patterson to create the College Endowment Funding Plan. The Endowment was designed to alleviate this situation by providing matching funds to eligible colleges. The Endowment made its first payment in 1978. Unfortunately, by the 1980s, the Moton Institute lost most of its government funding due to federal cutbacks. This resulted in reductions to the Institute's programming.

It was not until Patterson was well into his eighties that he began to retire from his life of public service. On June 23, 1987, President Ronald Reagan presented Dr. Patterson with the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the highest possible honor that can be bestowed upon a civilian, for his service in higher education and his role in creating funding sources for the nation's historically black colleges. A year later Frederick Douglass Patterson died at the age of eighty-seven.

Honorary Degrees

undated -- Xavier University

1941 -- Virginia State College

1941 -- Wilberforce University

1953 -- Morehouse College

1956 -- Tuskegee Institute

1961 -- New York University

1966 -- Edward Waters College

1967 -- Atlanta University

1969 -- Franklin and Marshall College

1970 -- Virginia Union University

1975 -- Bishop College

1977 -- St. Augustine's College

1982 -- Brooklyn College of the City University of New York

1984 -- Stillman College

1985 -- Payne College

Distinctions

undated -- Association for the Study of Negro Life and History Carter

undated -- The Southern Education Foundation, Inc. Distinguished Service Citation

undated -- The United Negro College Fund (UNCF) and Texas Association of Developing Colleges Annual Leadership Awards

1950 -- Christian Education department, African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church, Inc. Citation for Distinguished Service

1953 -- Bethune-Cookman College, the Mary McLeod Bethune Medallion

1953 -- John A. Andrew Clinical Society at Tuskegee Institute, Citation for Distinguished Service in the Cause of Humanity

1953 -- Tuskegee Institute, Certificate of Appreciation for 25 Years of Service

1957 -- Phi Beta Sigma Fraternity, Inc. Beta Lamda Sigma Chapter, Bigger and Better Business Award

1960 -- National Alumni Council of the UNCF, Inc. Award

1963 -- National Business League, Booker T. Washington Award

1965 -- Booker T. Washington Business Association, Certificate of Acknowledgement

1970 -- Moton Conference Center Award

1970 -- Tuskegee National Alumni Association, R.R. Moton Award

1972 -- American College Public Relations Association, 1972 Award for Distinguished Service to Higher Education

1972 -- UNCF F.D. Patterson 71st Birthday Award

1975 -- National Business League, Booker T. Washington Symbol of Service Award

1976 -- Phelps-Stokes Fund, Continuous Creative and Courageous Leadership in the Cause of Higher Education for Blacks

1977 -- Yale Alumni Associates of Afro-America, Distinguished Service Award

1979 -- Alpha Phi Alpha Education Foundation Inc., Distinguished Educator Award

1979 -- Tuskegee Institute Alumni Association Philadelphia Charter Award

1980 -- The Iowa State University Alumni Association, Distinguished Achievement Citation

1980 -- Gary Branch NAACP Life Membership Fight for Freedom Dinner 1980, Roy Wilkins Award

1980 -- State of Alabama Certificate of Appreciation

1982 -- St. Luke's United Methodist Church Achievement Award

1983 -- Tuskegee Airmen, Inc., Distinguished Service Award

1984 -- Booker T. Washington Foundation, Booker T. Washington Distinguished Service Award

1984 -- The Ohio State University Office of Minority Affairs, Distinguished Humanitarian and Service Award

1985 -- Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Inc, Eta Zeta Lamda Chapter Civic Award

1985 -- United States, Private Sector Initiative Commendation

1987 -- Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Inc of New York State, Founders Day Award

1987 -- Presidential Medal of Freedom

1987 -- Brag Business Achievement Award

1987 -- Phelps-Stokes Fund, Aggrey Medal

Public Service

1941-1971 -- Southern Educational Foundation, Inc., Board Member

1943-1988 -- United Negro College Fund, Founder, President, and Member

1960s-1988 -- Robert R. Moton Memorial Institute, Founder

1970s-1988 -- The College Endowment Funding Plan, Founder

undated -- American National Red Cross, Board of Governors Member

undated -- Boys Scouts of America, National Council Member

undated -- Citizens Committee for the Hoover Report on Reorganization of Federal Government, Board Member

undated -- Institute of International Education, Advisory committee Member

undated -- National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, Life Member

undated -- National Business League, President and Board Member

undated -- National Urban League, National Committee Member

undated -- Phelps-Stokes Fund, Board of Trustees Member

undated -- President's Commission on Higher Education for Negroes

undated -- Southern Regional Education, Board of Control Member
Related Materials:
Additional biographical materials in the Dale/Patterson Collection of the Anacostia Community Museum Archives.

