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Portrait of Two Young Women and Two Girls

Collection Creator:
Smithsonian Institution. United States National Museum. Department of Anthropology. Division of Ethnology  Search this
Extent:
1 Photographic print (005 in x 004 in)
Culture:
Yoreme (Mayo)  Search this
Cahita  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Photographic prints
Photographs
Date:
undated
Local Numbers:
NAA INV.04393900

OPPS NEG.2797B
Local Note:
Black and white photoprint
Place:
Mexico -- Sinaloa? -- Mayo River ?
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Citation:
Photo Lot 97 DOE North America: Mexico: Cahita 04393900, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Division of Ethnology photograph collection 1
Division of Ethnology photograph collection 1 / North America / Mexico / Cahita
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw336f982bf-b6ed-42cf-80df-f39d67abb8e8
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-photolot-97-ref4404
Online Media:

"Mayo Indian spinning wool for blanket weaving, Sonora, Mexico"

Creator:
Keystone View Company  Search this
Collection Collector:
Allen, George V.  Search this
Extent:
1 Stereograph (7 x 3.5 in.)
Culture:
Yoreme (Mayo)  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Stereographs
Scope and Contents:
The item is number 23685 of an unidentied series. The number 73 is stamped on the front.
Local Numbers:
NAA INV.09912800

OPPS NEG.90-17251
Other Title:
"Primitive woold spinning practiced by Mayo Indians, Sonora, Mexico"
Collection Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.

Access to the collection requires an appointment.
Collection Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Collection Citation:
Photo Lot 90-1, George V. Allen collection of photographs of Native Americans and the American frontier, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
George V. Allen photograph collection of photographs of Native Americans and the American frontier
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw388e6dab7-e2ad-4bc0-8a43-f15d58cac35b
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-photolot-90-1-ref1431

Donald Bush Cordry photographs of Indigenous peoples of Mexico

Creator:
Cordry, Donald Bush  Search this
Names:
Cordry, Donald Bush -- Exhibitions  Search this
Extent:
8 Color transparencies
93 Mounted photographs (silver gelatin)
Culture:
Mixe  Search this
Amuzgo (Amusgo)  Search this
Zapotec  Search this
Mestizos  Search this
Purepecha (Tarasco)  Search this
Tepehuán (Tepehuan)  Search this
Totonac  Search this
Mazatec [Huautla]  Search this
Nahua  Search this
Chinantec  Search this
Wixarika (Huichol)  Search this
Seri  Search this
Ikood (Huave)  Search this
Chiapanec  Search this
Mixtec  Search this
Mayas  Search this
Yoreme (Mayo)  Search this
Cuicatec Indians  Search this
Zoque  Search this
Tzotzil Maya  Search this
Indians of Mexico  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Color transparencies
Mounted photographs
Place:
Mexico
Date:
1937-1972
Scope and Contents note:
Enlargements of photographs made by Donald Bush Cordry during his time in Mexico. These were mounted for a 1970s Bellas Artes-sponsored traveling exhibit based on Cordry's collection of Mexican Indian costumes. Included are images of Indigenous peoples of Mexico, fiestas and dances, pottery, boats, weaving, spinning, masks, vendors and markets, churches, and shrines. Depicted groups include the Huichol, Mestizo, Tarascan, Seri, Mayo, Tepehua, Totonac, Nahua, Mazatec, Cuicatec, Chinantec, Zapotec, Mixe, Amusgo, Huave, Mixtec, Chapanec, Zoque, Tzotzil, and Maya. Additionally, there are some self portraits of Donald Cordry and his wife Dorothy.
Biographical/Historical note:
Donald Bush Cordry (1907-1978) was an artist and photographer who studied the art of Indigenous peoples of Mexico. In 1931, Cordry made his first trip to Guerrero, Mexico, where he became interested in contemporary mask making. In 1934, Cordry moved to New York to work as a marionette designer for puppeteer Tony Sarg. While there, he contacted George G. Heye to learn more about Indigenous Mexican art. This led to a series of collecting expeditions from 1935 to 1938, during which Cordry collected Mexican masks and other artifacts for the Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation.
Local Call Number(s):
NAA Photo Lot 87-38, USNM ACC 361232
Location of Other Archival Materials:
Additional photographs made by Cordry can be found in the National Anthropological Archives in Photo Lot 82-14.
Donald Cordry and his wife, Dorothy Mann Cordry, also donated clothing and musical instruments from Mexico to the Department of Anthropology in accessions 361232 and 355866.
The National Museum of the American Indian Archives holds the Donald Bush Cordry collection of photographs and negatives, 1933-1940, as well as artifacts collected by Cordry.
Photographs of the Donald Cordry Mexican mask exhibit can be found in the National Anthropological Archives in Photo Lot 80-3.
The Donald Cordry Mexican mask collection can be found in the Department of Anthropology in accession 355867.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.

Access to the collection requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Pottery -- Mexico  Search this
Dances -- Mexico  Search this
Weaving -- Mexico  Search this
Markets -- Mexico  Search this
Clothing and dress  Search this
Spinning -- Mexico  Search this
Masks -- Mexico  Search this
Citation:
Photo Lot 87-38, Donald Cordry photographs of Indigenous peoples of Mexico, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.PhotoLot.87-38
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw3bbb563fb-4f02-46de-9c51-37e81c7dbd07
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-photolot-87-38

Aleš Hrdlička photographs from Mexico and Arizona

Photographer:
Hrdlička, Aleš, 1869-1943  Search this
Owner:
Pepper, George H. (George Hubbard), 1873-1924  Search this
Names:
Hyde Exploring Expedition (1902-1903)  Search this
Former owner:
Lumholtz, Carl, 1851-1922  Search this
Extent:
588 Photographic prints
190 Copy negatives
Culture:
Hualapai (Walapai)  Search this
Akimel O'odham (Pima)  Search this
Havasupai (Coconino)  Search this
Opata  Search this
Yoeme (Yaqui)  Search this
Otomí (Otomi)  Search this
Cora  Search this
Piipaash (Maricopa)  Search this
Wixarika (Huichol)  Search this
Seri  Search this
Nahua  Search this
Mojave (Mohave)  Search this
Indians of North America  Search this
Tohono O'odham (Papago)  Search this
Yoreme (Mayo)  Search this
Purepecha (Tarasco)  Search this
Quechan (Yuma/Cuchan)  Search this
Tepecano  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographic prints
Copy negatives
Place:
Casa Grande (Ariz.)
Arizona -- photographs
Mexico -- Photographs
Date:
1898-1902
Summary:
This collection contains photographic prints and copy negatives taken by Ales Hrdlicka in Arizona and Mexico between 1898 and 1902. The majority of the photographs were donated by George Pepper to the Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation in 1923. Native communities that Hrdlicka photographed during his research include--Purepecha (Tarasco), Yoeme (Yaqui), Hualapai (Walapai), Havasupai (Coconino), Piipaash (Maricopa), Mojave (Mahave), Tohono O'odham (Papapgo), Quechan (Yuma/Cuchan), Tepecano, Akimel O'odham (Pima), Opata, Cora, Seri, Wixarika (Huichol), Nahua, Otomi and Yoreme (Mayo). Ales Hrdlicka (1869-1943) was born in the Czech Republic moved to the United States in 1881. Hrdlicka became known as the "Father" of Physical Anthropology and worked at the U.S. National Museum (now the National Museum of Natural History).
Scope and Contents:
This collection contains photographic prints taken by Ales Hrdlicka in Arizona and Mexico between 1898 and 1902. It is likely that many of the photographs were taken in 1902 as a part of the Hyde exploring expeditions on behalf of the American Museum of Natural History. Some of these photographs were taken by Carl Lumholtz and not Hrdlicka. Native communities that Hrdlicka photographed during his research include--Purepecha (Tarasco), Yoeme (Yaqui), Hualapai (Walapai), Havasupai (Coconino), Piipaash (Maricopa), Mojave (Mahave), Tohono O'odham (Papapgo), Quechan (Yuma/Cuchan), Tepecano, Akimel O'odham (Pima), Opata, Cora, Seri, Wixarika (Huichol), Nahua, Otomi, and Yoreme (Mayo). Locations photographed in Mexico include--Michoacán, Sonora, Mesa del Encanto and the Ruins of Totoate in Jalisco, Ruins of La Quamada and Ruins of Teul in Zacatecas, Nayarit State, and the central altiplano. Locations photographed in Arizona include--Casa Grande in Pinal County, Fort Yuma Reservation, Supai in Coconino County and the Mission San Xavier del Bac.

