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Cover Girl Advertising Oral History and Documentation Project

Creator:
Bunting, George L., Jr.  Search this
Brinkley, Christie  Search this
Ellsworth, Scott, Dr.  Search this
Colonel, Sheri  Search this
Giordano, Lynn  Search this
Ford, Eileen  Search this
Hall, L. C. "Bates"  Search this
Grathwohl, Geraldine  Search this
Huebner, Dick  Search this
Harrison, Fran  Search this
Lindsay, Robert  Search this
Hunt, William D.  Search this
McIver, Karen  Search this
MacDougall, Malcolm  Search this
Noble, Stan  Search this
Nash, Helen  Search this
Noxell Corporation.  Search this
Bergin, John  Search this
O'Neill, Jennifer  Search this
Oelbaum, Carol  Search this
Pelligrino, Nick  Search this
Poris, George  Search this
Roberts, F. Stone  Search this
Tiegs, Cheryl  Search this
Troup, Peter  Search this
Weithas, Art  Search this
Witt, Norbert  Search this
Names:
Noxzema Chemical Company  Search this
Extent:
15.5 Cubic feet (30 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Interviews
Business records
Audiotapes
Bumper stickers
Annual reports
Oral history
Photographs
Press releases
Scrapbooks
Television scripts
Videotapes
Tear sheets
Place:
Hunt Valley (Maryland)
Baltimore (Md.)
Maryland
Date:
1959-1990
Summary:
The Cover Girl Make-Up Advertising Oral History and Documentation Project, 1923-1991, is the result of a year-long study in 1990, which examined the advertising created for Noxell Corporation's Cover Girl make-up products from 1959 to 1990. The objective of the project was to document, in print and electronic media, the history of Cover Girl make-up advertising since its inception in 1959.
Scope and Contents:
Twenty-two oral history interviews (conducted by Dr. Scott Ellsworth for the Archives Center) and a variety of print and television advertisements, photographs, scrapbooks, personal papers, business records and related materials were gathered by the Center for Advertising History staff. The objective was to create a collection that provides documentation, in print and electronic media, of the history and development of advertising for Cover Girl make-up since its inception in 1959.

Collection also includes earlier material related to other Noxell products, including Noxzema, with no direct connection to the Cover Girl campaign.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into eight series.

Series 1: Research Files

Series 2: Interviewee Files

Series 3: Oral History Interviews

Series 4: Television Advertising Materials

Series 5: Print Advertising Materials

Series 6: Company Publications and Promotional Literature

Series 7: Photographs

Series 8: Scrapbooks
Biographical / Historical:
George Avery Bunting founded the Noxzema Chemical Company in Baltimore, Maryland in 1917. In the 1890s, he left behind a teaching job on Maryland's Eastern shore to move to Baltimore, where he hoped to pursue a career as a pharmacist. He landed a job as errand boy and soda jerk at a local drugstore, where he worked while attending classes at the University Of Maryland College of Pharmacy. Valedictorian of the Class of 1899, Bunting was promoted to manager of the drugstore, which he purchased. Bunting began to experiment with the formulation of medicated pastes and compounds, which he marketed to his customers. In 1909, he began refining a medicated vanishing cream, which he introduced in 1914. "Dr. Bunting's Sunburn Remedy," an aromatic skin cream containing clove oil, eucalyptus oil, lime water, menthol and camphor, was mixed by hand at his pharmacy. Marketed locally as a greaseless, medicated cream for the treatment of a variety of skin conditions, including sunburn, eczema, and acne, the product was renamed "Noxzema" for its reputed ability to "knock eczema." By 1917, the Noxzema Chemical Company was formed. During the 1920s, distribution of the product was expanded to include New York, Chicago, and the Midwest and, by 1926, the first Noxzema manufactory was built in northwest Baltimore to accommodate the demand for nearly a million jars a year.

Having achieved a national market by 1938, Noxzema Chemical Company executives pursued product diversification as a means to maintain the corporate growth of the early years. In the 1930s and 1940s, line extensions included shaving cream, suntan lotion and cold cream, all with the distinctive "medicated" Noxzema aroma.