This collection contains artifacts catalogued in the ACM Objects Collection.
Provenance:
The Frederick Douglass Patterson papers were donated to the Anacostia Community Museum in 2001 by Frederick Douglass Patterson, Jr.
Restrictions:
Use of the materials requires an appointment. Please contact the archivist to make an appointment: ACMarchives@si.edu.
Rights:
The Frederick Douglass Patterson papers are the physical property of the Anacostia Community Museum. Literary and copyright belong to the author/creator or their legal heirs and assigns. Rights to work produced during the normal course of Museum business resides with the Anacostia Community Museum. For further information, and to obtain permission to publish or reproduce, contact the Museum Archives.
Topic:
Universities and colleges -- Administration  Search this
African Americans -- Education (Higher)  Search this
African American universities and colleges  Search this
Genre/Form:
Diplomas
Notebooks
Articles
Manuscripts
Photographic prints
Ephemera
Scrapbooks
Newsletters
Awards
Photographs
Invitations
Legal documents
Programs
Correspondence
Clippings
Citation:
Frederick Douglass Patterson papers, Anacostia Community Museum Archives, Smithsonian Institution, gift of Frederick Douglass Patterson, Jr.
Identifier:
ACMA.06-010
See more items in:
Frederick Douglass Patterson papers
Archival Repository:
Anacostia Community Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-acma-06-010
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  • View Frederick Douglass Patterson papers digital asset number 2
Online Media:

G. Bruce; Food Preservation; Bryan, Pafford; Dog Trot House; Shellhorse, Pire, Brogd

Creator:
Smithsonian Institution. Festival of American Folklife. Folk Housing and Energy Efficiency Program 1980 Washington, D.C.  Search this
Collection Creator:
Smithsonian Institution. Center for Folklife and Cultural Heritage  Search this
Extent:
1 Sound recording (sound-tape reel, analog, 7 in.)
Type:
Archival materials
Sound recordings
Place:
United States
Washington (D.C.)
Date:
1980 October 11
Local Numbers:
FP-1980-7RR-0299
Date/Time and Place of an Event Note:
Recorded in: Washington (D.C.), United States, October 11, 1980.
Restrictions:
Restrictions on access. Some duplication is allowed. Use of materials needs permission of the Smithsonian Institution.
Collection Rights:
Copyright and other restrictions may apply. Generally, materials created during a Festival are covered by a release signed by each participant permitting their use for personal and educational purposes; materials created as part of the fieldwork leading to a Festival may be more restricted. We permit and encourage such personal and educational use of those materials provided digitally here, without special permissions. Use of any materials for publication, commercial use, or distribution requires a license from the Archives. Licensing fees may apply in addition to any processing fees.
Topic:
Food Preservation  Search this
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Folklife Festival records: 1980 Festival of American Folklife, Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
CFCH.SFF.1980, Item FP-1980-7RR-0299
See more items in:
Smithsonian Folklife Festival records: 1980 Festival of American Folklife
Smithsonian Folklife Festival records: 1980 Festival of American Folklife / Series 4: Community Activities and Food Preservation / 4.3: Audio
Archival Repository:
Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-cfch-sff-1980-ref319
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  • View G. Bruce; Food Preservation; Bryan, Pafford; Dog Trot House; Shellhorse, Pire, Brogd digital asset number 1