The photographs include a large amount of posed portraits of men and women, none of them identified in our collection. Hrdlicka often posed his subjects both facing forward and in profile so that he could better examine their physical attributes.There are some group portraits as well as scenic shots of houses, churches and village views. Hrdlicka also photographed archaeological ruins inlcuding Casa Grande, Mesa del Encanto, Totoate, La Quamada and Teul.

The copy negatives that were made from the prints in the late 1960s by the Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation.
Arrangement:
The majority of the photographs have been left in the order that they were originally cataloged. Photographs from the various tribal communities in Arizona and Mexico are in Series 1-16, each community with its own series. The final series, Series 17, contains photographs from various archaeological ruins in Arizona and Mexico.
Biographical / Historical:
Ales Hrdlicka (1869-1943) was born in Bohemia in and came to America when he was thirteen. As a young man, he was trained in medicine at New York's Eclectic Medical College and the New York Homeopathic Medical College, receiving degrees from each. His first professional work was as a private practitioner, but he gave that up in 1894 when he joined the staff of the New York State Hospital for the Insane at Middletown. There, in addition to other duties, he began studies of the physical characteristics of inmates. In 1896, in preparation for a research appointment with the Department of Anthropology in the Pathological Institute of the New York State hospitals, Hrdlicka went to Paris and studied with Leon Manouvrier. After his return to America, he worked for a short period with the Pathological Institute and came into contact with G.S. Huntington, of the College of Physicians and Surgeons in New York. Hrdlicka arranged and studied Huntington's large collection of skeletal material, thus gaining knowledge of a well-documented collection representing largely normal persons of European ancestry. He furthermore came to the attention of Frederic Ward Putnam, of the American Museum of Natural History, who arranged for his first anthropological field studies.

Hrdlicka became a member of the Hyde Expeditions to the American Southwest and northern Mexico. In 1898, he traveled to Mexico with Carl Lumholtz to study the Tarahumaras, Huichols, and neighboring tribes. In subsequent years, he returned to Mexico and the Southwest alone and studied physical characteristics and medical conditions of several American Indian tribes. Following this experience and examinations of the Trenton and Lansing skeletal material for Putnam, Hrdlicka was appointed head of the newly formed Division of Physical Anthropology in the United States National Museum in 1903.

In 1905, Hrdlicka returned to the Southwest for studies of Pima and Apache children and, in the following year, traveled to Florida to examine allegedly ancient remains of man. In 1908, he worked among a number of Native American tribes, including the Menominee, Oglala Dakota, Quinailt, Hupa, and Mohave, in a study of tuberculosis among them. In 1909, he traveled to Egypt with an expedition of the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York in order to study living Egyptians and to examine remains of Egypt's past population. The following year took him to Argentina, Peru, and Mexico. In the first of these, he again examined allegedly ancient remains of man. In Peru, he made a large collection of skeletal material near Trujillo, at Pachamac, and in the Chicama Valley.

Between 1912-1914, Hrdlicka undertook a physical anthropological exhibit for the Panama-California Exposition in San Diego and, for this, traveled to eastern Siberia, Mongolia, Peru, and Florida. He also examined fossil remains of man in Europe and directed field work of other anthropologists in South and East Africa, St. Lawrence Island in Alaska, the Philippines, eastern Siberia, and the Ukraine. In 1915, for the Department of Justice, he assessed the racial makeup of Chippewas on the Leech Lake and White Earth reservations in Minnesota and also studied Dakota Indians. In 1917, his field work was directed toward white American families with longtime residence in the United States. In 1918, he carried out a survey of ancient sites in eastern Florida for the Bureau of American Ethnology. In 1920, he traveled to Hawaii, Japan, Korea, and Manchuria in connection with an appointment to lecture at the Peking Union Medical College. As director of the American School for Prehistoric Studies in France, he again studied fossil remains of man in Europe in 1922 and 1923. In 1925, he carried out work in India, Ceylon, Java, Australia, South Africa, and Europe. In 1927, he was again in Europe to deliver the Huxley Memorial Lecture before the Royal Anthropological Society in Great Britain. Between 1929 and 1938, he traveled frequently to Alaska to carry on an anthropological survey. In 1939, he traveled to Russia and Siberia.

Beginning with much of the skeletal collection of the Army Medical Museum, which had been transferred to the Smithsonian in 1898 before he was appointed there, Hrdlicka amassed a bone collection that included, among many other specimens, the Huntington collection, casts of fossil remains of man, and a large and diverse North American collection. He also gathered a large collection of human brains. Over three hundred publications resulted from his study of this material, his field work, and his study of specimens in other museums. In addition, he was involved in many other activities. For United States government agencies, he provided services ranging from examinations of human remains for law enforcement officials to providing information and opinions concerning national origins and traits that were needed to interpret laws and form foreign policy. During World War II, he also advised government officials on policies to be pursued with certain national groups following the war.

In 1918, Hrdlicka founded the American Journal of Physical Anthropology and remained its editor until 1942. In 1928, he was the major force behind the organization of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists and served as its president in 1928-1932. He was also president of the Anthropological Society of Washington in 1907, the American Anthroplogical Association in 1925-1927, and the Washington Academy of Sciences in 1928-1929. He was chairman of Section H of the American Association for the Advancement of Science in 1918 and secretary of the Committee on Anthropology of the National Research Council in 1917. In addition, Hrdlicka was a member of the American Philosophical Society and the National Academy of Sciences. He represented the Smithsonian at several international gatherings of scholars, including meetings of the International Congress of Americanists.

Biographical note courtesy of the National Anthropological Archives, National Museum of Natural History. See Ales Hrdlicka Papers. Edited by Rachel Menyuk, Processing Archivist at the National Museum of the American Indian.
Related Materials:
The majority of Ales Hrdlicka's papers and photographs are located at the National Athropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution. In addition to the Ales Hrdlicka Papers ca. 1887-1943 additional Hrdlicka photographs can be found in photographic lots 8, Division of Physical Anthropology collection; 9, photographs of Indians for the Panama-California Exposition, San Diego; 24, Bureau of American Ethnology, United States National Museum photographs of American Indians; 70, Department of Anthropology portrait file; 78, miscellaneous negatives; 97, Division of Ethnology collection (―USNM‖ Collection); 73-26B, Aleš Hrdlička photographs; 73-26G, miscellany; 77-48, group portraits of International Congress; 79-38, Division of World Archeology collection; 83-41, Division of Physical Anthropology collection of photographs of human bones; and 92-46, anthropology lantern slides.
Provenance:
Although it is unclear when George Pepper received the photographs from Ales Hrdlicka, Pepper donated the majority of the collection of photographs to the Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation (MAI) in 1923. The rest of the photographs were cataloged by the MAI some time in the 1920s but the provenance history is unknown.
Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).