In the late 1950s, Bill Hunt, director of product development at Noxzema, suggested a line extension into medicated make-up. Creatives at Sullivan, Stauffer, Colwell & Bayles, Incorporated (SSC&B), Noxzema's advertising agency since 1946, suggested that the advertising for the new product focus on beauty and glamour with some reference to the medicated claims made for other Noxzema products. In contrast to other cosmetics, which were sold at specialized department store counters, Noxzema's medicated make-up would be marketed alongside other Noxzema products in grocery stores and other mass distribution outlets. After experimenting with names that suggested both glamour and the medicated claims (including Thera-Blem and Blema-Glow), Bill Grathwohl, Noxell's advertising director, selected Carolyn Oelbaum's "Cover Girl," which conveyed the product's usefulness as a blemish cover-up, while invoking the glamorous image of fashion models. These three elements of the advertising, wholesome glamour, mass marketing, and medicated make-up, remain central to Cover Girl advertising nearly a half-century later.

Beginning with the national launch in 1961, American and international fashion models were featured in the ads. The target audience was identified as women between eighteen and fifty-four and, initially, the "glamour" ads were targeted at women's magazines, while the "medicated" claims were reserved for teen magazines. Television ads featured both elements. Cover Girl advertising always featured beautiful women -- especially Caucasian women, but the Cover Girl image has evolved over time to conform to changing notions of beauty. In the late 1950s and 1960s, the Cover Girl was refined and aloof, a fashion conscious sophisticate. By the 1970s, a new social emphasis on looking and dressing "naturally" and the introduction of the "Clean Make-up" campaign created a new advertising focus on the wholesome glamour of the "girl next door," a blue-eyed, blonde all-American image. In the 1980s, the Cover Girl look was updated to include African-American, Hispanic and working women.

In January 1970, SSC&B bought 49% of the Lintas Worldwide advertising network. After SSC&B was acquired by the Interpublic Group of Companies in 1979, the entire Lintas operation was consolidated under the name SSC&B/Lintas in 1981. With the Procter & Gamble buy-out of the Noxell Corporation in September 1989, the cosmetics account was moved to long-time P&G agency Grey Advertising, in order to circumvent a possible conflict of interest between P&G competitor Unilever, another Lintas account. In 1989 SSC&B/Lintas, Cover Girl's agency since its launch in 1961, lost the account it helped to create and define, but the brand continues to dominate mass-marketed cosmetics.

This project is the result of a year-long study of advertising created for the Noxell Corporation's Cover Girl make-up products, 1959-1990. The effort was supported in part by a grant from the Noxell Corporation. The target audience was identified as women 18-54, and initially, the "glamour" ads were targeted at women's magazines, while the "medicated" claims were reserved for teen magazines. Television ads featured both elements. Cover Girl advertising has always featured beautiful women (especially Caucasian women), but the Cover Girl image evolved over time to conform with changing notions of beauty. In the late 1950s-1960s, the Cover Girl was refined and aloof, a fashion conscious sophisticate. By the 1970s, a new social emphasis on looking and dressing "naturally" and the introduction of the "Clean Make-up" campaign created a new advertising focus on the wholesome glamour of the "girl next door," a blue-eyed, blonde all-American image. Through the 1980s, the Cover Girl look was updated to include African-American and Hispanic models and images of women at work.
Related Materials:
Materials in the Archives Center

Warshaw Collection of Business Americana (AC0060)