Medicine Show

Collection Creator:
Smithsonian Institution. Center for Folklife and Cultural Heritage  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Introduction:
A special sense of mystery and glamour surrounds the medicine showman - the itinerant patent medicine seller whose free performances were an important part of small town life still within living memory of many Americans. The American patent medicine seller derived from mountebanks - wandering herb doctors and medicine vendors who drew crowds with songs or conjuring. They appeared in the New World as early as the 1600s, but it was only about 1850 that the idea of selling medicine between the acts of a free show resulted from the rapid growth of proprietary medicine companies, many of which sent advertising units on the road after the Civil War. These units were especially popular in rural areas where regular theater companies rarely appeared. Medicine shows sponsored by leading firms such as the Kickapoo Indian Medicine Company and Hamlin's Wizard Oil were soon in competition with independent showmen who casually brewed up their remedies in boarding house bathtubs.

By 1900 medicine shows had pervaded every part of the country where an audience could be found, and the various types of medicine showmen were vying with one another to present novelties and unique attractions. In addition to a pitchman who sold remedies, more elaborate shows carried an entire cast of performers and musicians, as well as a more-or-less completely equipped tent theater. Some large medicine show companies, in fact, were capable of mounting several hours of entertainment with a dozen or more acts as well as half a dozen intervals dunng which the showman could sell his products. The shows were the only form of entertainment in many rural American communities and one of the most lucrative sources of employment for folk musicians. Many of our most celebrated folk and popular performers, including Bessie Smith, Clarence Ashley, Harmonica Frank Floyd, and Hank Williams, got their starts in medicine shows. It was this heritage of entertainment and amusement that was celebrated during the 1979 Festival.
Participants:
Milton Bartok, 1909-1980, pitchman, Tallevast, Florida

Fred Foster Bloodgood, 1910-1997, pitchman, Madison, Wisconsin

Harvey Ellington, 1909-1997, musician, Durham, North Carolina

Frank Floyd, 1908-1984, musician, Georgetown, Ohio

Snuffy Jenkins, 1908-1990, musician, Chapin, South Carolina

Alton Machen, pitchman, Elizabethton, Tennessee

Greasy Medlin, 1910-1982, musician, Chapin, South Carolina

Hammie Nixon, musician, Brownsville, Tennessee

Anna Mae Noell, 1914-2000, comedian, Tarpon Springs, Florida

Bob Noell, 1914-2000, comedian, Tarpon Springs, Florida

Sam Pridgen, musician, Durham, North Carolina

Pappy Sherrill, 1915-2001, musician, Chapin, South Carolina

George Franklin Washington, dancer, Louisville, Kentucky

Bronco West, comedian, Dunn, North Carolina
Collection Restrictions:
Access by appointment only. Where a listening copy or viewing copy has been created, this is indicated in the respective inventory; additional materials may be accessible with sufficient advance notice and, in some cases, payment of a processing fee. Older papers are housed at a remote location and may require a minimum of three weeks' advance notice and payment of a retrieval fee. Certain formats such as multi-track audio recordings and EIAJ-1 videoreels (1/2 inch) may not be accessible. Contact the Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections at 202-633-7322 or rinzlerarchives@si.edu for additional information.
Collection Rights:
Copyright and other restrictions may apply. Generally, materials created during a Festival are covered by a release signed by each participant permitting their use for personal and educational purposes; materials created as part of the fieldwork leading to a Festival may be more restricted. We permit and encourage such personal and educational use of those materials provided digitally here, without special permissions. Use of any materials for publication, commercial use, or distribution requires a license from the Archives. Licensing fees may apply in addition to any processing fees.
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Folklife Festival records: 1979 Festival of American Folklife, Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
CFCH.SFF.1979, Series 6
See more items in:
Smithsonian Folklife Festival records: 1979 Festival of American Folklife
Archival Repository:
Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-cfch-sff-1979-ref46

Shanidar Cave and Plaster Cast of Shanidar Skeleton

Collection Creator:
Solecki, Ralph S.  Search this
Solecki, Rose L.  Search this
Container:
Box 56
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
circa 1951- circa 1960
Collection Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Collection Citation:
Ralph S. and Rose L. Solecki papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Ralph S. and Rose L. Solecki papers
Ralph S. and Rose L. Solecki papers / Series 1: Shanidar Cave and Zawi Chemi Shanidar, Iraq / 1.7: Photographs and Slides / Prints, Negatives, and Albums
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-2016-29-ref663

b 14 March 1960 solid rocket grains 2 find date - Minuteman solid propellant casting photograph from unidentified article