There are several restricted photographs in Series 2: Yoeme (Yaqui). This have been restricted due to cultural sensitivity.
Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiphotos@si.edu. For personal or classroom use, users are invited to download, print, photocopy, and distribute the images that are available online without prior written permission, provided that the files are not modified in any way, the Smithsonian Institution copyright notice (where applicable) is included, and the source of the image is identified as the National Museum of the American Indian. For more information please see the Smithsonian's Terms of Use and NMAI Archive Center's Digital Image request website.
Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Aleš Hrdlička photographs from Mexico and Arizona, Folder Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.103
See more items in:
Aleš Hrdlička photographs from Mexico and Arizona
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sv428a5c065-696f-4fa2-a3cd-11e427060b67
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmai-ac-103
Online Media:

Yoreme (Mayo)

Collection Photographer:
Hrdlička, Aleš, 1869-1943  Search this
Collection Owner:
Pepper, George H. (George Hubbard), 1873-1924  Search this
Extent:
61 Photographic prints
14 Copy negatives
Container:
Box 81-92
Culture:
Yoreme (Mayo)  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Photographic prints
Copy negatives
Date:
1902
Scope and Contents:
P05121-P05181. N35559-N35570, N35595
This series includes 61 photographic prints in the Yoreme (Mayo) community between in the Sonora State, Mexico. Hrdlicka visited the Yoreme (Mayo) as part of the Hyde Exploring Expedition in 1902. The Yoreme (Mayo) are an indigenous group primarily located in Southern Sonora, Northern Sinaloa and Durango. Photographs in this series include posed portraits of all kinds—seated and standing individuals; seated and standing small and large groups; and frontal and profile shots.
Collection Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).

There are several restricted photographs in Series 2: Yoeme (Yaqui). This have been restricted due to cultural sensitivity.
Collection Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiphotos@si.edu. For personal or classroom use, users are invited to download, print, photocopy, and distribute the images that are available online without prior written permission, provided that the files are not modified in any way, the Smithsonian Institution copyright notice (where applicable) is included, and the source of the image is identified as the National Museum of the American Indian. For more information please see the Smithsonian's Terms of Use and NMAI Archive Center's Digital Image request website.
Collection Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Aleš Hrdlička photographs from Mexico and Arizona, Folder Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.103, Series 17
See more items in:
Aleš Hrdlička photographs from Mexico and Arizona
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sv4818a0f02-0bcf-47f1-8cff-6d247d8468fb
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmai-ac-103-ref26

Edward Harvey Davis photograph collection

Creator:
Davis, Edward H., b. 1862  Search this
Extent:
770 Photographic prints (approximate number, black & white)
2000 Negatives (photographic) (approximate number)
Culture:
Cochiti Pueblo  Search this
Cora  Search this
Indians of North America -- California  Search this
Akimel O'odham (Pima)  Search this
Cochimi  Search this
Cahuilla  Search this
Cocopa  Search this
Cora  Search this
Hualapai (Walapai)  Search this
Kiliwa  Search this
Kumeyaay (Diegueño)  Search this
Mojave (Mohave)  Search this
Opata  Search this
Piipaash (Maricopa)  Search this
Quechan (Yuma/Cuchan)  Search this
Seri  Search this
Tohono O'odham (Papago)  Search this
Wixarika (Huichol)  Search this
Yavapai  Search this
Chemehuevi  Search this
Yoreme (Mayo)  Search this
Nevome (Pima Bajo)  Search this
Paipai (Pi-Pi/Pais)  Search this
Guaycura (Waicuri)  Search this
Yoeme (Yaqui)  Search this
Campo Band of Kumeyaay  Search this
Kamia (Desert Kumeyaay)  Search this
Manzanita Band of Kumeyaay  Search this
San Carlos Apache  Search this
White Mountain Apache  Search this
Pechanga Band Luiseño  Search this
Soboba Luiseño  Search this
Payómkawichum (Luiseño)  Search this
Yavapai [Fort McDowell]  Search this
Cahuilla [Morongo Band of Mission Indians]  Search this
Desert Cahuilla [Torres-Martinez Reservation/Torres-Martinez Band]  Search this
Yoeme (Yaqui) [Pascua Yaqui]  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographic prints
Negatives (photographic)
Negatives
Place:
Mexico
Arizona
California
Date:
1903-1939
Summary:
Davis visited the Diegueno and Luiseno in southern California; the Pi-pi (Pais), Kil-e-wah (Cahuilla), and Waicuri of Lower California, Mexico; the Yuma, Cocopah, Pima, Papago, Maricopa, Mojave, Hualapai (Walapai), Yaqui, and White Mountain Apache in Arizona; the Cora, Huichol, Opata, Mayo, and Yaqui of Mexico; the Seri of Tiburon Island; the Chemehuevi of Nevada and California; the Modoc and Klamath Lake Indians in Oregon; and the Paiute in Nevada. His collection contains photographs of Apache, Cahuilla, Chemehuevi, Cochimi, Cochiti Pueblo, Cocopa, Cora, Guaicuruj, Huichol, Kawia, Kiliwa, Kumeyaay (Diegueno), Luiseno, Maricopa, Mayo, Mission, Mohave, Opata, Paipai, Papago (Tohono O'odham), Pima (Akimel O'odham), San Carlos Pueblo, San Manuel, Seri, Ute, Walapai (Hualapai), Yaqui, and Yuma.
Arrangement note:
Collection arranged by item number.
Biographical/Historical note:
Artist, photographer, and artefact collector, Edward Harvey Davis was born on June 18, 1862 in New York. He traveled to California in 1884 for health reasons (Bright's disease i.e. actue of chronic nephritis (a kidney disorder)), arriving in 1885, and settled on 320 acres in an area called Mesa Grande, east of San Diego. Later that year he returned to New York to marry, bringing his new bride, Anna May Wells back to California with him. They would eventually have four children. Shortly after settling in California, Davis became interested in the the Kumeyaay (Northern Diguenos), the Mesa Grande Indians indigenous to that area, and spent the remainder of his life collecting artifacts, studying and photographing them. He collected so many items that his ranch house ran out of room for them, necessitating the building of another structure (adobe) to house them. As a result of this interest and care of the Mesa Grande Indians in San Diego County, in 1907, Davis was named a ceremonial chief by the Indians themselves. Originally trained as an artist, Davis first worked as a drafter and architect. Upon his arrival in San Diego in 1885, he fortuitously invested in and profited from the booming real estate industry of the time. Davis became known to George Gustav Heye when Heye initially purchased a collection of Indian artifacts from him for the Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation in 1915. With the money from the sale of his collection, Davis was able to open a resort lodge called the Powam that same year. His real estate investments and his lodge enabled Davis to finance his fieldwork, most of which he did on his own. In 1916 however, Davis also became an official field collector for the Museum of the American Indian in New York. Sporadically, from 1917 to 1930, Heye contracted Davis to conduct field trips to California, Arizona, New Mexico, Nevada, Mexico, and Tiburon Island, visiting over two dozen different Indian peoples in the course of his travels. Wherever he went, Davis continued to photograph the Native peoples, but did not consider these photographs to be part of his contract with Heye. Heye later purchased the bulk of Davis's photograph collection. Davis also had sketched objects and landscapes during his travels as a method of preserving what he saw. Davis died in San Bernardino on February 22, 1951. In addition to his photographs, Davis authored several scholarly articles.
Provenance:
Purchased;, Edward H. Davis;, 1917 and 1948.
Restrictions:
Access restricted. Researchers should contact the staff of the NMAI Archives for an appointment to access the collection.
Topic:
Indians of Mexico -- Photographs  Search this
Indians of North America -- Southwest -- Photographs  Search this
Indians of North America -- Basin -- Photographs  Search this
Indians of North America -- California -- Photographs  Search this
Indians of North America -- Arizona -- Photographs  Search this
Genre/Form:
Negatives
Photographic prints
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.001.031
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sv4d4e4f54a-9f78-4783-be65-b1276c14d9f9
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmai-ac-001-031