N W Ayer Advertising Agency Records (AC0059)
Separated Materials:
The Division of Home and Community Life, Costume Collection holds eighty-six cosmetic items and one computer that were also donated by the Noxell Corporation in 1990 in conjunction with the oral history project. These artifacts include lipstick, manicure sets, brushes, make-up, eye shadow, blush, powder puffs, eyelash curler, nail polish, and mascara. See accession number 1990.0193.
Provenance:
Most of the materials in the collection were donated to the Center for Advertising History by the Noxell Corporation, 1990. All storyboards and videoscripts, and a large collection of business records and proofsheets were donated by George Poris in June 1990. All mechanicals were donated by Art Weithas in June 1990. (These contributions are noted in the finding aid).
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Researchers must handle unprotected photographs with gloves. Researchers must use reference copies of audio-visual materials. When no reference copy exists, the Archives Center staff will produce reference copies on an "as needed" basis, as resources allow.
Rights:
Copyright and trademark restrictions.
Topic:
Women in advertising  Search this
advertising -- 1930-1940 -- California  Search this
Cosmetics -- advertising  Search this
Endorsements in advertising  Search this
Beauty culture  Search this
advertising -- 1950-2000  Search this
African American women -- Beauty culture  Search this
Modelling -- 1950-1990  Search this
Sex role in advertising  Search this
Radio advertising  Search this
Television advertising  Search this
Genre/Form:
Interviews -- 1950-2000
Business records -- 20th century
Audiotapes
Bumper stickers
Annual reports
Oral history -- 1990-2000
Photographs -- Black-and-white photoprints -- Silver gelatin -- 1950-2000
Press releases
Scrapbooks -- 20th century
Television scripts
Videotapes
Tear sheets
Citation:
Cover Girl Advertising Oral History & Documentation Project, 1959-1990, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0374
See more items in:
Cover Girl Advertising Oral History and Documentation Project
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0374
Online Media:

The California Shop Records

Creator:
California Shop.  Search this
Kemp, Helen Misch, 1894-1948 (store owner/manager)  Search this
Kemp, Barbara  Search this
Extent:
1 Cubic foot
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Scrapbooks
Clippings
Photographs
Place:
California -- Fashion -- 1930-1940
New York (N.Y.) -- Fashion -- 1930-1940
Date:
1938-1942.
Scope and Contents note:
The collection consists of photographs, typewritten manuscripts and a book that was used as both a visitors log for the shop and a scrapbook containing newspaper and magazine clippings, announcements and invitations to fashion shows. The manuscripts document Kemp's ideas relating to why she started the California Shop. Photographs document the shop, possibly in 1941. There are also the loose pages from the California Shop's guest/scrapbook. The first few pages consist of the guest book. The remaining pages contain clippings and ephemera in reverse chronological order, left in the order that Kemp maintained them. Also includes the wooden bookends of the guestbook, with a portion of a map of the Audencia of Guadalajara used as a cover illustration.
Arrangement:
Materials are arranged as a single series.
Biographical / Historical:
Helen Misch Kemp, the owner of the California Shop, was born April 22, 1894 in New York to Moses and Jennie Misch. In 1936, Ms. Kemp moved to California where she was worked in the women's clothing trade. Having lived in New York all her life, she began to notice a distinction in the merchandise created in California. Upon her return to New York she opened the California Shop on November 15, 1938 at 677 Madison Avenue. Kemp's intention was to provide merchandise from California craftsmen to the eastern market. California at this time was gaining a reputation for dressing the American woman. Designers from the area, who were mostly women, were known for combining chic styles with a sense of comfort, a unique blend of colors and a fine attention to detail in their ladies apparel. Kemp took annual trips to California to select the best of the western market for her customers. The California Shop sold mostly women's clothing but also offered products such as preserves, copper household utensils, cookware, trays, wastebaskets, spice jars, wall pockets, flower containers, pottery and jewelry. The shop quickly gained a wide audience, and on October 15, 1940 it moved to 674 Madison Avenue, where it occupied a larger space. Kemp closed the shop in 1942 due to the difficulties in getting merchandise from California because of the war. Helen Kemp died on February 13, 1948 at the age of 54.
Provenance:
Barbara Kemp
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Reproduction permission from Archives Center: reproduction fees may apply. All duplication requests must be reviewed and approved by Archives Center staff.
Topic:
Women in business -- 1930-1940  Search this
Women -- Employment  Search this
Women -- History -- 1930-1940 -- New York  Search this
advertising -- 1930-1940 -- California  Search this
advertising -- Clothing and dress -- 1930-1940  Search this
advertising -- Clothing trade -- 1930-1940  Search this
advertising -- Fashion -- 1930-1940  Search this
Genre/Form:
Scrapbooks -- 20th century
Clippings -- 1930-1950
Photographs -- Black-and-white photoprints -- Silver gelatin -- 1930-1940
Citation:
The California Shop Records, 1938-1942, Archives Center, National Museum of American History. Gift of Barbara Kemp.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0572
See more items in:
The California Shop Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0572
Online Media:

Bernard Levine Sample Book Collection

Manufacturer:
Milwaukee Printed String Company  Search this
Modern Vogue Company, Inc.  Search this
Orchard Paper Company  Search this
American Lace Paper Company  Search this
Collector:
Domestic Life, Division of (NMAH, SI).  Search this
Levine, Bernard  Search this
Domestic Life, Division of (NMAH, SI).  Search this
Extent:
0.15 Cubic feet (1 vertical box)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Trade literature
Sample books
Place:
Saint Louis (Mo.)
Milwaukee (Wis.)
Wisconsin
Date:
circa 1930s.
Scope and Contents:
Five sample books from the 1930s: (1) Christmas wrapping paper manufactured by Gift Wrap, (2) shelf paper made by the American Lace Paper Co. of Milwaukee, Wisconsin, (3) confectionery bag samples and stock designs for printing by the Orchard Paper Company of Saint Louis, (4) gift wrapping paper made by Modern Vogue Co., Inc., and (5) a sample sheet of ribbons manufactured by the Milwaukee Printed String Co., Milwaukee, Wisconsin.
Provenance:
This collection was donated by Bernard Levine, in March 1987.
Restrictions:
This collection is open for research use.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Print Advertising  Search this
advertising -- History  Search this
Gift wrapping  Search this
Gift wraps  Search this
advertising -- 1930-1940 -- California  Search this
Genre/Form:
Trade literature
Sample books
Citation:
Bernard Levine Sample Book Collection, 1930s, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0278
See more items in:
Bernard Levine Sample Book Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0278
Online Media:

Jacob Aloysius Dorf Papers

Creator:
Haviland, Opal Dorf  Search this
Dorf, Jacob Aloysius, 1879-1965 (blacksmith, businessman)  Search this
Extent:
0.15 Cubic feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Advertisements
Obituaries
Correspondence
Clippings
Place:
Missouri -- 20th century
Date:
1909-1972.
Scope and Contents:
Newspaper clippings and correspondence relating to Dorf's activities, particularly in the hardware business. Biographical information and obituaries are included as well as samples of his unusual advertising.
Biographical/Historical note:
Jacob A. Dorf was born in Cedar Hill, Missouri. His name was originally Blittersdorf. To Anaconda, Missouri in 1901, where he owned and operated a blacksmith shop. In 1911 he purchased a hardware store in Cuba, Missouri, which he operated for more than 49 years. Throughout his long business career he was an innovative advertiser in the local press and elsewhere, sponsoring a radio program in 1924 which stimulated letters from thirty states and Canada. Dorf was active in community affairs, particularly during the depressed 1930s. In 1933 he led an effort which saved the local bank from failing. He branched into other business lines, including real estate, and once financed the purchase of a better breed of cattle for local farmers.
Provenance:
Collection donated by Opal Dorf Haviland (daughter), 1986, January 16.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Blacksmiths  Search this
advertising -- 1930-1940 -- California  Search this
Storekeepers  Search this
Hardware stores -- 1900-1970 -- Missouri  Search this
Depressions -- 1929 -- United States  Search this
Genre/Form:
Advertisements
Obituaries
Correspondence -- 20th century
Clippings
Citation:
Jacob Aloysius Dorf Papers, Archives Center, National Museum of American History. Gift of Opal Dorf Haviland.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0193
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0193

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