Collection Creator:
Stumpf, David  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Collection Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Collection Citation:
Minuteman ICBM Program Research Data [Stumpf], NASM.2020.0028 , National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Minuteman ICBM Program Research Data [Stumpf]
Minuteman ICBM Program Research Data [Stumpf] / Aviation Week and Space Technology Material / 1960
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-2020-0028-ref1242

b 14 March 1960 solid rocket rains find date - Minuteman solid propellant casting photograph from unidentified article

Collection Creator:
Stumpf, David  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Collection Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Collection Citation:
Minuteman ICBM Program Research Data [Stumpf], NASM.2020.0028 , National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
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Minuteman ICBM Program Research Data [Stumpf]
Minuteman ICBM Program Research Data [Stumpf] / Aviation Week and Space Technology Material / 1960
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-2020-0028-ref1243

Charles Lang Freer's letters to Frank Hecker during foreign travels

Creator:
Freer, Charles Lang, 1856-1919  Search this
Names:
Whistler, James McNeill, 1834-1903  Search this
Collection Creator:
Freer, Charles Lang, 1856-1919  Search this
Extent:
60 Pages
Type:
Archival materials
Pages
Letters (correspondence)
Place:
Japan
Sri Lanka
Paris (France)
Date:
1894-1895
Scope and Contents:
Letter written by Charles Lang Freer to his friend and business associate Frank Hecker (1846-1927) while Freer was traveling in Europe and Asia between September 1894 and August 1895. This was Freer's first travel in Asia, and while he was not purchasing works of fine art in large numbers, the cultural encounters he made during this trip deepened his interest in Asia's artistic heritage. Freer's stops included Sri Lanka, India, Singapore, China and Japan. Freer also stayed in Italy and France, spending time with James McNeill Whistler in Paris.
Arrangement:
Organized chronologically.
Local Numbers:
FSA A.01 02.1Hecker.travel2
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Permission to publish, quote, or reproduce must be secured from the repository.
Topic:
Travel  Search this
Genre/Form:
Letters (correspondence)
Collection Citation:
Charles Lang Freer Papers. Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives. Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. Gift of the estate of Charles Lang Freer.
Identifier:
FSA.A.01, File FSA A.01 02.1Hecker.travel2
See more items in:
Charles Lang Freer Papers
Charles Lang Freer Papers / Series 2: Correspondence / 2.1: Charles Lang Freer Correspondence / Hecker, Frank J., Col., 1892-1917
Archival Repository:
Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-fsa-a-01-ref3170
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Charles Lang Freer's letters to Frank Hecker during foreign travels

Creator:
Freer, Charles Lang, 1856-1919  Search this
Names:
Smithsonian Institution  Search this
Collection Creator:
Freer, Charles Lang, 1856-1919  Search this
Extent:
283 Pages
Type:
Archival materials
Pages
Letters (correspondence)
Place:
Sri Lanka
Singapore
Indonesia
Egypt
Syria
Japan
Paris (France)
London (England)
Date:
1904-1908
Scope and Contents:
Letters written by Charles Lang Freer to his friend and business associate Frank Hecker (1846-1927) during multiple trips to Europe and Asia between 1904 and July of 1908. After a decade absence, Freer travelled again to Asia, taking extended tours of Egypt, Syria, Sri Lanka, Southeast Asia and Japan. Also included are letters written from Detroit that describe the status of Freer's offer of his collection to the Smithsonian.
Arrangement:
Organized chronologically.
Local Numbers:
FSA A.01 02.1Hecker.travel4
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Permission to publish, quote, or reproduce must be secured from the repository.
Topic:
Travel  Search this
Genre/Form:
Letters (correspondence)
Collection Citation:
Charles Lang Freer Papers. Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives. Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. Gift of the estate of Charles Lang Freer.
Identifier:
FSA.A.01, File FSA A.01 02.1Hecker.travel4
See more items in:
Charles Lang Freer Papers
Charles Lang Freer Papers / Series 2: Correspondence / 2.1: Charles Lang Freer Correspondence / Hecker, Frank J., Col., 1892-1917
Archival Repository:
Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-fsa-a-01-ref3172
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Charles Lang Freer's letters to Frank Hecker during foreign travels