Donald B. Cordry photographs from Mexico

Creator:
Cordry, Donald Bush  Search this
Former owner:
Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation  Search this
Extent:
93 Photographic prints
9 Negatives (photographic)
24 Copy negatives
Culture:
Nahua  Search this
Guerrero Nahua  Search this
Purepecha (Tarasco)  Search this
Tzotzil Maya  Search this
Wixarika (Huichol)  Search this
Chinantec [Chinantla]  Search this
Cora  Search this
Yoreme (Mayo)  Search this
Zoque  Search this
Otomí (Otomi)  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographic prints
Negatives (photographic)
Copy negatives
Photographs
Negatives
Place:
Mexico
Date:
1933-1940
Summary:
Images consist mostly of portraits of the indigenous people in the Mexican states of Michoacán, Guerrero, Nayarit, Sinaloa, Oaxaca, Chiapas and Veracruz. The collection primarily contains images of Wikarika (Huichol) people, but includes images of the Purepecha (Tarasco), Guerrero Nahua, Chinantec [Chinantla], Zoque, Otomí (Otomi), Tzotzil Maya, Yoreme (Mayo) and Zapotec peoples.
Scope and Contents:
The Donald Bush Cordry collection primarily contains photographic prints and negatives made by Cordry while he collected objects from 1935 to 1938 on behalf of the Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation. Photographic materials from his private 1933 trip to Guerreo and a few taken around 1940 are also housed in the collection. The photographs depict the native peoples of the Mexican states of Chiapas, Guerrero, Michoacán, Nayarit, Oaxaca, Sinaloa, and Veracruz and represent people preparing food, making masks, pottery and textiles, and dressing for and participating in ceremonies. In addition there are village scenes and informal portraits of individuals. Series 1: Michoacán and Guererro States, includes images shot within the Purepecha (Tarasco) and Guererro Nahua communities between 1935 and 1936. (Negatives: N21118-N21126; Prints: P11986- P12008; Copy Negatives: N36725-N36731) Series 2: Nayarit and Sinaloa States, is the largest series and includes images shot in various Wixarika (Huichol) villages in 1937 and depicts many ceremonial functions. (Prints: P12659-P12672, P12880-P12887, P13273-P13275, P13386-P13414; Copy Negatives: N36855-N36863, N41431-N41432) Series 3: Oaxaca, Chiapas, Sonora and Mexico States, includes images from various culture groups from around 1940. These include Chinantec [Chinantla], Zoque, Otomí (Otomi), Tzotzil Maya, Yoreme (Mayo) and Zapotec. (Prints: P15052-P15053, P15202-P15203, P15347-P15348, P16553-P16562; Copy Negatives: N37306-N37307, N37335-N37336, N37506-N37507)

The photographic prints are all silver gelatin (DOP) and are a range of sizes. The majority of the negatives are copy negatives made by the Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation during a photo conservation project in the 1960s.
Arrangement note:
Arranged into three series by date and geographical location. Series 1: Michoacán and Guererro States: Purepecha (Tarasco), Guererro Nahua, 1933, 1935-1936; Series 2: Nayarit and Sinaloa States: Wixarika (Huichol), 1937; Series 3: Oaxaca, Chiapas, Sonora States: Various communities, circa 1940. Within each series the prints and negatives are physically arranged by catalog number.
Biographical/Historical note:
Starting in high school, Donald Bush Cordry was deeply committed to theatrical set design and puppetry and while attending the Minneapolis Institute of Art began to carve his own wooden marionettes and hand puppets. In 1931, Cordry made his first trip to Mexico (Guerrero) and become fascinated by contemporary Mexican Indian art, especially mask making. In 1934, Cordry moved to New York to work as a marionette designer for puppeteer Tony Sarg and soon contacted George G. Heye to learn more about Mexican Indian art. From 1935 to 1938, Cordry collected Mexican masks and other art forms on behalf of the Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation. On his first 1935 collecting trip for Heye, Cordry traveled throughout the states of Michoacán and Guerrero and collected carved and painted dance masks.

In 1936, Cordry married fellow artist Dorothy Mann. Shortly after their wedding, the newlyweds traveled by horseback for six months through Nayarit, Jalisco, and southern Sonora and extensively collected among and photographed the Huichol, Cora and Mayo Indians. The couple moved to Mexico in 1938, first settling in Oaxaca; in the mid-1940s, no longer working for Heye, they relocated to Mexico City. There Cordry established his own design business and produced decorative Mexican folk art-style crafts. His business was highly successful and his work was featured in House and Garden magazine. The couple moved to Cuernavaca, where in 1953 Cordry suffered a stroke and was forced to close his workshop. His stroke also put an end to his traveling and collecting activities. Deeply interested in the history and traditions of Mexican Indians, Cordry assembled an extensive reading library of pre- and post-conquest Mexico materials and together with his wife published "Costumes and Textiles of the Aztec Indians of the Cuetzalan Region, Puebla, Mexico" (1940); "The Costumes and Weaving of the Zoque Indians of Chiapas, Mexico" (1941); and, most importantly, "Mexican Indian Costumes" (1968). Cordry's monumental "Mexican Masks" (1980) was published shortly after his death. Cordry died in Cuernavaca, Mexico, at the age of 71.
Related Materials:
There are around 900 ethnographic items collected by Donald Cordry in Mexico in the National Museum of American Indian's ethnology collections. For more information about these materials contact NMAI Collections.

The National Anthropological Archives (National Museum of Natural History) holds several collections of Donald B. Cordry photographs. See: NAA Photo Lot 87-38, NAA Photo Lot 82-14, and NAA Photo Lot 80-3. The Donald Cordry Mexican mask collection at Natural History can be found in the Department of Anthropology in accession 355867.
Provenance:
The majority of the Donald Cordry photographs came to the Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation along with field collections in 1936 and 1938. There were additional donations of photographs made by Cordry in 1937, 1940, 1941 and 1943.
Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiphotos@si.edu. For personal or classroom use, users are invited to download, print, photocopy, and distribute the images that are available online without prior written permission, provided that the files are not modified in any way, the Smithsonian Institution copyright notice (where applicable) is included, and the source of the image is identified as the National Museum of the American Indian. For more information please see the Smithsonian's Terms of Use and NMAI Archive Center's Digital Image request website.
Topic:
Indians of Mexico  Search this
Indians of Mexico -- Social life and cutoms  Search this
Indians of Mexico -- Rites and ceremonies  Search this
Nayarit (Mexico)  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Photographic prints
Negatives
Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Donald B. Cordry photographs from Mexico, Item Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.001.008
See more items in:
Donald B. Cordry photographs from Mexico
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sv43995f9d3-738a-4dd3-9cf4-4b071077f0a8
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmai-ac-001-008
Online Media:

George W. Avery photographs and negatives

Creator:
Avery, George W., 1880-1927  Search this
Extent:
7 Negatives (photographic) (black and white.)
50 Photographic prints (black and white.)
Culture:
Yoreme (Mayo)  Search this
Rarámuri (Tarahumara)  Search this
Seri  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Negatives (photographic)
Photographic prints
Black-and-white negatives
Photographs
Place:
Sonora (Mexico : State)
Chihuahua (Mexico : State)
Sinaloa (Mexico : State)
Date:
1910
Summary:
This collection contains 50 black-and-white photographic prints and 7 negatives taken by George W. Avery during his time as an agent for the Museum of the American Indian. Taken in 1910 in the states of Sonora, Chihuahua and Sinaloa, Mexico, the images depict members of the Seri, Mayo and Tarahumara tribes.
Arrangement note:
Negatives: organized in individual sleeves; arranged by negative number.

Prints: organized in folders; arranged by print number.
Biographical/Historical note:
George W. Avery (1880-1927) was a collector and agent for the Heye Foundation/Museum of the American Indian. In 1926, Avery collected for the museum in Mexico, possibly in the company of E.H. Davis. He also purchased pieces for Heye/MAI in Alaska.
Restrictions:
Access is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment.
Rights:
Copyright: National Museum of the American Indian.
Topic:
Indians of Mexico  Search this
Genre/Form:
Black-and-white negatives
Photographs
Citation:
George W. Avery photographs and negatives, National Museum of the American Indian Archives, Smithsonian Institution (photograph or negative number).
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.001.022
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sv406684491-986c-4227-bd54-533754966a1d
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmai-ac-001-022

Oaxaca, Chiapas, Sonora, Mexico States: Various communities

Collection Creator:
Cordry, Donald Bush  Search this
Extent:
16 Photographic prints
6 Copy negatives
Culture:
Tzotzil Maya  Search this
Chinantec [Chinantla]  Search this
Zoque  Search this
Otomí (Otomi)  Search this
Yoreme (Mayo)  Search this
Zapotec  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Photographic prints
Copy negatives
Date:
circa 1940
Scope and Contents:
This series includes photographic prints and copy negatives made across Mexico sometime around 1940, after Cordry was no longer working for the Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation. The photographs were included with additional gifts and exchanges with the MAI in 1940, 1941 and 1943. The prints include portraits of Tzotzil Maya women in San Bartolomé de los Llanos, Chiapas; Chinantec [Chinantla] women in Choapam, Oaxaca; Zoque men and women in Copainala and Tuxtla Gutiérrez, Chiapas; an Otomi fiesta in Chalma, Mexico; Yoreme (Mayo) man and woman in Huatabampo, Sonora; and a Zapotec woman in Villa Hidalgo (Yalálag), Oaxaca. There are also several images of Zoque masks Cordry collected and two photographs of watercolor paintings made by Cordry.
Prints: P15052-P15053, P15202-P15203, P15347-P15348, P16553-P16562. Copy Negatives: N37306-N37307, N37335-N37336, N37506-N37507.
Collection Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Collection Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiphotos@si.edu. For personal or classroom use, users are invited to download, print, photocopy, and distribute the images that are available online without prior written permission, provided that the files are not modified in any way, the Smithsonian Institution copyright notice (where applicable) is included, and the source of the image is identified as the National Museum of the American Indian. For more information please see the Smithsonian's Terms of Use and NMAI Archive Center's Digital Image request website.
Collection Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Donald B. Cordry photographs from Mexico, Item Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.001.008, Series 3
See more items in:
Donald B. Cordry photographs from Mexico
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sv4585d1176-e05f-4dc1-82b3-804e3a1a4830
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmai-ac-001-008-ref512

Yoreme (Mayo) woman weaving

Collection Creator:
Cordry, Donald Bush  Search this
Extent:
1 Photographic print
1 Copy negative
Container:
Photo-folder 12
Culture:
Yoreme (Mayo)  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Photographic prints
Copy negatives
Date:
circa 1940
Scope and Contents:
Portrait of a Yoreme (Mayo) woman sitting at a loom weaving a shawl in Huatabampo, Sonora State, Mexico.
Collection Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Collection Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiphotos@si.edu. For personal or classroom use, users are invited to download, print, photocopy, and distribute the images that are available online without prior written permission, provided that the files are not modified in any way, the Smithsonian Institution copyright notice (where applicable) is included, and the source of the image is identified as the National Museum of the American Indian. For more information please see the Smithsonian's Terms of Use and NMAI Archive Center's Digital Image request website.
Collection Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Donald B. Cordry photographs from Mexico, Item Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.001.008, Item P16560
See more items in:
Donald B. Cordry photographs from Mexico
Donald B. Cordry photographs from Mexico / Series 3: Oaxaca, Chiapas, Sonora, Mexico States: Various communities
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sv45c287d5d-7db4-4735-8bc6-66b6a937591f
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmai-ac-001-008-ref561

Close-up of a Yoreme (Mayo) man

Collection Creator:
Cordry, Donald Bush  Search this
Extent:
1 Photographic print
Container:
Photo-folder 12
Culture:
Yoreme (Mayo)  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Photographic prints
Date:
circa 1940
Scope and Contents:
Close-up portrait of a Yoreme (Mayo) man, possibly a dancer, in Huatabampo, Sonora State, Mexico.
Collection Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Collection Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiphotos@si.edu. For personal or classroom use, users are invited to download, print, photocopy, and distribute the images that are available online without prior written permission, provided that the files are not modified in any way, the Smithsonian Institution copyright notice (where applicable) is included, and the source of the image is identified as the National Museum of the American Indian. For more information please see the Smithsonian's Terms of Use and NMAI Archive Center's Digital Image request website.
Collection Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Donald B. Cordry photographs from Mexico, Item Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.001.008, Item P16561
See more items in:
Donald B. Cordry photographs from Mexico
Donald B. Cordry photographs from Mexico / Series 3: Oaxaca, Chiapas, Sonora, Mexico States: Various communities
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sv4a2cadd19-faab-4785-9781-042a090bee43
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmai-ac-001-008-ref562

Ralph Leon Beals papers

Creator:
Beals, Ralph L. (Ralph Leon), 1901-1985  Search this
Names:
American Anthropological Association -- ethics  Search this
Inter-American Society of Anthropology and Geography  Search this
Social Science Research Council. Committee on Cross-Cultural Education  Search this
University of California, Los Angeles. Department of Anthropology and Sociology  Search this
Bacon, Elizabeth  Search this
Barney, R. A.  Search this
Boggs, Stephen Taylor  Search this
Brand, Donald Dilworth  Search this
Broom, Leonard  Search this
Caso, Alfonso, 1896-1970  Search this
Cassady, Ralph C.  Search this
Castenada, Carlos  Search this
De Laguna, Frederica, 1906-2004  Search this
Depouy, Walter  Search this
Dixon, Keith A.  Search this
DuBois, Cora  Search this
Epling, Carl  Search this
Frantz, Charles  Search this
Goldschmidt, Walter, 1913-2010  Search this
Halpern, Abraham Meyer  Search this
Hammond, Peter Boyd  Search this
Hare, Peter  Search this
Hester, Joseph Aaron, Jr.  Search this
Hoijer, Harry  Search this
Horowitz, Irving Louis  Search this
Hugg, Lee  Search this
Humphrey, Norman D.  Search this
Johnson, Virginia R.  Search this
Kennedy, George  Search this
Kerr, Clark  Search this
Kirchhoff, Paul  Search this
Kroeber, A. L. (Alfred Louis), 1876-1960  Search this
Lessa, William Armand  Search this
Lowie, Robert Harry, 1883-1957  Search this
McCown, T. C.  Search this
Morton, Perry W.  Search this
Murdock, George Peter, 1897-1985  Search this
Nutini, Hugo Gino  Search this
Opler, Marvin K. (Marvin Kaufmann), 1914-1981  Search this
Parsons, Elsie Worthington Clews, 1874-1941  Search this
Rubin de la Borbolla, Daniel F.  Search this
Shevky, Eshrev  Search this
Smith, M. Brewster  Search this
Spier, Leslie, 1893-1961  Search this
Sproul, Robert G.  Search this
Steward, Julian Haynes, 1902-1972  Search this
Strauss, Louise  Search this
Strong, William Duncan, 1899-1962  Search this
Warner, William Lloyd  Search this
Wheeler-Voegelin, Erminie, 1903-1988  Search this
Woodbury, Richard B. (Richard Benjamin), 1917-2009  Search this
Young, Donald R.  Search this
Zeitlin, Jacob  Search this
Extent:
48 Linear feet
Culture:
Mixe  Search this
Cora  Search this
Quechua  Search this
Yoeme (Yaqui)  Search this
Wixarika (Huichol)  Search this
Maidu  Search this
Yoreme (Mayo)  Search this
American Indian -- California  Search this
Tarascan (archaeological culture)  Search this
Nisenan Indians  Search this
Indians of North America -- California  Search this
Mexican Americans  Search this
Indians of North America -- Southwest, New  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Place:
Hick's Camp (California)
Argentina
Peru
Mexico
Date:
1919 - 1970
Summary:
The Beals papers in the National Anthropological Archives include field notes, correspondence, printed materials, copies of historical documents, drafts and final manuscripts of writings, photographs, and cartographic materials. Most relate to research projects and sometimes include materials of colleagues and assistants. Especially notable is the abundant material regarding Oaxaca markets. There are some materials relating to aspects of Beals's career other than his research but they are generally widely distributed throughout the collection. Materials relating to events that happened to occur at the time of certain field work are often interfiled with the material relating to that certain field work.