Creator:
Freer, Charles Lang, 1856-1919  Search this
Names:
Smithsonian Institution  Search this
Collection Creator:
Freer, Charles Lang, 1856-1919  Search this
Extent:
283 Pages
Type:
Archival materials
Pages
Letters (correspondence)
Place:
Egypt
Japan
Paris (France)
London (England)
Berlin (Germany)
Cairo (Egypt)
Beijing (China)
Kyoto (Japan)
Shanghai (China)
Date:
1909
Scope and Contents:
Letters written by Charles Lang Freer to his friend and business associate Frank Hecker (1846-1927) during an extended trip to Europe and Asia from April to December1909. Freer's travel destitanations included Paris, London, Berlin, Cairo, Beijing, Shanghai, Kyoto and Tokyo.
Arrangement:
Organized chronologically.
Local Numbers:
FSA A.01 02.1Hecker.travel5
Issuing Body Note:
横浜 東京 京都 北京 上海
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Permission to publish, quote, or reproduce must be secured from the repository.
Topic:
Travel  Search this
Genre/Form:
Letters (correspondence)
Collection Citation:
Charles Lang Freer Papers. Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives. Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. Gift of the estate of Charles Lang Freer.
Identifier:
FSA.A.01, File FSA A.01 02.1Hecker.travel5
See more items in:
Charles Lang Freer Papers
Charles Lang Freer Papers / Series 2: Correspondence / 2.1: Charles Lang Freer Correspondence / Hecker, Frank J., Col., 1892-1917
Archival Repository:
Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-fsa-a-01-ref3173
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Yue, Seaouke (You Xiaoxi; 游筱溪)

Creator:
Freer, Charles Lang, 1856-1919  Search this
Yue, Seaouke  Search this
Names:
Pang Yuanji, 1864-1949  Search this
Collection Creator:
Freer, Charles Lang, 1856-1919  Search this
Extent:
6 Items (folders of correspondence)
Container:
Box 36, Folder 17-22
Type:
Archival materials
Letters (correspondence)
Date:
1917-1919
Scope and Contents:
Letters dated between 1917 and 1919, mostly discussing the offer of Chinese art objects by the Shanghai based dealer Seaouke Yue (You Xiaoxi)
游篠溪
Freer collection numbers: F1904.61
Letters between Charles Lang Freer and Seaouke Yue (You Xiaoxi)
Arrangement:
Organized chronologically under correspondent.
Biographical / Historical:
Charels Lang Freer first met Yue in 1917. Yue had travelled to New York with items from the collection of Pang Yuanji, an important Shanghai collector who met Freer in 1911. Over the next two years, Freer purchased a number of important works of Chinese painting, jades, pottery and bronzes from Yue.
Local Numbers:
FSA A.01 02.1Yue
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Permission to publish, quote, or reproduce must be secured from the repository.
Topic:
Art, Chinese  Search this
Genre/Form:
Letters (correspondence)
Collection Citation:
Charles Lang Freer Papers. Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives. Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. Gift of the estate of Charles Lang Freer.
Identifier:
FSA.A.01, File FSA A.01 02.1Yue
See more items in:
Charles Lang Freer Papers
Charles Lang Freer Papers / Series 2: Correspondence / 2.1: Charles Lang Freer Correspondence
Archival Repository:
Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-fsa-a-01-ref634
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Art Foundry and Art Foundry Editions Records

Creator:
Art Foundry  Search this
Art Foundry Editions  Search this
Names:
Allen, Terry, 1943-  Search this
Arnoldi, Charles, 1946-  Search this
Bell, Larry, 1939-  Search this
Benglis, Lynda, 1941-  Search this
Chicago, Judy, 1939-  Search this
Dill, Lesley, 1950-  Search this
Gabriel Orozco, 1962-  Search this
Hackett, Dwight  Search this
Hanbury, Una, 1904-1990  Search this
Houser, Allan, 1914-1994  Search this
Jimenez, Luis, 1940-2006  Search this
Lin, Maya Ying  Search this
Lord, Andrew  Search this
Morris, Robert, 1931-2018  Search this
Nauman, Bruce, 1941-  Search this
Otterness, Tom, 1952-  Search this
Rees, Michael, 1958-  Search this
Scholder, Fritz, 1937-2005  Search this
Shelton, Peter, 1951-  Search this
Smith, Kiki, 1954-  Search this
Soares, Valeska  Search this
Tuttle, Richard, 1941-  Search this
Extent:
25.7 Linear feet
0.891 Gigabytes
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Gigabytes
Sketches
Photographs
Date:
circa 1975-circa 2007
Summary:
The Art Foundry and Art Foundry Editions records measure 25.7 linear feet and 0.891 GB and date from circa 1975 to circa 2007. Records include administrative files; correspondence with artists, collectors, dealers, galleries, and others; eight gallery appointment books and fourteen notebooks; exhibition files; extensive artists' files; financial and legal materials; sculpture production and inventory files; and photographic and digital materials.
Scope and Contents:
The Art Foundry and Art Foundry Editions records measure 25.7 linear feet and 0.891 GB and date from circa 1975 to circa 2007. Records include administrative files; correspondence with artists, collectors, dealers, galleries, and others; eight gallery appointment books and fourteen notebooks; exhibition files; extensive artists' files; financial and legal materials; sculpture production and inventory files; and photographic and digital materials.

Administrative records document the daily operations of the Art Foundry and AFE. Correspondence is with artists, galleries, art collectors and dealers, patrons, and others.

The appointment books and notebooks document daily operations within the Foundry administrative offices, including phone messages and daily appointments, and also include notes and conversations regarding various artists' ongoing sculptural plans and projects. Entries have been made by Dwight Hackett, artists, and other staff members.

The bulk of the collection is comprised of artists' files representing over 132 artists, which may include scattered correspondence and notes; scattered exhibition materials; financial materials; photographic materials; digital materials; and sketches and plans for various sculptural productions and projects. Artists include Terry Allen, Larry Bell, Lynda Benglis, Judy Chicago, Lesley Dill, Una Hanbury, Luis Jimenez, Allan Houser, Maya Lin, Andrew Lord, Robert Morris, Bruce Nauman, Gabriel Orozco, Tom Otterness, Michael Rees, Fritz Scholder, Peter Shelton, Kiki Smith, Valeska Soares, and Richard Tuttle, among many others. Seven CD-Rs contain material related to artists Terry Allen, Charles Arnoldi, Lesley Dill, and Michael Rees.

Financial and legal materials include invoices and financial statements, consignment agreements, and miscellaneous legal documents.

Sculpture production and inventory files document casting guidelines and costs incurred; casting logs and records; sculpture production records for various artists; and inventory cards and photographs and digital documentation for various projects and works.

The collection contains hundreds of snapshots and Polaroids that depict the collaborative atmosphere Hackett was able to create at Art Foundry. There are also slides, negatives and nine photograph albums.
Arrangement:
This collection is arranged as 8 series. Researchers should note that Art Foundry and Art Foundry Editions records were merged prior to processing.

Missing Title

Series 1: Administrative Files, circa 1980-circa 2004 (0.5 linear feet; Box 1)

Series 2: Correspondence, 1985-2000 (0.6 linear feet; Boxes 1-2)

Series 3: Gallery Appointment Books and Notebooks, 1985-2000 (1.0 linear feet; Boxes 2-3)

Series 4: Exhibition Files, 1986-1997 (0.2 linear feet; Box 3)

Series 5: Artists' Files, circa 1980-circa 2007 (16.8 linear feet; Boxes 3-19, OV 27-31, 0.891 GB; ER01-ER03)

Series 6: Financial and Legal Materials, 1991-circa 2001 (1.2 linear feet; Boxes 19-20)

Series 7: Sculpture Production and Inventory Files, circa 1975-circa 2002 (2.4 linear feet; Boxes 20-23, OV 31)

Series 8: Photographic Materials, circa 1977-circa 2002 (3.0 linear feet; Boxes 23-26)
Biographical / Historical:
Art Foundry (est.1980-closed 2000) and Art Foundry Editions (est. 1992-closed 2000) were organizations founded and operated by Dwight Hackett in Santa Fe, New Mexico.