There are also some personal materials included. Conspicuously missing from the papers are notes on Beals's archeological work, which he has retained. There are relatively few materials relating to his teaching career, although some of the letters exchanged with Alfred Louis Kroeber concern the establishment of anthropology at the University of California at Los Angeles; and correspondence with students in the field concerns teaching as well as research activities. A typesript of notes on the Nisenan are at the Bancroft Library of the University of California at Berkeley. Some of the letters concern Elsie Clews Parsons and Carlos Castenada.
Scope and Contents:
These papers reflect the professional and personal life of Ralph L. Beals (1901-1985), author, anthropologist and professor at the University of California. Included are his research files, correspondence, grant proposals, notes, charts, census material, maps, newspaper clippings, appointment calendars, drafts of published and unpublished writings, photographs and card files.

The bulk of the material relate to his research. Major projects documented in the collection include his studies of a Tarascan community; Mexican students in the United States; indigenous market systems in Oaxaca markets; economic systems in Nayón, Ecuador; land utilization by California Indians; and conditions in Hicks Camp in Southern California. The collection also contains his early research in Mexico during the 1930s as well as a study of kinship relationships undertaken by Beals' students during his residency as visiting professor at the University of Buenos Aires in 1962. Absent from the papers are notes from Beals' archeological work in Cobra Head Wash in Arizona.

A portion of the collection also reflects Beals' literary efforts beginning in the 1920s until later in his life. Throughout his adult lifetime Beals had been actively involved with the publishing world, constantly editing, reviewing, revising, rewriting and submitting for publication articles, speeches, lectures, essays, scholarly papers, and textbooks, in addition to contributing to various symposia, scientific associations and journals.

While there is little material regarding his faculty work at UCLA, some of his professional activities are documented in the collection. Of particular interest is his investigation for the American Anthropological Association into the ethics surrounding the use of anthropologists by government security agencies. The collection also contains files pertaining to his work with international professional societies and universities in Latin America and his service as editor of Acta America, the journal for the now defunct InterAmerican Society for Anthropology. His correspondence documents the development and demise of the organization.

The correspondence series is arranged both alphabetically and chronologically. Correspondents whose letters are included are Ellen Waterbury, Ronald Waterbury, Charlotte Stolmaker, Keith A. Dixon, Clark Kerr, R.G. Sproul, George Kennedy, and William Madsen. Correspondence listed chronologically (1928-78) has not been processed. A cursory review reveals that this includes a great deal of information on Beals' days at the University of California: personal and personnel papers and records, vitae, awards and commendations, salaries, positions held, etc. Some of the letters in the series concern Elsie Clews Parsons and Carlos Castenada.

Please note that the contents of the collection and the language and terminology used reflect the context and culture of the time of its creation. As an historical document, its contents may be at odds with contemporary views and terminology and considered offensive today. The information within this collection does not reflect the views of the Smithsonian Institution or National Anthropological Archives, but is available in its original form to facilitate research.
Arrangement:
Organization

2. (1) Correspondence, 1928-1980

3. (2) Research proposals, 1936-1977

4. (3) Acta Americana materials, 1942-1963

5. (4) Early Mexican and California studies, 1930-1932, 1936

6. (5) Tarascan project materials, 1939-1941

7. (6) Social science in Latin Amerian materials, 1948-1949

8. (7) Nayon Project, Ecuador materials, 1948-1949

9. (8) Cross-cultural education study materials, 1952-1957

10. (9) California Indians materials, 1945-1955

11. (10) Study of markets in Oaxaca materials, 1938-1973 (most 1960s)

12. (11) Research and ethics materials, 1965-1968

13. (12) Miscellaneous field materials (Hicks Camp and Argentine kinship), 1946-1952, 1963

14. (13) Manuscripts of writings and lectures, 1919-1977

15. (14) Miscellany, 1929-1970

16. (15) Photographs, card files, notebooks, and oversized materials, 1930s-1960s
Biographical Note:
Ralph Leon Beals trained in anthropology at the University of California (Ph.D., 1930) under Robert Lowie, Edward W. Gifford, and Alfred L. Kroeber. After a brief period with the National Park Service, he became an instructor at Berkeley and, in 1936, as an anthropologist, joined the Department of Psychology at the University of California at Los Angeles. He eventually organized the UCLA Department of Anthropology and Sociology and served as its chairman in 1941-1948. He was chairman of the UCLA Department of Anthropology in 1964-1965. In 1969, he became a professor emeritus of the university. Beals' research focused on California, the American Southwest, and Latin America, especially Mexico. During the summer of 1929, he carried out an ethnological survey of the Southern Maidu (Nisenan), working under Kroeber and partly supported by Bureau of American Ethnology Cooperative Ethnological Research funds. In 1937-1938, he was on the Rainbow Bridge-Monument Valley Expedition under the direction of Ansel F. Hall and excavated an archeological site in Cobra Head Wash in Arizona. In 1948-1949, he investigated conditions at Hicks Camp, a Mexican settlement in southern California; and, in 1945-1955, he headed a project for the United States Department of Justice to study traditional land utilization by California Indians. The study related to Indian land claims cases.

Beals' involvement in Mexico goes back to a youthful tramp through Sonora and Sinaloa in 1918-1919 that included a long sojourn with a Mexican family. In 1930-1932, Beals worked with the Yaqui and Mayo; in 1932, with Elsie Clews Parsons, he worked with the Cora and Huichol found at Tepic, Nayarit; and, in 1933, with the western Mixe of Oaxaca. With these groups and with the tribes of northern Mexico in general, he concerned himself with both the ethnography of exiting cultures and the reconstruction of the cultures at the time of contact with Europeans. Given the currents of anthropology, a family background of social concern, his historical interest in cultures long influenced by Europeans, and his observation of rapid change and strong modern economic influences among Indian tribes, Beals came to treat largely with social anthropology, problems of acculturation, and studies useful in applied aspects of anthropology.

In 1938, with Daniel F. Rubín de la Borbolla, Alfonso Caso, John M. Cooper, and Alfred L. Kroeber, Beals took part in a comprehensive multidiscipline study of the Tarascans to help formulate government policies and programs. Beals and several collaborators and assistants carried out ethnographic and social anthropological studies at Cherán. In 1948-1949, Beals studied the economic systems of Nayón, Ecuador, a Quechua village, and cultural and social changes accompanying the shift from a subsistence to marketplace economy. In Buenos Aires in 1963, he collected kinship data from students at the Institute of Sociology. In 1965, he began a detailed study of the large traditional market system of eastern Oaxaca in Mexico. Over a five-year period, many scholars and students assisted Beals.