While working for another foundry in New Mexico, Dwight Hackett met Una Hanbury and began casting her work at his home, using a relatively new technique called cold casting. The process produced work that lighter than bronze and less expensive to produce. Una Hanbury helped Hackett travel to Washington, D. C. to study with Harvey Moore at his foundry. He formally established his studio, Art Foundry, in New Mexico, in 1980 with a loan from Hanbury and subsequent investment from the Apache sculptor Allan Houser. According to Hackett, Art Foundry's mission was to "collaborate with artists, not just work for them, and to challenge the limits of traditional casting technique."

In 1990, Hackett extended the operation by establishing Art Foundry Editions (AFE) through which he invited artists to come to Santa Fe for a residency and produce multiples of their work. AFE would acquire half of each artists' edition, and then market the works to galleries and collectors. One of AFE's first artists was Lynda Benglis, who purportedly came for a two-week residency and stayed for nine months.

Hackett sold Art Foundry and Art Foundry Editions in 2000.

(Much of the biographical note was taken from collecting specialist Jason Stieber's acquisition report published in the Archives of American Art Journal, Volume Number 54, 2016.)
Provenance:
The Art Foundry and Art Foundry Editions records were donated by Dwight Hackett in 2014.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C. Research Center. Contact Reference Services for more information.
Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Topic:
Publishers and publishing  Search this
Sculpture  Search this
Function:
Foundries
Genre/Form:
Sketches
Photographs
Citation:
Art Foundry and Art Foundry Editions records, circa 1975-circa 2007. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.artfoued
See more items in:
Art Foundry and Art Foundry Editions Records
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-artfoued

Financial and Legal Materials

Collection Creator:
Art Foundry  Search this
Art Foundry Editions  Search this
Extent:
1.2 Linear feet (Boxes 19-20)
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1991-circa 2001
Scope and Contents:
Found here are invoices and statements regarding studio expenditures and miscellaneous purchases, such as casting supplies, equipment, hourly casting rates, and the like. Also found are files on legal discussions with leasing galleries, consignment agreements surrounding artists' works represented in various galleries, among other financial and legal items.
Collection Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C. Research Center. Contact Reference Services for more information.
Collection Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Collection Citation:
Art Foundry and Art Foundry Editions records, circa 1975-circa 2007. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.artfoued, Series 6
See more items in:
Art Foundry and Art Foundry Editions Records
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aaa-artfoued-ref16

Sculpture Production and Inventory Files

Collection Creator:
Art Foundry  Search this
Art Foundry Editions  Search this
Extent:
2.4 Linear feet (Boxes 20-23, OV 31)
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
circa 1975-circa 2002
Scope and Contents:
Sculpture production and inventory files are comprised of casting documents and guidelines; casting logs for select and various artists; casting prices and costs; casting records; inventory cards and photographs of works gifted and purchased by the Foundry; and inventory files of specific editions projects at the Foundry. Also found are sculpture production records which document sculptures produced and cast by the Foundry for various artists.
Collection Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C. Research Center. Contact Reference Services for more information.
Collection Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Collection Citation:
Art Foundry and Art Foundry Editions records, circa 1975-circa 2007. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.artfoued, Series 7
See more items in:
Art Foundry and Art Foundry Editions Records
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aaa-artfoued-ref17

Unique Castings

Collection Creator:
Art Foundry  Search this
Art Foundry Editions  Search this
Container:
Box 18, Folder 3-8
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1992-1999
Collection Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C. Research Center. Contact Reference Services for more information.
Collection Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Collection Citation:
Art Foundry and Art Foundry Editions records, circa 1975-circa 2007. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Art Foundry and Art Foundry Editions Records
Art Foundry and Art Foundry Editions Records / Series 5: Artists' Files / Smith, Kiki
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aaa-artfoued-ref246

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