Beals had active ties with many organizations and gave some extraordinary service. During 1942-1943, he directed a cooperative social science program between Latin American institutions and the Smithsonian Institution, establishing the InterAmerican Society for Anthropology and Geography. From 1943-1948, he edited the Society's journal Acta Americana, initially fulfilling official obligations but, after 1944 and his return to teaching, donating his time for the work. In 1944-1951, he was a collaborator with the Smithsonian's Institute for Social Anthropology.

As a member of the Social Science Research Council from 1946-1962, Beals undertook to study conditions in Latin American social science. In 1952, for the Council's Committee on Cross-Cultural Education, he and Norman D. Humphrey investigated the experiences of Mexican students in the United States. He also served the American Anthropological Association as a member of its executive council from 1947-1949, vice president in 1949, and president in 1950. In 1965, the AAA, concerned with the use of anthropologists by government security agencies, asked Beals to study the ethics involved. Prepared in cooperation with many research scholars, Beals report became the basis for the work of the AAA's ethics committee.

Beals had many other organizational ties and responsibilities. He served as American technical advisor at the First Inter-American Indianists Conference at Patzcuarol, Mexico, in 1939; chairman of the Social Science Research Council Cross-Cultural Education Committee from 1953 to 1960; member of the Society for American Archaeology executive committee from 1954 to 1957; and president of the Southwest Anthropological Association in 1958. He was an editor with the Handbook of Latin American Studies, American Anthropologist, and Notes on Latin American Studies.

Chronology of the life of Ralph Leon Beals

July 19, 1901 -- Born in Pasadena California

1923 -- Married Dorothy Manchester

1926 -- B.A. University of California, Berkeley

1930 -- Ph.D. University of California, Berkeley

1933-1935 -- Museum technician, National Park Service

1935 -- Lecturer, Department of Anthropology, University of California, Berkeley

1936-1938 -- Instructor, University of California, Los Angeles

1937-1941 -- Assistant Professor

1941-1947 -- Associate Professor

1942-1943 -- Director of Latin American Ethnic Studies, Smithsonian Institution

1947-1969 -- Professor of Anthropology

1944-1951 -- Collaborator, Institute of Social Anthropology

1962 -- Visiting Professor, University of Buenos Aires

1969- -- Professor Emeritus

Ralph Leon Beals was trained in anthropology at the University of California at Berkeley under Robert H. Lowie, Edward W. Gifford, and, especially, Alfred Louis Kroeber. After a brief period of work for the National Park Service following graduation, he became an instructor in anthropology at Berkeley and, in 1936, as an anthropologist, joined the Department of Psychology at the University of California at Los Angeles. There he organized the Department of Anthropology and Sociology and served as its chairman in 1941-1948. He was also chairman of the UCLA Department of Anthropology in 1964-1965. In 1969, he became an professor emertius of the university.

Beals's research has focused primarily on California, the American Southwest, and Latin America, especially Mexico. In California, he carried out an ethnological survey of the Southern Maidu (Nisenan) during the summer of 1929, working under Kroeber and supported in part by funds from the Bureau of American Ethnology's Cooperative Ethnological Research program. In 1937-1938, he was a member of the Rainbow Bridge-Monument Valley Expedition under the direction of Ansel F. Hall and excavated an archeological site in Cobra Head Wash in Arizona. In 1948-1949, he studied conditions at Hicks Camp, a Mexican settlement in southern California, and in 1945-1955 Beals headed a project for the

United States Department of Justice to study traditional land utilization by California Indians. The study was related to Indian land claims cases.

Beals's involvement in Mexico can be traced to a 1918-1919 tramp through Sonora and Sinaloa that included a rather long sojourn with a Mexican family. In his later academic interest in the area, he was at the forefront of a movement of American anthropologists and geographers to fill some of the gaps in the ethnographic and archeological knowledge about northern Mexico, of interest largely because it lay in the way of possible influences passing between the American Southwest and the highly developed cultures of Mesoamerica. In 1930-1932, Beals worked among he Yaqui and Mayo; in 1932, with Elsie Clews Parsons , he worked among the Cora and Huichol found at Tepic, Nayarit; and, in 1933,

among the western Mixe of Oaxaca. With these groups and with the tribes of northern Mexico in general, he concerned himself with both the ethnography of contemporary cultures and the reconstruction of the cultures at the time of contact with Whites. Given the current of anthropology of the time, a family background of social concern, his historical interest in cultures with a long history of influence by Europeans, and his witness of rapid change and strong modern economic influences among Indian tribes, Beals came to treat largely with social anthropology, problems of acculturation, and studies useful in applied aspects of anthropology.

In 1938, Beals took part with Daniel Rubin de la Borbolla, Alfonso Caso, John Montgomery Cooper, and Alfred Louis Kroeber in planning a multidisciplinary study of the Tarascans, a project which aimed at a comprehensive examination useful in formulating government policies and programs. Under its auspices, Beals and several collaborators and assistants carried out ethnographic and social anthroplogical studies at Cheran. In 1948-1949, he studied the economic systems of the Quechua village of Nayon, Peru, and cultural and social changes accompanying the shift from a subsistence to a marketplace economy. In 1963, he collected kinship data from students at the Institute of Sociology in Buenos Aires, Argentina. In 1965, he began a detaile.

study of the large, traditional market system of eastern Oaxaca in Mexico. In this latter work, Beals was assisted by many scholars and students over a five-year period.

Beals has had active ties with many organizations concerned with anthropology and the social sciences and to some he has given extraordinary service. During 1942-1943, he was in charge of a program of cooperating in the social sciences between institutions in Latin American and the Smithsonian Institution. In that capacity, he was charged with the establishment of the Inter-American Society for Anthropology and Geography. From 1943-1948, he edited the Society's journal Acta Americana, intially fulfilling official obligations but, after 1944 and his return to teaching, donating his time for the work. He was a collaborator with the Smithsonian's Institute for Social Anthropology in 1944-1951.

A member of the Social Science Research Council from 1946-1962, Beals undertook a study on its behalf of conditions in Latin American social science. In 1952. he carried out a project with Norman D. Humphrey for the Council's Committee on Cross-Cultural Education that involved an investigation of the experiences of Mexican students who were studying in the United States. He also served the American Anthropological Association as a member of its executive council from 1947-1949, vice president in 1949, and president in 1950. In 1965, the AAA, concerned with the use of anthropologists by government security agencies, asked Beals to study the ethics involved in anthropological research and related problems that result from government and.

and other organizational affiliations. Beals's report, prepared with cooperation from many research scholars, became the basis for the work of the AAA's ethics committee.

Beals has had many other organizational ties and responsibilities. He served as technical advisor for the United States delegation to the First Inter-American Indianists Conference at Patzcuarol, Mexico, in 1939; chairman of the Cross-Cultural Education Committee of the Social Science Research council from 1953 to 1960; member of the executive committee of the Society for American Archaeology from 1954 to 1957; and president of the Southwest Anthropological Association in 1958. He also served on several other committees and had editorial duties with the Handbook of Latin American Studies, American Anthropologist, adnNotes on Latin American Studies. He has been honored with several honorary professorhsips at Latin American universities.
Restrictions:
The Ralph Leon Beals papers are open for research. At Ralph Beals' request, his 1930-1933 correspondence were restricted until 2000. These include letters to and from his wife while he was in the field, several letters to his children, and one letter to his mother-in-law. Beals supplied edited copies of the restricted letters for public access. The restrictions have since been lifted, and the edited copies have been retained with the original letters. His field assistants' materials have been restricted for the lifetime of the creators.

Access to the Ralph Leon Beals papers requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Anthropology -- Applied anthropology  Search this
Markets  Search this
Acta Americana  Search this
Citation:
Ralph Leon Beals papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.1980-54A
See more items in:
Ralph Leon Beals papers
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw3f0c02811-1a1d-4573-9ac1-6306f6f4a3c0
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-1980-54a

MS 1866 Notes on the Indians of Lower California

Creator:
Stone, Chas. P. (Charles Pomeroy), 1824-1887  Search this
Gibbs, George, 1815-1873  Search this
Collector:
Peabody, E.T.  Search this
Purdy, E. S. (Erastus Sparrow), d. 1881  Search this
Extent:
11 Pages
Culture:
Yoreme (Mayo)  Search this
Cocopa  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Pages
Date:
undated
Scope and Contents:
Also with Cocopa vocabulary collected by Assistant Engineer E.T. Peabody, 1 page and Mayo vocabulary collected 1858 by 3rd Assistant Sparrow Purdy, 2 pages.
Local Numbers:
NAA MS 1866
Topic:
Language and languages -- Documentation  Search this
Citation:
Manuscript 1866, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.MS1866
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw3b02c4f03-ec3c-4998-9a91-fed3e494855c
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-ms1866

Loom, spindle and whorl, and unfinished weaving

Culture/People:
probably Yoreme (Mayo) (attributed)  Search this
Collector:
George W. Avery (G. W. Avery/George Wynne Avery), Non-Indian, 1866-1927  Search this
Object Name:
Loom, spindle and whorl, and unfinished weaving
Media/Materials:
Wood, wool yarn
Techniques:
Carved
Object Type:
Weaving tools/equipment
Place:
Golfo de California (Gulf of California) near Río Mayo mouth; Huatabampo Municipality; Sonora State; Mexico
Catalog Number:
3/3817
Barcode:
033817.000
See related items:
Yoreme (Mayo)
Weaving tools/equipment
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ws67ad7f853-45cc-4a44-93bd-4a0e7ee58c85
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_36237
Online Media:

Mask

Culture/People:
Yoreme (Mayo)  Search this
Collector:
James Cobb, Non-Indian  Search this
Hermine Chivian-Cobb, Non-Indian  Search this
Previous owner:
James Cobb, Non-Indian  Search this
Hermine Chivian-Cobb, Non-Indian  Search this
Donor:
James Cobb, Non-Indian  Search this
Hermine Chivian-Cobb, Non-Indian  Search this
Object Name:
Mask
Media/Materials:
Wood, horsehair
Techniques:
Carved, painted, tufted
Dimensions:
41 x 15 cm
Object Type:
Ceremonial/Ritual items
Place:
Sinaloa State; Mexico
Catalog Number:
25/2707
Barcode:
252707.000
See related items:
Yoreme (Mayo)
Ceremonial/Ritual items
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ws679941be3-fc11-409d-954e-7155950f2c62
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_268632
Online Media:

Mask

Culture/People:
Yoreme (Mayo)  Search this
Collector:
James Cobb, Non-Indian  Search this
Hermine Chivian-Cobb, Non-Indian  Search this
Previous owner:
James Cobb, Non-Indian  Search this
Hermine Chivian-Cobb, Non-Indian  Search this
Donor:
James Cobb, Non-Indian  Search this
Hermine Chivian-Cobb, Non-Indian  Search this
Object Name:
Mask
Media/Materials:
Wood, horsehair
Techniques:
Carved, painted, tufted
Dimensions:
33 x 31 cm
Object Type:
Ceremonial/Ritual items
Place:
Sinaloa State; Mexico
Catalog Number:
25/2708
Barcode:
252708.000
See related items:
Yoreme (Mayo)
Ceremonial/Ritual items
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ws61d7b2267-54f3-4ce3-9eb4-22dcccf94dd9
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_268633
Online Media:

Mask

Culture/People:
Yoreme (Mayo)  Search this
Collector:
James Cobb, Non-Indian  Search this
Hermine Chivian-Cobb, Non-Indian  Search this
Previous owner:
James Cobb, Non-Indian  Search this
Hermine Chivian-Cobb, Non-Indian  Search this
Donor:
James Cobb, Non-Indian  Search this
Hermine Chivian-Cobb, Non-Indian  Search this
Object Name:
Mask
Media/Materials:
Wood, horsehair
Techniques:
Carved, painted, drilled
Dimensions:
18 x 12 cm
Object Type:
Ceremonial/Ritual items
Place:
Sinaloa State; Mexico
Catalog Number:
25/2709
Barcode:
252709.000
See related items:
Yoreme (Mayo)
Ceremonial/Ritual items
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ws627e26187-c591-449e-9a7c-c82349379c66
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_268634
Online Media:

Mask

Culture/People:
Yoreme (Mayo)  Search this
Collector:
James Cobb, Non-Indian  Search this
Hermine Chivian-Cobb, Non-Indian  Search this
Previous owner:
James Cobb, Non-Indian  Search this
Hermine Chivian-Cobb, Non-Indian  Search this
Donor:
James Cobb, Non-Indian  Search this
Hermine Chivian-Cobb, Non-Indian  Search this
Object Name:
Mask
Media/Materials:
Wood, goat hide/skin (domestic goat), plastic
Techniques:
Carved, painted, stitched
Dimensions:
29 x 21 cm
Object Type:
Ceremonial/Ritual items
Place:
Charay; El Fuerte Municipality; Sinaloa State; Mexico
Catalog Number:
25/2713
Barcode:
252713.000
See related items:
Yoreme (Mayo)
Ceremonial/Ritual items
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ws65e0814d8-aff2-4378-83d7-65ef712a969e
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_268638
Online Media:

Mask

Culture/People:
Yoreme (Mayo)  Search this
Collector:
James Cobb, Non-Indian  Search this
Hermine Chivian-Cobb, Non-Indian  Search this
Previous owner:
James Cobb, Non-Indian  Search this
Hermine Chivian-Cobb, Non-Indian  Search this
Donor:
James Cobb, Non-Indian  Search this
Hermine Chivian-Cobb, Non-Indian  Search this
Object Name:
Mask
Media/Materials:
Goat hide/skin (domestic goat)
Techniques:
Cut, stitched, perforated
Dimensions:
52 x 43.5 cm
Object Type:
Ceremonial/Ritual items
Place:
San Miguel; Sinaloa State; Mexico
Catalog Number:
25/2714
Barcode:
252714.000
See related items:
Yoreme (Mayo)
Ceremonial/Ritual items
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ws6023164e7-16ea-4d2a-b719-3f5b35ce88ac
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_268639
Online Media:

Mask

Culture/People:
Yoreme (Mayo)  Search this
Collector:
James Cobb, Non-Indian  Search this
Hermine Chivian-Cobb, Non-Indian  Search this
Previous owner:
James Cobb, Non-Indian  Search this
Hermine Chivian-Cobb, Non-Indian  Search this
Donor:
James Cobb, Non-Indian  Search this
Hermine Chivian-Cobb, Non-Indian  Search this
Object Name:
Mask
Media/Materials:
Goat hide/skin (domestic goat)
Techniques:
Cut, stitched, painted
Dimensions:
21 x 41 cm
Object Type:
Ceremonial/Ritual items
Place:
San Miguel; Sinaloa State; Mexico
Catalog Number:
25/2715
Barcode:
252715.000
See related items:
Yoreme (Mayo)
Ceremonial/Ritual items
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ws62a4cc21d-da7d-48ac-9c47-65cb1a78c356
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_268640
Online Media:

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